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John Law Turgot – philosophe and physiocrat contributor to the Encyclopédie; official who became minister to Louis
elite culture Ch7 XVI; suppressed guilds; abolished Corvee and replaced it with a tax on all classes 1) Edmund Burke
a. minority within given range of interests; not only wealth but power, fashion, arts, a. Scottish financier
4) Corvee – decree that certain peasants labor on the roads a few days each year a. spokesman for Whig leaders who sensed corruption in parliament when George III and his “friends” took control;
education, sciences, etc. b. Founded Bank of France
5) Parlement of Paris – opposed Turgot with the support of the Provincial Estates and the Church b. argued for responsibility and sound judgment in Commons rather than mathematical representation;
b. educated, spoke national language c. set up Mississippi Company – founded New Orleans, absorbed other
6) Kaunitz – Maria Theresa’s advisor on foreign relations c. opposed place men
c. rich food resources – white bread, meat, professional cooks trading companies- monopoly of colonia trade
i. shares rose rapidly, confidence was lost and a 7) Maria Theresa – Head of the Empire of Austria; united her realm in free trade where most lands were 2) Freemasonry
d. houses – lots of glass, spacious, separate functions for rooms(Salons – France), a. Men disposed toward reason, progress, tolerance, and human reforms, and were respectful to God as he architect of the universe
furniture with style, china dishes crash followed affected by internal tariffs
ii. picked up entire French government debt – a. Systematically attacked serfdom – broke power of landed nobles, issued laws against abuse of b. Equality among brothers who were clergy, nobles, and middle classes
e. etiquette- manners, private theaters, salon(evening, cultured conversation), dancing c. Because of its secrecy masonry became distrusted
f. read classics proposing to pay debts by colonial profits and peasants, limited labor to three days a week
the right to collect all French indirect taxes 8) Joseph II 3) no one reasons, everyone executes – philosophy of Frederick the Great; he believed that he should be the only one planning and thinking and that everyone else should just
g. called on doctors, but effected by plague operate as his tools and complete the tasks he set them
popular culture; 2. working cabinet government a. Less patient than his mother, Maria Theresa Ch8
a. spoke local vernacular(Patois/Volkssprache) vs. national language which elites a. Set up by Robert Walpole b. Abolished serfdom
spoke b. Cabinet government- a system in which the prime minister and the c. Created secret police
ministers who head the cabinet department are also members of the 1. science became modern- intellectual revolution of the seventeenth century. Science now predicated upon truth, mathematics, varification, and evidence (distinct from
b. oral, difficult to reconstruct  history is largely study of elites beacuase little d. Failed because he tried to everything by himself things like alchemy and astrology that were purely bs “science”.
written records of popular culture legislative body e. Succeeded by brother Leopold
3. The Whig and Tory parties 2. The scientific revolution of the seventeenth century had repercussions- increasingly affected practival affairs, intering into health, wealth, and happiness. Changed size of
c. change perspectives more slowly than elites, slow diffusion of ideas 9) Montesquieu populations and use of materials, revolutionized methods of production, transportation, etc. Changed the ideas of God and religion. Helped spread certain very deep-seated
d. food shortages- cabbage, beans, rye, barley, wheat, dark bread(kinda funny because a. Parties tended to dissolve after 1714 a. Aristocrat who held a seat on the Parlement of Bordeaux believes, such as that the physical universe is essentially orderly and harmonious. Laid foundation for democracy and better social relations (people cite phycholgy of
today elites eat dark bread and populars eat white bread), little food b. Whigs – government and Anglican bishops close to government, b. Shared aristocratic and antiabsolutist ideals; but beyond self-centered class philosophy freud).
e. housing- crowded, dark shabby, wooden dishes -> became pewter gradually, no supported George I of Hanover c. Spirit of the Laws 3. Leonardo da Vinci – renaissance man: he was an artist, as well as a scientist. His science was not published. He is a human example of how science requires on
glass windows, little or no furniture, no specialization of rooms c. Tories- against government, suspicious
4. "Mississippi" bubbles
i. First principal idea – gov’ts vary in accordance with climate and transmission of thought and experimentation. He was a lone genius and never affected modern science because of his lack of openness about his private journals.
