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I his manual was produced jointly by

BSC Sections, and Peter Brett Associates. Considerable advice and assistance was

given by BSC Tubes Division. Constrado, and the British Constructional Steelwork Association.

The British Steel Corporation and its subsidiary companies have taken every cafe to ensure thatthe information contained in this broch ure is accurate but regret they cannot accept any liability in respect thereof

We also acknowledge with thanks the help and interest of:

Arup Associates

Boulton & Paul Ltd

The Brick DeveiopmentAssociation

Conder Limited

Crown Decorative Products Ltd (industrial Finishes Division)

Dyer (Structural Steelwork) Ltd

Farrell Grimshaw Partnership

G.K.N. (Bolts) Limited Hilti (Gt. Britain) Limited

Jones Cranes Limited

II

Motor Transport Magazine

Timber Research and Development Association

Vickers Limited

The Welding Institute

Designed and oroouceo by Tattersall Advertising Ltd

Steelwork detail drawings by Ron Skates

Prrnted In England by The West Yorkshire Pmlllng Co L icl

Rei No BSe S 727 10 9 80

I lie purpose or trns manual IS to encourage the use of steel in construction. But it does so in a way which can only be applauded, for the stress is laid on the importance of choosing the appropriate design for each set of circumstances. The design is the key to what is built, and yet its importance has often been overlooked in the past. The right design should be one which not only fulfils the purpose of the structure but also gives pleasure by its appearance and takes into account all the factors which affect the cost of the job. It is also stressed how important it is that the designer is thoroughly familiar with the latest developments in steel technology, including methods of handling and assembling. All materials are constantly being improved and refined, but there can be a large time-lag before these improvements bear fruit in practice. Too often, as a result of natural reluctance to change our habits, a new material will simply be used as a replacement for an old one. It is only after imaginative designers have explored its potential that a new material comes into its own.

British Steel Corporation is to be congratulated on having recognised this fact and on taking steps to encourage good design by showing examples of it. These examples also demonstrate the importance of integrating design

with methods of construction - in fact the choice of the latter should be an integral part of the process of designing. It is also an excellent idea that these examples should be exchangeable so that new ones can be added and obsolete ones removed. Thus there will be no delay in making the public aware of any important developments in this field.

OVE ARUP SEPTEMBER 1980

FOREWORD 1.1

s 1. Foreword

~ 2. Introduction 3
;a 3. Fabrication, Transport and Erection 4
!1 4. Fasteners 27
;J 5. Corrosion Protection 35
:1 6. Hot Rolled Structural Steel Sections

-Dimensions 37
~ Structural Hollow Sections
-Dimensions 45
!I 7 & 8. Typical details 49

s 9. Index 72

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I CONTENTS
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1 Roche Products, Oalry, Scotland

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The purpose of this manual is to aid and hopefully stimulate Architects and Engineers to produce sound, simple and yet aesthetically pleasing steel structures.

Simple but elegant details often require more initial thought but can produce economies in drawing office and fabrication time through their simplicity.

To achieve simplicity it is necessary to be aware of the requirements, opportunities and limitations at all stages of fabrication, erection and use of a steel frame together with its cladding and maintenance requirements. The most economic steel structure does not necessarily produce the lowest total

building cost.

This manual does not short cut design procedures, but it is intended to promote ideas on forms of construction and act as an aide-memoir. It is by necessity and intent very limited in the examples given but hopefully these are sufficient to stimulate further thought and study elsewhere.

It is intended to publish further information that can be added to this guide. Personal notes sketches and pictures can also be added, thus making a useful day to day design reference.

For all structures competent designs should be carried out and where applicable references are given in the manual to Codes of Practice, British Standards or other publications to

enable further study.

Finally it should be remembered that the pictures, details and requirements indicated in this manual are a statement of today. Tomorrow these can and will change. Steelwork detailing is a living art responding to changing conditions and new ideas.

INTRODUCTION 2.1 3

3.1.1 Purchase from the Mills or Stockholders

On receipt of a firm order to commence work, a steelwork fabricator will normally reserve the necessary tonnage in the next mill rolling programme. If, however, the programme of work is very short, steel may alternatively be purchased directly from a stockholder, at small additional cost.

It is advisable at the commencement of the design to plan a construction programme that will allow the fabricator sufficient time, between his receiving an order and beginning erection, to obtain steel, prepare details, and fabricate in the most economic manner.

3.1.2 Steels

The British Steel.Corporation produces many different steels to suit the many requirements

of ind ustry. The following steels, however, are available for use in the construction industry:-

1 ) Steel to BS4360 Specification for

Weldable Structural Steels

2) Weathering steel

3) Arctic 355 steel.

Mild Steel

1. All normal constructional steelwork is

carried out using steel to BS4360. This

standard gives several basic strength grades for steel of which the following three are normally available and are known as:- 43,50 and 55. These figures indicate minimum ultimate

tensile strengths of ~30, 500 and 550N/mm~ Each strength grade has several sub grades, indicated by a letter between A & E.

FABRICATION 3.1 4

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The availability of the sub grades is as follows:-

43A, 43B, 43C, 430, 43E, 50A, SOB, SOC, 500, 55C.

Within one strength grade all the sub grades have similar ultimate tensile strengths, but as the sub grades proceed from A-E the specification becomes more stringent, the chemical composition changes and the notch ductility of the steel improves. The improvement in notch ductility (reduction in brittleness), particularly at low temperatures, assists in the design of welded joints and reduces the risk of brittle and fatigue failure. These are of particular concern in structures with dynamic loading, such as bridges, crane girders and oil rigs or in structures subjected to low temperature.

2. Rolled steel beams, columns, channels, etc.

for structural purposes are usually required

in 43A material but can be supplied in any of the other grades and sub grades at an additional cost per tonne. Rectangular, square and circular structural hollow sections are normally supplied in 43C and SOC material, but can be obtained

in 55C material.

Weathering Steels

3. This material is produced underthe brand names Cor-Ten and Stalcrest,and to BS4360 Grade WR50B.

The material has properties such that under the action of the weather it forms a patina of

fine and adhering rust which then inhibits further corrosion.

To ensure a uniform attractive patina, care is needed in detailing and erecting a structure in this material. Welding rods must also be carefully specified to ensure similarity of colour between base metal and infill weld material.

4. All standard rolled sections can be obtained in Cor-Ten B. There are, however, certain constraints which should be discussed with BSC Sections.

All standard hollow sections are available in Stalcrest WR50.

Arctic 355 Steel

5. ARCTIC 355 is the brand name of a steel

with an almost unique combination of properties -high strength, good weldability and excellent lowtemperature properties. It satisfies BS4360 and is available as rolled sections. ARCTIC 355 is a direct substitute for the 50 grade high strength steels with the added advantages that it can be welded manually without preheating and will retain its toughness to very much lower temperatures than the standard 4360-50 grades.

Originally developed for use in North Sea structures ARCTIC 355 sections can be used where welding difficulties or low temperature conditions may be encountered.

Sections

6. The sections that are normally available from

the mills, such asbea ms, columns, channels, joists, angles, square, rectangular and circular hollow sections, are rolled in accordance with the following British Standards:

BS4 Part 1 Hot rolled structural steel sections. BS4848 Part 4 Equal and unequal angles BS4848 Part 2 Hollow sections.

The tables on pages 37-48 set out the range of sections that are produced by the British Steel Corporation and give their physical dimensions. Further information concerning the physical properties of these sections can be obtained from Structural Steelwork Handbook published by Constrado/BCSA, and BSC Sections product manual.

Lengths

7. On receipt of an orderthe mills supply the

sections cut to length, within certain tolerances. Cold sawn lengths are supplied to closer limits at extra cost. In some cases extra long lengths may be supplied. Specific requirements should be discussed with BSC Sections, as mill capabilities vary.

Tolerances

8. In the production of hot rolled steel sections, very small variations will occur in the dimensions of the memberthatfinallyemergesfrom the

prod uction process. BS4 Part 1, BS4848 Part 4 and BS4848 Part 2 define the limits placed on these variations, to ensure structural safety, ease of fabrication and enable accurate construction within agreed tolerances. See pages 43-44 for details.

It should also be noted that beams of different weights within one basic serial size group have different overall dimensions.

