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General Health and Benefits
Definition of health
The most famous modern definition of health was created during a Preamble to the
Constitution of the World Health Organization as adopted by the International Health
Conference, New York, 19-22 June, 1946; signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of
61 States (Official Records of the World Health Organization, no. 2, p. 100) and entered into
force on 7 April 1948.

"Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity."

The Definition has not been amended since 1948.

During the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion in 1986, the WHO said that health is:

"a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living. Health is a positive concept
emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities."
Other definition of health
• Optimal well-being that contributes to one’s quality of life.
• It is more than freedom from disease and illness, though freedom from disease is
important to good health.


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Wellness
The term wellness was first used by a doctor called Halbert L. Dunn, USA, who published a
small booklet entitled "High Level Wellness" in 1961. The term is much more widely used in
North American than in the United Kingdom.

According to the Mickinley Health Center, University of Illinois, wellness "is a state of optimal
well-being that is oriented toward maximizing an individual's potential. This is a life-long
process of moving towards enhancing your physical, intellectual, emotional, social, spiritual,
and environmental well-being."

The University of East Carolina defines wellness as "the integration of mind, body and spirit.
Optimal wellness allows us to achieve our goals and find meaning and purpose in our lives.
Wellness combines seven dimensions of well-being into a quality way of living. Overall,
wellness is the ability to live life to the fullest and to maximize personal potential in a variety
of ways. Wellness involves continually learning and making changes to enhance your state
of wellness. When we balance the physical, intellectual, emotional, social, occupational,
spiritual, and environmental aspects of life, we achieve true wellness."

According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, wellness is "A philosophy of life and personal
hygiene that views health as not merely the absence of illness but the full realization of one's
physical and mental potential, as achieved through positive attitudes, fitness training, a diet
low in fat and high in fiber, and the avoidance of unhealthful practices (smoking, drug and
alcohol abuse, overeating)".






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Two aspects to health
Most people accept that health can be divided into two broad aspects - physical and mental
health.

Physical health

For humans, physical health means a good body health, which is healthy because of
regular physical activity (exercise), good nutrition, and adequate rest.

As a country's or region's people experience improved nutrition, health care,
standards of living and quality of life, their height and weight generally increase.
In fact, most people, when asked for a definition of health talk about physical health.
Physical health relates to anything concerning our bodies as physical entities.
Physical health has been the basis for active living campaigns and the many nutrition
drives that have swept the industrialized world. People are exposed to so much
"physical health" data these days that it is hard to decide what is relevant and what is
not.

Another term for physical health is physical wellbeing. Physical wellbeing is defined
as something a person can achieve by developing all health-related components of
his/her lifestyle. Fitness reflects a person's cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular
strength, flexibility, and body composition. Other contributors to physical wellbeing
may include proper nutrition, bodyweight management, abstaining from drug abuse,
avoiding alcohol abuse, responsible sexual behavior (sexual health), hygiene, and
getting the right amount of sleep.

Some people divide physical health into two separate sections:

Structural health - this refers to sound bones, muscles, organs etc. That the
structures in the body are performing the functions they were made for properly.
Structural health is associated with a person's height/weight ratio, their BMI (body
mass index), their resting pulse rate (heart rate), and recovery time after doing
exercise.

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Chemical Health - good chemical health means that the chemicals in the person's
body are correct, that tissues contain the right balance of nutrients, etc., and there
are no toxic chemicals.

We may inhale or swallow natural and synthetic chemicals; they can also get into our
body through skin. In most cases, the body can break these chemicals down or
excrete them, so that there is no risk of toxic overload.

Some chemicals can harm or destroy cells and tissues, while others may affect
genetic material directly, which can increase the risk of developing cancer. Genetic
material directly, which can increase the risk of developing cancer.

Mental health

Mental health refers to people's cognitive and emotional well-being. A person who
enjoys good mental health does not have a mental disorder. According to WHO,
mental health is "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own
abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and
fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community".

No matter how many definitions people try to come up with regarding mental health,
its assessment is still a subjective one.

