You are on page 1of 8

P

a
g
e
6
FOUR WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM
Vijayan.m.g
1
Shahroz Aam .
!
1
"#$ar%m#n% o& M#'hani'a Engin##ring( Vinaya)a mi**ion+* Engin##ring
'o#g#( Sa#m(
#mai, -ijayanmg1.//0r#1i&&mai.'om
!
"#$ar%m#n% o& M#'hani'a Engin##ring( Vinaya)a mi**ion+* Engin##ring
'o#g#( Sa#m((
#mai, aa*hahroz10gmai.'om
A2STRA3T
The four wheel steering control with rear wheel drive is a new concept which can be
implemented in four wheeler vehicles. Four-wheel steering is a system can employed in
some vehicles to improve steering response, increase vehicle stability while moving at
certain speed, or to decrease turning radius at low speed.
In four-wheel steering systems, the rear wheels are control by a gear arrangement.
This allows the vehicle to turn in a significantly smaller radius sometimes critical for large
trucks or tractors and vehicles with trailers.
INTRO"U3TION
Four-wheel steering, 4W, also called rear-wheel steering or all-wheel
steering, provides a means to actively steer the rear wheels during turning maneuvers. It
should not be confused with four-wheel drive in which all four wheels of a vehicle are
powered. It improves handling and helps the vehicle make tighter turns.
!roduction-built cars tend to understeer or, in few instances, oversteer. If a car
could automatically compensate for an understeer"oversteer problem, the driver would en#oy
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page $
P
a
g
e
6
nearly neutral steering under varying conditions. 4W is a serious effort on the part of
automotive design engineers to provide near-neutral steering.

The front wheels do most of the steering. %ear wheel turning is generally limited to
half during an opposite direction turn. When both the front and rear wheels steer toward the
same direction, they are said to be in-phase and this produces a kind of sideways movement
of the car at low speeds. When the front and rear wheels are steered in opposite direction,
this is called anti-phase, counter-phase or opposite-phase and it produces a sharper, tighter
turn.
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page &
P
a
g
e
6
OVERVIEW
To reduce turning radius
'se of 4-wheel steering system.
&($ front to rear wheel angle ratio.
)onsiderations(
 *river performance and comfort.
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page +
P
a
g
e
6
 ,ust not interfere with other components.
 !roper stability of car during competition.


3ON3E4TS
 -ow to achieve front to rear ratio.
– /eometry( 0asier to construct, more reliable, less components.
– /earing( 0asier to design, identical geometry and components for subsystems.
4RIN3I4LE
The steering mechanism consists of rack and pinion arrangements which are used to
turn the wheels in the front. 1nd a bevel gear arrangement is made #ust after the steering and
power is transmitted through the transfer shaft to the gear bo2 assembly. Then power is
transmitted to the rear wheels.
3ayout"4peration of the system( Two subsystems( %ack and pinion for front and rear,
identical geometry and components. teering column is fitted with + bevel gears meshes and
transmits power to front and rear rack and pinion. 1s steering wheel is turned the entire
rotation is transferred to front rack and pinion and only half of the rotation is transferred to
rear rack and pinion.
WHY FOUR5WHEEL STEERING SYSTEM6