f. alcoholic drinks spread circumstances; despotism good for large empires in hot climates, 4. Francis Bacon and René Descartes- the two were prophets of a scientific world. Both asked how is is possible for human beings to know anything with certainty, shared
g. called on local healers – usually women- effected by plague as much as elite a. See John Law
5. In the aftermath of the "bubbles"
democracy good for small cities in doubts of their day, branded former thought (w/ exception of religion) as wrong, attacked earlier methods of seeking knowledge, rejected shoolmen and scholastics,
h. examining stories from middle age, told stories, astrology ii. Second principal idea – separation and balance of powers; rejected Aristotle. Bacon: pioneer of inductive reasoning (only make conclusions upon fact, not based upon unsupported assumptions sucha s deductive reasoning). Wrote
asymmetrical relationship a. Indignation
“intermediate bodies” – parlements, provincial estates, organized the Great Renewal and was an advocate of empiricism. Wrote new atlantis about scientific utopia (ruled by science). Said that true knowledge was useful knowledge.
a. Elites could share in popular culture by attending public amusements/ interacting b. Development of joint stock financing slowed down
nobility, chartered towns and the church Descartes: brilliant mathematician. Invented geometry and wrote Discourse on Method. Wrote about Cartesian dualism (that there was thinking substance and extended
with servancts c. In France –
i. Bank of France ended 1. took no stock in church teachings but thought it useful substances, thinking being subjective and extended objective reasoning). Both believed in the bower of knowledge and human progress.
b. Populars could not share in elite culture without exceptional transformation- to undue centralization of gov’t 5. inductive method- SEE 4
marriage/eduction- rare ii. Growth of capitalism retarded
d. Admired English Constitution believing England carried over feudal liberties of the middle ages 6. deductive thinking- SEE 4 Ch6
Asia market iii. Government repudiated debt  discouraged
people from lending to government, lost credit. e. Thought to be too conservative; in fact he was a reactionary 7. empirical laws.- SEE 4
a. Gold drain – Asians rejected European manufactured goods, all Asians wanted was 8. mathematical formulations.- SEE 4 WORLD COULD BE REDUCED TO MATHEMATICAL FORMS
gold in exchange for their spice, china, cotton, rugs, silks Could not tap wealth of subjects f. Admired barbarous Middle Ages
9. modern idea of progress – held by science advocates: “true knowledge is usefull knowledge, the world is mathematical, we should use these principasl and what we can
South Sea Bubble refers to iv. Tax reform prevented 10) Adam Smith
empirically verfy to progress society.”
a. Formed to exploit asiento and other commercial privileges extorted from Spain d. Britain responded better- a. Wrote Wealth of Nations (1776)
i. Walpole saved institutions b. Increase national wealth by reducing barriers 10. the value of applied science.- SEE 9
b. Held government debts 11. Cartesian dualism SEE 4
c. Stocks overvalued ii. Did not default on credit – British government c. Prophet of free trade
gained trust and confidence of lenders 12. The Ptolemaic view of the universe- geocentric, everything revolves around the earth. All outside plantes are celestial orbs around the earth. Stars are perfect points of
d. Stockholders began to sell, panic d. Gov’t should provide for defense, security, reasonable laws and fair law courts
light (this was challenged by galileo’s observation of the sun’s spots showing imperfection). Suggested a belief that these were the heavens.
e. Collapse of company – people lose all their money iii. Bubble Act- forbid all companies except those 11) "intermediate bodies" – parlements, provincial estates, organized nobility, chartered towns, and the
13. Copernicus' great contribution – challenged Ptolemaic view. Held that the sun was the center of the solar system and the whold universe. He tried to explain
Large tariff-free internal markets; specifically chartered by the overnment to raise church; provide for separation and balance of powers mathematically based upon cycles and epicycles of what he called planets (formerly called heavenly orbs).
a. France and Britain had huge tariff- free internal markets capital by sale of stock 12) Rousseau 14. John Kepler's laws of planetary motion – kepler discovered that the orbits of planets were perfect ellipses. Showed the speed at which planets circle the sun is relative
b. Great deal of economic activity domestic, exchange between towns 6. Mountebank a. Born to lower class; no social status, no money and no feel for money; paranoid and felt he could to their distance from it. (the proof was based on confusing math)
c. Foreign trade becoming increasingly important a. Mounted a platform where he sold questionable remedies for various trust no one
ills while keeping up a patter of jokes and stories, often accompanied 15. Tycho Brahe- greatest authority on the movement of orbs right after copernicu’s generation and never accepted the conpernican theory, his assistant was kepler.