People have always found it easier to explain what mental illness is, rather than
mental health. Most people agree that mental health refers to the "absence of mental
illness". For some, this definition is not enough. They argue that if you pick 100
people who do not suffer from any mental disorder or illness that could be diagnosed
by a psychiatrist, some people within those 100 will be mentally healthier than others.
Most people also agree that mental health includes the ability to enjoy life, the ability
to bounce back from adversity, the ability to achieve balance (moderation), the ability
to be flexible and adapt, the ability to feel safe and secure, and self-actualization
(making the best of what you have).



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6 Components of health
There are six components in the health:
I. Physical
 Physical health refers to the way that your body functions. This includes
eating right, getting regular exercise, and being at your recommended
body weight. Physical health is also avoiding drugs and alcohol and being
free of disease and sickness
II. Social
 Social health is the quality of your relationships with friends, family,
teachers, and others you are in contact with.

III. Environmental
 Environmental health is keeping your air and water clean, your food safe,
and the land around you enjoyable and safe.

IV. Emotional
 Emotional health is expressing your emotions in a positive, nondestructive
way.
V. Spiritual
 Spiritual health is maintaining harmonious relationships with other living
things and having spiritual direction and purpose. This includes living
according to one’s ethics, morals, and values.
VI. Intellectual/Mental
 Mental health is the ability to recognize reality and cope with the demands
of daily life

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The effect of not taking good care of our health
According to the statistic that have been announced by the Department of health in Unites
States, the major causes of death have been


Cancer
Cancer, known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a large group of different
diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow
uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer
may also spread to more distant parts of the body through the lymphatic system or
bloodstream. Not all tumors are cancerous. Benign tumors do not grow uncontrollably, do
not invade neighboring tissues, and do not spread throughout the body.
Determining what causes cancer is complex. Many things are known to increase the
risk of cancer, including tobacco use, certain infections, radiation, lack of physical activity,
poor diet and obesity, and environmental pollutants. These can directly damage genes or
combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause the disease. Approximately five to
ten percent of cancers are entirely hereditary.
Cancer can be detected in a number of ways, including the presence of certain signs
and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging. Once a possible cancer is detected it is
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diagnosed by microscopic examination of a tissue sample. Cancer is usually treated with
chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery. The chances of surviving the disease vary
greatly by the type and location of the cancer and the extent of disease at the start of
treatment. While cancer can affect people of all ages, and a few types of cancer are more
common in children, the risk of developing cancer generally increases with age. In 2007,
cancer caused about 13% of all human deaths worldwide (7.9 million). Rates are rising as
more people live to an old age and as mass lifestyle changes occur in the developing world.
When cancer begins it invariably produces no symptoms with signs and symptoms
only appearing as the mass continues to grow or ulcerates. The findings of result depend on
the type and location of the cancer. Few symptoms are specific, with many of them also
frequently occurring in individuals who have other conditions. Cancer is the new "great
imitator". Thus it is not uncommon for people
diagnosed with cancer to have been treated
for other diseases to which it was assumed
their symptoms were due.
Local symptoms may occur due to
the mass of the tumor or its ulceration. For
example mass effects from lung cancer can
cause blockage of the bronchus resulting in
cough or pneumonia, esophageal cancer
can cause narrowing of the esophagus
making it difficult or painful to swallow, and
colorectal cancer may lead to narrowing or blockages in the bowel resulting in changes in
bowel habits. Masses of breast or testicles may be easily felt. Ulceration can cause bleeding
which, if it occurs in the lung, will lead to coughing up blood, in the bowels to anemia or
rectal bleeding, in the bladder to blood in the urine, and in the uterus to vaginal bleeding.
Although localized pain may occurs in advanced cancer, the initial swelling is usually
painless. Some cancers can cause build-up of fluid within the chest or abdomen.
General symptoms occur due to distant effects of the cancer that are not related to
direct or metastatic spread. These may include: unintentional weight loss, fever, being
excessively tired, and changes to the skin.Hodgkin disease, leukemias, and cancers of the
liver or kidney can cause a persistent fever of unknown origin.
Specific constellations of systemic symptoms, termed paraneoplastic phenomena,
may occur with some cancers. Examples include the appearance of myasthenia gravis in
thymoma and clubbing in lung cancer. Symptoms of metastasis are due to the spread of
cancer to other locations in the body. They can include enlarged lymph nodes (which can be
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felt or sometimes seen under the skin and are typically hard), hepatomegaly (enlarged liver)
or splenomegaly (enlarged spleen) which can be felt in the abdomen, pain or fracture of
affected bones, and neurological symptoms.
Cancers are primarily an environmental disease with 90-95% of cases attributed to
environmental factors and 5-10% due to genetics. Environmental, as used by cancer
researchers, means any cause that is not genetic, not merely pollution. Common
environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include tobacco (25-30%), diet and
obesity (30-35%), infections (15-20%), radiation (both ionizing and non-ionizing, up to 10%),
stress, lack of physical activity, and environmental pollutants. It is nearly impossible to prove
what caused a cancer in any individual, because most cancers have multiple possible
causes. For example, if a person who uses tobacco heavily develops lung cancer, then it
was probably caused by the tobacco use, but since everyone has a small chance of
developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, then there is a small chance
that the cancer developed because of air pollution or radiation.