FABRICATION 3.1 5

Designers wishing to ensure maximum economy are advised to referto the relevant sse price list when selecting sizes since the cost per tonne of steel varies according to section

Manufacture of Hollow Sections

9. Hollow sections are formed from round tube which, after heating, is passed through a series of rolls which progressively change the shape of the tube from a round to a square or rectangular section. To provide different wall thicknesses, the tube can be stretch reduced. Here, the diameter reduction is accompanied by a very accurate applied pull between roll stands which thins the tube wall by the required amount.

The following diagram illustrates the principle.

3.1.3 Lengths or Weights to be Handled During Fabrication

The length or weight of a structural member that can be handled during fabrication is normally determined by one of the following factors:-

a) The maximum length that can be supplied from

the mill. .

b) The maximum length orweightthatcan be transported and erected.

c) The maximum length orweightthatcan be handled by the particular fabricator carrying out the work.

There is a final factor which may affect the price but not necessarily the feasibility of the project. This is the difference between that which can be handled, transported and erected by normal means and that which requires special techniques, thus incurring extra cost.

TUBE

FROM BARREl FURNACE

EW MILL

FLYING SAW

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22 STAND STRETCH REDUCING MILL

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Ingoing Tube

STRETCH REDUCING MILL

FABRICATION 3.1 6

TUBE TO FINISHING DEPT

Finished 3rd

Round Reshape

2nd Reshape

1st

Reshape

It is therefore recommended that the advice of several steelwork contractors be sought as to the feasibility of a particular scheme prior to finalising details or agreeing a contract.

3.1.4 Fabrication of Structural Hollow Sections

There is little difference in fabrication techniques when using structural hollow sections compared with those used for 'open' sections. However, because of weight savings obtained when using hollow sections, the fabrication processes should be as fast and as efficient as possible, to keep down the cost perfabricated tonne.

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3.1.5 Shop Fittings

These are the base plates, cap plates, lugs, cleats, etc. which are attached in the fabrication shop to the structural members to allow both final erection on site and the addition of the other parts of the building such as cladding, services, machinery, etc.

E.]

Such fittings are attached by welding or bolting. In designing shop fittings it should be remembered that subsequentto carrying out the shop work, the structural member must be handled, transported and erected. The fittings should therefore be sufficiently robustto protect them during these stages from damage and to allow an accurate structure to be erected.

Shop fittings which protrude excessively from a member are not only more prone to damage but make storage and transportation more difficult.

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THE NODUS JOINT

3.1.6 Space Frames

The last decade or so has witnessed a growing world-wide interest in space frame structures .

They owe this measure of interest to several characteristics, being aesthetically pleasing, and being able to provide an economic answer to many design requirements-large uninterrupted spans, unimpeded future extensions in any direction, and the capacity to carry extensive overhead services. The relatively small size of components used in their fabrication permits speedy construction in the fabrication shop, easy transportation to site, and quick erection. Where overseas markets are concerned the small size of components has an extra advantage, as charges will be based upon weight not volume.

One easy and reliable method of joining together a space frame grid is the Nodus joint, a second generation design produced after a detailed study of all the problems involved. The main feature of the Nodus system is that all fabrication is carried out in the workshop. Only the simplest techniques are required on site. The chord connection incorporates a feature which ensures the correct engagement of the connector. Assembly is virtually foolproof, and, as construction proceeds, the desired structural shape, with required camber, is automatically generated.

FABRICATION 3.1 7

3.1.7 Welding

Direction of welds

Manual metal arc-

the process most used for site welding

FABRICATION 3.1 8

Submerged arc-

the most common fabrication shop process

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Metal inert gasused in the fabrication shop

3.1.7 Welding

Welding is carried out by using a gas flame or electric arc which locally melts the filler rod and the steel members to be joined together. Fusion occurs between the molten metals with the filler rod providing the additional metal required for the fillet or infill material in the butt weld.

Structural steelwork is normally arc welded and the filler rod or electrode is varied in diameter to suit the size of the weld required.

The electrodes, besides varying in diameter, can be coated with a variety of different materials such as minerals, starches or cellulose, etc. The coating performs several functions. It is usually consumed at a slightly slower rate than the electrode metal and therefore assists in concentrating and directing the arc stream. The arc in burning the coating liberates large amounts of gas which shield the arc and particles of molten metal from contamination by the surrounding air. The coating produces a slag which floats on top of the molten metal and then solidifies, thus providing further protection to the weld from contamination at high temperatures. It also assists in controlling the rate of cooling.

The correct composition of electrode covering will assist in carrying out welds in the vertical or overhead positions.

In the construction industry it is normal practice to make connections or joints in the fabrication shop by arc welding, site connections being made with bolts. However, in certain instances, site welding can lead to Simpler joints giving continuity to structures and therefore opportunities for more economic design and reduced deflections.

In preparing for site welding, care should be taken in detailing the members to be joined together to ensure "fit up" and adequate

access to complete the weld satistactori'y. Some temporary connection or propping may be necessary to ensure the stability of the structural members until welding is completed. Notwithstanding these requirements, site welding, correctly used, can provide an economic alternative to the traditional bolted connections.

Where it is necessary to ensure the quality of the welding the designer may decide to have the welders tested prior to carrying out the work, and subsequently to examine and test the welds.

BS4870/1 and 21ay down the procedures and tests.

BS3923 'Methods of Ultrasonic Examination of Welds' and BS2600 or BS2910 'Radiographic Examination of Welds' give non-destructive methods of examining completed welds.

Forthe designer who would appreciate expert assistance in controlling this part of the work, it is possible to appoint, for a fee, an independent welding specialist to carry out the testing and inspection of the welds and welders. Information and assistance can be obtained from BSC Research, Ladgate Lane Laboratories Middlesbrough, Cleveland TS8 9EG.

FABRICATION 3.1 9

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Reference should also be made to BS5531 :1978'Safety in Erecting Structural Frames'.

The full, detailed requirements of the Act are given in Health and Safety at Work Etc. Act 1974 (H.M.S.O.)

3.1.8 Health and Safety at Work

This Act makes provision for securing the safety and welfare of people at work and for protecting others against risks to health and safety as a result of the activities of people at work. It also deals with the use of dangerous substances and the control of emissions into the atmosphere.

The Act lays down the requirementsfor an employerto conduct his business in a proper mannerto ensure the well being of his employees. Equally, there are requirements for self employed and employees to ordertheir conduct so as not to hazard their own orthe well being of others.

Further requirements concern the care, maintenance and safety of premises and plant used in connection with work, together with the control of harmful emission into the atmosphere.

There isalso a dutyforhealth and safety placed upon persons designing, manufacturing, erectingor Installing, importing or supplying articles for use at work, to ensure that the article or the use to which it is put, does not cause a

hazard to health and safety.

These requirements are of prime importance at all stages of fabrication, erection and during the life of the structure. The designer should, therefore, remember, that whilst he has the responsibility for the long term behaviour of the structure, he can complicate or simplify the work of the fabricator and erector by the thought he gives to these processes.

3.1.9 Fabrication Drawings

Priorto cutting, drilling, welding, etc. in the fabrication shop, the steelwork contractorwill produce shop drawings showing the necessary detailsofevery item of steelwork so thattheycan be manufactured and erected to produce a desired structure.

Copiesofthese drawingsare normally forwarded to the clientorhis representative for approval priorto commencementoffabrication.

The following drawingsare typical examplesofshop orfabrication drawings and show tolerances normallyallowed.

FABRICATION 3.1

2'11' '125

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Tolerances normally allowed in detailing

Typical fabrication drawings for stanchions and beams with end and hole tolerances detailed.

FABRICATION 3~1.9 13

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1. Fabrication shop

2. Shot blasting-a treated beam

3. Welded joint preparation

4. Sawing to length

5. Multiple drilling

6. Welding an end plate to a beam

7. Cropping and hole punching an angle

8. Flame cutting

9. Spray painting

10. Stacking of components

11. Ultrasonic testing of welds

11

FABRICATION 3.1.11 17

Fabrication of Structural Hollow Sections

1. 2. 3. 4.

Bevel cutting Profile cutting

Profile cut end for saddle connection Fabricated triangular girder

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3.2.1

The size of structural units that can be transported will form the upper boundary of size for a particular structural member. This limitation will therefore form one of the parameters of design.

Where the distance to be transported is particularly long or expensive, great care should be taken in designing members so that they can be stacked in the minimum space and where possible nested together.

3.2.2 Road Transport

The UK Road Traffic Regulations permit a gross weight for rigid vehicles of 30 tons and

32 tons for articulated vehicles. The maximum permitted axle load is 10 tons. There are also regulations concerning the length, width, marking, lighting and police notification for large loads. These requirements have been summarised in chart form by Motor Transport magazine which is reproduced on page 22.

