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# ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

QUESTION BANK

Question Bank Unit I :

Q1.Give an example of a problem for which breadth-first-search would work better than
depth-first-search would work better than breadth-first-search.
Q2. describe how the branch-and-bound technique could be used to find the shortest to a
water jug problem.
Q3. When would best-first-search be worse than simple breadth-first-search ?
Q4. Suppose that first step of the operation of the best-first-search algorithm results in the
following situation (a+ b means that the value of h’ at a node is a and the value of g is b).

(4+1) (3+1)

The second and third steps then result in the following sequence of situation.

(4+1) (3+1) (4+1) (3+1)

(4+2) (2+2) (4+2)
(a) What node will be expanded at the next step?
(b) Can we guarantee that the best solution will be found?

Q5. Write Backward-Chaining Rule System & Forward-Chaining Ruke System.
Q6.What is default reasoning and how can you perform it with non-monotonic
reasoning?
Q7.What is Logic – Based Truth Maintenance Systems?
Q8. Explain JTMS and ATMS with proper example.
Q9.What is partition semantics Net explain it with example?
Q10. What is Mean-End-Analysis ?
Q11. Write A* algorithm and show how A* algorithm can be used to find minimal-cost
overall path or simply any path as quickly as possible.
Q12. How best-first-search algorithm supports heuristic evaluation function?
Q13.When would best-first-search be worse than simple-first-search ?
Q14. Find a good heuristic function for following
(a) Monkey and Banana problem
(b) Travelling Salesman problem

Q15. Give an example of an admissible heuristic for the 8-puzzle.
Q16.Give a heuristic that a block-stacking program might use to solve problems of the
form ‘stack block X on blockY’. Is the heuristic admissible? Is it monotonic?
Q17.What is Agenda-Driven Search Algorithm?
Q18. Show that worst-case algorithm to solve the travelling salesman problem is of
exponential complexity but an algorithm that chooser a tour through the nearest
neighbour of each city is of lower order. Give an example to show that the best-first-
algorithm is not , in general, optimal, but still often good.
Q19. Discuss some of the potential problems of using hill climbing search. Give an
examples of the problems cited.
Q20. Prove that implication is transitive in the prepositional calculas, that is, that
((P->Q) ^ (Q->R) )-> (P -> R)

Question Bank Unit II :

Q1. Discuss the representational structures and knowledge necessary to understand the
following sentences.
The brown dog ate the bone.
Attach the large wheel to the axle with the hex nut.
Mary watered the plants.
The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak.
My kingdom for a horse!

Q2. What are the context-sensitive grammars have a disadvantages for design of practical
parsers.

Q3. What are transition network parser?
Q4. What is ATN parsers?
Q5. What is conceptual dependency?
Q6. What is Horn Clause and show its implementation in production system?
Q7. Write back track algorithm for AND/OR graphs.
Q8. Write the pseudo-code definition for a bradth-first version of pattern-search. Discuss
the time and space efficiency of this algorithm.
Q9. Is the minmax procedure a depth-first or breadth-first search procedure?
Q10. Suggest two applications appropriate for solutions using black-board architecture.
Briefly characterize the organization of the black-board and knowledge sources for each
implementation.
Q11. What is conceptual Parsing?
Q12. What are principal advantages of semantic grammer?
Q13. What are components of natural language understanding process?
Q14. What is chart parser and explain its use?
Q15. What is lexical disambiguation?
Q16. What is compositional semantics?
Q17. Write an ATN grammer that recognizes verb phrases involving auxillary verbs. The
grammer should handle such phrases as
• “word”
• “should have gone”
• “have been going”
• “would have been going”
• “would go”

Do not exact to produce an ATN than can handle all possible verb phrases. But do design
one with a reasonable stucture that handles most common ones, including the one above.
The grammer should create structure that reflects the structure of the input verb phrases.
Q18. Consider the following sentences:

Put the red block on the blue block on the table.

(a) Show all the syntactically valid parsers of this sentence. Assume any standard
grammatical formalism you like.
(b) How could semantic information and would knowledge be used to select the
appropriate meaning of this command in a particular situation?
Q19. Consider the problem of providing an English interface to a database of employee
records.

(a) Write a semantic grammer to define a language for this task.
(b) Show a parse, using your grammer, of each of the two sentences

What is Smith’s salary
Tell me who ?
Q20. Explain the main difference between the following three grammars and describe the
principal features that could be used to develop specifications for a syntactical
recognition program. Consult additional references for more detail regarding each
grammer
Chomsky’s Transformational grammer
Fillmore’s case grammer
Systemic Grammer

Question Bank Unit III:

Q1. Write four properties a good system for the knowledge representation in particular
domain should posses.
Q2. What are issues for knowledge representation?
Q3. What is inferential knowledge and procedural knowledge?
Q4. What is Frame problem?
Q5. Consider the following sentences

• John likes all kinds of food
• Apples are food
• Chicken is food
• Anything anyone eats and isn’t killed by its food
• Bill eats peanuts and is still alive
• Sue eats everything Bill eats

(a) Translate these sentences into formulas in predicate logic
(b) Prove that John likes peanuts using backward chaining
(c) Convert the formulas of part a into clause form
(d) Prove that John likes peanut using resolution
(e) Use resolution to answer the question, “what food does Sue eat?”