Stroke
A stroke is a condition in which the brain cells suddenly die because of a lack of
oxygen. This can be caused by an obstruction in the blood flow, or the rupture of an artery
that feeds the brain. The patient may suddenly lose the ability to speak, there may be
memory problems, or one side of the body can become paralyzed.
The two main types of stroke include ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke.

 Ischemic stroke accounts for about three-quarters of all strokes and occurs when a
blood clot, or thrombus, forms that blocks blood flow to part of the brain. If a blood clot
forms somewhere in the body and breaks off to become free-floating, it is called an
embolus. This wandering clot may be carried through the bloodstream to the brain where
it can cause ischemic stroke.
 A hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a blood vessel on the brain's surface ruptures and
fills the space between the brain and skull with blood (subarachnoid hemorrhage) or when
a defective artery in the brain bursts and fills the surrounding tissue with blood (cerebral
hemorrhage).
Both types of stroke result in a lack of blood flow to the brain and a buildup of blood that puts
too much pressure on the brain.
The outcome after a stroke depends on where the stroke occurs and how much of the brain
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is affected. Smaller strokes may result in minor problems, such as weakness in an arm or
leg. Larger strokes may lead to paralysis or death. Many stroke patients are left with
weakness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking, incontinence, and bladder problems.

Causes of stroke
Ischemic strokes are ultimately caused by a thrombus or embolus that blocks blood flow to
the brain. Blood clots (thrombus clots) usually occur in areas of the arteries that have been
damaged by atherosclerosis from a buildup of plaques. Embolus type blood clots are often
caused by atrial fibrillation - an irregular pattern of heart beat that leads to blood clot
formation and poor blood flow.
Hemorrhage strokes can be caused by uncontrolled high blood pressure, a head injury,
or aneurysms. High blood pressure is the most common cause of cerebral hemorrhage, as
it causes small arteries inside the brain to burst. This deprives brain cells of blood and
dangerously increases pressure on the brain.

Aneurysms - abnormal blood-filled pouches that balloon out from weak spots in the wall of
an artery - are the most
common cause of
subarachnoid hemorrhage. If
an aneurysm ruptures, blood
spills into the space between
the surfaces of the brain and
skull, and blood vessels in the
brain may spasm. Aneurysms
are often caused or made
worse by high blood
pressure.




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Diabetes

Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic
diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin
production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or
both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination),
they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).

There are three types of diabetes:
1) Type 1 Diabetes
The body does not produce insulin. Some people may refer to this type as insulin-dependent
diabetes, juvenile diabetes, or early-onset diabetes. People usually develop type 1 diabetes
before their 40th year, often in early adulthood or teenage years.
Type 1 diabetes is nowhere near as common as type 2 diabetes. Approximately 10% of all
diabetes cases are type 1.Patients with type 1 diabetes will need to take insulin injections for
the rest of their life. They must also ensure proper blood-glucose levels by carrying out
regular blood tests and following a special diet.
Between 2001 and 2009, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes among the under 20s in the USA
rose 23%, according to SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth data issued by the CDC (Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention).

