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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005

Marco Donald Migliore, Member, IEEE, Daniele Pinchera, Student Member, IEEE, and

Fulvio Schettino, Member, IEEE

and experimentally investigated. The antenna consists of an active

element and a relatively large number of parasitic elements closed

on two different loads selectable by simple electronic switches. The

use of fuzzy-logic based cost function and self-adaptive biological

beamforming algorithms allows to obtain quite good performances

both in terms of signal to interference plus noise ratio and voltage

standing wave ratio. The antenna is simple, low cost, and is robust

with respect to mechanical and electrical tolerances and with

respect to failures of some passive elements. Experimental results

on two different prototypes confirm the good performances of the

proposed antenna.

Index TermsAdaptive antennas, evolutionary algorithms,

fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, particle swarm optimization,

switched parasitic array.

I. INTRODUCTION

N THE LAST years we have witnessed an extraordinary increasing of services based on wireless communications. In

fact, the number of subscribers to mobile networks has risen

beyond all expectations. At the same time, a quickly increasing

number of subscribers requires wireless Internet-based services.

Since the radio channel represents a serious bottleneck for the

high transmission rate required by these services, the success of

the next generation of wireless systems strongly depends on a

more efficient use of the spectrum resource.

At present, two different philosophies are pursued. The first

one is to use spectrum resources that are not licensed adopting

sophisticated time-domain processing to reach extremely high

bit rate. This way is pursued, e.g., by the ultrawide-band (UWB)

systems [1]. However, such systems are limited to short-range

communications.

A completely different approach is based on the use of spaceprocessing besides of classical time-processing [2]. Two main

technologies adopting space-processing have been proposed:

adaptive antennas [3] and multiple-input multiple-output systems [1]. Among them, systems based on adaptive antennas have

been first investigated, and nowadays some commercial applications are available on the trade. The fast development of adaptive antennas in wireless communications has been helped by

the large investigation performed for military applications, e.g.,

see [4], [5]. However, the architecture proposed in the literature is quite complex, being based on a relatively large array,

Manuscript received December 15, 2004; revised March 24, 2005. This

work is supported in part by the Italian Ministry of University (MIUR) under

a Program for the Development of Research of National Interest PRIN Grant

2003095273.

The authors are with the Microwave Laboratory at the DAEIMI, University of

Cassino, 03043 Cassino, Italy (e-mail: mdmiglio@unicas.it, pinchera@unicas.it,

schettino@unicas.it).

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TAP.2005.856361

in which each element has its receiver. This makes the adaptive

antenna quite expensive, and sensible with respect to failures.

Recently, a new class of low-cost adaptive antennas has been

proposed [6], [7]. The architecture of these antennas is based on

the UdaYagi scheme, and consists of a single active antenna,

connected to the receiver/transmitter, and a number of parasitic antennas closed on passive loads whose impedance can be

electronically changed. The UdaYagi adaptive antennas have

been originally proposed for military applications [8], but had a

limited success due to the worse performances with respect to

full-active adaptive arrays. However, their low cost makes this

kind of antennas attractive for the commercial market, and at

present a large number of UdaYagi adaptive antennas has been

proposed in literature.

A class of UdaYagi adaptive antennas has as objective the

reduction of the signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR).

These antennas are usually based on a small number of parasitic

elements placed in a circle around the active elements, each of

them closed on a passive load whose impedance can be continuously changed in a given range of values [6].

A simpler class of UdaYagi adaptive antennas is based on

the switched beam philosophy. Also these antennas are usually

based on a relatively small number of parasitic elements placed

in a circle around the active elements, each of them closed on a

passive load. According to the value of the load, each parasitic

element can work as reflector, director, or out of resonance [7].

Consequently, in this kind of antenna the loads must assume

only three different values, and simple microwave switches

can be adopted. Furthermore, the voltage standing wave ratio

(VSWR) of the antenna is constant during the adaptive process,

and can be kept very low. However, such antennas are not fully

adaptive, and the performances reachable by switched-beam

UdaYagi antennas are modest in presence of interference

signals due to the absence of null-forming capacity.

In this paper we propose a novel UdaYagi adaptive antenna

architecture, that is half way between the above described two

classes. The antenna consists of a relatively large number of parasitic elements placed on circles around the active element. Each

element of the rings is terminated in two electronically controllable loads, e.g., a short circuit and an open circuit, by means of

electronically controllable switches, i.e., PIN diodes or MEMS.

Consequently, each antenna assumes two states, corresponding

to different scattered fields. The adaptivity of the antenna is obtained by choosing the state of the elements in order to minimize

a proper cost function.

Usually, in adaptive antennas the objective is the maximization of the SINR. However, in the proposed antenna the

VSWR depends on the state of the switches. Consequently, it

is necessary to perform a multiobjective minimization taking

into account both the SINR and the VSWR. This goal has been

achieved by using the fuzzy logic [9] to define the cost function.