The official clearance height for new bridges over roads in the UK is 5.0m (16ft-6ins). Minimum clearance for service roads is 4.5m (14ft-9ins). However for a given project it would be wise to check existing bridge clearances, as not all of the older bridges meet these requirements.

Also important is limiting width which should be checked at the same time.

3.2.3 Rail Transport

The normal limitations of size that can be transported by British Rail are 21m long x 2.4m wide x 2.75m high (70ft x 8ft x 9ft). For this type of freight, weight is not normally a problem, but all aspects of the journey should be cleared in advance with the appropriate rail authority.

3.2.4 Air Transport

Delivery of prefabricated steelwork by air is more complicated due to different types of aircraft in use. For the normal side loading type of cargo aircraft, loads have to be palletised in crates approximately 3.0m x 2.1 m x 1.4m

(10ft x 7ft x 4.5ft) with serious limitations on weight.

There are however larger front loading aircraft available. It is recommended therefore that British Airways or one of the various cargo charter companies be contacted, concerning the limitation for a particular project.

3.2.5 Transport by Ship

This presents no problem. Any structural member which can be transported to the dockside can be accommodated aboard ship.

3.2.6 General

The previous information relates to the current requirements within the UK. These will undoubtedly change with time as we standardise our regulations with those of the EEC.

Where the steelwork is to be exported a careful check must be made beforehand of local regulations and facilities for transportation.

Even with the best planning it is still possible to forget the importance of the width of the gate or lane into the site where the construction takes place and of the need to unload, store and erect the steelwork.

Unless the contract states otherwise, deliveries should be phased to avoid congestion on site, and problems with access to specific items.

TRANSPORTATION 3.2 21

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WIDTH, LENGTH AND PROJECTION REQUIREMENTS UNDER C AND U AND SPECIAL TYPES

NOTICE MATE
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TRANSPORTATION 3.2. 7 22

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OVER 305m (1011)

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OVER 2 9m SPECIAL

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OVER35m~

- (11115""n) IALL

OVER 43m _ SPECIAL

(1411) TYPES

LIGHTING REQUIREMENTS

SIDE MARKER LAMPS

MAX -____,~ 305m (1011)

MAX 305m (1011)

ONE LAMP UP TO 152m (51t) IF PROJECTION BEYOND MOTOR

BEHIND MOTOR VEHICLE VEHICLE OVER 915m (3011), LAMP REQUIRED UP TO 152m (51t) BEHIND CENTRE POINT OF LOAD

TRAILERS - ARTie OR DRAWBAR

FRONT MARKER LAMP

PROJECTIONS

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70~70°

WHITE RED

IF OVER 915m (3011) LONGSIDE MARKER LAMP

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Lump load law at a glance

The chart shows the requirements of the law concerning police notice, mates and marking, and the main requirements about the fitting of additional lights at night, when long, wide or projecting loads are carried.

The chart was published in Motor Transport of July 1978 though the substance of this law has not been changed since that date. The chart now incorporates the metric units used in the Construction and Use Regulations and the Special Types Order.

The requirements illustrated are contained

in the following legislation.

Motor Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulation 1978.

MotorVehicles (Authorisation of Special Types) General Order1973.

Road Traffic Act 1972.

Road Vehicles Lighting Regulations 1971. A limited numberof reprints are available

from the Motor Transporteditorial offices.

TRANSPORTATION 3. 2. 7 23

24

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In conceiving the form of a particular structural solution it is necessary to consider the means by which the frame will be erected and the need to provide stability during and after erection. If the structure is dependent on other parts of the building for its long term stability such as floor slabs or lift shafts, there may be a need for temporary props and/or ties unti I these members are constructed.

Where the permanent connections are to be site welded, there will be a similar requirement for temporary connections, props and/or ties to enable the structure to be erected, lined and levelled prior to final welding. The positioning of joints in a structure will therefore materially affect the ease with which a structure can be erected, and, of course, the fi nal cost.

In detailing site connections care should be taken to ensure simplicity of detail and ease of making the connections, particularly in the case of long structures where provision should be made to minimise the effect of cumulative tolerances.

Where high strength friction grip bolts are used sufficient space should be available to use the torque spanner which may be 1.2 metres long. Similarly proper access must be provided for site welding.

The accurate location of holding down bolts is very important to avoid delays or the need to alter base plates. These problems can be eased by drilling the bolts in after the concrete bases have been cast and using a template or, alternatively, erecting the columns in preformed sockets in the concrete bases.

The hoisting of the steelwork into position in

the structure is normally done by:-

a) Fixed or mobile tower crane

b) Mobilecrane

c) Pole or stick (now seldom used in the UK)

d) By a combination of the above

It is obviously essential that the ground conditions on site enable the safe and normal use of the above equipment and also allow for the fabricated work to be brought to the crane when it is in a fixed position.

More detailed recommendations concerning safety in erecting structural frames are given in BS5531 (Safety in Erecting Structural Frames).

ERECTION 3.3 25

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4.1 History and Definition of Fasteners

The screw thread finds its origin in ancient times being a development of the inclined plane, the simple machine principle which was probably employed in the construction of Stonehenge and the Pyramids. Archimedes is usually given the credit for being the first to form the inclined plane into a helix and the Archimedes screw was used in ancient Greece and Egypt to raise water from one drainage channel to a higher one.

Over the centuries the nail made from wood or metal, has survived as an excellent way of joining soft materials like wood together, but early craftsmen found that a device that would give better retention was necessary and so the screw thread and nut were born. Today our technology depends greatly on the threaded fastener and we have the expression 'the nuts and bolts of the matter; meaning the basic ingredients of the subject of our discussion. The rivet is also of very early origin and when the Industrial Revolution gave rise to the fashioning of iron into machines and structures, rather than weapons of war and agricultural implements of former years, the wrought iron rivet became the prime fastener in engineering work. Inserted hot into a clearance hole and 'tailed; it shrank in length on cooling, drawing the plates into close contact whilst the Poisson effect ensured that there was reasonably good fill of the hole. Although mild and high yield steels were later introduced, the riveting technique changed little, and it gradually gave way to welding and high strength friction grip bolting in structural steelwork from the early 1950's. Today the rivet is rarely used as structural bolting requires fewer men in installation, needs less skill, is quieter and eliminates fire risk.

A structural fastener may be defined as 'a headed and/orthreaded component capable of joining separate material elements together such that load can be transferred from one component to another:

The term 'bolt' is frequently used in its generic sense meaning the complete assembly of bolt,

nut and appropriate washer.

Structural bolting is used for assembly both in the field and in the shops, but it is in the making of site connections that the convenience of bolting is most appreciated. It provides an efficient and economical connection which is easily inspected.

4.2 British Standards for Bolts, Washers and Rivets

4.2.1 The principle standards from which bolt selection can be made are as follows:-

BS4190 ISO Metric Black Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and Nuts

BS4933 ISO Metric Black Cup and Countersunk Head Bolts and Screws with Hexagonal Nuts

BS3692 ISO Metric Precision Hexagonal Bolts, Screws and Nuts

B84395 High Strength Friction Grip Bolts and Associated Nuts and Washers

Part 1 General Grade

Part 2 Higher Grade

Part 3 Higher Grade (Waisted Shank)

Washers

BS4320:1968 Metal Washers for General Engineering Purposes Metric Series

(Note - Washers for HSFG Bolts are included in BS4395)

Rivets

BS4620:1970 Rivets for General Engineering Purposes

These British Standards were based wherever possible on the recommendations of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), but in some respects the recommendations were in draft form at the time of writing and the compiling committees were obliged to make their own interpretation of some dimensions and properties. As the ISO work proceeds and the Standards for each product are firmly established, there are likely to be corresponding changes in British Standards although the degree of communication and co-operation has been such that any changes are likely to be relatively minor.

Forthe complete design properties reference should be made to the Constradol BCSA Handbook on Structural Steelwork, and to manufacturers trade literature.

FASTENERS 4 27

4.2.2 Strength Grade Designation

The continental system of strength grading introduced with the ISO system is now used in this country. The strength grade for bolts is given by two figures separated by a point. The first figure is one tenth of the minimum ultimate stress in kgflmm~The second figure is one tenth of the percentage of the ratio of minimum yield stress to minimum ultimate.