2) Type 2 Diabetes
The body does not produce enough insulin for proper function, or the cells in the body do not
react to insulin (insulin resistance).
Approximately 90% of all cases of diabetes worldwide are of this type.
Some people may be able to control their type 2 diabetes symptoms by losing weight,
following a healthy diet, doing plenty of exercise, and monitoring their blood glucose levels.
However, type 2 diabetes is typically a progressive disease - it gradually gets worse - and
the patient will probably end up have to take insulin, usually in tablet form.
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Overweight and obese people
have a much higher risk of
developing type 2 diabetes
compared to those with a
healthy body weight. People
with a lot of visceral fat, also
known as central obesity,
belly fat, or abdominal
obesity, are especially at risk.
Being overweight/obese
causes the body to release
chemicals that can destabilize
the body's cardiovascular and metabolic systems.
Being overweight, physically inactive and eating the wrong foods all contribute to our risk of
developing type 2 diabetes. Drinking just one can of (non-diet) soda per day can raise our
risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 22%, researchers from Imperial College London
reported in the journal Diabetologia. The scientists believe that the impact of sugary soft
drinks on diabetes risk may be a direct one, rather than simply an influence on body weight.
The risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also greater as we get older. Experts are not
completely sure why, but say that as we age we tend to put on weight and become less
physically active. Those with a close relative who had/had type 2 diabetes, people of Middle
Eastern, African, or South Asian descent also have a higher risk of developing the disease.
Men whose testosterone levels are low have been found to have a higher risk of developing
type 2 diabetes. Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, say that low
testosterone levels are linked to insulin resistance.






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3) Gestational Diabetes
This type affects females during pregnancy. Some women have very high levels of glucose
in their blood, and their bodies are unable to produce enough insulin to transport all of the
glucose into their cells, resulting in progressively rising levels of glucose.
Diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made during pregnancy.
The majority of gestational diabetes patients can control their diabetes with exercise and
diet. Between 10% to 20% of them will need to take some kind of blood-glucose-controlling
medications. Undiagnosed or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can raise the risk of
complications during childbirth. The baby may be bigger than he/she should be.
Scientists from the National Institutes of Health and Harvard University found that women
whose diets before becoming pregnant were high in animal fat and cholesterol had a higher
risk for gestational diabetes, compared to their counterparts whose diets were low in
cholesterol and animal fats.
















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Benefits of regular physical activity

a) Exercise controls weight:-
Exercise can help prevent excess weight gain or help maintain weight loss. When we
engage in physical activity we will burn calories. The more intense the activity, the
more calories you burn. You don't need to set aside large chunks of time for exercise
to reap weight-loss benefits. If we cannot do an actual workout, get more active
throughout the day in simple ways by taking the stairs instead of the elevator or
revving up your household chores.

b) Exercise combats health conditions and disease:-
No matter what your current weight, being active boosts high-density lipoprotein
(HDL) or "good," cholesterol and decreases unhealthy triglycerides. This one-two
punch keeps our blood flowing smoothly, which decreases your risk of cardiovascular
diseases. In fact, regular physical activity can help you prevent or manage a wide
range of health problems and concerns, including stroke, metabolic syndrome, type 2
diabetes, depression, certain types of cancer, arthritis and falls.

c) Exercise improves mood:-
A workout at the gym or a brisk 30-minute walk can help. Physical activity stimulates
various brain chemicals that may leave you feeling happier and more relaxed. You
may also feel better about your appearance and yourself when you exercise
regularly, which can boost your confidence and improve your self-esteem.

d) Exercise boosts energy:-
Regular physical activity can improve your muscle strength and boost your
endurance. Exercise and physical activity deliver oxygen and nutrients to your tissues
and help your cardiovascular system work more efficiently. And when your heart and
lungs work more efficiently, you have more energy to go about your daily chores.

e) Exercise promotes better sleep:-
Regular physical activity can help you fall asleep faster and deepen your sleep. Just
do not exercise too close to bedtime or you may be too energized to fall asleep.



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f) Exercise puts the spark back into our sex life:-
Regular physical activity can leave you feeling energized and looking better, which
may have a positive effect on your sex life. But there is more to it than that. Regular
physical activity can lead to enhanced arousal for women. And men who exercise
regularly are less likely to have problems with erectile dysfunction than are men who
do not exercise.

g) Exercise can be fun:-
Exercise and physical activity can be a fun way to spend some time. It gives you a
chance to unwind, enjoy the outdoors or simply engage in activities that make you
happy. Physical activity can also help you connect with family or friends in a fun
social setting. So, take a dance class, hit the hiking trails or join a soccer team. Find
a physical activity you enjoy, and just do it. If you get bored, try something new.



