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balance of power- Technique used against universal monarchy, not to preserve peace, but to preserve sovereignty
characteristic of modern civilizations Ch1 o Feudalism 10. Luther Ch2 13. Colbert
 Technological, military, political, scientific and economic apparatus  Serfdom – peasants “bound a. Monk who pioneered “faith alone” 1. "livery and maintenance" a. French minister of finance 2. Bousset- advanced teaching that kings power comes from God, if king doesn’t reflect will of God, then people can
 Equality (of religion, class, race, sex, etc.) to the soil” of the manor of b. Posted 95 thesis criticizing indulgences + other church practices of a. Livery referred to mercenary soldier’s from 1665 to 1683 under the overthrow king
Indo-European the lord penance uniform showing allegiance to lord rule of King Louis XIV
 The ancient migrants who came from lands like Iran and India to form the  Fiefs – parcels of land given c. Leo X did not initiate reform, and luther attacked sacraments, b. Maintenance was payment or legal favors b. Brought the economy back 3. Commercial Code- Colbert- replaced much of the local customary law with a new model of business and regulation.
Greeks and Romans and who merged with and imposed their language on to vassals by lords for pilgramages, and much of the church 2. Star Chamber from the brink of bankruptcy Built roads and canals, assured quality of products. Subsidies, tax exemptions, monopolies
the current inhabitants service d. He encouraged german princes to take control of their state a. English court of law to convict prominent 14. Richlieu 4. conflict between the secular and the sacred in the 17th century- France=secular, secular wins in history
 Their languages include Latin, Greek, Germanic, Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic  Oaths – vassals took oaths to religion people a. After Henry IV was
languages serve and to advise him in e. Lutheranism was in conflict with Charles V eventually policy b. Came to represent corruption assassinated, was advisor to 5. Corneille's plays , their themes and the Age of the Sun King
Caesaropapism his court allowed each state to choose it’s own religion 3. War of the Roses widow Marie 6. Declaration of Indulgence- Charles II announced the nonenforcements of laws against dissenters. Chuck favored
 Caesar is a God and is the only sovereign ruler on earth  Homage 11. Vernacular bible a. Picked up where 100 years war left off b. Discouraged private warfare
 One man is ruler and Pontiff  fealty a. Reading in own language hugely liberating from church (1450’s) and dueling toleration, but really to support Catholics
St. Augustine's book, City of God o Manoralism b. Could salvation be achieved without church? b. Private baron armies (see livery and 15. politiques 7. Diggers- occupied and cultivated common lands, or lands privately owned. In general a repudiation of property.
 Material world can perish; another world more enduring and important  Self-sufficiency – peasants 12. Reformation and institutions of the modern state; maintainance) a. Moderates seeking peace to 8. fast swords" and Richlieu
 Two cities: city of man, and City of God do farming and simple crafts a. Secularization 4. Jacqueries save France from anarchy,
 Earthly city in return lord gives b. Modern views on education, progress a. French peasant revolt during hundred years Henry of Navarre was one 9. Glorious Revolution of 1688-portrayed as vindicating the principles of parliamentary government the rule of law
 State and empire protection 13. Erasmus war 16. The Wars of Religion in France and even the right of rebellion against tyranny.
 Political authority and obedience  Integration with feudalism – a. Supported reform through education 5. Catholic Reformation a. Protestants led by Admiral
two way street of support b. Made greek and latin new testament, and encouraged reading it a. Initiated by Charles V After Luther’s split de Coligny and Henry of 10. Great Tax Farms- a tariff union set up in France,
 Good but not divine – emperor is human; state not
absolute from lord to servant c. Wrote “Praise of Folly” satirizing pretentious clergy b. Council of Trent Bourbon 11. High Anglican
 Heavenly City o guilds and towns 14. weaknesses of the church – simony, plural benefices poor education of priests, etc c. New orders (eg. Jesuits) b. Catholics led by Guise family 12. Instrument of Government Ch4
 Heaven  towns were made by their a. Simony = selling of church offices d. inquisition c. St. Bartholomew’s day
 Higher Values gaining of political rights b. Nepotism = inheriting church offices 6. John Calvin's theology massacre 13. Intendants
Donation of Constantine through charters given out c. Indulgences were sold (Tetzel was notorious for this) a. Similar to Lutheranism but more strict 17. Commercial Revolution 14. Jean-Bapiste Colbert
 Embraced Christianity in hopes of strengthening the imperial system by a king d. Church unable to reform in 13th century b. Believed in predestination with “elect” going a. Steady population growth
