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CIRCUIT OPERATION

MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
SIMULATION
PSPICE SIMULATION
MATHCAD SIMULATION
SUMMARY

CIRCUIT OPERATION
A fully-controlled rectifier circuit contains only controlled-rectifiers, whereas a
semi-controlled rectifier circuit is made up of both controlled and uncontrolled
rectifiers. Due to presence of diodes, free-wheeling operation takes place without
allowing the bridge output voltage to become negative. In a semi-controlled
rectifier, control is effected only for positve output voltage, and no control is
possible when its output voltage tends to become negative since it is clamped at
zero volt. This page describes the operation of a single-phase half-controlled
rectifier.
A semi-controlled full-wave bridge rectifier can be configured in a few ways. They
are shown below.


The circuit in Configuration 1 contains two SCRs and two diodes. When source
V
in
is positive, SCR S
1
can be triggered at a firing angle called and then current
flows out of the source through SCR S
1
first, then through the load and returns via
diode D
3
. If


then SCR S
1
and diode D
3
conduct during < wt
< . When < wt < 2, V
in
is negative and SCR S
2
is normally triggered when wt
= + . During < wt < ( + ) , the output of the bridge circuit would have been
negative if we had used a fully-controlled bridge rectifer and if the current flow
was continuous. But here we have two diodes D
3
and D
4
instead of two SCRs.
When the output of the bridge tends to becomes negative just after wt exceeds ,
diode D
4
tends to get forward-biased and it starts conducting. Then diode D
3
is
reverse-biased and it stops conducting. During < wt < ( + ) , the devices in
conduction are SCR S
1
and diode D
4
and the output of the bridge is clamped at
zero, assuming that the on-state drops across devices in conduction is zero. During
( < wt < 2 , the devices in conduction are SCR S
2
and diode D
4
. SCR
S
2
and diode D
3
would conduct during 0 < wt < .
The circuit in configuration 1 has SCRs as the devices in the top-half and diodes as
the devices in the bottom-half. Instead, it it is possible to use SCRs as the devices
in the bottom-half and diodes as the devices in the top-half.
It is also possible to build a semi-controlled full-wave bridge rectifier as shown by
the circuit in configuration 2.




The behaviour of the circuit is the same as described earlier. In this circuit, SCR
S
1
and diode D
3
conduct during < wt < . During < wt < ( + ) , the devices
in conduction are diodes D
3
and D
4
and the output of the bridge is clamped at zero.
During ( + ) < wt < 2 , the devices in conduction are SCR S
2
and diode D
4
.
Diodes D
3
and D
4
would conduct during 0 < wt < .
Yet another configuration is available for semi-controlled bridge rectifier, as
shown by the circuit in configuration 3.


In this circuit, SCRs S
1
and S
3
conduct during < wt < . During < wt < ( + )
, the device in conduction is diode D and the output of the bridge is clamped at
zero. During ( + ) < wt < 2 , the devices in conduction are SCRs S
2
and S
4
.
Diode D would conduct during 0 < wt < .
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
The aim of analysis is to obtain the following values:
1. The average output voltage of the bridge as a function of firing angle.
2. The rms output voltage of the bridge as a function of firing angle.
3. The ripple factor of output voltage of the bridge as a function of firing angle.
4. The rms line current as a function of firing angle and the ratio wL/R.
5. The fundamental rms line current as a function of firing angle and the ratio
wL/R.
6. The THD in line current as a function of firing angle and the ratio wL/R.
The Average Output Voltage






The ripple factor is defined then as




Next it is shown how the line current
is to be analysed. An expression for
load current over half-a-cycle can be
obtained first. The load current during < wt < can be defined as follows.



where


From the expression
for load current,




The load current during <
wt < ( + ) can be defined as follows.



When the load current is repetitive, we have that





That is,



and




Hence we obtain that



Once A is known, the
total rms value of line
current and the rms
value of its
fundamental component can be estimated.
Let



and




Then the rms line current given t and a is obtained as follows.





To obtain the rms value of the fundamental component of the line current, we
obtain the trigonometric Fourier series coefficients of the fundamental component.
The line current has half-wave symmetry and hence these coefficients are obtained
as
foll
ows
.





Then





We obtain the rms value of fundamental
component as:



Total harmonic distortion in line current is then






SIMULATION
The applet shown below simulates this circuit. The parameters to be keyed-in are
the ratio of load reactance to load resistance and the firing angle in degrees.