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Benefit of health-related Physical Fitness:-

a) Good physical fitness can help an individual work effectively and efficiently:-
A person who can resist fatigue, muscle soreness, back problems and other symptoms
associated with poor health-related fitness is capable to of working productively and
having energy left over at the end of the day. While, employes involved with fitness
programs at work have improved their sense of well-being. People with good skill-related
fitness may be more effective and efficient in performing certain jobs.

b) Physical fitness is essential to effective living:-
Every person requires enough fitness to perform normal daily activities without undue
fatigue. Whether, it be walking, performing, household chores or merely feeling good and
enjoying the simple things in life without pain or fear of injury, good fitness is important to
all people.

c) Good physical fitness can help an individual enjoy leisure time:-
A person who is lean, has no back problems, does not have high blood pressure and has
reasonable skills in a lifetime of sports is more likely to get involved and stay regularly
involved in leisure-time activities than one who does not have these characteristics.
Enjoying our leisure time may not add years to our life but can add life to your years.

d) Physical fitness is the basis for dynamic and creative activity:-
The relationship between the soundness of the body and the activity of the mind is subtle
and complex. Intelligence and skill can only function at the peak of their capacity when
the body is healthy and strong and that hardy spirits or toughs or tough minds usually
inhabit sound bodies. Physical fitness is the basis of all activities in the society. If the
body grow soft and inactive, if we fail to encourage physical development and prowess,
we will undermine our capacity for thought and for work. A recent research suggest that,
though modest, the effect of activity and fitness n intellectual functioning is positive.

e) Good physical fitness help to function safely and assist in meeting unexpected
emergency:-
When they do arise, they often demand performance that requires good fitness. For
example, flood victims may need to fill sandbags for hours without rest and accident
victims may be required to walk or run long distance for help. Besides that, good fitness is
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required for such simple task as safely changing a spare tire or loading a moving van
without injury.














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Health and Wellness Benefits of Physical activity and Fitness

a) Improved Cardiovascular Health:-
Some benefits are produce stronger heart muscle fitness and health, lower heart rate
better electric stability of heart, decreased sympathetic control of heart, increase oxygen
distribution to brain, reduced blood fat including low-density lipoproteins (LDLs),
increased protective high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), delayed development of
artherosclerosis, increased work capacity, improved peripheral circulation, improved
coronary circulation, resistance to emotional storm reduced risk for heart attack, reduced
risk for stroke, reduced risk for hypertension, greater chance of surviving a heart attack
and also increased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

b) Enhanced mental Health and Function:-
Relief of depression, improved sleep habits, fewer stress symptoms, ability to enjoy
leisure and work as well as improved brain function.

c) Opportunity for successful experience and social interactions:-
Improved self-concept, opportunity to recognize and accept personal limitations,
improved sense of well-being, enjoyment of life and fun and then improved quality of life.

d) Improved appearance:-
Better figure or physique, better posture of the body shape and enable to manage fat
control.

e) Greater lean body mass and less body fat:-
Greater work efficiency, less susceptibility to disease, improved appearance and less
incidence of self-concept problems related to obesity.

f) Improved Flexibility:-
Greater work efficiency, less chance of muscle injury, less chance of joint injury,
decreased chance of developing low back problems and improved sport performance.

g) Bone development:-
Greater peak bone density and less chance of developing osteoporosis.


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h) Reduced cancer risk:-
Reduced risk for colon and breast cancer and also possible reduced risk for mental and
prostate cancers.

i) Reduced effect of acquired aging:-
Improved ability to function in daily life, better short-term memory, fewer illnesses, greater
mobility, greater independence,greater ability to operate an automobile and then lower
risk for dementia.

j) Improved wellness:-
Improved quality of life, leisure-time enjoyment, improved work capacity, ability to meet
emergencies and improved creative capacity.

k) Resistance fatigue:-
Ability to enjoy leisure, improved quality of life and improved ability to meet some
stressors.

l) Improved strength and muscular endurance:-
Greater work efficiency, less chance for muscle injury, reduced risk for low back
problems, improved performance in sports, quicker recovery after hard work and
improved ability to meet emergencies.


