INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR

Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


2077

DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION WORKERS IN PREPARING EDUCATORS
VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL (SMK)
Ganefri
Padang State University

Abstract:
Vocational education roles in economic development of the nation, because vocational
education can generate a skilled workforce ready to use required by the workforce and the
industrial world. Based on a very important role in nation building, then the Ministry of
Education sets policy is to multiply one vocational school. In 2005 the ratio of the number of
Vocational School (SMK) compared with senior high school (SMA) is 30%: 70%, and in 2011
the number of comparisons between Vocational School (SMK) compared with senior high
school (SMA) has increased 60%: 40%. In Indonesia, Vocational School (SMK) are grouped
into six (6) Field of Study Areas; 40 Program Study Skills, 121 Expertise Competencies. After
the policy of regional autonomy, management of education in general and vocational education
be come local authorities. To provide the needs of vocational teachers, Educational
Institutions and Personnel (LPTK) have not been able to provide a preparation program for the
entire program of study skills, example vocational teachers for courses in vocational skills
Flights, Agriculture, Tourism, and Fisheries. In fulfilling these needs LPTK legally possible to
have cooperation with other universities who have the resources relevant to the course the
necessary expertise. In the Minister of National Education No. 8 Year 2009 on the Professional
Teacher Education preposition Article 3 paragraph 3 (three) stated that: In the event that no
accredited study programs, or in case there are no subjects which match the subjects in primary
and secondary colleges, the Minister cat determining a college organizer Professional
Education Teacher to work with colleges that have a resource that is relevant to the course. In
connection with the above problems we need a development program to meet the needs of
vocational educators in accordance with the competency skills needed.

Preliminary
Vocational education plays a role in economic development of the nation, because vocational
education can generate a skilled workforce ready to use required by the workforce and the
industrial world. Based on a very important role in nation building, then the Ministry of Education
sets policy is to multiply one vocational school. In 2005 the ratio of the number of Vocational
School (SMK) compared with senior high school (SMA) is 30%: 70%, and in 2011 the number of
comparisons between Vocational School (SMK) compared with senior high school (SMA) has
increased ie 60%: 40%.
To provide the needs of vocational teachers, Educational Institutions and Personnel (LPTK)
have not been able to provide a preparation program for the entire program of study skills, example
vocational teachers for courses in vocational skills Flights, Agriculture, Tourism, and Fisheries. In
fulfilling these needs LPTK legally possible to have cooperation with other universities who have
the resources relevant to the course the necessary expertise. In the Minister of National Education
No. 8 Year 2009 on the Professional Teacher Education preposisition Article 3 paragraph 3 (three)
stated that: In the event that no accredited study programs, or in case there are no courses that
match the subjects in primary and secondary colleges , the Minister may set a college organizer
Professional Education Teacher to work with colleges that have a resource that is relevant to the
course.
LPTK development strategy includes aspects of institutional management, curriculum,
development of new study programs, the flagship program, the development of partnerships and
networks, information technology for learning, development of the staff, the development of
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


2078

educational facilities, educational accountability, the development of quality control system, and
the singularity the coaching process with reference to the principles of efficiency and partnership.

Development of Institutional Management
Institutions is an important factor in education and vocational training educators. Institutions
organized and supported by systematic professional management will obtain optimal results. LPTK
should be able to anticipate the needs of education personnel and the development of science and
technology, so that vocational education personnel to meet the needs of user agencies. Institute
graduates LPTK users can take the form of schooling and non-schooling institutions.
Institutional management development strategy through: (1) the development and
empowerment of resource management systems, (2) development of management information
systems, (3) development of the planning, monitoring, evaluation and control, and (4) research
program of institutional development .
Other strategies can be done after the job analysis. Job analysis is intended to reveal the
advantages of key competencies and supporting competencies.

New Program Development
LPTK be responsive to changes in the industry and the business world. Therefore, the new
program can be opened and closed by considering the following matters: (1) the needs of business
and industry, (2) the potential of leading the region, and (3) prospective.
Development of new programs can be implemented after the meet national education
standards that include content standards, processes, competence of graduates, educational
personnel, facilities and infrastructure, management, financing, and educational assessment. To
meet the national standards required resources.
In fulfilling these needs LPTK legally possible to have cooperation with other universities
that have relevant resources with the necessary skills courses

Competitive Program Development
Flagship program is a program that is unique or has a comparative and competitive
advantages are nurtured by. Flagship program must meet the following criteria: (1) have a
dedicated human resources to the development of science, (2) has excellent facilities and
infrastructure, (3) has the support of business / industry or professional associations, (4) has a
network of cooperation in institutionalized, (5) implementing integrated quality management,
accountability, accredited, and (6) produces innovative works both regionally, nationally and
internationally.
To realize the flagship program in question, to be implemented quality management
(planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation) shall include the quality of teaching staff
and support staff, work programs, facilities, and learning management.
Developing Partnerships and Networks
Development of partnerships and networks LPTK held in cooperation with various
institutions in the form of resource sharing, problem solving and the consortium. Strategies that
need to be done through a network of inter LPTK, and agencies / institutions such as the
Department of Education, Local Government, other relevant Department, and training institutions.
Examples of partnerships include: apprenticeship, PPL (education and vocational), guest lecturers,
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


2079

pengembangam human resources and labor recruitment. Various partnership programs can be
implemented in the short term, long term, and incidentally

Development of Information Technology for Learning
Information technology development strategy for learning can be done through a variety of
technical implementation unit (UPT) which handles the development of information and research
results, scientific papers, technology of teaching, instructional media, and learning resources.
The Unit aims to develop programs based on information technology to improve the quality
of learning. Development of these programs can be done by involving other parties relevant to the
use of network cooperation.

