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Mango(Magnifera indica)

Mangos belong to the genus Mangifera of the family Anacardiaceae.The genus Mangifera contains

several species that bear edible fruit. Most of the fruit trees that are commonly known as mangos belong

to the species Mangifera indica. Mangos have been grown throughout the tropical and subtropical region.

The many different names for mango around the world today reflect the cultures and languages spoken by

people who grow them. There are wide usage name of this dicotyledonous tree. The common name is

mango but in French, they called mangot,manga(Portuguese) and mangou(Africa).

From growth habit aspect, mango trees make some landscape specimen and shade trees. They are

erect and fast growing with sufficient heat, and the canopy can be broad and rounded or more upright

with a relatively slender crown. It is a large tree and its height is 30 to 45 feet and can spread from 30 t0

45 feet. Its crown uniformity is symmetrical canopy with a regular outline and individuals have more or

less identical crown forms.

Next, we go to the foliage. The leaves are dark green above and pale below, usually red while

young. The midrib is pale and conspicuous and the many horizontal veins distinct. The leaf blade length

is around 12 to 18 inches and 8 to 12 inches. Full grown leaf may be 4 to 12,1/2 in long and 3/4 to 2 in

wide and are generally borne with clusters separated by length of naked stem bearing no buds. These

naked stems mark successive flushes of growth. Each flush of growth will harden off to a rich green

colour before the next flush of growth begins. The leaves are evergreen and alternate in arrangement. It

also oblong ovate to oblong lanceolate leaves shape that are spirally arranged. The leaf is simple in which

the lamina is a single blade and compound because the lamina split into one or more distinct segments

called leaflets. It has entire and undulate leaf margin. The venation is pinnate.
Other than that, its flower has yellowish or reddish in colour that is borne in inflorescences which

are produced at branch terminals. The inflorescence is rigid and erect and is widely branched, usually

densely flowered with hundreds of small flowers, 5-10 mm in diameter and up to 2ooo minute flowers.

The flower is small, monoecious and polygamous. Both male and perfect flowers are found within a

single inflorescence the pistil aborts in male flowers. The ratio of male to perfect flowers is strongly

influenced by environmental and cultural factors. The flowers have four to five petals that are oblong to

avoid to lanceolate and also thinly pubescent. The floral disc is four to five lobed, fleshy, large and

located above the base of the petals. There are five large, fleshy nectarines that form a five lobed

receptacle. Although there are four to five stamens only one or two of them are fertile, the remainder is

sterile staminodes that are surrounded by a small gland. In addition, two or three smaller filaments arise

from lobes of the nectarines. The stamens are central. These flowers can undergo both types of

pollination. because of mango flower are monoecious and self fertile, so a single tree will produce fruit

without cross pollination. Their cross pollination are pollinate by flies and bees.

Furthermore, lets we talk on mango fruit. The mango fruit is large, fleshy drupe, containing edible

mesocarp of varying thickness. The fruit grows at the end of a long, stringlike stem (the former panicle)

with sometimes two or more fruits to a stem. The fruits are 2 to 9 inches long and may be kidney shape,

ovate or rarely round, they range in size from 8 ounces to around 24 ounces. The flower scar at the apex is

prominent, in some cultivars bulging from the fruits. The leathery skin is waxy and smooth and when ripe

entirely pale green or yellow. The flesh of mango is peach like and juicy with more or less numerous

fibers radiating from the single large kidney shaped seed.Then, the exocarp is thick and glandular. The

mesocarp can be fibrous or fiber-free with favour ranging from turpentine to sweet. And the endocarp is

woody, thick and fibrous.

Mango seed is solitary large and flat,\oblong and is surrounded by the fibrous of endocarp at

maturity. The testa in thin and papery. Seeds of monoembryonic mango types contain single zygotic
embryo, whose cotyledons can be unequal and lobed. The seeds of polyembryonic mango cultivars

contain one or more embryos are derived directly from nucellus,a a material tissue. Mango varieties

can be classified as having either monoembryonic or polyembryonic seed embryos.

In monoembryonic varieties, the seed contains only one embryo that is a true

sexual (zygotic) embryo. Monoembryonic seeds are a cross between the maternal

and paternal (pollen) parents. Fruit from monoembryonic seedlings will often vary

from the parent trees, so propagation by grafting is used to produce true-to-type

monoembryonic trees. Polyembryonic seeds contain many embryos, most of which

are asexual (nucellar) in origin and genetically identical to the maternal parent.

Polyembryonic seeds also contain a zygotic embryo that is the result of cross-

pollination. The monoembryonic seedling usually has less vigor than a nucellar

seedling for use as a rootstock. In some varieties this is reversed and the zygotic

seedling is the most vigorous.The occurrence of off-types in orchards is often

attributed to use of zygotic seedlings.