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The FITT Formula:-

A formula used to describe the frequency, intensity, time and type of physical activity
necessary to produce benefits. As well as, the formula for achieving health, wellness and
fitness benefits.
a) Frequency:-
It is about how often physical activity must be performed regularly to be effective. The
number of days a person does activity in a week determines frequency of exercise.
Most benefits require at least three days and up to six days of activity per week.
However, frequency ultimately depens on the specific activity and the benefit desired.
b) Intensity:-
It related to the how the condition of the activity. Which, physical activity must be
intense enough to require more exertion or overload then mormal to produce
benefits. The method for determining appropriate intensity varies with the desired
benefit. For example, metabolic fitness and associated health benefits require only
moderate intensity, cardiovascular fitness for high-level performance requires
vigorous activity that elevates the heart eate well above normal.
c) Time:-
Based on the duration of the exercise conducted. Which, physical activity must be
done for an adequate length of time to be effective. The length of the activity session
depends on the type of activity and also the expected benefit.
d) Type:-
What kind of activity conducted. Which, the benefits derived depend on the type of
activity performed. Each, activity has a different frequency, intensity and also time.
For example, moderate activity must be done at least five days a week, while muscle
fitness activity may be done as few as two days a week.

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The Healthy Eating Pyramid

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Components of Nutrient
Proteins
We need protein for growth, to repair body tissue, and to keep our immune systems healthy.
When the body not get enough protein, it might break down muscle for the fuel it needs. This
makes it take longer to recover from illness and can lower resistance to infection. People
with cancer often need more protein than usual. After surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation
therapy, extra protein is usually needed to heal tissues and help fight infection.
Good sources of protein include fish, poultry, lean red meat, eggs, low-fat dairy products,
nuts and nut butters, beans, peas and soy foods.
Fats
Fats play an important role in nutrition. Fats and oils are made of fatty acids and serve as a
rich source of energy for the body. The body breaks down fats and uses them to store
energy, insulate body tissues, and transport some types of vitamins through the blood.When
considering the effects of fats on your heart and cholesterol level, choose monounsaturated
and polyunsaturated fats more often than saturated fats or trans fats.
Monounsaturated fats are found mainly in vegetable oils like olive, canola, and peanut oils.

Polyunsaturated fats are found mainly in vegetable oils like safflower, sunflower, corn, and
flaxseed. They are also the main fats found in seafood.

Saturated fats are mainly found in animal sources like meat and poultry, whole or reduced-
fat milk, cheese, and butter. Some vegetable oils like coconut, palm kernel oil, and palm oil
are saturated. Saturated fats can raise cholesterol and increase risk for heart disease. Less
than 10% of calories should come from saturated fat.

Trans-fatty acids are formed when vegetable oils are processed into margarine or
shortening. Sources of trans fats include snack foods and baked goods made with partially
hydrogenated vegetable oil or vegetable shortening. Trans fats also are found naturally in
some animal products, like dairy products.



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Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the body’s major source of energy. Carbohydrates give the body the fuel
it needs for physical activity and proper organ function. The best sources of carbohydrates
like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and also supply needed vitamins and minerals, fiber,
and phytonutrients to the body’s cells.
Whole grains or foods made from them contain all the essential parts and naturally
occurring nutrients of the entire grain seed. Whole grains are found in cereals, breads,
flours, and crackers. Some whole grains, such as quinoa, brown rice, or barley, can be used
as side dishes or part of an entree. When choosing a whole-grain product, look for the words
“whole grain,” “stone ground,” “whole ground,” “whole-wheat flour,” “whole-oat flour,” or
“whole-rye flour.”

Fiber is the part of plant foods that the body cannot digest. There are 2 types of fiber.
Insoluble fiber helps to move food waste out of the body quickly, and soluble fiber binds with
water in the stool to help keep stool soft. Other sources of carbohydrates include bread,
potatoes, rice, spaghetti, pasta, cereals, corn, peas, and beans. Sweets (desserts, candy,
and drinks with sugar) can supply carbohydrates, but provide very little in the way of
vitamins, minerals, or phytonutrients.