The minimization of the cost function has been achieved

by biological beamforming algorithms. In particular, two algorithms, the binary genetic algorithm (BGA) [10], [11] and

the binary particle swarm optimization algorithm (BPSO) [12],

[13] have been tested.

The BGA is the most adopted biological beamforming algorithm in the adaptive antenna field, and an excellent review

can be found in [14]. Instead, the use of the BPSO for adaptive

beamforming is not reported in literature at the best knowledge

of the authors.

In particular, besides the standard version of the two algorithms, a self-adaptive version changing its parameters during

the minimization process has been also developed and tested.

It is worth noting that, while this concept is well known for the

GAs [15], [16], and has been applied to adaptive arrays by many

groups [17], [18], the development of self-adaptive PSO is a new

field of research [19], and no self-adaptive BPSO is discussed

in literature.

Summarizing, the proposed antenna is based on three key

factors: the large number of possible states of the antenna, obtained by using a large number of elements, the use of an efficient (self-adaptive) biological beamforming algorithm, and the

use of the fuzzy logic to control both the SINR and the VSWR.

The last two points are, at the best knowledge of the authors,

new in the framework of null-forming parasitic antennas. Moreover, the use of a large number of elements (up to 25) closed

in switched-loads is, at the best knowledge of the authors, new

in the framework of null-forming parasitic antennas as well. In

fact, though in literature the theoretical advantage of a large

number of antennas is generally accepted, null-forming parasitic

antennas actually tested have only a small number (less than 8)

antennas due to the computational effort of the algorithms required in varactor-controlled loaded antennas.

The above mentioned three key factors allow to obtain a

number of practical advantages. The antenna is extremely

simple, and has good space-filtering performances. Furthermore, the antenna is also robust with respect to the failures

of some elements. The use of multiobjective biological beamforming makes the antenna also robust with respect to errors

in the position of the elements or in the value of the two

loads. Consequently, it is possible to accept relatively large

mechanical and electrical tolerances, making the realization of

the antenna simpler and cheaper than other adaptive antenna

schemes. Furthermore, more complex objectives can be considered, by taking into account other parameters of interest (e.g.,

broad-band response, etc.). Finally, even if in this example

a rotationally symmetric antenna geometry has been chosen,

more complex configurations of the parasitic element positions

can be adopted to match geometrical constraints of the place

wherein the antenna must be placed.

The paper is organized in Sections IIIV. In Section II the algorithm to choose the state of the parasitic antennas is presented.

The use of a fuzzy-logic approach to determine a cost function

giving an acceptable value of SINR and VSWR is discussed.

Then, we briefly introduce two evolutionary search algorithms,

the genetic one and the particle swarm one; a novel dynamic

3263

version of both types of algorithms is also presented, and compared to nondynamic ones.

In Section III a number of numerical simulations are presented. Firstly, classical beamforming algorithms with static parameters are compared to beamforming algorithms with selfadaptive dynamic parameters. Then the dynamic version of the

BGA and BPSO (called VD-BGA and VD-BPSO) are compared. Finally, the performances of an antenna consisting of 25

elements are investigated using the VD-BPSO.

Section IV is devoted to experimental results obtained with

two different prototypes having, respectively, 13 and 25 elements.

Conclusions are reported in Section V.

II. CONTROL ALGORITHM

As described in the Introduction, the antenna that we propose

consists of elements: a single active antenna and a relatively

of parasitic elements, each terminated on a

large number

load that can assume two different values, i.e., short circuit and

open circuit. Consequently, the number of different states that

and the state of the antenna can

the antenna can assume is

. The goal

be represented by a binary vector having length

of the control algorithm is to select one of the states giving an

acceptable value of SINR and VSWR. This goal is reached by

minimizing a proper cost function defined by means of a fuzzy

approach.

A. The Cost Function

The definition of the state of the antenna, i.e., the values of

the switches, is a multi target problem, since two different (and

concurrent) parameters must be taken into account, the SINR

and the VSWR. Furthermore, no unique choice exists for a cost

function that globally takes into account both the quantities of

interest.

Generally speaking, we are interested in obtaining a reasonably high SINR with a fairly low VSWR. The quantification of

reasonably high and fairly low depends on the characteristics of the communication system. Consequently, we must associate quantitative values to a linguistic knowledge. This goal

can be reached by defining the cost function from a fuzzy point

of view.

Fuzzy logic [9] is a powerful tool widely adopted in the area

of control. It consists into three phases: in the first one the variables involved in the calculation are fuzzyfied, i.e., a nonlinear

by the use of the

mapping of these variables in the interval

membership functions is considered; then an appropriate fuzzy

inference operator is applied, whose role is to map its fuzzy inputs in a proper fuzzy output; at the end this output is defuzzyfied to obtain, for example, the desired control action.