The Dutch b. Criticized French women especially those of salons – “they do not know anything, although they 16. Galileo- used a telescope to see moon’s craters and similarity to the earth. Noticed jupiter’s moon. Saw imperfections in the sun. Proved the Copernican theory to many.
a. Lost political power by a clown judge everything” Renounced his learning’s at stake of death my the Catholic church.
b. Remain middle men in trade b. charlatan c. Detested civilization calling it a source of evil and that it would be better in a “state of nature” 17. Newton's law of universal gravitation – used his invention of calculus to prove. The reason the planets move is cause of gravity. Wrote the mathematical principals of
i. Led commerce, shipping, finance 7. bullionism d. Wrote 2 discourses – Arts and Sciences (1750) and Origin of Inequality Among Men (1753) modern philosophy.
ii. Lowest shipping rates in the world a. gold as wealth
8. raw materials
e. Social Contract (1762) – seemed to contradict his “state of nature” sentiments; good men could 18. the Royal Society of London and the Academy of Sciences in France – represent the persuit of knowledge being institutionalized.
iii. Financed everything only be produced by improved society; men submitted their natural liberty to one another 19. spiritual readjustment -
British and French won the commercial rivalry of 18th century a. only imports needed according to mercantilist economy
b. lots came from Eastern Europe in exchange for finished goods
13) general will – concept of Rousseau in which all individual will submitted to the general will (fusing of all 20. the exploration of the world overseas. – helped by metwons understanding of force and gravity as constants. Allowed understanding of latitude, mapmaking, and
a. Shows need for diplomatic, military, capital, and naval support individual wills) as the final word sovereign over all kings and emperors timepieces. Jesuits showed the similarity of people overseas to europeans.
b. British and French had high levels of domestic production and national governments9. the national language
14) Voltaire 21. skepticism – newtons theories challenged religious teachings leading to skepticism since religion cannot be proven.
that protected mercantile interests a. national language grammer and spelling regularized
a. Born into the Bourgeoisie 22. Pierre Bayle- proponent of skepticism. Wrote about hayle’s comment. Wrote the historical and critical dictionary (sortof an encyclopedia of random stuff).
c. Led to immense profits- France leader in Europe and Middle East, Britain in America b. spoken by elites/educated- enabled educated to participate in elite
b. Never objected to aristocracy on principle 23. witches – ability to understand nature based on science was seen as many as the makr of a wtich. These witch trials eventually stopped due to the rising empahsis on
and Asia institutions of government, commerce, proessions
c. Royal historian of Louis XV and personal friend of Frederick the Great evidence and verifying claims of guilt.
New wealth of Western Europe in the 18th century c. sign of elite until spread of universal education
10. Local dialect d. Interested mainly in freedom of thought and an admirer of England 24. paleontology. – supported the earth being much older than the church claimed. Forced people to reconsider religion’s stance on the history of the world and creation.
a. Married with aristocrats 25. chronology. – new emphasis that came with more scholarly historical accuracy. Many doubted word of mouth based history and the motives of historians so they had to
b. Mainly happened if you were a merchant a. Patois in French,Volkssprache in German e. Wrote Philosophical Letters on the English (1733) and Elements of the Philosophy of Newton (1738)
b. Local vernacular – introduced inductive philosophy of Bacon, physics of Newton, and psychology of sensations of back up their claims about history, which led to chronology as well.
c. Ex. Thomas Pitt in England, Jean-Jospeh Laborde in France 26. Biblical criticism- sparked by people such as simon and Spinoza. Simon wrote critical history of the old testament. He was the first to concluded that Catholicism was
The relationship between the wealthy and national governments during 1700’s c. Spoken by populars Locke
still upheld by the symbolic meaning of the bible, but that genisis and other books were clearly historically inaccurate and not true. He was an othrodox catholic. Spinoza
a. If wealthy supported government by taxes and loans, it was strong (Britain) 11. Hogarth f. Preacher of religious toleration
a. Painter of “Gin Lane” depicting popularity and dangers of alcohol in i. “natural religion” and “natural morality” – God and difference between was a jew who said that god didn’t really exist except that we contain him in ourselves. (i.e. that all is an aspect of God). He denied devine inspiration and all that any gov
b. If wealth did not support government, it failed(France) was just. Bassed his teaching on a strict code of intellectual ethics.