Water
Water and liquids or fluids are vital to health. All body cells need water to function. If you do
not take in enough fluids or if lose fluids through vomiting or diarrhea, can become
dehydrated (your body doesn’t have as much fluid as it should). If this happens, the fluids
and minerals that help keep your body working can become dangerously out of balance. We
should drink about eight 8-ounce glasses of liquid each day to be sure that all the body cells
get the fluid they need. We need extra fluids if you are vomiting or have diarrhea. Keep in
mind that all liquids (soups, milk, even ice cream and gelatin) count toward fluid goals.
Vitamins and minerals
The body needs small amounts of vitamins and minerals to help it function properly. Most
are found naturally in foods. They are also sold as supplements in pill and liquid form. They
help the body use the energy (calories) found in foods. Some people with cancer take large
amounts of vitamins, minerals, and other dietary supplements to try to boost their immune
system or even destroy cancer cells. But some of these substances can be harmful,
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especially when taken in large doses. In fact, large doses of some vitamins and minerals
may make chemotherapy and radiation therapy less effective.
Antioxidants
Antioxidants include vitamins A, C, and E; selenium, and zinc; and some enzymes that
absorb and attach to free radicals, preventing them from attacking normal cells.
If take in more antioxidants, health experts recommend eating a variety of fruits and
vegetables, which are good sources of antioxidants. Taking large doses of antioxidant
supplements or vitamin-enhanced foods or liquids is usually not recommended while getting
chemo or radiation therapy.
Phytonutrients
Phytonutrients or phytochemicals are plant compounds like carotenoids, lycopene,
resveratrol, and phytosterols that are thought to have health-protecting qualities. They are
found in plant products such as fruits, vegetables, and teas. Pill or supplement forms of
phytochemicals have not been shown to be as helpful as eating the foods that contain them.



















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Benefits of Good Nutrition
The benefits of good nutrition are multiple. Besides helping maintain a healthy weight, good
nutrition is essential for the body and all of system function. The good nutriton intake will
provide the physical and mental health. This is because the health diet will provides energy,
promotes good sleep and others benefits for health.



Bone and strength
A diet rich in calcium keeps bones and teeth strong and helps prevent bone loss associated
with osteoporosis. We can avoid the bone condition that providing our bodies with enough
calcium in diet. For example, low-fat dairy products, such as milk, cheese and yogurt; dark
green vegetables, such as bok choy and broccoli; and fortified foods, such as soy products,
fruit juices and cereals are good sources of calcium. Vitamin D helps the body absorb
calcium; choose products fortified with vitamin D to balance of nutrition.
Growth and repair of tissues in the body
A good nutrition has the advantage that it ensures growth during childhood and also
pregnancy which for healing and the maintenance and build-up of muscle mass. For these
essential processes to take place, the body needs energy, certain vitamins and minerals, but
especially protein on a daily basis.
Benefits of
good
nutrition
Bone and
teeth
strength
Growth and
repair of
tissue
Energy
Brain
health
Weight
control
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The components of nutritient like protein which also (supplies 17 kilojoules of energy per
gram) can be obtained primarily from animal products such as meat, eggs and milk. Most
plant foods are relatively poor in protein, with the exception of legumes and beans. The other
advantage is that, if some people who suffer an injury, the body will be ready and able to
repair the damaged tissue. From this it also be able to maintain muscle mass and increase it
when do some exercise.
Energy
Increased energy levels are the immediate benefits of switching to a healthy diet. Eliminating
excess fats, sugars and refined carbohydrates helps prevent blood sugar fluctuations.
Examples of refined carbohydrates include candy and white breads. Unprocessed
carbohydrates including whole grains, fruits and vegetables are most nutritious. This allows
to maintain steady blood sugar and constant energy levels as a result. Small, frequent meals
also help maintain energy. In addition, eating a healthy breakfast helps keep energized for
people throughout the day.
Brain health
Proper nutrition increases blood flow to the brain, protecting brain cells and helping to
prevent Alzheimer’s disease. For a brain healthy diet, avoid fried foods and favor baked,
steamed and grilled foods and also eat dark fruits and vegetables such as kale, spinach,
broccoli, prunes, raisins, blueberries, raspberries, plums and cherries. The others example
food like almonds, walnuts and other nuts are great sources of vitamin E, which along with
other vitamins, also helps fight Alzheimer’s disease.
Weight control
To prevent weight gain, the people must eat no more calories than burn each day. For
weight loss, must eat fewer calories than the body burns daily. Healthy and nutrient-dense
foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins, typically contain fewer
calories than sodas, sweets and fast food meals. Shedding excess pounds reduces your risk
of obesity-related conditions such as type-2 diabetes, clogged arteries and thyroid
dysfunction. To maintain weight, the calories must eat equal the energy you burn. A weight-
control strategy might include:
-Choosing low-fat, low-calorie foods
-Eating smaller portions
-Drinking water instead of sugary drinks
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-Being physically active




The Effects of Physical Activity and Nutrion Toward Health

Overall Mortality:-
Higher levels of regular physical activity are asso-ciated with lower mortality rates for both
older and younger adults. Even those who are moderately active on a regular basis have
lower mortality rates than those who are least active.