However, in our work we only use fuzzy concepts for classification. Consequently our fuzzy algorithm consists of only the

first two steps. In particular first we make a suitable fuzzyfication of the variable SINR and VSWR using two membership

and

, then we combine this two quantifunctions

ties by a fuzzy norm. The main advantage of this method is that

we are making a sort of block decomposition of the problem:

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005

the fuzzyfication of the variables gives us a uniform set of variables, that can be treated by the preferred fuzzy norm.

In this particular situation a possible choice for the membership function can be the use of the sigmoid function defined as

[20]

(1)

where and define the position and the gradient of the slope,

and represents SINR or VSWR.

We also get good results by the use of one of the simplest

fuzzy inference rules, the probabilistic OR, defined as

(2)

B. The Minimization Algorithm

Due to the discrete nature of the search space, it is quite natural to use biological beamforming algorithms for the minimization of the cost function.

Biological beamforming is a very active research area, and

many different algorithms have been proposed. Generally

speaking, no minimization algorithm can be considered a

priori the best one [21]. Consequently, we have tested many

different biological beamforming algorithms on our specific

problem. In particular, as discussed in the Introduction we

tested a simple Monte Carlo approach, the BGA [10], [11] in

many versions and the BPSO [13].

The BPSO is an extension of the PSO algorithm [12] to a

binary search space in which the speed of the particle is substituted by the probability of a bit to assume a value.

In particular, besides the standard BPSO, we introduced an

improved version of the BPSO, that we will call variable behavior binary particle swarm (VB-BPSO), that, generally, performs better than the other BPSO checked algorithms.

Let us now consider the th particle. The probability of the

th bit of the vector describing the position of the th particle at

to be 1 can be set as

step

(3)

wherein

is the th bit of the vector describing the posiis the th bit of the vector

tion of the particle at step ,

describing the position of the local best found up to step (the

of the particle, [12]),

is the th bit of the vector

, [12]),

, is a random value chosen uniformly in

, and

is the th bit of a novel vector given by

(4)

In (4),

is the number particles, and in (3) , , , , and

are the weights, whose sum must be equal to 1, describing the

behavior of the particles. In particular is a sort of inertial

weight, is a sort of memory weight, is a sort of mode

weight, is used to obtain the desired amount of randomness,

that all particle search around the same local minimum point.

Since the behavior of the particles depends on the weights,

it is easy to assign to each particle a different vector of the

weights so that the particles that are close to a minimum perform a local search, while the other particles perform a wide

range search, obtaining a VB-BPSO. In order to reach this goal

the particles are sorted according to their cost function. Then

the weight assigned to the th particle is calculated by linear

and

. In the following,

interpolation of two constants

we will refer to the complete behavior of the swarm as dynamic.

Obviously the dynamic of an algorithm has to be chosen to

fit the nature of the problem to solve; it would be desirable that

an algorithm could adjust its dynamic to automatically fit the

problem, changing its dynamic on the base of the actual state of

convergence. Firstly we note that in the case of a binary search

space it is possible to easily relate the convergence of the al: if

is close to 0.5 it

gorithms to the values assumed by

is clear that there are as many gene vectors with th element

equal to 1 than gene vectors with th element equal to 0; even

if this is not always true, it is possible to affirm with reasonable

are around 0.5 the algorithm is

approximation that if many

still searching, otherwise the algorithm is almost stalled around

a local minimum. So we found that a suitable estimator of the

state of convergence of the algorithm is given by the function

(5)

is the vector defined by (4). In fact we observed

where

that with a standard implementation of BGA-BPSO

is a monotonic decreasing function of the iterations, and we

can relate it to the diversity of the population: a value of

close to 1 indicates that the particles are searching in

close to

different positions of the space, while a value of

0 indicates that the particles are searching around a localized

area. Consequently, it is possible to vary the dynamic according

. The above described algorithm allows a

to the value of

self-adaptive choice of the parameters.1 However, in order to

avoid confusion in the use of the term adaptive in the text,

this kind of algorithm will be referred to as variable dynamic

BPSO (VD-BPSO) algorithm in the following.

The literature on the BGA is very large, and we do not recall the principles of the algorithm. The interested reader can

refer to the excellent paper [11] for an introduction. It is worth

recalling that also for the BGAs we can define a dynamic as

the set of parameters and rules that influence the behavior of the

evolutionary process [16]. In particular we obtained a variable

dynamic BGA (VD-BGA) by evaluating the vector using (4)

on the individuals that have been selected by the chosen selection operator, and by modifying the probability of mutation in

function of the estimator defined in (5). This is the simplest form

of VD-BGA, since only one of the many parameters is modified

( ), such as higher order polynomial functions or simple lambda functions. The Omega function has finally been chosen

for its effectiveness and for its relative algebraic simplicity.