Merchants who grew wealthy in the global trade of the 18th century the lives of Britain’s working classes- shows public drunkenness in good and evil lie in reason alone
streets of london 27. Baruch Spinoza. SEE 26
a. Thomas Pitt in England – worked in India – interloper – traded in defiance of legal g. Politically neither liberal not democrat; if gov’t is enlightened its strength is inconsequential; by
28. John Locke- wrote about two things: about knowledge and society. He claimed that all are born with blank minds at Tablua Rasa. He said you are shaped by society. He
monopoly of East India Company 12. Regency enlightened gov’t he meant one that promoted freedom of thought and religion; basically
a. Period of the reign of the Duke of Orleans said that society is about the pursuit of life, liberty, and property. Property being the big emphasis, he was all about indivdual rights and in some sense was one of the most
i. Bought diamond which sold for many time its value supported enlightened despotism modern philosophers. He influenced American revolution as well. He believed in democracy type government.
ii. got seat in House of Commons b. Aristocratic reemergence 15) "Ecrasez l'infame!" – “crush the infamous thing” 29. The philosophy of natural law- all are born with natural rights that aren’t granted by or stripped by the government or society. Based on the powers of reasoning and
iii. prominent children – Wiliam Pitt 13. Non-jurors a. Voltairean war cry against religious intolerance unserstanding. Justified cosmopolitanism (i.e. everyone should be helped, not just the USA)
b. Jean-Jospeh Laborde in France a. Group of Anglican clergy who refused oath of loyalty 16) "Maupeou parlements" – new parlements set up by the Chancellor Maupeou after Louis XV had the old 30. natural law SEE 29
i. Built vast plantations in Santo Domingo- raised huge amounts b. Outside official church ones ended; judges confined to purely judicial function and were paid salaries as government officials
14. Guinea 31. Hugo Grotius and Samuel Pufendorf- wrote about law of nations. Govs should protect common good, that’s why they exist.
of money to pay for revolutions (American, French) a. 32. Jesuits SEE 20
ii. guillotined a. Gold Coast 17) " secret police" – created by Joseph II to monitor nobles, clergy, gov’t officials, or any others from whom he 33. Common dating SEE 25
Parliament b. Became name of a gold coin minted in England might expect trouble 34. Hearsay- SEE WITCHES
a. Different from parlements of France 15. putting out system
18) Edward Gibbon – philosophe who attacked Christianity in Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire 35. Calculus- SEE NEWTON
b. Effective machine for conduct of public business a. aka domestic system
b. Entrepreneurs created division of labor
19) David Hume – Scottish skeptical philosopher counted as a philosophe 36. Relativism- pretty much the same thing as skepticism, just says morality is relative to culture and not to some over arching good. Says that things are verfyable.
c. Corrupt, slow, expensive- but effective 20) "Eastern Question" – general contradictory feelings between Russia and Polish-Turkish tract 37. Sense of evidence- SEE WITCHES
d. House of Lords, House of Commons- made up of the wealthy and mainly c. Gave group tool to do specific job, and then passed on to next
specialized group to create finished good- cottage industry a. Russia was an enemy of both Poland and the Ottoman empire but felt religious ties to the Greek 38. Tabula rosa- SEE LOCKE
representing money interests Orthodox Christians of those lands 39. thinking reed- basis of spinoza’s beliefs and natural law philosophy.
Companies such as the East India Company: 16. the old aristocracy and the new rich of the merchant classes:
a. intermarried 21) George III – “patriot king”; wished to heighten the influence of the crown and overcome factionalism of
a. Set up to trade internationally parties; created essentially a new faction the “king’s friends” to gain control in the Commons 500-300 BC – Classical Greek: Plato, Aristotle
b. Became holders of government debt and received monopolies b. women played essential economic role in carefully arranged marriage
that both protected and increased the wealth of upper class families22) Faith in Progress – the belief that every generation is better off than the last generation and that by its 31 BC - Roman Empire 1588 – Spanish Armada destroyed off coast of Eng and Scot
c. British and French companies succeeded efforts it will set up the foundations for the next generation to be better than itself 420 AD - St. Augustine writes City of God 1598 – Edict of Nantes by King Henry IV, grants religious rights to Fr. Protestants
Cardinal Fleury ; c. Bourgeois and aristocratic merged
17. James III 23) Religious fervor and Pietism – an opposing religious movement to the theory of the “watchmaker God”; 476 – End of Roman Empire in West 1609 – Galileo builds a telescope
a. Came to power after bubbles in France