Thus '4·6 grade' means that the minimum ultimate stress is 40 kgflmm2 and the yield stress 60% of this. It follows that the yield stress is obtained by multiplying the two figures together to give 24 kgf/mm~

For higher tensile products where the yield point is not clearly defined, the stress at a permanent set limit is quoted instead of yield stress.

The single grade number given for nuts indicates one tenth of the proof load stress in kgflmm2 and corresponds with the bolt ultimate strength to which it is matched, e.g. an 8 grade nut is used with an 8·8 grade bolt. It is permissible to use a higher strength grade nut than the matching bolt number and grade 10·9 bolts are supplied with grade 12 nuts since grade 10 does not appear in the British Standard series.

To minimise risk of thread stripping at high loads, BS4395 high strength friction grip bolts are matched with nuts one class higher than the bolt.

FASTENERS 4 28

4.2.3 Grade 4·6 Black Mild Steel and grade S·S high tensile Bolts and Nuts - Mechanical Properties and Dimensions

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BS4190 Bolt BS3692

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Nut BS3692

ISO (M12) M16 M20 (M22) M24 (M27) M30 (M33) M36
Metric coarse threads
Pitch (mm) 174 200 2·50 2·50 3·00 3·00 350 3·50 4·00
Tensile Stress area (mrrr) 84·3 157 245 303 353 459 561 694 817
Basic effective diameter (Pitch
diameter) (mm) 10863 14·701 18·376 20·376 22·051 25·051 27727 30· 727 33-402
Grade4'6 Ultimate load kgf 3375 6280 9800 12120 14120 18360 22400 27760 32700
kN 331 61·6 96·1 118·8 138 180 220 272 321
Proof load kgf 1910 3550 5540 6850 7980 10400 12700 15700 18500
kN 18·7 34·8 54·3 67·3 78·2 102 124 154 181
Grade8'8 Ultimate load kgf 6750 12550 19600 24200 28200 36720 44800 55520 65400
kN 66·2 123 192 238 277 360 439 544 641
Proof load kgf 4910 9140 14300 17600 20500 26700 32700 40400 47500
kN 481 89·6 140 173 201 262 321 396 466
Length ofthreads
BS4190 Up to and inc. 125mrr, 30 38 46 50 54 60 66 72 78
and Over125mm up to
and inc. 200mm 36 44 52 56 60 66 72 78 84
BS3692 Over200mm 49 57 65 69 73 79 85 91 97
BS4190 Up to and inc. 125mm 24 30 33 36 40
(Short thread length)
Dimensions
Max. width across flats 19·0 24·0 300 32·0 36·0 41·0 46·0 50·0 55·0
Max. width across corners 21·9 27·7 346 36·9 41·6 473 53·1 57·7 635
Nominal head depth of bolts 8·0 100 no 14·0 15·0 17-0 19·0 22·0 23·0
Nominal depth of nuts 10·0 no 160 18·0 19·0 22·0 24·0 26·0 29·0 r=

111

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Non-preferred diameters in brackets ()

4.2.4 Black Hexagon Bolts and Screws

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MANUFACTURERS RECOMMENDED RANGE

To BS 4190 Grade 4·6 - Metric Coarse Thread (Standard and short thread lengths) (mm)

Hexagon head bolts and nuts

Length (mm)
DIA 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 180 200 220 260 300
M12 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x
M16 0 0 0 0 xo xo xo xo xo xo xo xo xo x x x x x x x x x x
M20 0 0 0 0 xo xo xo xo xo xo xo x x x x x x x x x x x
M24 0 xo xo xo xo x x x x x x x x x Hexagon head screws

Length (mm)
DIA 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 100
M12 x x x x x x x x x x
M16 x x x x x x x x x
M20 x x x x x x x x=Standard thread lengths o=Shortthread lengths

In the range covering two thread lengths, the manufacturers may supply either, unless specified by the customer.

Preferred diameters over M24 are M30 and M36 Forfull range see BS 4190.

I ncrements of length

For diameters up to and including M24 increments of length should not be less than 10mm up to 200mm long, over 200mm long not less than 20mm and over 300mm long not less than 25mm. For diameters over M24 increments of length should notbe lessthan 20mm upto 300mm long and over 300mm not less than 25mm.

4.2.5 Thread Lengths BS 4190 & BS 3692

Nominal bolt length

2d+ 6mm 2d+12mm 2d+25mm

Length of thread

Up to and inc. 125mm

Over 125, up to and inc. 200mm Over200mm

d = nominal bolt diameter

Bolts in the diameter range M16 to M27 inclusive, up to 125mm nominal length, may alternatively have a shorter thread length equal to 11'2d. This option shall not apply unless the purchaser in his enquiry and order states that he requires this shorter thread length.

4.2.6 Ordering Procedure

When designating ISO Metric bolts, screws or nuts, the following information should be given:-

1. General product description, e.g. High Tensile or Black, Head Shape, Bolts, Screws or Nuts, as appropriate.

2. The letter 'M' before the nominal thread diameter in mm, signifies the product is ISO Metric.

3. The nominal length in mm, if applicable.

4. The number of the appropriate British Standard, e.g. BS 3692, BS 4190.

5. The strength grade symbol.

6. Details of the protective coating if required, in accordance with the appropriate British Standard, e.g. BS 729 Parts 1 and 2, BS 3382: Parts 1-7.

Examples

1 Black hexagon head bolts 16mm diameter, 70mm long strength Grade 46, galvanised, would be designated:

Black hexagon head bolts M16 X 70 to BS 4190, Grade 4·6 galvanised to BS 729: Part 1

2. Hexagon head bolts 24mm diameter, 90mm long, manufactured from steel of strength grade 8·8, and zinc plated with coating of intermediate thickness, would be designated: High Tensile hexagon head bolts M25 X 90 to BS 3692-Grade 8·8, zinc-plated to BS 1706: Class B.

FASTENERS 4 29

4.2.7 High Strength Friction Grip Bolts - BS4395

Mechanical properties

General Grade Part 1

o

Nominal Tensile Proof Yield Ultimate
Diameter Stress Load Min. Load Load
Area (Min. Shank Min. Min.
Tension)
.'_ -------
mm mm' kN kN kN
-_--
M12t 84·3 49A 533 696
M16 157 92·1 997 130
M20 245 144 155 203
M22 303 177 192 250
M24 358 207 225 292
M27 459 234 259 333
M30 561 286 313 406
M36 817 418 445 591 Minimum elongation after fracture for all diameters is 12% on the test specimen described in Appendix B of B84395, Partl

tNot recommended. Only to be used for the lighter type of construction where practical conditions, such as material thickness, do not warrant the usage of a larger size bolt than M12.

4.2.8 High Strength Friction Grip Bolts - BS4395 Mechanical properties

Higher Grade Part 2

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Nominal Tensile Proof 085 1·15 Yield Ultimate
Diameter Stress Load Proof Load Proof Load Load Load
Area Min. (Min. Shank (Max Shank Min. Min.
Tension) Tension)
mm mm' kN kN kN kN kN
M16 157 122·2 1039 140·5 138·7 154·1
M20 245 190A 1618 219·0 216 240
M22 303 235·5 200·2 2708 366 269·5
M24 252 274·6 233A 316 312 245
M27 I 459 356 303 409 406 450
M30 561 435 370 500 495 550
M33 694 540 459 621 612 680 Minimum elongation after fracture for all diameters is 9% on the test specimen described in Appendix B of B84395 Part 2.

30

4.2.9 High Strength Friction Grip Bolts and Nuts

BS4395 Parts 1 and 2 - Dimensions

Addition 10
Dlamelerof Pilch Wldlh Deplh Thickness D,a Diarneter Deplh Thickness Gnp lenglh
Nominal of (Coarse Across 01 of 01 01 of of 10 give
DI3 Unlhreaded Pilch Flals Washer Hexagon Csk Washer Flash Nuts lenglh 01
I Shank Series) Face Head Head Face Boll'
D B A - C F J G H E reourec
Max Min Max. Mm. Max Min Max Min Max Min
mm mm mm mm mm mm rnm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
(M12) 12·70 1130 175 22 2116 0·4 8·45 755 24 22 1991 2·0 1155 10·45 22
M16 16·70 1530 2·0 27 26·16 OA lOA5 9·55 32 27 2491 2·0 15·55 14A5 26
M20 2084 19·16 2·5 32 31·00 0·4 13·90 12·10 40 32 29·75 3·0 18·55 17A5 30
M22 22·84 21·16 2·5 36 35·00 OA 14·90 1310 44 36 3375 3·0 19·65 18·35 34
M24 2484 23·16 30 41 40·00 0·5 15·90 1410 48 41 38·75 40 22·65 21·35 36
M27 27·84 26·16 30 46 4500 0·5 17·90 16·10 54 46 43·75 40 24·65 2335 39
M30 30·84 29·16 3·5 50 49·00 0·5 20·05 17·95 60 50 47·75 4·5 26·65 2535 42
M33 34·00 32·00 3·5 55 53·80 0·5 22·05 1995 66 55 52·55 5·0 29·65 28·35 45
M36 37·00 35·00 40 60 58·80 0·5 24·05 21·95 72 60 5775 5·0 31·80 3020 48 Thread Lengths

Nominal length of bolt

Length of thread*

Not recommended diameter in brackets () Countersunk head dimensions are to B84933

* Allows for nut, one flat round washer and sufficient thread protrusion beyond nut.