 guilds were associations of 15. Black Death – causes and consequences to heaven b. Rising prices 15. Levelers- radical political democrats, John Lilburne, appealed to natural rights, universal manhood sufferage,
 Founded Constantinople to be a twin capital of Rome dividing the
administration of the Empire between the two merchants and craftsmen a. In 1348 half of everyone died. Towns were especially affected. c. Honest work was pleasing to God c. Putting out system written constitution
Greek thinkers  men’s b. Labor was scarce, but disorganization made job finding hard. 7. Sisters and brothers of the common life i. Distributing 16. Long Parliament-Charles I created it when English parliament wouldn’t help him raise funds to put down Scottish
 Socrates, Plato (Republic), and Aristotle (Politics) comment on politics and guilds were c. Led to peasant insurrections like wat tyler’s rebellion in England in a. Took no vows labor to
develop political science for 1381 b. Helped the poor, emphasized Christian values rural rebellion
 Herodotus is the “father of history” masonry, d. Class upheaval led to better peasant rights in long run 8. Charles V workers 17. Louis XIV-expansionist, wanted to get Spain for himself
 Pythagoras helps develop mathematics smithing, e. Led to some question of justice of wealthy church with poor people a. His reign constitutes the pinnacle of Habsburg ii. Avoided
16. The aims of liberal education for Renaissance power restrictive 18. Navigation Acts- Cromwell, in effort to further English interestsBarred dutch ships from carrying goods between
 To the Greek thinkers not all that is seen is reality; looked for rational etc
explanation for the chaos that they encountered  women a. Separate classes by level of education b. Ruler of HRE from 1519 to 1556 guilds other countries and England or its colonies.
Roman contributions could also b. Manners were valued c. Opposed protestant reformation and council d. Greater international trade 19. Oliver Cromwell-Protestant, organized ironsides(badasses) in New Model Army 1640, most powerful political
 Orbis Terrarum- lands surrounding Rome, the known world join guilds c. Well roundedness appreciated of trent e. Growth of lending for
 Unification of lands but mostly17. Council of Trent 9. Machiavelli interest which had been force in parliament
 Armies systematically formed and maintained long term that operated in the a. Charles V wanted to have reform council, hampered by Francis I a. Wrote “The Prince” denounced by religion 20. Parlements- French courts of law, each being the supreme court for a certain area of the country. upheld certain
efficiently over great distances clothing b. Council wanted to define Catholicism without making concessions i. Aimed to convince Italians of f. Rise of mercantilism
to Protestantism need for unity 18. Mercantilism “fundamental laws” that the king could not overstep
 First self-governing and republican institutions industry
 Universal “natural law” o medieval economy and survival c. Avoided expanding powers of councils ii. Stated that “men act in their a. Idea of having more wealth 22. Presbyterian- As the price of support from the Scottish army in Eng civil war, Solemn League and Covenant said
Christianization of the Roman Empire  survival in towns was set up d. Justification by a combination of faith and works, contrary to own political interest” flowing in than out that religion in England, Scotland and Ireland should be best of reformed religions, thus Presb.
 Constantine becomes Christian by the towns folk: guards, Luther b. “The end justifies the means” b. Avoiding idleness
 Christianity becomes official religion of Roman Empire; no others walls, and any other e. Reaffirmed seven sacraments, trans-substantiation confession, and c. One of many brilliant men in florence 19. Edict of Nantes 23. Pride's Purge and rump- Cromwell drove out parliament leaving about 50-60 left, a rump
tolerated defenses were provided for absolution a. Protestantism was to be 24. Roundheads-English parliamentary forces that had close haircuts b/c were Puritan. Gained military victories with
 Christian values mix with Greek and Roman philosophy the good of the town f. Latin was to be the language of the Mass allowed among nobles or in
New Model army
Christianity as intellectual revolution  economically trade in towns g. Priests were to be celibate towns
h. Monasticism, purgatory, indulgences, saints, the cult of the Virgin,
EH Review for Ch 3 b. Passed by Henry of Navarre
 One God replaced the many greater and lesser gods and goddesses was like the defense it was 25. Ship money- money raised without parliamentary consent by Charles I to pay to modernize navy. Alarmed
Germanic invasions of the West mainly to keep the town images, relics, and pilgrimages were approved 20. 30 years war property owners who didn’t want to pay for policies they didn’t support
 Germanic Barbarian Tribes, the Huns lead by Atilla (the Scourge of God), running; few worked to 18. Ignatius Loyola 1. Vasco de Gama a. War of HRE (germany)
and Arabs make a profit and those that a. Founded Jesuits a. Portuguese man that pioneered trade b. German civil war because of 27. Stewart Kings and parliament