PSPICE SIMULATION
The semi-controlled bridge rectifier that has been simulated has four SCRs and a
single free-wheeling diode. The program is presented below.
* Full-wave Bridge Rectifier with a resistive load
VIN 1 0 SIN(0 340V 50Hz)
XT1 1 2 5 2 SCR
XT2 0 2 6 2 SCR
XT3 4 0 7 0 SCR
XT4 4 1 8 1 SCR
VP1 5 2 PULSE(0 10 1667U 1N 1N 100U 20M)
VP2 6 2 PULSE(0 10 11667U 1N 1N 100U 20M)
VP3 7 0 PULSE(0 10 1667U 1N 1N 100U 20M)
VP4 8 1 PULSE(0 10 11667U 1N 1N 100U 20M)
D1 4 2 DNAME
L1 2 3 31.8M
R1 3 4 10
R2 1 0 1MEG
R3 2 0 1MEG
R4 4 0 1MEG
.MODEL DNAME D(IS=10N N=1 BV=1200 IBV=10E-3 VJ=0.6)

* Subcircuit for SCR
.SUBCKT SCR 101 102 103 102
S1 101 105 106 102 SMOD
RG 103 104 50
VX 104 102 DC 0
VY 105 107 DC 0
DT 107 102 DMOD
RT 106 102 1
CT 106 102 10U
F1 102 106 POLY(2) VX VY 0 50 11
.MODEL SMOD VSWITCH(RON=0.0105 ROFF=10E+5 VON=0.5
VOFF=0)
.MODEL DMOD D((IS=2.2E-15 BV=1200 TT=0 CJO=0)
.ENDS SCR
.TRAN 10US 60.0MS 0.0MS 10US
.FOUR 50 V(2,4) I(VIN)
.PROBE
.OPTIONS(ABSTOL=1N RELTOL=.01 VNTOL=1MV)
.END
The waveforms obtained are displayed.
The waveform of bridge output voltage



The waveform of load current





The waveform of mains current





The waveform of current through the free-wheeling diode







INTRODUCTION TO CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS


Controlled rectifiers are line commutated ac to dc power converters which are used to convert a fixed voltage,
fixed frequency ac power supply into variable dc output voltage.



Type of input: Fixed voltage, fixed frequency ac power supply.
Type of output: Variable dc output voltage


The input supply fed to a controlled rectifier is ac supply at a fixed rms voltage and at a fixed frequency. We
can obtain variable dc output voltage by using controlled rectifiers. By employing phase controlled thyristors in
the controlled rectifier circuits we can obtain variable dc output voltage and variable dc (average) output current
by varying the trigger angle (phase angle) at which the thyristors are triggered. We obtain a uni-directional and
pulsating load current waveform, which has a specific average value.


The thyristors are forward biased during the positive half cycle of input supply and can be turned ON by applying
suitable gate trigger pulses at the thyristor gate leads. The thyristor current and the load current begin to flow
once the thyristors are triggered (turned ON) say at t= . The load current flows when the thyristors conduct
from t= to . The output voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage through the conducting
thyristor. At t= , when the load current falls to zero, the thyristors turn off due to AC line (natural) commutation.


In some bridge controlled rectifier circuits the conducting thyristor turns off, when the other thyristor is (other
group of thyristors are) turned ON.


The thyristor remains reverse biased during the negative half cycle of input supply. The type of commutation
used in controlled rectifier circuits is referred to AC line commutation or Natural commutation or AC phase
commutation.


When the input ac supply voltage reverses and becomes negative during the negative half cycle, the thyristor
becomes reverse biased and hence turns off. There are several types of power converters which use ac line
commutation. These are referred to as line commutated converters.


DIFFERENT TYPES OF SINGLE PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS


Single Phase Controlled Rectifiers are further subdivided into different types


Half wave controlled rectifier which uses a single thyristor device (which provides output control only in
one half cycle of input ac supply, and it provides low dc output).
Full wave controlled rectifiers (which provide higher dc output)
Full wave controlled rectifier using a center tapped transformer (which requires two thyristors).
Full wave bridge controlled rectifiers (which do not require a center tapped transformer)
Single phase semi-converter (half controlled bridge converter, using two SCRs and two diodes,
to provide single quadrant operation).
Single phase full converter (fully controlled bridge converter which requires four SCRs, to
provide two quadrant operations).



Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers are of different types


Three phase half wave controlled rectifiers.
Three phase full wave controlled rectifiers.


Semi converter (half controlled bridge converter).
Full converter (fully controlled bridge converter).


The circuit diagram of a single phase fully controlled bridge converter is shown in the figure with a highly
inductive load and a dc source in the load circuit so that the load current is continuous and ripple free (constant
load current operation).


The fully controlled bridge converter consists of four thyristors T1 ,T2 ,T3 and T4 connected in the form of full
wave bridge configuration as shown in the figure. Each thyristor is controlled and turned on by its gating signal
and naturally turns off when a reverse voltage appears across it. During the positive half cycle when the upper
line of the transformer secondary winding is at a positive potential with respect to the lower end the
thyristors T1 and T2 are forward biased during the time interval t= 0 to . The thyristors T1 and T2 are triggered
simultaneously , the load is connected to the input supply through the conducting thyristors T1 and T2 . The output
voltage across the load follows the input supply voltage and hence output voltage V0=Vm sin t . Due to the
inductive load T1 and T2 will continue to conduct beyond t= , even though the input voltage becomes
negative. T1 and T2 conduct together during the time period to ( + ), for a time duration of radians
(conduction angle of each thyristor =180