Up to and including 125mm Over125mm uptoand including 200mm Over200mm

Part 1 Part 2

2d+6mm 2d+12mm

2d+18mm 2d+30mm

2d+12mm 2d+25mm

d*=thread diameter

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General grade PII nut

Highergrade PIli countersunk head

Higher grade Ptllnut

The symbol "M" may be used as an alternative to "ISOM" on bolt heads

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4.2.10 Flat Round Washers for use with high strength friction grip bolts

Dimensions in millimetres

Inside Diameter Outside Diameter Thickness
Nominal B C A Dt
Size
Min Max. Min Max. Min Max.
M12 13·8 13·4 30 29 28 2-4 11·5
M16 17·8 17-4 37 36 3-4 30 14
M20 21·5 21-1 44 43 3·7 3·3 17·5
M22 23-4 23·0 50 485 4·2 3·8 19
M24 26-4 26·0 56 54·5 4·2 3·8 21
M27 29-4 29·0 60 58·5 4·2 3·8 22·5
M30 32·8 32-4 66 64·5 4·2 3·8 26
M33 35·8 35-4 75 73·5 4·6 4·2 29 The symbol 'M' appears on the face of all Metric Series Washers. tWhen required Washers clipped tothis dimension.

4.2.11 Square Taper Washers for use with high strength friction grip bolts

Dimensions in millimetres

Inside Diameter Overall
Nominal B Mean Thickness A
Size S,zeC 3° and 5° Taper 8° Taper
MaX Min
M16 18·2 17·4 38·10 4·76 6·35
M20 219 21-1 38·10 4·76 635
M22 23·8 23·0 44·45 4·76 6·35
M24 26·8 26·0 57·15 4·76 6·35
M27 29·8 29·0 57·15 4·76 6·35
M30 33·2 32-4 57·15 4·76 6·35
M33 36·2 35-4 57·15 4·76 6·35 The symbol 'M' appears on the face of all Metric Series Washers.

6mm 7mm 8mm

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4.2.12 High Strength Friction Grip Nuts BS 4395

Mechanical Properties

ProolLoad
Nominal Size General Grade Higher Grade
olNu! Part 1 Parts2&3
mm kN kN
M12 84·3 -
M16 157 184-4
M20 245 288-4
M22 303 356·9
M24 353 415-4
M27 459 5400
M30 561 660·0
M33 817-0
M36 817 @ @
General grade Higher grade
Part 1 Parts2and3 FASTENERS 4 31

D

Shot Fixings

The use of shot fixings is now widespread

in the construction industry and provides a simple and quick method of forming connections between components. BS40781966 Specification for Cartridge-Operated Fixing Tools covers the design, construction, use and maintenance of these tools. Technical Data Note 36 (Rev) "Safety in the use of Cartridge Operated Fixing Tools" may be obtained 'free on application to H.M. Factory Inspectorate.

The determination of what fixing to use in a particular case is best decided in consultation with the fixing manufacturer. The following notes however may assist in understanding some of the principles involved.

The high strength steel fixing (pin) is driven into the structural steel base by firing a powder filled cartridge in a cartridge tool. This causes a plastic deformation of the steel, displaced by the point and shank of the pin. Because of the elasticity of the steel it gri ps the shank immediately after the driving process.

The loss in strength, due to the hole produced in driving the pin, is reduced by the work hardening that occurs in forming the hole.

To obtain sound fixings and to avoid loosening any of the previously driven pins the following dimensions should be observed:Minimum thickness of steel base 4mm. Distance from edges 2.5 x shank diameter of pin.

Spacing of fastener 6 x shank diameter of pin.

The best pull out loads are obtained when the point of the pin just penetrates through the other side of the base steel.

Cartridge Code Identification Colour No.
strength letter(s) colour in BS 381C*
Extra Low XL Brown 410
Low L Green 217
Low/Medium LM Yellow 309
Medium M Blue 166
Medium/High MH Red 53'7
High H White -
Extra High XH Black - *BS381C, 'Colours for specific purposes.'

Shot fixings into brittle materials such as cast iron should be avoided. The manufacturer's advice should be sought if the component to be fixed orthe base metal is made of high tensile steel, as there is a potential hazard of the accidental breakage of the fastening.

The cartridges used to drive the pins into steel vary in strength. BS4078 gives a range of seven strengths for cartridges from Extra low strength to Extra high, each grade having an identifying code letter and an identification colour.

The manufacturers issue tables indicating the grade of cartridge to be used for a given material and depth of penetration required.

Where notch toughness orfatigue performance is a critical factorinthe design, specialist advice should be sought regarding the location of shot fixings in the structure to ensure that they do not materialfy affect its performance.

Temperature

The mechanical properties of steel change at different temperatures. At low temperatures the toughness/ductility of steel decreases, whilst at high temperatures it will lose its tensile strength. These changes are, of course, detrimental to the holding power of shot fixings.

Care should be taken not to allow fasteners to fall below a temperature of -10°C prior to being driven.

Temperatures between -10°C and + 250°C have no effect on either the penetration process orthe holding power.

POWER ACTUATED FIXINGS TO STEEL 4.3

33

Galvanising a castellated beam

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Unprotected steel structures corrode when exposed to oxygen and moisture. The rate of corrosion is dependent on the degree of exposure and can be accelerated by a polluted atmosphere.

The detailing of steelwork can affect the corrosion pattern. Care should be taken therefore to minimise the surfaces exposed to corrosive atmospheres, to avoid ledges that

will retain moisture and narrow crevices where moisture will be retained by capillarity.

To give a useful working life steel structures are normally coated or cased to prevent, or delay corrosion. The detailing should therefore provide reasonable access to maintain the coatings and surfacings.

The effectiveness of the protection is dependent on the quality of the coating, or casing, its thickness and the degree of care that is taken over the preparation of the steel and of the application of the coating or casing.

The choice of a protection system is affected by the environment, the importance of the protection provided, the frequency and availability of the steelwork for maintenance and, of course, costs; both initial and long term.

The protection of steel structures is covered by 8S5493:1977 Code of Practice for protective. coating of iron and steel structures against corrosion. Tile Constrado publication 'Protection of Structural Steelwork from Atmospheric Corrosion' is also a useful reference.