Staff Development
Staff development strategies can be done through strategic recruitment and career
development strategies.
1. Recruitment strategies implemented through the stages of needs analysis that includes the needs
of lecturers and support staff needs. The needs analysis includes recruitment procedures,
qualifications, number, and area of expertise.
2. Career Development Strategy
a. Manpower Development Lecturer
Development of lecturers based on a needs analysis prepared on an ongoing basis. Some of the
alternative development of lecturers can be implemented through: (1) adult education, (2) a
refresher program, (3) scientific meeting, (4) scientific communication, (5) exchange of faculty
experts, and (6) transplants.
b. Career Coaching / Professional Occupation
Coaching career / professional office needs to be done in a planned and sustained in order to
regenerate and improve the quality of lecturers from the early stages of the profession (for
example: Pekerti, Applied Approach), reached the stage of obtaining the highest functional
position of a lecturer (eg through CPD program, RII, ASD, PTK, and other improvement
programs).
c. Manpower Development Support
Supporting staff development can be done through continuing education, refresher courses,
functional education, incentives, transfer and promotion.
d. Development of System Benefits
Rewards include rewards and sanctions. Of rewards and sanctions are part of the coaching staff-
TPSMK LPTK intensively conducted in accordance with the duties and responsibilities. Of
rewards and sanctions tailored to the performance evaluation of academic staff and support
personnel. Of rewards and sanctions of its integrated and coordinated activity among college
Tridarma.

Development of Educational Facilities
The success of the vocational education program educators need the support of adequate
facilities and optimum utilization. Education facilities required for program implementation
TPSMK include classrooms, laboratories / workshops, library, learning resource unit, laboratory
and computer information systems, consulting services space, administrative services space, and
other spaces to support education.
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


2080

Refers to the development of educational facilities: (1) the development of minimum service
system of vocational education, (2) the fulfillment of learning needs minimal equipment, laboratory
/ workshop, library, and other support, (3) maintenance management system development /
maintenance education equipment. Facility development strategy through: procurement,
development and student or faculty member, grant and resource sharing.

Institutional Improvement Efforts
Faculty of Technical Teachers' Training College was trying to ex responsive to the
development of science and technology. However, due to technological developments are moving
so fast (very rapid change of technology) resulting in this faculty are less able to follow, due to the
lack of funding, facilities and management systems they have. Problems getting stronger with the
reduction in government's attention to vocational education (SMK) than general education (high
school) from the early 1990's, making vocational education more and less able to follow the growth
of technology.
Equipment shortages led to the qualitative and quantitative lack of significant progress,
which bear fruit in the fall of the quality of vocational graduates. Recognizing the above problems,
it takes the initiative to address the problem properly, a planned and systematic. From the
evaluation results and a comprehensive analysis of the issue, concluded that improvements must
begin with reform of management system processes and institutions thoroughly planned by
adopting the ISO 9001:2000 quality management system (currently under the transition to ISO
9001:2008). Improvement of management system processes by itself would result in improvement
of curriculum, human resources (Lecturer, employees), the input of students, facilities and financial
support, and patterns of cooperation with stakeholders / agencies.
ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management
ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System is a process-oriented management system in
the process of continuous quality improvement (continuous improvement process) in order to
provide the best service to customers (Coustumer). Some understanding of concepts that need to be
understood in order to see how meaningful application of this system in overcoming the above
institutions, namely:
1. Quality: means, in accordance with requirements (Philip Cosby), can be used (Joseph
Juran), the degree achieved by the inherent characteristics fulfill requirements (ISO
9000:2008, clause 3.1.1).
2. Quality Parameters: namely trust, reliability, price, and service
Quality Management: namely coordinated activities to direct and control an organization in
terms of quality (ISO 9000:2005, clause 3.2.8)
3. Quality Management System: the set of elements that are related to established policies and
objectives, the planning and organization for quality control, which include: structure,
policies, processes, procedures and practices to plan, implement, monitor / measure and
improve the quality of
4. Principles of quality management: that is paying attention to customers, leadership, people
involvement, process approach, system approach to management, continual improvement,
fact approach in decision making, mutually beneficial relationships with suppliers.
5. Customers can be grouped internal and external customers
Process approach: the approach to input, process, output
INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR
Reformulating the Paradigm of Technical and Vocational Education


2081

6. Continuous Improvement: establishing policies and objectives, the audit / inspection, the
results of data analysis, management review.

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