Q6. Assume the following fact:

• Stove only likes easy courses
• Sciences courses are hard
• All the courses in the basket weaving department are easy
• BK301 is a basket weaving course

Use resolution to answer the question , “what course would Steve like”

Q7. What is wrong the following argument

• Men are widely distributed over the earth
• Socrates is a man
• Therefore, Socrates is widely distributed over earth

How should the facts represented by these sentences be represented in logic so that this
problem does not arise?

Q8. A problem-solving search can proceed either forward(from a known start state to
desired goal state) or backward (from a goal state to a start state). What factors
determine the choice of direction for a particular problem?

Q9. What search control knowledge?
Q10. Difference between procedural and declarative knowledge.
Q11. What are the main advantage in keeping the knowledge base separate from the
control module in knowledge – based systems?
Q12. Under what conditions would it make sense to use both forward and backward
chaining ? Give an example where both are used.
Q13. Explain the difference between forward and backward chaining and under what
conditions each would be best to use for a given set of problems.
Q14.What are the main advantages in keeping the knowledge base separate from the
control module in knowledge-based system?
Q15. Give an example for each of the following types of knowledge
(a) fact (b) a rule (c) a concept (d) a procedure (e) a heuristic (f) a relationship

Q16. Give five example of facts that are difficult to represent and manipulate in predicate
logic.
Q17. Property inheritance is a very common form of default reasoning. Consider the
semantic net

mammal

cow Platypus Live

(a) How could the information in this network be represented in a JTMS?
(b) What will happen when the additional fact that the platypus lays eggs is inserted
into this system?

Q18. Difference between semantic Nets and Partitioned Nets.
Q19. Explain the production rules knowledge base.
Q20. What is Minskey Frames?

Question Bank Unit IV:

Q1. What characteristic feature of Expert system?
Q2. Write importance of Expert System.
Q3. Explain the production system inference cycle.
Q4. What is CASNET? What are its different knowledge types?
Q5. What is PIP?
Q6. Explain Blackboard System Architecture.
Q7. How knowledge can be structured in a top-to-bottom manner? Explain with example.
Q8. What are the feature & capabilies developer should offer in expert system?
Q9. What are KEC,OPS5 and Radian Rule Master?
Q10. How do rules in PROLOG differ from general production system rules?
Q11. Why is it important that an expert system be able to explains the why and how
questions related to a problem solving session?
Q12. Give the advantages of expert system architecture based on decision tress over those
of production rules. What are the main disadvantages?
Q13. Give three examples of applications for which the use of analogical architecture
would be suitable in expert system.
Q14. Explain how uncertainity is propogated through a chain rules during a consultation
with an expert system which is based on the MYCIN architecture.
Q15. Select a problem domain that requires some special expertise and consult with an
expert in the domain to learn how he or she solves typical problems.After collecting
enough knowledge to solve a small subset of problems. Create rules which could be used
in a knowledge base to solve the problems. Test the use of the rules on a few problems
which have been suggested by the expert and then get his or her confirmation.
Q16. Obtain a copy of an expert system building tool such as personal consultant Plus
and create an expert system to diagnose automobile engine problems. Consult with a
mechanic to see if your completed system is reasonably good.
Q17. Describe and compare the different types of problems solved by four of the earliest
expert systems DENDRAL, MYCIN, PROSPECTOR & RI.
Q18. Identity and describe two good application areas for expert system within a
university environment.
Q19. Suppose you are diagonize automobile engine using a system having a frame type
of architecture similar to PIP. Show how a trigger condition might be satisfied for the
distributed ignition system when it is learned that the spark at all spark plugs is weak.
Q20. Explain why you think associated networks were never very popular forms of
knowledge representations in expert systems architectures.

Question Bank Unit V:

Q1. What are the steps of artificial or mechanical recognition?
Q2. What is conceptual clustering? Write algorithm for conceptual clustering?
Q3. How speech recognize?
Q4. Choose three common objects and determine five of their most discriminating visual
attributes.
Q5. Describe how you would design a pattern recognition program which must validate
hand written signature. Indentity some potential problem areas.
Q6. Give two examples where the single representation trick simplifies clustering among
unknown objects.
Q7. What is the value of the smoothed pixel for the associated mask?

3/16 7 8 9
3/16 ¼ 3/16 5 4 6
3/16 4 6 2

Q8. color and texture are both potentially useful in defining regions. Describe an
algorithm that could be used to determine regions that are homogenous in color.
Q9. How much memory is required to produced and compare five different binary images
, each with a different threshold levels? Assume a system resolution of 512 X 512 . Can
the binary images be compressed in some way to reduce memory requirements?
Q10. Find the binary images for the array given below when the threshold is set at 35

23 1 32 35
36 30 42 38
2 9 34 36
37 36 35 33
Q11. What is Marr’s Theory of Vision?
Q12. what is ACRONYM System?
Q13. What is dual – of –edge finding is done?
Q14.What is Ohta’s Color Scene Analyzer?
Q15. How low-level processing is done?
Q16. What is different type of learning?
Q17. How is machine learning distinguished from general knowledge acquisition?
Q18. Explain why some editors can be distinguished as “intelligent”.
Q19. Design a learning automaton that selects TV channels based on day of week and
time of day (three evening hours only) for some family you are familiar with.
Q20. Describe how a learning automaton could be developed to learn how to play the
game of tic-tac-toe optimally. Is this a CLA or simple learning auotomaton system?