CORROSION PROTECTION 5 35

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Designation Depth Width Thickness Designation Depth Width Thickness [In
of of Area of- of Area
Serial Mass per section section Web Flange of Serial Mass per section section Web Flange of
size metre D B t T Section size metre D B t T Section ~
mm k9 mm mm mm mm ,cm2 mm kg mm mm mm mm ern-
914x419 388 920·5 420·5 21·5 36·6 494·5 457 x 152 82 465·1 153·5 10·7 18·9 104·5 T
343 911·4 418·5 19-4 32·0 437·5 74 461·3 152·7 9·9 17·0 95·0
914x 305 289 926·6 307·8 19·6 32·0 368·8 67 457·2 151·9 9·1 15·0 85·4
253 918·5 305·5 17·3 27·9 322·8 60 454·7 152·9 8·0 13·3 75·9
224 910·3 304·1 15·9 23·9 285·3 52 449·8 152-4 7·6 10·9 66·5
201 903·0 303·4 15·2 20·2 256·4 406 x 178 74 412·8 179·7 9·7 16·0 95·0
838 x 292 226 850·9 293·8 16·1 26·8 288·7 67 409·4 178·8 8·8 14·3 85·5
194 840·7 292·4 14·7 21·7 247·2 60 406·4 177·8 7·8 12·8 76·0
176 834·9 291·6 14·0 18·8 224·1 54 402·6 177·6 7·6 10·9 - 68·4
762 x267 197 769·6 268·0 15·6 25·4 250·8 406 x 140 46 402·3 142-4 6·9 11 ·2 59·0
173 762·0 266·7 14·3 21·6 220·5 39 397·3 141·8 6·3 8·6 49·4
147 753·9 265·3 12·9 17·5 188·1 356x 171 67 364·0 173·2 9·1 15·7 85-4 'I
686x254 170 692·9 255·8 14·5 23·7 216·6 57 358·6 172·1 8·0 13·0 72·2
152 687·6 254·5 13·2 21·0 193·8 51 355·6 171·5 7·3 11 ·5 64·6
140 683·5 253·7 12·4 19·0 178·6 45 352·0 171·0 6·9 9·7 57·0
125 677·9 253·0 11·7 16·2 159·6 356x 127 39 352·8 126·0 6·5 10·7 49-4
610 x 305 238 633·0 311·5 18·6 31·4 303·8 33 348·5 125·4 5·9 8·5 41·8
179 617·5 307·0 14·1 23·6 227·9 305 x 165 54 310·9 166·8 7·7 13·7 68·4
149 609·6 304·8 11 ·9 19·7 190·1 46 307·1 165·7 6·7 11·8 - 58·9
610 x 229 140 617·0 230·1 13·1 22·1 178·4 40 303·8 165·1 6·1 10·2 51·5
-
125 611·9 229·0 11 ·9 19·6 159·6 305 x 127 48 310·4 125·2 8·9 14·0 60·8 t
113 607·3 228·2 11 ·2 17·3 144·5 42 306·6 124·3 8·0 12 ·1 53·2
101 602·2 227·6 10·6 14·8 129·2 37 303·8 123·5 7·2 10·7 47·5
• 610x 178 91 602·5 178·4 10·6 15·0 115·6 305x 102 33 312· 7 102-4 6·6 10·8 41·8
82 598·2 177·8 10·1 12-8 104·7 28 308·9 101·9 6·1 8·9 36·3
533 x 210 122 544·6 211 ·9 12·8 21·3 155·8 25 304·8 101·6 5·8 6·8 31-4
109 539·5 210·7 11·6 18·8 138·6 254x 146 43 259·6 147·3 7·3 12·7 55·1
101 536·7 210·1 10·9 17-4 129·3 37 256·0 146·4 6·4 10·9 47·5
92 533·1 209·3 10·2 15·6 117 ·8 31 251·5 146·1 6·1 8·6 40·0
82 528·3 208·7 9·6 13·2 104-4 254x 102 28 260-4 102·1 6·4 10·0 36·2
* 533 x 165 73 528-8 165·6 9·3 13·5 92·8 25 257·0 101 ·9 6·1 8·4 32·2
66 524·8 165·1 8-8 11·5 83·5 22 254·0 101 ·6 5·8 6·8 28-4
457x191 98 467-4 192·8 11 -4 19·6 125·3 203 x 133 30 206·8 133·8 6·3 9·6 38·0
89 463·6 192·0 10·6 17·7 113·9 25 203·2 133·4 5·8 7·8 32·3 r
82 460·2 191·3 9·9 16·0 104·5
74 457·2 190·5 9·1 14·5 95·0
67 453·6 189·9 8·5 12·7 85·4 I ~ '" , ' ' ,~, , ,

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Cut from Cut from
!I universal Depth universal Depth
Mass beam of Area Mass beam of Area
j Serial per section of Serial per section of
size metre Serial size Mass A section size metre Serial size Mass A section
!I mm kg mm k~/m mm cm2 mm kg / mm kg/m mm cm2
305 x 457 127 914 x 305 253 459·2 161·4 152 x 229 41 457 x 152 82 232·5 52·2
~ 112 224 455·2 142·6 37 74 230·6 47·5
101 201 451·5 128·2 34 67 228·6 42·7
292 )( 419 113 838 x 292 226 425·5 144-4 30 60 227·3 38·0
t 97 194 420-4 123·6 26 52 224·9 33·2
88 176 417·4 112 ·1 178 x 203 37 406 x 178 74 206·4 47·5
t 267 x 381 99 762 x 267 197 384·8 125·4 34 67 204·7 42·7
87 173 381 '0 110·2 30 60 203·2 38·0
~ 74 147 376·9 94·0 27 54 201·3 34·2
254 x 343 85 686 x 254 170 346·5 108·3 140 x 203 23 406 x 140 46 201·2 29·5
~ 76 152 343·8 96·9 20 39 198·6 24·7
70 140 341·8 89·3 171 x 178 34 356 x 171 67 182·0 42·7
~ 63 125 339·0 79·8 29 57 179·3 36·1
26 51 177·8 32·3
305 x 305 119 610 x 305 238 316·5 151·9 23 45 176·0 28·5
~ 90 179 308·7 114·0 127 x 178 20 356 x 127 39 176·4 24·7
75 149 304·8 95·1 17 33 174·2 20·9
!!I 229 x 305 70 610 x 229 140 308·5 89·2 165 x 152 27 305 x 165 54 155·4 34·2
63 125 305·9 79·8 23 46 153·5 29·5
20 40 151·9 25·8
!J 57 113 303·7 72·2 127 x 152 24 305 x 127 48 155·2 30-4
51 101 301·1 64·6 21 42 153·3 26·6
210 x 267 61 533 x 210 122 272·3 77·9 19 37 151 ·9 23·Z
~ 55 109 269·7 69·3 102 x 152 17 305 x 102 33 156·3 20·9
51 101 268·4 64·6 14 28 154·4 18·2
~ 46 92 266·6 58·9 13 25 152·4 15· 7
146 x 127 22 254 x 146 43 129·8 27·6
41 82 264·2 52·2 19 37 128·0 23·7
~ 191 x 229 49 457 x 191 98 233·7 62·6 16 31 125·7 20·0
45 89 231·8 57·0 102 x 127 14 254 x 102 28 130·2 18·1
41 82 230·1 52·3 13 25 128·5 16·1
~ 11 22 127·0 14·2
37 74 228·6 47·5 133 x 102 15 203 x 133 30 103-4 19·0
~ 34 67 226·8 42·7 13 25 101·6 16·1

Structural Tees used in compression shall conform to the requirements of clause 32a of BS 449.
~ Other dimensions, properties and details are as for the parent beam.
~ ~~
)l'''''
To BS 4:Part 1 ~:.~J
~
1-0--1 ::-
Cut from
Designation Depth Width Thickness universal Depth II ,-
of of Area Mass column of Area I

