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Review Terms for Ch 8 on Enlightenment

1) Philosophes – French “philosopher”; approach any subject in a critical/inquiring spirit
a. Popularizers – made ideas of enlightenment accessible to the growing reading public
b. Montesquieu Rousseau, Voltaire
2) Age of “Democratic Revolution” – term used to describe the revolutions between 1776-1848 in
which modern democratic principles were affirmed
a. Revolutionary movement expressed as a demand for liberty and equality
b. Everything associated with feudalism, absolutism, and inherent right (save the right to
property) was rejected
3) Frederick the Great – leader of Prussia
a. Old Fritz
b. Enlightenment not based on his ruling innovations but his intellectual prowess
c. Wanted to enlighten his people and make them happy
d. Stratified Prussia – taxes and land ownerships were different for each class
e. Peasants were considered the lord’s “hereditary subjects”
f. Relieved serfdom only on his lands but could do nothing to that under the Junkers who
controlled the armies
g. Basic education for children of all classes
h. Limited because he would not allow anyone else to control any affairs of the state and
trained no successor
4) necessities of wars at hand which forced concentration and rationalization of government power
5) France was rich, but the government was poor
6) Turgot – philosophe and physiocrat contributor to the Encyclopédie; official who became minister
to Louis XVI; suppressed guilds; abolished Corvee and replaced it with a tax on all classes
7) Corvee – decree that certain peasants labor on the roads a few days each year
8) Parlement of Paris – opposed Turgot with the support of the Provincial Estates and the Church
9) Kaunitz – Maria Theresa’s advisor on foreign relations
10) greatest good for greatest number of people – meaning of the state to Joseph II
11) Maria Theresa – Head of the Empire of Austria; united her realm in free trade where most lands
were affected by internal tariffs
a. Systematically attacked serfdom – broke power of landed nobles, issued laws against
abuse of peasants, limited labor to three days a week
12) Joseph II
a. Less patient than his mother, Maria Theresa
b. Abolished serfdom
c. Liberty of the press
d. Toleration of religions
e. Civil rights for Jews
f. Tried to nationalize German language
g. Created secret police
h. Failed because he tried to everything by himself
i. Succeeded by brother Leopold
13) enlightened monarchs – rulers who based right to rule not on the sacred but rather as reasonable
and useful
14) Montesquieu
a. Aristocrat who held a seat on the Parlement of Bordeaux
b. Shared aristocratic and antiabsolutist ideals; but beyond self-centered class philosophy
c. Spirit of the Laws
i. First principal idea – gov’ts vary in accordance with climate and circumstances;
despotism good for large empires in hot climates, democracy good for small
ii. Second principal idea – separation and balance of powers; “intermediate bodies”
– parlements, provincial estates, organized nobility, chartered towns and the
1. took no stock in church teachings but thought it useful to undue
centralization of gov’t
d. Admired English Constitution believing England carried over feudal liberties of the
middle ages
e. Thought to be too conservative; in fact he was a reactionary
f. Admired barbarous Middle Ages
15) Adam Smith
a. Wrote Wealth of Nations (1776)
b. Increase national wealth by reducing barriers
c. Prophet of free trade
d. Gov’t should provide for defense, security, reasonable laws and fair law courts
16) "intermediate bodies" – parlements, provincial estates, organized nobility, chartered towns, and
the church; provide for separation and balance of powers
17) Rousseau
a. Born to lower class; no social status, no money and no feel for money; paranoid and felt
he could trust no one
b. Criticized French women especially those of salons – “they do not know anything,
although they judge everything”
c. Detested civilization calling it a source of evil and that it would be better in a “state of
d. Wrote 2 discourses – Arts and Sciences (1750) and Origin of Inequality Among Men
e. Social Contract (1762) – seemed to contradict his “state of nature” sentiments; good men
could only be produced by improved society; men submitted their natural liberty to one
18) general will – concept of Rousseau in which all individual will submitted to the general will
(fusing of all individual wills) as the final word sovereign over all kings and emperors
19) Voltaire
a. Born into the Bourgeoisie
b. Never objected to aristocracy on principle
c. Royal historian of Louis XV and personal friend of Frederick the Great
d. Interested mainly in freedom of thought and an admirer of England
e. Wrote Philosophical Letters on the English (1733) and Elements of the Philosophy of
Newton (1738) – introduced inductive philosophy of Bacon, physics of Newton, and
psychology of sensations of Locke
f. Preacher of religious toleration
i. “natural religion” and “natural morality” – God and difference between good
and evil lie in reason alone
g. Politically neither liberal not democrat; if gov’t is enlightened its strength is
inconsequential; by enlightened gov’t he meant one that promoted freedom of thought
and religion; basically supported enlightened despotism
20) "Ecrasez l'infame!" – “crush the infamous thing”
a. Voltairean war cry against religious intolerance