)


During the negative half cycle of input supply voltage for t= to 2, the thyristors T3 and T4 are forward
biased. T3 and T4 are triggered at t= ( + ) . As soon as the thyristors T3 and T4 are triggered a reverse
voltage appears across the thyristors T1 and T2 and they naturally turn-off and the load current is transferred
from T1 and T2 to the thyristors T3 and T4 . The output voltage across the load follows the supply voltage
and V0=-Vm sin t during the time period t= ( + ) to (2 + ) . In the next positive half cycle
when T1 and T2 are triggered, T3 and T4 are reverse biased and they turn-off. The figure shows the waveforms of
the input supply voltage, the output load voltage, the constant load current with negligible ripple and the input
supply current.


During the time period t= to , the input supply voltage Vs and the input supply current Is are both positive
and the power flows from the supply to the load. The converter operates in the rectification mode during t= to
.


During the time period t= to ( + ) , the input supply voltage Vs is negative and the input supply
current Is is positive and there will be reverse power flow from the load circuit to the input supply. The converter
operates in the inversion mode during the time period t= to ( + ) and the load energy is fed back to the
input source.


The single phase full converter is extensively used in industrial applications up to about 15kW of output power.
Depending on the value of trigger angle , the average output voltage may be either positive or negative and two
quadrant operations is possible.


TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE AVERAGE (DC) OUTPUT VOLTAGE


The average (dc) output voltage can be determined by using the expression



The output voltage waveform consists of two output pulses during the input supply time period between 0 & 2
radians . In the continuous load current operation of a single phase full converter (assuming constant load
current) each thyristor conduct for radians (180

) after it is triggered. When thyristors T1 and T2 are triggered


at t= T1 and T2 conduct from to ( + ) and the output voltage follows the input supply voltage. Therefore
output voltage V0=Vm sin t for t= to ( + ).


Hence the average or dc output voltage can be calculated as



Therefore Vdcn=Vn= cos ; for a single phase full converter assuming continuous and constant load current
operation.


CONTROL CHARACTERISTIC OF SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER


The dc output control characteristic can be obtained by plotting the average or dc output voltage Vdc versus the
trigger angle


For a single phase full converter the average dc output voltage is given by the equation





Figure.2 Control Characteristics


We notice from the control characteristic that by varying the trigger angle we can vary the output dc voltage
across the load. Thus it is possible to control the dc output voltage by changing the trigger angle . For trigger
angle in the range of 0 to 90 degrees (ie: 0 90

) ,Vdc is positive and the average dc load current Idc is also


positive. The average or dc output power Pdc is positive; hence the circuit operates as a controlled rectifier to
convert ac supply voltage into dc output power which is fed to the load.


For trigger angle > 90

,cos becomes negative and as a result the average dc output voltage Vdc becomes
negative, but the load current flows in the same positive direction i.e.,Idc is positive . Hence the output power
becomes negative. This means that the power flows from the load circuit to the input ac source. This is referred
to as line commutated inverter operation. During the inverter mode operation for > 90

the load energy can be


fed back from the load circuit to the input ac source


TWO QUADRANT OPERATION OF A SINGLE PHASE FULL CONVERTER



Figure: 3 Voltage Vs Current Characteristics


The above figure shows the two regions of single phase full converter operation in the Vdc versus Idc plane. In
the first quadrant when the trigger angle < 90

,Vdc and Idc are both positive and the converter operates as a
controlled rectifier and converts the ac input power into dc output power. The power flows from the input source
to the load circuit. This is the normal controlled rectifier operation where Pdc is positive.


When the trigger angle is increased above 90

, Vdc becomes negative but Idc is positive and the average output
power (dc output power) Pdc becomes negative and the power flows from the load circuit to the input source.
The operation occurs in the fourth quadrant where Vdc is negative and Idc is positive. The converter operates as
a line commutated inverter.


TO DERIVE AN EXPRESSION FOR THE RMS VALUE OF THE OUTPUT VOLTAGE


The rms value of the output voltage is calculated as



The single phase full converter gives two output voltage pulses during the input supply time period and hence
the single phase full converter is referred to as a two pulse converter. The rms output voltage can be calculated
as





Hence the rms output voltage is same as the rms input supply voltage


The rms thyristor current can be calculated as


Each thyristor conducts for radians radians or 180

in a single phase full converter operating at continuous and


constant load current.


Therefore rms value of the thyristor current is calculated as



The average thyristor current can be calculated as




APPLICATIONS OF PHASE CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS


DC motor control in steel mills, paper and textile mills employing dc motor drives.
AC fed traction system using dc traction motor.
Electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical processes.
Magnet power supplies.
Reactor controls.
Portable hand tool drives.
Variable speed industrial drives.
Battery charges.
High voltage DC transmission.
Uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS).


Circuit Diagram



Figure: Single phase Full Converter with Free Wheeling Diode



Figure: Single phase Full Converter without Free Wheeling Diode
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