Serial Mass per section section Web Flange of Serial per section of
size metre Serial size Mass A section
size metre 0 B t T Section ~-
kg cm2 mm kg mm kg/m mm cm2
mm mm mm mm mm t
406 x 178 118 356 x 406 235 190·5 149·9 T
356 x 406 634 474·7 424·1 47·6 77·0 808·1
551 455·7 418·5 42·0 67·5 701·8 368 x 178 101 356 x 368 202 187·3 129·0
467 436·6 412·4 35·9 58·0 595·5 89 177 184·2 112·9
393 419·1 407·0 30·6 49·2 500·9 77 153 181 ·0 97·6
340 406-4 403·0 26·5 42·9 432·7 65 129 177·8 82·5
287 393·7 399·0 22·6 36·5 366·0 305 x 152 79 305 x 305 158 163·6 100·6
235 381·0 395·0 18·5 30·2 299·8 69 137 160·3 87·3
Column 59 118 157·2 74·9
Core 477 427·0 424-4 48·0 53·2 607·2 49 97 153·9 61·6
356 x 368 202 374·7 374·4 16·8 27·0 257·9 254 x 127 66 254 x 254 132 138·2 84·5
177 368·3 372·1 14·5 23·8 225·7 54 107 133·4 68·3
153 362·0 370·2 12·6 20·7 195·2 45 89 130·2 57·0
129 355·6 368·3 10·7 17 ·5 164·9 37 73 127·0 46·4
305 x 305 283 365·3 321·8 26·9 44·1 360-4 203 x 102 43 203 x 203 86 111 ·1 55·0
240 352·6 317·9 23·0 37·7 305·6 36 71 108·0 45·5
198 339·9 314·1 19·2 31·4 252·3 30 60 104·8 37·9
158 327·2 310·6 15·7 25·0 201·2 26 52 103·1 33·2 I !
-
137 320·5 308·7 13·8 21 ·7 174·6 23 46 101 ·6 29-4
118 314·5 306·8 11 ·9 18·7 149·8 152 x 76 19 152 x 152 37 80·9 23·7
97 307·8 304·8 9·9 15-4 123·3 15 30 78·7 19·1
254 x 254 167 289·1 264·5 19·2 31·7 212·4 12 23 76·2 14·9
132 276-4 261·0 15·6 25·3 168·9 Structural Tees used in compression shall conform to the requirements of clause L '"
107 266·7 258·3 13·0 20·5 136·6 32a of BS 449.
89 260·4 255·9 10·5 17·3 114·0 Other dimensions, properties and details are as for the parent column.
73 254·0 254·0 8·6 14·2 92·9
203 x 203 86 222·3 208·8 13·0 20·5 110·1
71 215·9 206·2 10·3 17 ·3 91 ·1
60 209·6 205·2 9·3 14·2 75·8
52 206·2 203·9 8·0 12·5 66·4
46 203·2 203·2 7·3 11 ·0 58·8
152 x 152 37 161 ·8 154-4 8·1 11 ·5 47-4
30 157·5 152·9 6·6 9·4 38·2
23 152·4 152·4 6·1 6·8 29·8 ~ To BS 4:Part 1 : where marked* To BS 4:Part 1
Designation Depth Width Thickness Designation Depth Width Thickness
!t of of Area of of Area
Nominal Mass per section section Web Flange of Nominal Mass per section section Web Flange of
~ size metre 0 B t T section size metre 0 B t T section
mm kg mm mm mm mm cm2 mm kg mm mm mm mm cm2
~ 254x 203 81·85 254·0 203·2 10·2 19·9 104A 432 x 102 65·54 431·8 101·6 12·2 16·8 83·49
254x 114 37·20 254·0 114·3 7·6 12·8 47A 381 x 102 55·10 381·0 101·6 lOA 16·3 70·19
~ 203 x 152 52·09 203·2 152·4 8·9 16·5 66A 305 x 102 46·18 304·8 101·6 10·2 14·8 58·83
203 x 102 25·33* 203·2 101·6 5·8 lOA 32·3 305 x 89 41·69 304·8 88·9 10·2 13· 7 53 ·11
178 x 102 21·54* 177·8 101·6 5·3 9·0 27A 254x 89 35· 74 254·0 88·9 9·1 13·6 45·52
j 152 x 127 37·20 152·4 127·0 10-4 13·2 47·5 254x 76 28·29 254·0 76·2 8·1 10·9 36·03
152 x 89 17·09* 152·4 88·9 4·9 8·3 21·8 229 x 89 32·76 228·6 88·9 8·6 13·3 41·73
!I 152 x 76 17·86 152·4 76·2 5·8 9·6 22·8 229 x 76 26·06 228·6 76·2 7·6 11 ·2 33·20
127 x 114 29· 76 127·0 114·3 10·2 11 ·5 37·3 203 x 89 29·78 203·2 88·9 8·1 12·9 37·94
J 127x114 26· 79 127 ·0 114·3 7-4 11·4 34·1 203 x 76 23·82 203·2 76·2 7 ·1 11 ·2 30·34
127 x 76 16·37 127·0 76·2 5·6 9·6 21·0 178 x 89 26·81 177·8 88·9 7·6 12 ·3 34·15
~ 127 x 76 13·36* 127·0 76·2 4·5 7·6 17·0 178 x 76 20·84 177·8 76·2 6·6 10·3 26·54
114x114 26· 79 114·3 114·3 9·5 10·7 34-4 152 x 89 23·84 152-4 88·9 7·1 11·6 30·36
t 102 x 102 23·07 101·6 101·6 9·5 10·3 29A 152 x 76 17·88 152-4 76·2 6·4 9·0 22·77

89x 89 19·35 88·9 88·9 9·5 9·9 24·9 127 x 64 14·90 127·0 63·5 6-4 9·2 18·98
102 x 51 10-42 101 ·6 50·8 6·1 7·6 13·28
I 76 x76 14·67 76·2 80·0 8·9 8·4 19· 1 76 x38 6·70 76·2 38·1 5 ·1 6·8 8·53
76x 76 12·65 76·2 76·2 5·1 8-4 16·3
I 51 x25 4-43 50·8 25·4 6·4 6-4 5·76
Note: Flanges of BS4 joists have a 5° taper; all others taper 8° 51 x25 3·48 50·8 25-4 4·8 4·8 4-48
The sizes not in BS4 are frequently rolled. Please discuss with BSe Sections. ..

l_ T

............... --------~~~~~==

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~-
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t: ... ,
To as 4848:Part4:1972 To as 4848:Part 4:1972 L_
."
Designation ,
Designation Designation Designation
Mass Area Mass Area Mass Area Mass Area
Size Thickness per of Size Thickness per of Size Thickness per of Size Thickness per of C
A t metre section A t metre section AxB t metre section AxB t metre section
-
mm mm kg crrr' mm mm kg ern- mm mm kg cm2 mm mm kg cm2 I
200x 200 24 71 ·1 90·6 70x 70 10 10·3 13·1 200 x 150 18 47·1 60·0 100 x 75 12 15-4 19· 7
20 59·9 76·3 8 8·36 10·6 10 13·0 16·6
18 54·2 69·1 6 6·38 8·13 15 39·6 50·5 -
12 32·0 40·8 8 10·6 13·5 I
16 48·5 61·8
60x60 10 8·69 1 1 . 1 6·5 8·72 1 1 ·1
150 x 150 18 40·1 51·0 8 7·09 9·03 200 x 100 15 33·7 43·0
15 33·8 43·0 6 5·42 6·91 12 27·3 34·8 100 x 65 10 12,3 15·6
12 27·3 34·8 5 4·57 5·82 10 23·0 29·2 8 9·94 12·7
10 23·0 29·3
SOx 50 8 5·82 7 -41 7 8·77 11 ·2
150 x 90 15 26·6 33·9
120 x 120 15 26·6 33·9 6 4-47 5·69
12 21,6 27·5 5 3·77 4·80 12 21·6 27·5 80x60 8 8·34 10·6
10 18·2 23·2 10 18·2 23·2 7 7·36 9·38 --
,
8 14·7 18· 7 45x45 6 4·00 5·09 6 6·37 8·11
5 3·38 4·30 150 x 75 15 24·8 31·6 --
100x 100 15 21·9 27·9 I
4 2·74 3·49 12 20·2 25·7 75x 50 8 7·39 9·41
12 17 ·8 22·7
10· 15·0 19·2 40x40 6 3·52 4·48 10 17·0 21 ·6 6 5·65 7 ·19 r
8 12·2 ·15·5 5 2·97 3·79
4 2·42 3·08 137x102 9·5 17·3 21·9 65 x 50 8 6·75 8·60
90x90 12 15·9 20·3 7·9 14·5 18·4 6 5·16 6·58 L"
10 13-4 1 7·1 30x30 5 2·18 2·78 6·4 11·7 14·8 5 4·35 5·54
8 10·9 13·9 4 1·78 2·27 I
6 8·30 10·6 3 1·36 1·74 125 x 75 12 17·8 22·7
10 15·0 19·1 I
80x80 10 11 ·9 15·1 25x25 5 1· 77 2·26
8 9·63 12·3 4 1·45 1·85 8 12·2 15·5
6 7·34 9·35 3 1 . 11 1·42 6·5 9·98 12· 7 - -
!
Note: • Non-standard section frequently rolled. - -
Other non-standard sections, particularly other thicknesses
of the standard range, may also be available. tL [l
Please discuss supply with BSe Sections.
- ROLLING TOLERANCES FOR BEAMS AND COLUMNS

ROLLING TOLERANCES FOR OTHER SECTIONS

The rolling tolerance shall be ± 21 per cent of the specified weight and the variation from the correct profile and specified dimensions shall not exceed those shown in Fig. 1 and

Tables 1 and 2.

When a minimum weight is specified the rolling tolerance shall be wholly over such specified weight and when a maximum weight is specified the rolling tolerance shall be wholly under such specified weight. In both cases the total rolling tolerance shall be equal to 5 per cent.

TABLE 1

Tolerances on rolling for Universal Beams and Columns

Serial Size Flange Off-centre Max depth at
Depth width of web any cross-section
Over Up to and
including D B e C
mm mm mm mm mm mm
+6·4
102 305 ±3·2 -4·7 3·2 4·8
305 ±3·2 +6·4 4·8 6·4
-4·7
TABLE 2 Tolerances on out-of-squareness of flanges for Universal Beams and Columns

Width offlange

Out-of-squareness of flanges

F + F,

Over

Up to and including

mm mm

mm

102

102 203

203 305

305

1·6 3·2 4·8 6·4

/:'

- - ct=---l'

- -] I

c 0

L -.JILJ

The rolling tolerances for sections other than universal beams, bearing piles and columns shall be as shown in Tables 3 and 4.

