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EH Review for Ch 3

1. Vasco de Gama
a. Portuguese man that pioneered trade around Africa with indies
b. Traveled around cape of good hope in 1498
2. Albuquerque
a. First governor general of Portugal
b. Developed trade stations, very important for Portugal
3. Fugger
a. Family of European bankers
b. Replaced Medici
4. Calvin
a. When Philip II inherited Netherlands Calvinists revolted
b. See below for reaction
5. Duke of Alva
a. Executed thousands of rebelling calvanists, confiscated estates
b. Resulted in unity against spain
6. William the Silent
a. Also called William of orange
b. leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the 80 Years' War
c. supported freedom of religion
7. Mary, Queen of Scots
a. Allied with William/Netherlands
b. Many plotted for her to be queen of England
8. Catherine de'Medici
a. Widow of Henry II in France
b. Ordered St. Bartholomew’s day massacre killing hugonauts
9. Sir Francis Drake
a. renowned pirate awarded knighthood in 1581 by Queen Elizabeth I
b. hero to English, pirate to Spaniards
10. Admiral de Colingny
a. Huguenot leader in the French Wars of Religion
11. Gustavus Aldophus
a. Founder of Swedish empire
b. Led his armies as king, eventually dying in 30 years war
12. Colbert
a. French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV
b. Brought the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy
13. Richlieu
a. After Henry IV was assassinated, was advisor to widow Marie
b. Discouraged private warfare and dueling
14. politiques
a. Moderates seeking peace to save France from anarchy, Henry of Navarre was one
15. The Wars of Religion in France
a. Protestants led by Admiral de Coligny and Henry of Bourbon
b. Catholics led by Guise family
c. St. Bartholomew’s day massacre
16. Commercial Revolution
a. Steady population growth
b. Rising prices
c. Putting out system
i. Distributing labor to rural workers
ii. Avoided restrictive guilds
d. Greater international trade
e. Growth of lending for interest which had been denounced by religion
f. Rise of mercantilism
17. Mercantilism
a. Idea of having more wealth flowing in than out
b. Avoiding idleness
18. Edict of Nantes
a. Protestantism was to be allowed among nobles or in towns
b. Passed by Henry of Navarre
19. 30 years war
a. War of HRE (germany)
b. German civil war because of religion and government problems
c. International war between Bourbons v. Habsburgs, Spanish v. Dutch
d. Mercenary soldiers benefitted
e. Germany wrecked as a result
20. defenestration
a. the act of throwing someone out a window
b. Defenestration of Prague helped start 30 years war when protestants attacked catholics
21. Huguenots
a. French protestants, disliked by Philip II
22. Albert of Wallenstein
a. Led army pillaging in 30 years war
b. Supported Catholicism
23. Treaty of Westphalia
a. Resolved 30 years war
b. Renewed peace of Augsburg
c. Made 300 German states sovereign
24. siglo de oro
a. Spanish Golden Age from 1550 to 1650
b. Coincided with Spanish Habsburg dynasty
25. armanda católica
a. Spanish armada defeated by Drake
26. Encomiendia
a. Similar to English feudal system
b. English landowner (in new world) employed natives
27. trading cities , tolerance and commerce….
a. Tolerance grew from exposure to different cultures
b. Commerce expanded with new trade routes, especially across continents
c. Trading cities were colonial centers of trade, bringing revenue to mother country