21) "Maupeou parlements" – new parlements set up by the Chancellor Maupeou after Louis XV had
the old ones ended; judges confined to purely judicial function and were paid salaries as
government officials
22) Pugachev's Rebellion
a. Pugachev, a former soldier, claimed to be the true tsar Peter III
b. Many followed him: serfs, miners, Cossacks, etc
c. Were formidable until famine struck the force
d. Pugachev betrayed and taken to Moscow
e. Most violent peasant uprising in Russia
f. Ended up being worse off for serfs since nobles gained power and peasants became more
23) " secret police" – created by Joseph II to monitor nobles, clergy, gov’t officials, or any others from
whom he might expect trouble
24) Catherine the Great – tsarina of Russia (1762-1796)
a. Domestic Program
i. Restricted the use of torture, had a certain support of religious toleration,
codified legal principles in Russia
b. Foreign Affairs
i. Defeated Turkish forces
ii. Divided Poland among Russia Prussia, and Austria
iii. Decidedly expansionist
25) Potemkin Villages – fake villages set up before Catherine’s arrival so that it looked as though her
subjects were happy and at piece
26) Steven Razin
a. lead a peasant uprising in 1667, proclaiming war on landlords, nobles, and priests;
b. captured and executed in 1671;
c. result of uprising was a firmer hold on serfdom in Russia;
d. ideological symbol for Pugachev’s rebellion
27) Diderot's Encyclopedia – most serious of all philosophe enterprises
a. Full of scientific, technical, and historical knowledge; represented the skeptical, rational,
scientific spirit of the age
b. Strong undertones criticizing existing society and institutions
c. Contributors – Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau, d’Alembert, Buffon, Turgot, Quesnay,
28) Edward Gibbon – philosophe who attacked Christianity in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
29) David Hume – Scottish skeptical philosopher counted as a philosophe
30) "Eastern Question" – general contradictory feelings between Russia and Polish-Turkish tract
a. Russia was an enemy of both Poland and the Ottoman empire but felt religious ties to the
Greek Orthodox Christians of those lands
31) Charles III of Spain
32) George III – “patriot king”; wished to heighten the influence of the crown and overcome
factionalism of parties; created essentially a new faction the “king’s friends” to gain control in the
33) Faith in Progress – the belief that every generation is better off than the last generation and that by
its efforts it will set up the foundations for the next generation to be better than itself
34) "king's friends" – faction of Whigs created by George III that he gained power over with pensions,
favors, promises and deals
35) Religious fervor and Pietism – an opposing religious movement to the theory of the “watchmaker
God”; pietism said that inner spiritual experience was more profound than that of doctrine; sought
inner illumination
36) Physiognomy – supposed science created by J.C. Lavater in which a person’s character could be
read by their facial expressions and the play of their features
37) Essai sur les moeurs “Universal History” – First purely secular conception of world history
written by Voltaire; began with ancient civilizations rather than The Creation like previous
38) F.A. Mesmer – an Austrian physician set up séances and rituals to heal people; discovered early
stages of hypnosis
39) Publick – the reading masses for whom the philosophes wrote; enjoyed reading illicit books
during the times of censorship
40) Salons – well organized meeting places where authors introduced new works to critical readers
and people discussed ideas
41) Germaine de Stael – widely read author; she deplored subordination of women; post revolutionary
42) John Wesley and Methodism
a. an oxford student who took to doing good works for poor and prisoners and preaching to
large crowds in public
b. his followers were called Methodists whom despite is efforts broke away from the
Church of England
43) earlier absolutism – ruled solely on the basis of ordination by God and a right to rule through
44) French censorship – complicated (everyone from the church to the printers had a say); however,
not strictly enforced; books written with double meanings for plausible deniability
45) Edmund Burke
a. spokesman for Whig leaders who sensed corruption in parliament when George III and
his “friends” took control;
b. argued for responsibility and sound judgment in Commons rather than mathematical
c. opposed place men
46) laissez-faire – economic principle of Physiocrats; “let them do as the see fit”
47) Freemasonry
a. Men disposed toward reason, progress, tolerance, and human reforms, and were
respectful to God as he architect of the universe
b. Equality among brothers who were clergy, nobles, and middle classes
c. Because of its secrecy masonry became distrusted
48) Physiocrats – “economists”; concerned with fiscal and tax reform and increasing the national
wealth; opposed guild regulations; laissez-faire as economic principle
49) pseudo-knowledge
50) no one reasons, everyone executes – philosophy of Frederick the Great; he believed that he should
be the only one planning and thinking and that everyone else should just operate as his tools and
complete the tasks he set them
51) "No government can be revolutionary to the point of breaking up its own foundations..."
52) aristocratic and feudal revival