3265

performances obtained are satisfactory.

In Sections III and IV some numerical examples of a large

investigation performed on both the biological beamforming algorithms are shown, using the best VD-algorithms found after

an heuristical search over a large number of possible schemes.

III. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES

The numerical simulations reported in this Section were obtained by solving the Hallns system of integral equations describing the mutual coupling of an array of dipoles [22] using

the MoM. The code was built to give the impedance matrix

of the entire array and the current distribution over the wires as

a linear function of the tension on the gaps.

Let us suppose that the first wire is the active one and that

wires are loaded on

its gap voltage is , while the other

. The currents at the gaps

impedances whose values are

can be derived by the solution of the linear equation

Fig. 1. Geometry of the 24 passive elements antenna (all the distances are in

terms of . Circles: passive antennas; square: active antenna; the 12 passive

elements antenna consists of the active antenna and the 12 passive antennas

placed on the two inner circles.

(6)

and

. After evaluating the currents at the gaps, it is possible to obtain the current distribution

over the wires.

The structure we have chosen for our tests is formed by an

,

array of 25 monopoles of 0.235 , whose diameter is

placed on an infinite plane of P.E.C. as depicted in Fig. 1. The

active element is the central one, while the others can be loaded

on an impedance whose possible values are

and

(these values are the mean

impedances of the switches used in the experimental investigation); we imagine to feed the structure with a 50 line. This

geometry is the one used in the final experimental prototype described in Section IV.

In the simulation of this chapter we do not consider the noise,

to emphasize the sole interference reduction capability of the

parasitic element antenna, so we refer to the SIR instead of the

SINR. Moreover, the desired and interfering signals are supposed to have the same power.

As a first step, let us investigate the performances of the

classical and VD algorithms. Many algorithms of the types described in Section II were tested. In the following we consider

the algorithms that gave best mean performances.

The genetic algorithms will be labeled in the following as

follows.

where

we have 10 tournaments of 3 individuals, the crossover is made using a

random bit mask, the parents couples are chosen randomly, and the

probability of mutation is 3%; we

also used the overlapping of generations (for details see [11]).

BGA2: this algorithm is almost identical to the previous, but the probability of mutation is increased to

9%.

VD-BGA: even this algorithm is identical to the first one, but the

probability of mutation is chosen

at each iteration according to the

, as

.

value of

changing being the probability of mutation. It could be useful to

note that because we have the overlapping of generations only

20 oracle calls are to be done every iteration.

The particle swarm algorithms are as follows.

with 20 particles. The constant vector for the best particle is

, and for the

worst particle is

.

BPSO2: also this is a VB-BPSO

made with 20 particles. In this

case the constant vector for the

best particle is

,

and for the worst particle is

.

VD-BPSO: this is a VD-BPSO obtained

switching from BPSO1 to BPSO2 when

is below 0.3.

the value of

complex schemes for the BPSO, but we were interested to show

the gain in performances obtainable with a simple threshold

switch.

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005

Fig. 3.

Fig. 2.

Iso-cost curves.

value of 100 iterations; for each iteration every considered algorithm realizes 20 oracle calls [21].2 We considered the mean

values obtained for the cost function, the SIR and the VSWR.

As a benchmark, we will compare the algorithms presented with

a random search function.

We also tried different fuzzy cost functions; the best results

have been obtained using as membership functions two sigfor the

moids whose parameters are

and

for

. In Fig. 2 the iso-cost curves

of the global fuzzy cost function considered as function of the

SIR and the VSWR is drawn.

The first problem we investigate is the maximization of the

SIR between a desired signal and an interference signal. In the

following we choose the angle of arrival (AOA) of the desired

signal equal to 0 , and the AOA of the interference signal equal

to 45 .

In Fig. 3, a first comparison between different BPSO algorithms is presented; BPSO1 gives optimum performances in the

first 35 iterations, whilst BPSO2 gives the best performances

after a high number of iterations. As previously discussed,

VD-BPSO is obtained simply combining BPSO1 and BPSO2,

and it is possible to have good performances for both the first

iterations and for the last ones.

In Fig. 4 the comparison between different BGA algorithms

is shown; also in this case BGA1 is an algorithm that gives very

good performances in the first 35 iterations, and BGA2 is an

algorithm that gives better performances in the advanced phase:

finally VD-BGA outperforms both.

The above results confirm the better mean performances of

VD biological algorithms with respect to static ones.