To understand the advantages of four-wheel steering, it is wise to review the
dynamics of typical steering maneuvers with a conventional front -steered vehicle. The tires
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page 4
P
a
g
e
6
are sub#ect to the forces of grip, momentum, and steering input when making a movement
other than straight-ahead driving. These forces compete with each other during steering
maneuvers. With a front-steered vehicle, the rear end is always trying to catch up to the di-
rectional changes of the front wheels. This causes the vehicle to sway. 1s a normal part of
operating a vehicle, the driver learns to ad#ust to these forces without thinking about them.
When turning, the driver is putting into motion a comple2 series of forces. 0ach of
these must be balanced against the others. The tires are sub#ected to road grip and slip angle.
/rip holds the car5s wheels to the road, and momentum moves the car straight ahead.
teering input causes the front wheels to turn. The car momentarily resists the turning
motion, causing a tire slip angle to form. 4nce the vehicle begins to respond to the steering
input, cornering forces are generated. The vehicle sways as the rear wheels attempt to keep
up with the cornering forces already generated by the front tires. This is referred to as rear-
end lag, because there is a time delay between steering input and vehicle reaction. When the
front wheels are turned back to a straight -ahead position, the vehicle must again try to
ad#ust by reversing the same forces developed by the turn. 1s the steering is turned, the
vehicle body sways as the rear wheels again try to keep up with the cornering forces
generated by the front wheels.
The idea behind four-wheel steering is that a vehicle re6uires less driver input
for any steering maneuver if all four wheels are steering the vehicle. 1s with two-wheel
steer vehicles, tire grip holds the four wheels on the road. -owever, when the driver turns
the wheel slightly, all four wheels react to the steering input, causing slip angles to form at
all four wheels. The entire vehicle moves in one direction rather than the rear half
attempting to catch up to the front. There is also less sway when the wheels are turned back
to a straight-ahead position. The vehicle responds more 6uickly to steering input because
rear wheel lag is eliminated.
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page 7
P
a
g
e
6
FAIL5SAFE MEASURES
1ll 4W systems have fail-safe measures. For e2ample, with the electro-
hydraulic setup, the system automatically counteracts possible causes of failure( both
electronic and hydraulic, and converts the entire steering system to a conventional two-
wheel steering type. pecifically, if a hydraulic defect should reduce pressure level 8by a
movement malfunction or a broken driving belt9, the rear-wheel-steering mechanism is
automatically locked in a neutral position, activating a low-level warning light.
In the event of an electrical failure, it would be detected by a self-diagnostic
circuit integrated in the four wheel-steering control unit. The control unit stimulates a
solenoid valve, which neutrali:es hydraulic pressure, thereby alternating the system to two-
wheel steering. The failure would be indicated by the system5s warning light in the main
instrument display.
4n any 4W system, there must be near-perfect compliance between the
position of the steering wheel, the position of the front wheels, and the position of the rear
wheels. It is usually recommended that the car be driven about &; feet 8< meters9 in a dead-
straight line. Then, the position of the front"rear wheels is checked with respect to steering
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page <
P
a
g
e
6
wheel position. The base reference point is a strip of masking tape on the steering wheel hub
and the steering column.
When the wheel is positioned dead center, draw a line down the tape. %un the car a
short distance straight ahead to see if the reference line holds. If not, corrections are needed,
such as repositioning the steering wheel. 0ven severe imbalance of a rear wheel on a speed
sensitive 4W system can cause problems and make basic troubleshooting a bit frustrating.
A"VANTAGES OF 7WS
The vehicle5s cornering behavior becomes more stable and controllable at high speeds
as well as on wet or slippery road surfaces.

The vehicle5s response to steering input becomes 6uicker and more precise throughout
the vehicle5s entire speed range.
The vehicle5s straight-line stability at high speeds is improved. =egative effects of
road irregularities and crosswinds on the vehicle5s stability are minimi:ed.
tability in lane changing at high speeds is improved. The vehicle is less likely to go
into a spin even in situations in which the driver must make a sudden and relatively large
change of direction.
>y steering the rear wheels in the direction opposite the front wheels at low speeds,
the vehicle5s turning circle is greatly reduced. Therefore, vehicle maneuvering on narrow
roads and during parking becomes easier.
A44LI3ATIONS OF 7WS
It is used for easy parking of four wheelers, and can be implemented in monster trucks, large
farm vehicles and trucks. 0tc..,
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page ?
P
a
g
e
6
3ON3LUSION
Thus the four-wheel steering system has got cornering capability, steering
response, straight-line stability, lane changing and low-speed maneuverability. 0ven though
it is advantageous over the conventional two-wheel steering system, 4W is comple2 and
e2pensive. )urrently the cost of a vehicle with four wheel steering is more than that for a
vehicle with the conventional two wheel steering. Four wheel steering is growing in
popularity and it is likely to come in more and more new vehicles. 1s the systems become
more commonplace the cost of four wheel steering will drop.
REFEREN3ES
$. @1utomobile 0ngineeringA, B.%./ovindan
&. http(CCwww.howstuffworks.com
+. http(CCwww.howhurricaneworks.com
4. http(CCwww.thecarconnection.com
7. http(CCwww.wikepedia.com
V.M.K.V. ENGG COLLEGE. SALEM. Page D