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# State-space approach

Contents:
State space representation
Pole placement by state feedback
Observer design
Kalman Filter LQG
Separation Principle
Spillover
Frequency Shaped LQG
HAC-LAC strategy
Transfer function approach:
State variable form:
State space
Equation:
Feedthrough
Plant noise
Measurement noise
(Ch.7, p.138)
The choice of state variable is not unique
Example: s.d.o.f. oscillator:
Acceleration
Output:
C
1.
D (feedthrough)
A
B
2.
A is dimensionally
homogene
Inverted Pendulum
Equation of motion:
Linearization:
Change of variable:
with
(natural frequency
Of the pendulum)
State variable form:
Output equation:
C D
System transfer function
s.d.o.f. oscillator:
Inverted Pendulum:
For SISO systems, one can write:
poles
Zeros
1. Poles:
such that, for some initial condition, the free response is
Free response:
are the eigenvalues of A, solution of
An input
applied from appropriate initial conditions
produces no output:
2.Zeros:
The state vector has the form:
If:
That is if:
Then:
Y = 0 if
(1)
(2)
(1) And (2)
dtm [ ] = 0
Pole placement by state feedback
State
feedback
If the system is controllable, the closed-loop poles
can be placed arbitrarily in the complex plane.
The gain G can be chosen such that
Closed-loop characteristic
equation
Selected arbitrarily
Example: s.d.o.f. oscillator (1)
Relocating the poles
Deeper in le left-half plane
State-space equation:
State feedback:
Closed-loop characteristic equation:
Desired behaviour:
Example: s.d.o.f. oscillator (2)
u such that the performance index J is minimized
Controlled variable:
Control force: u
Weighing coefficient
Solution: The closed-loop poles are the stable roots of:
where
Characteristic equation:
-
Identical to that of:
Symmetric with respect to the imaginary axis
As well as the real axis
Only the roots in the left half plane have to be
considered
Symmetric root locus
Weighing
On the control
Example: Inverted pendulum (1)
Controlled
Variable:
Selected poles
1. Select the poles on the left side of the
Symmetric root locus
2. Compute the gains so as to match the desired poles:
Example: Inverted pendulum (2)
Observer design
Full stat observer (Luenberger observer):
Duplicates
the system
(perfect modeling !!)
Innovation
Error: Error equation:
If the system is observable, the poles of the
Error equation can be assigneg arbitrarily by
Appropriate choice of ki
In practice, the poles of the observer should
Be taken 2 to 6 times faster than the regulator
poles
In practice, there are modeling errors and measurement noise;
These should be taken into account in selecting the observer gains
One way to assign the observer poles: KALMAN filter
(minimum variance observer)
The optimal poles location minimizing the variance of the
Measurement error are the stable roots of the
symmetric root locus:
Scalar
White noise
processes
Where is the T.F. between w and y and
Plant noise intensity (w) a
Measurement noise intensity (v)
Example: Inverted pendulum (1)
1. Assume that the noise enters the system at the input (E = B)
proportional to
The same root locus can be
used for the regulator and
the observer design
Example: Inverted pendulum (2)
2. Assume
Observer poles
Note (SISO design)
LQR
Controlled variable z
Input u
=
Output measurement y
Plant noise w
=
Kalman filter
Assuming that z = y (H = C) and that the noise enters the plant at the input (E = B)
The design of the regulator and the observer can be completed with the same
Symmetric root locus corresponding to the open-loop transfer function G(s)
Separation Principle
Compensator
Reconstructed state
Closed-loop
equations:
2n state variables
With
Block triangular the eigenvalues are decoupled
Transfer function of the compensator
The poles of the compensator H(s) are solutions of the characteristic equation:
They have not been specified anywhere in the design
They may be unstable
H(s) is always of the same order as the system
u
X1 = y
X3
The two-mass problem (1)
u
State-space equation:
LQG design with symmetric root locus based on
Two-mass problem (2): Symmetric root-locus
Open-loop
poles
Design procedure:
Select the regulator poles on the locus
Compute the corresponding gains G
Select the observer poles (2 to 6 times faster)
Compute the corresponding gains K
Compute the compensator H(s)
One finds:
Notch filter !
Two-mass problem (3)
Two-mass problem (4): Root locus of the LQG controller
Optimum design for g= 1
Compensator
Notch
filter
Two-mass problem (5): robustness analysis
Effect of doubling the natural frequency
The notch filter
becomes useless
This frequency
has been doubled
Unstable loop !
Two-mass problem (6): Robustness analysis
Effect of lowering the natural frequency by 20%
Pole/zero Flipping !
The notch is unchanged
Spillover (1)
Crossover
Phase
stabilized
Bandwidth
Gain stabilized

## The residual modes

Near crossover may
Be destabilized by
Spillover
(Ch.9, p.206)
Actuators
Sensors
Controlled
modes
Residual
modes
Flexible structure dynamics
Spillover (2): mechanism
Spillover (3): Equations
Structure dynamics:
Controlled modes:
Residual modes:
Output:
Full state observer:
Full state feedback:
Control
Spillover
Observation
Spillover
Spillover (4): Eigen value problem
Observation spillover
Control spillover
If either Br=0 or Cr=0, the eigen values remain decoupled
If both Br and Cr exist, there is Spillover
The residual modes
have a small stability
margin (damping !)
and can be destabilized
by Spillover
Spillover (5): Closed-loop poles
Integral control with state feedback
Constant disturbance
Non-zero steady state error on y
Introduce the augmented state p such that :
State feedback:
Closed loop equation:
If G and Gp are chosen so as to stabilize the system,
without knowledge of the disturbance w
(Ch.9, p.211)
Frequency Shaped LQR (1)
LQR:
Parsevals theorem:
Frequency independent
Frequency-shaped LQR:
To achieve P + I action
At low frequency
To increase the roll-off
At high frequency
(Ch.9, p.212)
P + I
Increased roll-off
Frequency shaped LQR (2): weight specification
Frequency shaped LQR (3): Augmented system
Frequency independent cost functional
State space realization of the augmented system
Frequency shaped LQR (4): Augmented system
The state feedback of the augmented system
is designed with the frequency independent
Cost functional:
Frequency shaped LQR (5): Architecture of the controller
Augmented
states
Only the states of the
Structure must be reconstructed
HAC / LAC strategy (1)
The control system consists of tho imbedded loops:
1) The inner loop (LAC: Low Authority Control) consists of a
decentralized active damping with collocated actuator/sensor pairs
(no model necessary).
2) The outer loop (HAC: High Authority Control) consists of a
model-based non-collocated controller (based on a model of the
actively damped structure).
(Ch.13, p.295)
The active damping extends outside the bandwidth of the HAC
(reduces the settling time of the modes beyond the bandwidth)
The active damping makes it easier to gain-stabilize the modes
outside the bandwidth of the HAC loop (improved gain margin)
The larger damping of the modes within the controller bandwidth makes
them more robust to parametric uncertainty (improved phase margin)
HAC / LAC strategy (2)
HAC / LAC strategy (3): Example
Wide-band position control of a truss
Set-up
Open-loop FRF of the HAC
For various gains g of the LAC
Bode plot of the controller H Open-loop FRF of the design model: GH
HAC / LAC strategy (4): Example
Wide-band position control of a truss
HAC / LAC strategy (5): Example
Wide-band position control of a truss
Open-loop FRF of the full system: G*H
Nyquist plot
Step response
t (sec)
High frequency dynamics