You are on page 1of 9


This is very crucial part of any industrial flooring project. Below discussed
points should be communicated to do successful project to supplier,

a) Location and address of the site
b) Name of the application area
c) Area in SQFT or SQMT
d) Access to the site
e) Nature and age of the substrate
f) Availability of electricity , location and type of electric point
g) Storage facility
h) Application temperature
i) Type of joints in the floor
j) Working schedule ( i.e day or night )
k) Project duration
l) System
m) Water availability
n) Accommodation Facility
o) Availability of light
p) Ventilation

For details please refer our ‘Floor Selection Criteria’
Floor in the industry and commerce is not just part of a structure.
Industrial floor is heavily exposed to stress. It is exposed to several
types of industrial chemicals .It needs to meet variety of operational
requirements like crack bridging, slip resistance, abrasion resistance,
impact-load resistance, compression resistance, traffic resistance, non-
flammability, conductivity, aesthetics, easy to clean, ease of
maintenance, long life etc. There are many more expectations from
specific industrial flooring.

Determining the correct industrial flooring system
Basically there are two factors
A) Operational requirements
B) Analysis of surface condition
A) Operational requirements
1) Mechanical exposure
Mainly these three forces (abrasion, compression and impact) operate in some
cases as a combination.
1. Abrasion Resistance- Finish of the topping should be smooth relatively.
Binder and aggregate of the system should have high degree of
2. Compression Resistance – Topping of the system should have
appropriate thickness and adequate compressive strength.
3. Impact Resistance- Flatness and leave have to be considered.
2) Chemical attack
Waste management area, laboratory or clinical area, etc are exposed to
chemical regularly or occasionally. Generally industrial floor exposed to
grease, soluble salts, alkalis, acids, fuels, solvents, cleaning agents etc.
Analysis of operation condition depends on these factors like
1. Time of contact
2. Temperature
3. Type of chemicals
3) Temperature effect
Temperature in cold stores, kitchens, dairies etc is different as compare to
normal. Here temperature plays an important roll for the durability of the floor.
4) Traffic
Normally there are three types of traffic
1. Light Duty where floors are subject to normal pedestrian traffic and
light weight, non-metallic wheeled trolleys.
2. Medium Duty where the floors are subject to pedestrian / vehicular / or
otherwise which fall between light and heavy service condition
3. Heavy Duty where the floors are subjected to high density pedestrian /
vehicular traffic and a high degree of moving loads.

5) Vehicular traffic is essentially of two types:
1. Trolleys and fork lift trucks with small wheels and solid tyres.
2. Heavy vehicles with pneumatic tyres.

Small, hard wheels like the metallic or nylon versions in use exert the most
severe stresses; and in certain cases the point load is greatly enhanced. As
commonly experienced, small metallic wheels can cause severe damage to
the floor, it should be considered to change these wheels to rubber / nylon.

6) Crack-Bridging
Tensile stresses leads to cracking in concrete. Crack-Bridging flooring systems
are used if cracks in concrete would damage the function of the topping or
even endanger the environment.

Below mentioned cracks-width are consider to be harmless
External areas:- Crack width max 0.25mm
Internal areas:- Crack width max 0.40 mm

If cracks are dead, then those cracks could be repaired. If cracks are live-
cracks and already exceeds above limit, then floor should be treated with
elastomeric flooring system.
6) Conductivity
Normally polymers are non-conductive, so due to friction with topping,
electron gets generated and stored in the polymer as static electricity or static
charges .Irrespective to thickness of topping, resistance to the earth is
always more than 1010 Ω and 1012 Ω to 1013 Ω is usual. This has to bring down
below 109 Ω using conductive filler in topping system.

107 1010 1013
Resistance to earth in Ω

In different way, these static charges disturb productivity
a) Static Charges attract contaminants to small plastic parts prior to
packaging and disturb the quality.
b) Friction causes static charge generation which leads to electric shocks.
c) Static charges damage sensitive electronic devices
d) Static charges attract dirt which is not recommended in clean room

8) Hygiene
Today clean-room environment requirement is growing at increasingly high
rate. Clean-Room includes a very wide range of specifications which are
related to decontamination. Industries like pharmaceuticals, food, beverage,
etc require sterile, clean room environment. Floor topping should be joint-less
and resistance to various cleaning systems.

9) Fire Resistance
There are regulations for fire resistance in area like underground car park
decks, explosive stores, area where flammable items are handled. The fire risk
from liquid polymers is often overrated, film thickness ≤ 0.5 mm on non-
flammable substrate is considered insignificant in terms of their propagation
properties. Different counties have different standards for fire resistance
Example – Fire resistance to Austrian Standards
Under Austrian standard B-3000 , Part 1- Fire properties of construction
materials and components (under preparation )-a material is considered to be
barely flammable if the ignited sample has an undestroyed residual length of
at least 40 cm up to the top edge after any afterburning (1 min max ) or
afterglow (5 mins. Max)

10) Slip Resistance
The grip is basically the effect of the surface roughness on the friction
resistance interacting with tyre or similar object. Grip is very much affected by
level of surface roughness. Slip resistance of industrial floors is mainly
affected by the roughness and structure of the surface. There are few ways of
increasing anti-skid property of topping, like- using texture roller, by sand
broadcasting, by changing filler specification etc. There is some disadvantage
of anti-skid flooring, like–contamination, cleaning problem etc. This type of
floor is required in the working area where risk of skidding and leading to an
accident is high.