a. Called the Pretender pietism said that inner spiritual experience was more profound than that of doctrine; sought inner 1054 – Schism of Roman Catholic with Orthodox Eastern 1618-1648 – The Thirty Year’s War in Germany
b. Aimed at peace like Walpole, drawn into small war
b. Newest in line of exiled Stuart throne illumination 1095-1099 – First Christian Crusade 1637 – Descartes Discourse on Method
c. Repudiated debts
c. Supported by Jacobites 24) Physiognomy – supposed science created by J.C. Lavater in which a person’s character could be read by 1198-1216 – Pope Innocent III: height of Medieval Papacy 1640-1688 – Frederick William (Great Elector) develops state and military in Prussia
George I
d. Attempted to take throne in 1715 and 1745 their facial expressions and the play of their features 1267-1273 – Aquinas writes Summa Theologica 1648 – Peace of Westphalia, recognizes system of sovereign Euro states
a. House of Hanover
b. King of Britain 18. Chartered private companies 25) Essai sur les moeurs “Universal History” – First purely secular conception of world history written by 1309-1378 – “Babylonian Captivity”: Papacy in Avignon 1649 – King Charles I executed in London
c. Supported by Whigs who feared that they would lose money that they had lent to a. Government chartered companies that helped with debt like East Voltaire; began with ancient civilizations rather than The Creation like previous histories 1337-1453 – Hundred Years War btw Eng and Fr 1649-1658 – Cromwell leads English “Commonwealth” and “Protectorate”
government if James III came and took over India Company, etc 26) F.A. Mesmer – an Austrian physician set up séances and rituals to heal people; discovered early stages of 1348-1350 – Black death 1651 – Hobbes Leviathen
d. Also feared they might lose principles of Glorious Revolution 19. 18th century warfare hypnosis 1350-1500 – Renaissance 1660 – Restoration of English Monarchy, King Charles II
Walpole- Britain a. slow, formal, elaborate, indecisive 27) Publick – the reading masses for whom the philosophes wrote; enjoyed reading illicit books during the 1378-1417 – Schism of Catholic: Popes in Avignon and Rome 1678 – Simon Critical History of the Old Testament
a. Became principal minister to George I b. armies consisted of economically worthless in society times of censorship 1492 – Christopher Columbus reaches America 1685 – Revocation of Edict of Nantes
b. Saved principle institutions c. Weaponry- smooth bore muskets, limited cannon 28) Salons – well organized meeting places where authors introduced new works to critical readers and people 1513 – Machiavelli The Prince 1687- Newton Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
c. Did not default on debts- established a sinking fund by which government regularly d. Fought between governments. Fought for power, prestiegem discussed ideas 1517 – Martin Luther “95 Theses”; beginning of Prot. Ref. 1688 - Glorious Revolution
set aside the money to pay interest and principal on its obligations, and ultimately calculated practical interests, not for ideologies, moral principles, or29) Germaine de Stael – widely read author; she deplored subordination of women; post revolutionary salon 1519-1522 – Magellan circumnavigates the glove 1690 – Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding and Two Treatises on Gov.
paid all debts ways of life 30) John Wesley and Methodism 1543 – Copernicus’s On the Revolution of Heavenly Orbs 1698-1725 – Tsar Peter the Great introduces “westernizing” in Russia
d. “Let the sleeping dogs lie” 20. The War of Austrian Succession: 1543 – Vesalius’s The Structure of the Human Body 1697 – Bayle Historical Critical Dictionary
a. an oxford student who took to doing good works for poor and prisoners and preaching to large
e. Called first prime minister and architect of cabinet government- cabinet a. Frederick the Great of Prussia – invaded Silesia, justified by “reason of 1545-1563 – Council of Trent, Catholic reforms 1702-1713 – War of Spanish Succession
crowds in public
responsibility to majority in parliament state”, violated Pragmatic Sanction 1555 – Peace of Augsburg recognizes Protestant and Catholic 1713 – Peace of Utrecht
b. powers(France, Spain, Prussia) united against Maria Theresa of b. his followers were called Methodists whom despite is efforts broke away from the Church of
f. Saw to it that majority supported him by rigging England states in Germany 1720 – Mississippi Bubble in France, South Sea Bubble in Britain
g. Avoided sticky issues Austria, supported by Hungarians, Holland, British, Dutch 1556-1598 – Philip II reigns in Spain 1740-1748 – War of Austrian Succession
c. British navy beat French in North America and took control 31) French censorship – complicated (everyone from the church to the printers had a say); however, not strictly
h. Supported Bank, trading compnies, financial interests enforced; books written with double meanings for plausible deniability 1562-1598 – Religious and civil wars in France 1756-1763 – The Seven Years War
d. 1566 – Netherlands revolt against Spain
e.