2It is worth noting that the algorithms themselves are very fast: an assembler

implementation of the proposed GA requires less than 200 s for each iteration on a low-cost 200 MHz DSP (without considering the possible pipelining

speedup). Of course, the use of more expensive DSP would significantly decrease the time.

the BGA and the BPSO. In Fig. 5 it is possible to see the comparison between VD-BPSO and VD-BGA in terms of SIR. The

plot shows some small differences between the algorithms. In

particular, the VD-BPSO gives slight better mean performances

in the first steps, while the VD-BGA slightly outperforms the

VD-BPSO after the first 15 iterations. However, the differences

are small, so that we can state that in practice the performances

of the two algorithms are almost the same. For the sake of comparison, the SIR obtained by a random search is also shown in

the same figure, showing that while the beamforming algorithms

exceed the mean value of 30 dB within ten iterations the random

search do not reach this level within 100 iterations.

About the VSWR, in this example its value is always lower

than 1.3, and is almost the same for the two biological algorithms.

3267

Fig. 7. Distribution of the VSWR over 1000 sessions after 100 iterations of

VD-BGA in the case of a sole interference with and without VSWR control via

the fuzzy cost function (desired signal from 0 , interference from 45 ).

Fig. 5. Mean SIR as function of the number of iterations.

Fig. 6. Mean SIR as function of the AOA of the interference signal (desired

signal from 0 ).

is shown, with a fixed 0 AOA of desired signal, after five iterations, and after 100 iterations, considering the two self-adaptive

algorithms. As could be expected, a decay of the performances

as the angle between the signals gets smaller is observable.

It is also interesting to note that VD-BPSO slightly outperforms the VD-BGA for any angle after five iterations, but we

have the inverse situation after 100 iterations.

Summarizing, numerical simulations show very close performances of the VD-BGA and VD-BPSO. Both of them allow

suitably good performances in terms of SIR and VSWR with a

relatively small number of iterations. This was true for all the

simulations we performed. Consequently, in the following we

will show the results obtained by only one of the two biological

algorithms. In particular, since the VD-BPSO showed a slightly

faster convergence in the first ten steps of the simulation, we will

show the results obtained by using this latter algorithm. However, it must be stressed that this convergence behavior depends

on the particular parameters chosen for the two algorithms. Even

if the choice has been done with great care, it cannot be excluded

that other choices of parameters could give a faster convergence

of the VD-BGA in the first iterations.

As further general observation, in all the simulations the value

of the VSWR has always been kept below 1.5, a value that can

be considered suitable low for the practical applications. This

is due to the use of the fuzzy cost function: in Fig. 7 the improvement of the distribution of the VSWR after 100 iteration

of VD-BGA can be seen; the sole negative effect of the presence

of a fuzzy cost function is the reduction of the mean SIR of 1.1

dB, which is an affordable drawback. Consequently, in the next

diagrams we will refer to the sole SIR.

The above examples showed the performances of the system

in case of a single interference. An extensive numerical investigation has been performed considering a large number of different combinations of angles of arrival. As an example in Fig. 8

the mean SIR is shown considering a desired signal arriving

from 0 , and an increasing number of interferences arriving

from 45 , 120 , and 240 , each of them having the same level.

The plot shows that even in presence of three interferences the

antenna shows acceptable space filtering properties.

A further relevant practical problem is that in real-life application the scenario dynamically changes due to the fact that the

AOA of the desired signal and/or of the interferences changes

during the communication. The biological algorithms were

modified to solve dynamical problems: in BGA we imposed

that any individual had to be evaluated every iteration, even

if it had been evaluated previously; in BPSO we had instead

to evaluate the p-best vector every iteration; to make the right

comparison we chose the algorithms parameters to make 30

oracle calls every iteration.

As a first investigation on the capability of evolutionary algorithms to handle these problems we considered the simple case

of an interference whose AOA changes every iteration. In Fig. 9

we show the mean performances of VD-BPSO in the case of

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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005

of multiple interferences (AOA of the desired signal: 0 ): continuous line: 1

interference (AOA = 45 ); dashed line: 2 interferences (AOA = 45 and

120 ); dotted line: 3 interferences (AOA = 45 , 120 and 240 ).

Fig. 10. Mean SIR value obtained with VD-BPSO as function of the number

of iterations in presence of failures randomly positioned.

degradation of the mean performances of the antenna as function of the number of failures.

Good results have been also obtained varying the values of

the impedance of the switches, or the position of the elements

to simulate the effect of tolerance in the manufacture process.

IV. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION

Fig. 9. Mean SIR values obtained with VD-BPSO when the AOA of the

interfence signal changes from 25 to 75 (AOA of the desired signal: 0 );

continuous line: 0.25 each iteration; dashed line: 0.5 each iteration; dotted

line: 1 each iteration.

from 1/4 degree/iteration to 1 degree/iteration. The plot shows

that the algorithm is able to converge toward a suitable solution following the source, even if, as we must expect, the performances decrease in case of fast moving source.