 What contributions and innovations did were mistrusted b. Organized, missionary force around Africa with indies religion and government 28. Tax Farmer
 Arabs: Algebra, Mapmaking, and Numerals o Early parliaments c. Part of catholic revival problems
b. Traveled around cape of good hope in 29. Test Act- officeholders must take communion in church of England, anit-dissenters, especially Catholic
 Social organization  Started when the king had 19. New Monarchs" of the 15th century c. International war between
“talks” with representatives a. What they did 1498 Bourbons v. Habsburgs, 30. The Asiento -granted privledge of providing spanish america with african slaves. much wealth was built on slave
 Barbarians had no sense of state only local
 tribal kinship of towns, the clergy and the i. Allied with middle class, defusing feudal power2. Albuquerque Spanish v. Dutch trade. permitted one shipload of british goods to be brough to Panama
 Inflexible, rough and ready means of Justice lords ii. Developed new foot soldier armies with pikes and a. First governor general of Portugal d. Mercenary soldiers
 Called cortes in Spain, diets longbows b. Developed trade stations, very benefitted
 eventually peasant villages taken over by a war lord who
in Germany, Estates General iii. Replaced feudal law with Roman law, and had e. Germany wrecked as a result 3 empires Ch5
would protect them from other attackers and in return
ultimate ruler decide law
important for Portugal 21. defenestration Holy Roman Empire, Republic of Poland, Ottoman Turks
lived off their produce or provincial estates in
o creating the first real distinction France, and parliaments in b. Tudor rulers in England began with Henry VII, banned private 3. Fugger a. the act of throwing someone Differences: Turkey was Muslim and connected to Middle East away from European culture, HRE focused
between lord and servant, noble and Britain noble armies a. Family of European bankers out a window more on Christendom traditions, Poland focused with western Europe, Christian traditions
commoner  Used by king to publicize c. In France Louis XI Valois built army and taxed b. Replaced Medici b. Defenestration of Prague Similarities/Weaknesses: Weak central authority of nominal head and potentates, no efficient govt.
Dark Ages and the and strengthen their rule; d. Later Francis I secured Concordant of Bologna, trading money for 4. Calvin helped start 30 years war administration, obsolete by newer centralizing states i.e. France, diverse language/ethnic groups, politically
convenient to explain church offices when protestants attacked weak
 Church
e. Ferdinand and Isabella split spain, but it was united by marriage
a. When Philip II inherited Netherlands catholics Eugene of Savoy and HRE
 monasteries grew up policies, request money
 Had no right to dictate the and faith Calvinists revolted 22. Huguenots French, founded modern Austrian state
o not much use to surrounding area but
king and his government 20. Religious mystics of northern Europe b. See below for reaction a. French protestants, disliked Reformed supply, command, equipment, etc. of Hapsburg forces
prayed and were left alone by chaotic
neighbors  Parliaments allowed to state a. Sought religion without church, more personal 5. Duke of Alva by Philip II Modeled off of Louis XIV
grievances 21. Renaissance characteristics of person… a. Executed thousands of rebelling 23. Albert of Wallenstein 1697: Won Battle of Zenta to drive Turks from Hungary
 Barbarian kingdoms
 Represented not the a. Individual achievement was valued a. Led army pillaging in 30 Peace of Karlowitz 1699 Turks give Hungary, Croatia, Transylvania to Habsburgs
 Converted to Christianity
b. Humans were great, everything focused on us
calvanists, confiscated estates years war Freed Habsburgs to win old Spanish Netherlands, Milan, Naples from Spanish crown in War of Spanish
Ulfilas converts Goths (340 AD) “nation” or the “people” but
o
the “estates”: First – Clergy, c. Value of scholarship b. Resulted in unity against spain b. Supported Catholicism Succession (Treaty of Rastadt 1714)
o Clovis, king of the Franks converted in 6. William the Silent
496 AD Second – landed nobles, 22. Boniface VIII 24. Treaty of Westphalia Austria very successfully militarily
o Augustine of Canterbury converts king Third – the burghers of a. In 1290 Philip IV (France) and Edward I (England) taxed church a. Also called William of orange a. Resolved 30 years war Captured Belgrade
chartered towns b. Boniface denounced this and declared pope superiority to Kings b. leader of the Dutch revolt against the b. Renewed peace of Augsburg Turks pushed to Romania, Balkan peninsula and held it (except Croatia)
of Kent in 597 AD
o Church reform c. Philip IV arrested him c. Made 300 German states Prussia
 Settling down into more civilized way of living d. This led to 70 years of Babylonian Captivity in France, reducing
Spanish that set off the 80 Years' War sovereign Frederick William: Great elector, shaped modern Russia, put reliance on good army to oblige stronger states
 HRE formed in an attempt to