Cardiovascular Diseases:-
Regular physical activity or cardiorespiratory fit-ness decreases the risk of cardiovascular
disease mortality in general and of coronary heart disease mortality in particular. Existing
data are not con-clusive regarding a relationship between physical activity and stroke. The
level of decreased risk of coronary heart disease attributable to regular physical activity is
similar to that of other lifestyle factors, such as keeping free from cigarette smoking. Regular
physical activity prevents or delays the development of high blood pressure, and exer-cise
reduces blood pressure in people with hypertension.
A diet low in fats, cholesterol and sodium can lower risk of heart disease. The types of fat in
your diet play a major role in your level of risk. Saturated and cholestrol are commonly found
in red meats, fried foods, coconut oils, palm oils, margarines and packaged snack foods .
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This increase risk and must be avoided. Diets could reduce the risk of heart disease are rich
in fruits, vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy. Aim for four to five servings of fruits and
four to five servings of vegetables per day.




Cancer:-
Regular physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer. There is no
association between physical activity and rectal cancer. Data are too sparse to draw
conclusions regarding a relationship between physical activity and endometrial, ovarian, or
testicular cancers. Despite numerous studies on the subject, existing data are inconsistent
regarding an association between physical activity and breast or prostate cancers.
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Non–Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus:-
Regular physical activity lowers the risk of developing non insulin dependent diabetes
mellitus.
The excess weight gain, overweight and obesity and physical inactivity account for the
escalating rates of type 2 diabetes, worldwide. Diabetes leads to increased risk of heart
disease, kidney disease, stroke and infections. Increased physical activity and maintaining a
healthy weight play critical roles in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

Osteoarthritis:-
Regular physical activity is necessary for maintaining
normal muscle strength, joint structure and joint
function. In the range recommended for health,
physical activity is not associated with joint damage
or development of osteoarthritis and may be
beneficial for many people with arthritis. Competitive
athletics may be associated with the development of
osteoarthritis later in life, but sports-related injuries
are the likely cause.






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Osteoporosis:-
Weight-bearing physical activity is essential for normal skeletal development during
childhood and adolescence and for achieving and maintain-ing peak bone mass in young
adults. It is unclear whether resistance or endurance type physical activity can reduce the
accelerated rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women in the absence of estrogen
replacement therapy. Fragility fractures are a problem of older people. Adequate intakes of
calcium (500 mg per day or more) and of vitamin D in populations with high osteoporosis
rates helps to reduce fracture risk,



Falling:-
There is promising evidence that strength train-ing and other forms of exercise in older
adults preserve the ability to maintain independent living status and reduce the risk of falling.
Obesity:-
Low levels of activity, resulting in fewer kilocalories used than consumed, contribute to the
high prevalence of obesity in the United States. Physical activity may favorably affect body
fat distribution.
The imbalance between declining energy expenditure due to physical inactivity and high
energy in the diet (excess calories whether from
sugar, starches or fat) is the main determinant of
the obesity epidemic. Reducing intakes of foods
high in fat and foods and drinks high in sugars,
can prevent unhealthy weight gain. Taking these
simple goals to concrete action requires major
social and environmental changes in order to
effectively promote and support healthier
choices at the individual level.

30


References

1. Corbin, C.B, Welk, G.J, Corbin, W.R. & Welk, K.2011. Concept Of Fitness and
Wellness. A Comprehensive Lifestyle Approach.9
th
ed. New York: McGraw Hill
2. http://4lifebiz.blogspot.com/2012/12/statistik-penyakit-di-malaysia.html
3. http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/5-benefits-proper-nutrition-3664.html
4. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150999.php
5. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/7624.php