A further interesting feature of the proposed antenna is its

robustness with respect to failures. To show this characteristic,

let us suppose that a number of switches of the array, randomly chosen, are failed so that the elements connected to these

switches are always in a state, e.g., the OFF state. Of course this

causes a degradation of the performances of the antenna. However, this degradation is quite smooth, so that the antenna can operate also in case of failures of some elements. For example, in

Fig. 10 the mean SIR in case of 1000 simulations and a number

of failures between 0 and 8 is shown. The plot confirms a smooth

previous Section, an experimental investigation has been

undertaken.

Two different prototypes have been realized, both working

at 1 GHz. The first one consists of 13 monopole antennas of

copper wire, whose length and diameter was respectively 0.235

and

, placed on an aluminum dish having radius 2.08

. The passive antennas were placed on two concentric circles

having radius 0.45 and 0.60 , while the active antenna was

positioned in the center of the circles (see Fig. 1).

The second prototype (Fig. 11) is equal to the first one, but

with the presence of further 12 passive antennas, 6 placed on

a circle having radius 0.75 and 6 placed on a circle having

radius 0.90 , increasing the number of antennas to 25 (Fig. 1).

The passive antennas were closed on an electronic switch

based on BAP 5131 PIN diode of Philips Semiconductors.

Each switch was accurately characterized in both ON and OFF

state by means of a vector network analyzer Anritsu 37 217C

with SOLT calibration using the Anritsu 3650 calibration kit.

The mean measured impedance values of the switch was

and

, with a standard defor ON state and

for OFF

viation of

state.

The switches were designed to be controlled by means of a

voltage ranging in 05 V, with a very small current absorption.

Consequently, the control of the switches could be obtained by

means of a standard DAQ-24 Digital I/O PCMCIA card of the

National Instruments. The card was programmed by the Matlab

Instrumentation tool, obtaining a strong simplification of the

hardware required to control the antenna.

Fig. 11.

3269

Fig. 13. Far-field pattern of the 13 elements antenna in case of AOA of the

desired signal from 0 .

Fig. 12.

the University of Cassino. The measurement set-up is shown

in Fig. 12. The antenna under test (AUT) operated in the receiving mode and was placed on a rotating table at 1.0 m from

the floor. Two log periodic antennas Electro-Metrics EM6917C

were placed at distance 6.0 m from the AUT, again at 1.0 m from

the floor. The two antennas were connected to the output port of

the Vector Network Analyzer by means of a switch allowing

to select the transmitting antennas. GORE Faseflex cables were

used to connect the antennas to the VNA. All the electronic parts

of the set-up (electronic switches, and VNA) were controlled by

means of a MatLab program running on a Laptop. The same program included also the adaptive algorithms. Consequently, we

obtained an integrated code allowing to adapt the antenna and

to perform far-field pattern measurements automatically using

the rotating plane.

The above described set-up allows to perform measurements

of the azimuthal complex (amplitude and phase) far-field pattern

of the AUT.

The semi-anechoic chamber environmental reflections were

minimized by carefully positioning anechoic materials on the

floor of the chamber.

As preliminary step, the performances of the 13-elements antenna were investigated in absence of interfering signal, and

only one of the two transmitting antennas was fed. We used the

VD-BPSO algorithm with the same parameters adopted in the

numerical simulations discussed in Section III. The azimuthal

Fig. 14. Far-field pattern of the 25 elements antenna in case of AOA of the

interference signal from 0 .

far-field pattern after ten iterations is shown in Fig. 13 as continuous line, showing that the algorithm tried to maximize the gain

of the AUT. For the sake of comparison, in the same figure the

far-field pattern obtained by numerical simulation considering

the same state of the switches obtained in the experimental result is also shown as dashed line. The good correspondence of

the two patterns confirms the validity of the numerical code used

to obtain the results shown in Section III.

Other preliminary measurements were performed by considering only the presence of one interference signal. As an example, in Fig. 14 the measured far-field (continuous line) pattern

of the 25 elements prototype in presence of only an interference

signal whose AOA is equal to 0 is shown. The plot shows a deep

minimum of the pattern in the direction of the interference. The

far-field pattern obtained by numerical simulation considering

the same state of the switches obtained in the experimental result is also shown in the same figure as dashed line, confirming

again the validity of the numerical code.

3270

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005

Fig. 15. Measured SINR in case of 0 AOA of desired signal and 45 AOA

of the interference signal; circles: 13 elements antenna; triangles: 25 elements

antenna.

desired signal and 45 AOA of the interference signal.

Fig. 16. Measured VSWR in case of 0 AOA of desired signal and 45 AOA

of the interference signal; circles: 13 elements antenna; triangles: 25 elements

antenna.

in the case of interference reduction. The two antennas were

positioned at an angle of 45 each other, obtaining two angularly

spaced signals. In order to simulate an incorrelated interference

the two transmitting antennas were fed alternatively. The signal

received by feeding one of the two antennas was considered the

desired signal, while the signal received by the other antenna

was considered the interference signal.