 Pope c. supported freedom of religion
preserve and extend church’s reputation 25. siglo de oro to keep balance of power
 as Rome was seen as a place of awe for the martyrdom of e. Great Schism from 1378 to 1414 between those following roman7. Mary, Queen of Scots a. Spanish Golden Age from King in and of: Habsburgs ask 8000 troops from Brandenburg for war of Spanish succession
Christian faith
Peter, and the bishop of Rome was in control of the
Roman gov’t, he became known as the Pope and had
 Cluniac monastery in France and French pope a. Allied with William/Netherlands 1550 to 1650 Price: Recognition as king in Prussia, soon more honorable king of Prussia
– Christian ideal to which all23. Unam Sanctam b. Many plotted for her to be queen of b. Coincided with Spanish Became King Frederick I of Prussia
primacy over all Christians a. Boniface VIII papal bull declaring papal supremacy (see above) Habsburg dynasty
clergy and laity might look Army older than Prussian state and developed life of own independent of state
 Peter was the first pope and all his successors had 24. Ultramontanism
England 26. armanda católica Military needs dominate the market, army key to economic growth, big effect on class structure
up; recognized only
spiritual authority
authority of Rome a. Catholic interpretation placing pope as really important 8. Catherine de'Medici a. Spanish armada defeated by Army unites Prussia; no class change possible to keep nobles as army officers
Charelemagne a. Widow of Henry II in France
 Pope Nicholas II – future 25. Lorenzo Valla Drake Frederick William I (grandson of Great Elector): Spent little and only on army, ruled Prussia like private
 Frankish king crowned Emperor of the west by the pope in an attempt to
popes to elected by a. Controversial Italian humanist, rhetorician, and educator b. Ordered St. Bartholomew’s day 27. Encomiendia estate, rule centered toward army, raised army to 83000, established canton recruitment system
gain back lands lost to Muslims and to fend off or convert heathen b. Criticized some church higher ups a. Similar to English feudal Frederick II/Frederick the Great: conquered Silesia, gave Prussia valuable industries, resources, makes
cardinals massacre killing hugonauts
barbarians; unify the lands
 Hildebrand (Gregory VII) – 26. Book of the Courtier
9. Sir Francis Drake
system Prussia great pwr.
 Restorations a. Written by Castiglione demonstrating renaissance ideal person, b. English landowner (in new Westernizing of Russia
no marriage in clergy, no
 revive forgotten ancient learning and spread education noble could appoint a characteristics being: a. renowned pirate awarded knighthood world) employed natives Ivan: 1533-84, first to get tsar title, terrible to those who opposed him, didn’t want Russian state to fall,
at least among clergy clergyman b. knowledgeable in classical subjects, proficient in sports and arms, in 1581 by Queen Elizabeth I 28. trading cities , tolerance and commerce…. wanted control of Russian state
 Success  ↑ Lay investiture – process and able to dance and appreciate music b. hero to English, pirate to Spaniards a. Tolerance grew from Romanovs: Michael Romanov, Romanov dynasty rules till 1917, set up as absolute monarchs
 west was slightly united and somewhat more learned by which the emperor (a 27. Condottiere exposure to different Holy Synod: committee of church bishops created by Peter, attached procurator of holy synod (task was
 Methods 10. Admiral de Colingny
layman) conferred on the a. mercenary soldier leaders cultures make sure church does nothing that upsets tsar Peter), Peter indirectly becomes head of church
 brought scholars to his palace school 28. Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
a. Huguenot leader in the French Wars b. Commerce expanded with Trade/Expansion: wanted warm water ports to give trade access to Europe, wanted European ideas to help
bishop the signs of his
 manuscripts were copied spiritual authority; a. Issued by Charles VII of France requiring General Church Council of Religion new trade routes, especially combat west, fought Swedes and other powers for territory and control, St. Petersburg open for
 created more reliable coinage based on silver prohibited by Gregory VII superior to pope to meet once per decade 11. Gustavus Aldophus across continents trade/commerce with Europe, encouraged mercantilism,
 Limitations b. Opposed by popes (obviously) a. Founder of Swedish empire c. Trading cities were colonial Peter: reformed the army and held Russia together with it, founds St. Petersburg window to west new Russia
 new barbarian attacks 29. virtu b. Led his armies as king, eventually centers of trade, bringing new Russian capital, imposed taxes on appearance, serfdom goes industrial, each tsar names own successor,
 refusal of eastern Christians to recognize western a. coined by Machiavelli revenue to mother country created gubernii, aristocrats served in army
primacy of pope b. includes pride, bravery, strength
dying in 30 years war Exclusion of peasants: exploited and never shared European prosperity or civilization
c. qualities desirable for a man