11) Designed Surface (Topping)
This is the additional benefit. Trend of using designed- floor is growing as per
the functional requirement of industrial flooring, It could be in pharmaceutical,
food, automotive, front office etc. There are few way to design the topping ,
among those ,few are a) using colored filler b) using texture roller c) by
broadcasting of silicon carbide aggregate, quartz sand, colored PVA chips,
sharp sand etc. In all the work places gloss finish is not suitable because of
high level of light reflection. By using matt sealer gloss level could be reduced.

12) Coving
Joint of wall and floor always creates right angle and it accumulates dust.
Only coving can solve the problem.

13) Environmental Condition
This has to be considered other wise problem like poor adhesion, inadequate
irregular surface, void formation etc may arise.

Ambient temperature (air temperature), substrate temperature and material
temperature –these three temperatures have to be measured before every
application and verify several times during application. Increase in the
substrate temperature above the minimum application temperature may
result into
a) Reduction in the reaction time
b) Better and quicker ventilation
c) Improved wetting of the substrate.

Temperature plays an important for reactive resin based floor-treatment
material for curing and strength gaining. If ambient temperature falls below
100C, then application should not be carried out. If ambient temperature is
very high, then pot life of material will come-down and execution will be
14) Moisture
Basically there are two type of Moisture –
i) Substrate moisture (water in liquid form)
ii) Atmospheric humidity (water vapor).

i) Substrate Moisture
By using moisture meter, substrate moisture can be measured. For normal
epoxy application, substrate moisture level should be less then 4%. Osmosis
phenomena occurs at more than 4% moisture level.

ii) Atmospheric humidity
Relative atmospheric humidity is the standard unit of measurement for the
water content of the air and is expressed as.
Relative atmospheric humidity = (volume of water vapor present in the
(Saturation point at given temperature).
As the temperature rises, the relative humidity falls if moisture is neither
added to nor taken from that volume of air . For industrial flooring Relative
Humidity should not exceeded 75% RH.

iii) The dew point
The temperature at which the saturation moisture (100% RH) of the air is
reached called dew point. If the temperature falls below the dew point ,
condensation is formed .
It is very important to check the substrate and air temperature. From these
two we can calculate the dew point .For Flooring application , the substrate
temperature must be at least 30 C above the dew point .In the dew point range
, problem like osmotic bubbles, adhesion
Problem and others may occur. Dew point can be prevented by careful
monitoring of the climatic condition.
Example –
Ambient temperature T(amb) = 150 C
Relative Humidity RH = 90%
From the Table –
Dew point temperature : +13.30 C
Substrate temperature T(sub): 120 C
We require (Substrate temperature – dew point) ≥ 30 C
But actual condition
( +13.30 C - 120 C) = 1.30 C
Decision – flooring application is not possible.

We need to increase the ambient temperature and influence the relative
humidity by ventilation (by hot air equipment)
15) Analysis of surface condition
It is very important part of industrial flooring. Analysis of surface condition is
important to determine the correct substrate preparation for successful
flooring system. Always surface should be dry, sound, clean and free from
17) Moisture content
For normal epoxy resin, moisture content of the substrate should be less then
4%. There are water based epoxy modified cementicious system which can be
applied even on green concrete . Here moisture comes into the system for
curing . So osmosis does not occur .

2) Cracks treatment – Death cracks can be treated with epoxy mortar .
Depend upon width of crack, ratio of Kemoxt Concrete (T) and filler will be
decided .
3) Joints treatment- We will discuss about only two types of joint-treatment
a) Construction joint – This treatment will be same as crack treatment
b) Contraction and Expansion joint- These joints will be treated with sealant.
Calculation of sealant-consumption
Example- A joint with a) width – 12 mm b) depth – 10 mm c) Length-100 cm
Volume- 1.2cm X 1cm X 100 cm
= 120 cm3
Suppose Density of sealant is 1.3 kg /lit
Required amount of sealant = (1.3/1000)*120 (1lit = 1000 cm3 )
= .156 kg
= 156 gm
Joint Design- (For polysulphide and polyurethane sealant)
If Joint depth – 10 mm ( min joint depth 8 mm)
Joint width- max joint width 40 mm and below
Then Depth: Width = 2:1
If Depth- Up to 10 mm
Then Depth: Width = 1:1

18) Spillage of chemical (like alkali, acid etc)
There are few factors (mentioned below) help to select the chemical-
resistance coating system .
a) Concentration of the acid
b) Contact time with floor
c) Temperature of chemicals

19) Repairing of Substrate
Voids, holes etc have to be repaired with Kemflor 520 (epoxy mortar). These
repaired portion have to be sealed with sealer coat, otherwise there may be
chance of bubble formation in
these particular area.
Substrate preparation
Surface preparation plays an important role. Concrete or mortar surface
should sound solid and free from dust and loose particles .If uneven, then
scrapping should be done and Clean the surface thoroughly again.
Hacking/shot blasting will be done for very smooth surface to create batter
bonding. At last use industrial vacuum cleaner to ensure complete dust
removal from the surface.

At site material should be kept under covered shade and lockable area.
Before using material , we should see that , temperature is not below 220