The VD-BPSO algorithm was used to adapt the AUT. In

Fig. 15 the SINR as a function of the number of iterations in the

case of 13-elements antenna (circles) and 25-element antennas

(triangles) is shown. The plot shows good performances of

both antennas. In particular, a SINR of almost 20 dB is reached

in less than ten iterations in both the AUT configurations,

according to the numerical simulations. It is useful to note that

the performances of the 25-elements AUT are higher than the

13-elements AUT. In fact, in case of 25-elements AUT the

SINR reaches more than 30 dB in less than ten iterations (note

that SNR of the system is around 30 dB; consequently the SINR

oscillates at about 30 dB due to the presence of random noise).

In Fig. 16 the VSWR in case of 13-elements AUT (circles)

and 25-elements AUT (triangles) are plotted as function of the

number of iterations, showing a VSWR lower than 1.5 during

the adaptive processing.

The azimuthal far-field patterns of the 13-elements AUT and

25-elements AUT after ten iterations are shown in Figs. 17 and

of desired signal and 45 AOA of the interference signal; continuous line:

measured after ten iterations; dashed line: measured after four iterations; dotted

line: measured after one iteration.

far-field patterns after one iteration (dotted line) and after four

iterations (dashed line) are also plotted.

Finally, in Fig. 19 the effect of a number of failures variable

between 0 and 4 on the 13 elements prototype is shown, comparing the mean SIR achieved after 20 iteration of BGA3 in the

case of desired signal arriving from 0 and interference signal

arriving from 40 . The experimental results (stars in Fig. 19)

confirm the robustness of the antenna with respect to the failure

of the elements. Furthermore, the plot shows a good agreement

between the experimental results and the results of the numerical simulation (circles in Fig. 19), confirming again the effectiveness of the numerical results shown in Section III.

Globally, the above experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical results and confirm the good performances of the proposed antenna.

3271

valuable suggestions on many aspects of the antenna design.

REFERENCES

Fig. 19. Comparison of the mean SIR achieved after 20 iteration of VD-BGA,

showing the effect of a number of failures variable between 0 and 4 on the 13

elements prototype (signal arriving from 0 interference signal 40 ).

V. CONCLUSION

A new architecture for space-filtering UdaYagi adaptive antennas is proposed.

The antenna consists of a relatively large number of parasitic

elements placed on a number of circles around the active element. Each element of the rings is terminated in two loads by

means of electronically controllable switches.

The adaptivity of the antenna is obtained by choosing the

state of the elements in order to minimize a proper cost function, based on the SINR, by means of self-adaptive versions

of biological beamforming algorithms whose objective function

is chosen using fuzzy logic in order to obtain both a good SINR

and a good VSWR.

The antenna is simple, low-cost and robust with respect to

failures of the passive elements. Experimental results confirm

the effectiveness of the proposed antenna.

It is worth noting that the convergence of the biological beamforming algorithms investigated is quite fast, requiring less than

ten iterations to obtain a fairly good SINR with a VSWR that is

kept stably low during the adaptive process.

The architecture proposed in this paper is also suitable for

further improvements. In particular, the adoption of a neural

network in order to further increase the velocity of the adaptive process is worth to be investigated. Furthermore, the use of

space-time processing parallelizing the solution adopted in [23]

is another interesting field of research.

Finally, the results shown in the paper indicate that also a

simple switched-loaded antenna can give null-forming performances similar to the more complex varactor-controlled loaded

antennas. This is an interesting result, since it is generally accepted that a switched-load antenna would give very poor nullforming performances [24], and re-opens the question on the

limits of the performances of simple switched-load null-forming

parasitic antennas.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank Dr. F. Iannuzzo, whose deep experience

on electronic circuits was absolutely fundamental in the design

[2] A. Paulraj and R. Nabar, Introduction to Space-Time Wireless Communications. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.

[3] J. Litva and T. K -Y. Lo, Digital Beamforming in Wireless Communications. Boston, MA: Artech House, 1996.

[4] R. J. Compton Jr, Adaptive Antennas. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice

Hall, 1988.

[5] H. L. Van Trees, Optimum Array Processing. New York: Wiley, 2002.

[6] K. Gyoda and T. Ohira, Design of electronically steerable passive array

radiator (ESPAR) antennas, in Proc. Antennas and Propagation Soc.

Int. Symp., vol. 2, Jul. 1621, 2000, pp. 922925.

[7] N. L. Scott, M. O. Leonard-Taylor, and R. G. Vaughan, Diversity gain

from a single-port adaptive antenna using switched parasitic elements

illustrated with a wire and monopole prototype, IEEE Trans. Antennas

Propag., vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 10661070, Jun. 1999.

[8] R. J. Dinger, Reactively steered adaptive array using microstrip patch

elements at 4 GHz, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-32, no. 8,

pp. 848856, Aug. 1984.

[9] J. M. Mendel, Fuzzy logic systems for engineering: A tutorial, Proc.

IEEE, vol. 83, pp. 345377, Mar. 1995.

[10] D. E. Goldberg, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1989.

[11] J. Michael Johnson and Y. Rahamat-Samii, Genetic algorithms in engeneering electromagnetics, IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., vol. 39, no.

4, pp. 721, Aug. 1997.

[12] J. Robinson and Y. Rahamat-Samii, Particle swarm optimization in

electromagnetics, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 52, no. 2, pp.

39407, Feb. 2004.

[13] J. Kennedy and R. C. Eberhart, A discrete binary version of the particle

swarm algorithm, in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Computational Cybernetics

and Simulation, vol. 5, Oct. 1997, pp. 41044108.

[14] R. H. Haupt, H. L. Southall, and T. H. ODonnel, Biological beamforming, in Frontiers in Electromagnetics. ser. IEEE Press Series on

Microwave Technology and RF, D. H. Werner and R. Mittra, Eds. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2000.

[15] J. D. Shaffer and A. Morishma, An adaptive crossover mechanism for

genetic algorithms, in Proc. 2d Int. Conf. on Genetic Algorithms, 1987,

pp. 3640.

[16] M. Srinivas and L. M. Patnaik, Adaptive probability of crossover and

mutation in genetic algorithms, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man Cybern., vol.

24, no. 4, pp. 856667, Apr. 1994.

[17] Q. Wu and Z. L. Gong, On the performance of genetic algorithm based

adaptive beamforming, in Proc. 6th Symp. on Antennas, Propagation

and EM Theory, 2003, pp. 339343.

[18] A. Massa, M. Donelli, F. G. B. De Natale, S. Caorsi, and A. Lommi,

Planar array antenna control with genetic algorithms and adaptive

array theory, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-52, no. 11, pp.

29192924, Nov. 2004.

[19] X. Hu and R. C. Eberhart, Adaptive particle swarm optimization: Detection and response to dynamic systems, in Proc. Int. Conf. on Evolutionary Computation, 2002, pp. 16661670.

[20] J. W. Harris and H. Stocker, Handbook of Mathematics in Computational

Science. New-York: Springler-Verlag, 1998.

[21] D. H. Wolpert and W. G. Macready, No free lunch theorems for optimization, IEEE Trans. Evolut. Comput., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6782, Apr.

1997.

[22] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory. New York: Wiley, 1994.

[23] K. Yang and T. Ohira, Realization of space-time adaptive filtering by

employing electronically steerable passive array radiator antennas,

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 14761485, Jul.

2003.

[24] D. V. Thiel, Switched parasitic antennas and controlled reactance parasitic antennas. A system comparison, in Proc. AP-Symp., Jun. 2004,

pp. 32113214.

3272

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION, VOL. 53, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2005

degree (honors) in electronic engineering and the

Ph.D. degree in electronics and computer science

from the University of Napoli Federico II, Naples,

Italy, in 1990 and 1994, respectively.

He was a Researcher at the University of Napoli

Federico II until 2001. He is currently an Associate Professor at the University of Cassino, Cassino,

Italy, where he teaches adaptive antennas, radio propagation in urban area and electromagnetic fields. He

teaches microwaves at the University of Napoli Federico II. He is also a consultant of industries in the field of advanced antenna

measurement systems. His main research interests are antenna measurement

techniques, adaptive antennas and medical and industrial applications of microwaves.

Dr. Migliore is a Member of the Antenna Measurements Techniques Association (AMTA), the Italian Electromagnetic Society (SIEM), the National

Inter-University Consortium for Telecommunication (CNIT) and the Electromagnetics Academy. He is listed in Marquis Whos Who in the World, Whos

Who in Science and Engineering and in Whos Who in Electromagnetics.

on March 6, 1980. He received the Dr. Eng. degree

in telecommunication engineering (summa cum

laude) in July 2004. He is currently working toward

the Ph.D. degree in the Microwave Laboratory at the

University of Cassino.

His current researches are in the fields of smart antenna technologies, MIMO systems and the development of efficient evolutionary computation techniques.

in 1971. He received the Laurea degree (summa cum

laude) in electronic engineering in 1997, and the

Ph.D. degree in electronics and computer science in

2001, both from the University Federico II, Naples.

Since June 2001, he has been a Researcher at

the University of Cassino, Cassino, Italy. His main

research activities concern analytical and numerical

techniques for antenna and circuits analysis and

adaptive antennas.

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