TABLE 3

Rolling Tolerances over and under the specified weight

Description of material

Rolling Tolerance over and under the specified weight

Total rolling tolerance

per cent

per cent

Joists and channels:

All thicknesses

Other sections:

Up to and including

3 -43 mm in thickness Over 3·43 mm in thickness

5

5

10

21 2

5

When the specified weight is not stated to be either a maximum or a minimum, and in the case of all joists, the rolling tolerances shall be as shown in Table 3.

When a minimum weight is specified, the rolling tolerance shall be wholly over such specified weight and when a maximum weight is specified

the rolling tolerance shall be wholly under such specified weight. In both cases the rolling tolerance shall be equal to the total rolling tolerance given in Table 3.

~,

I , -

43

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ -·rr

I.':'"

TABLE 4

Tolerance on specified depth of Joists and Channels

Maximum permissible variation from specified depth

Specified depth of joist or channel

. ~

Over

Under

mm

mm

. ;

Up to and including 305 mm Over 305 mm and up to and including 406 mm

Over 406 mm and up to and including 610 mm

3·2

0·8

I .

4·0

1 ·6

I :

4·8

1 ·6

n :

LENGTH TOLERANCES

Sections ordered as 'specified' or as 'exact' lengths shall be supplied as follows:

(a) 'Specified' lengths. When a beam or column is to be cut to a specified length, it shall be cut to within ±25-4 mm of that length, but when a minimum length is specified, it shall be cut to within -0, +50·8 mm of the minimum length.

(b) 'Exact' length. When a beam or column is to be cut to an exact length, it shall be cold sawn to within ±3·2 mm of that length measured along the centre line of the web.

a .

TOLERANCES ON STRAIGHTNESS OF UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

I:

The tolerances on straightness are:

(a) Universal column sections

0) Up to, but not including 9 ·14 m long: (1 -40 1m) mm

(li) 9·14 m up to, but not including 13·72 m long: 9·5 mm (iii) 13· 72 m long and over: [1·04 (lm-4·57)] mm

(b) Universal beams (1·04Im) mm

Note: 1m is the length of the section in metres.

I:

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----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1~

To BS 4848: Part 2
Outside Thickness Mass Sectional Superficial Approx. Outside Thickness Mass Sectional Superficial Approx. Outside Thickness Mass Sectional Superficial Approx.
Diameter Area Area Length Diameter Area Area Length Diameter Area Area Length
t M A perm per Tonne t M A perm per Tonne t M A perm per Tonne
mm mm kg/m cm2 m2 m mm mm kg/m cm2 m2 m mm mm kg/m cm2 m2 m
21.3 3·2 1·43 1·82 0'()67 700 193.7 5·4 25·1 31·9 0'609 39·9 355.6 8·0 68·6 87-4 1·12 14·6
26.9 3·2 1·87 2·38 0·085 535 6·3 29·1 37·1 0'609 34·4 10·0 85·2 109 1·12 11·8
33.7 2·6 1·99 2·54 D-106 503 8·0 36·6 46·7 0'609 27·4 12·5 106 135 1·12 9·44
3·2 2·41 3·07 0·106 415 10·0 45·3 57·7 0'609 22·1 16·0 134 171 1·12 7·47
4·0 2·93 3·73 0·106 342 12·5 55·9 71·2 0'609 17·9 20·0 166 211 1·12 6·03
42.4 2·6 2·55 3·25 0·133 393 16·0 70·1 89·3 0'609 14·3 25·0 204 260 1·12 4·91
3·2 3·09 3·94 0·133 324 219.1 6·3 33·1 42·1 0'688 30·3 406.4 10·0 97·8 125 1·28 10·3
4·0 3·79 4·83 0·133 264 8·0 41·6 53·1 0'688 24·1 12·5 121 155 1·28 8·27
48.3 3·2 3·56 4·53 0·152 281 10·0 51·6 65·7 0'688 19·4 16·0 154 196 1·28 6·50
4·0 4·37 5·57 0·152 229 12·5 63·7 81·1 0'688 15·7 20·0 191 243 1·28 5·24
5·0 5·34 6·80 0·152 188 16·0 80·1 102 0'688 12·5 25·0 235 300 1·28 4·26
60.3 3·2 4·51 5·74 0·189 222 20·0 98·2 125 0'688 10·2 32·0 295 376 1·28 3·39
4·0 5·55 7·07 0·189 181 244.5 6·3 37·0 47·1 0·768 27·1 457 10·0 110 140 1·44 9·10
5·0 6·82 8·69 0·189 147 8·0 46·7 59·4 0·768 21·5 12·5 137 175 1·44 7·30
76.1 3·2 5·75 7·33 0·239 174 10·0 57·8 73·7 0·768 17-4 16·0 174 222 1·44 5·75
4·0 7·11 9·06 0·239 141 12·5 71·5 91·1 0·768 14·0 20·0 216 275 1·44 4·63
5·0 8·77 11·2 0·239 115 16·0 90·2 115 0·768 11·1 25·0 266 339 1·44 3·76
20·0 111 141 0·768 9·01 32'0 335 427 1·44 2·99
88.9 3·2 6·76 8·62 0·279 148
4·0 8·36 10·7 0'279 120 273 6·3 41·4 52·8 0·858 24·2 40·0 411 524 1·44 2·44
5·0 10·3 13·2 0·279 97·1 8·0 52·3 66·6 0·858 19·2
10·0 64·9 82·6 0·858 15·5
114.3 3·6 9·83 12·5 0·359 102 12·5 80·3 102 0·858 12·5
5·0 13·5 17·2 0'359 74·1 16·0 101 129 0·858 9·91
6·3 16·8 21·4 0·359 59·6 20·0 125 159 0·858 8·00
139.7 5·0 16·6 21·2 0439 60·3 25·0 153 195 0·858 6·54
6·3 20·7 26-4 0'439 48·4 323.9 8·0 62·3 79·4 1·02 16·1
8·0 26·0 33·1 0'439 38·5 10·0 77·4 98·6 1·02 13-0
10·0 32·0 40·7 0-439 31·3 12·5 96·0 122 1·02 10·5
168.3 5·0 20·1 25·7 0'529 49·8 16·0 121 155 1·02 8·27
6·3 25·2 32·1 0'529 39·7 20·0 150 191 1·02 6·67
8·0 31·6 40·3 0'529 31·7 25·0 184 235 1·02 5·44
10·0 39·0 49·7 0'529 25·7 -.
'Size not included in ISO 657 Part 14. Length per tonne rounded up.
0 -

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~
To BS4848: Part 2
~ 18

~ Size Thickness Mass Sectional Superficial Approx. Size Thickness Mass Sectional Superficial Approx.
Area Area Length Area Area Length
!i perm per Tonne perm per Tonne
OxB t M A OxB t M A
!J mm mm kg/m cm2 m2 m mm mm kg/m cm2 m2 m
!j 50x30 2·4" 2·81 3·58 0·155 356 150x100 5·0 18'7 23·9 0·489 53'5
2·6 3·03 3·86 0·154 331 6·3 23·3 29·7 0'486 43'0
2·9" 3·35 4·26 0'154 299 8·0 29·1 37·1 0'483 34'4
~ 3·2 3·66 4·66 0·153 274 10·0 35·7 45·5 0·479 28'1
!t 60x40 2·5" 3·71 4·72 0·195 270 160x80 5·0 18·0 22'9 0-469 55·6
2·9" 4·26 5-42 0·194 235
3·2 4·66 5·94 0·193 215 6·3 22·3 28'5 0·466 44·9
!I 4·0 5·72 7·28 0·191 175 8·0 27·9 35'5 0-463 35·9
10·0 34·2 43'5 0·459 29·3
80x40 2'9" 5·17 6·58 0·234 194
~ 3'2 5·67 7·22 0'233 177 200x100 5·0 22·7 28·9 0·589 44·1
4·0 6·97 8·88 0-231 144 6·3 28·3 36·0 0·586 35'4
~ 8·0 35·4 45·1 0·583 28'3
90x 50 2'9" 6·08 7·74 0-274 165 10·0 43·6 55·5 0'579 23'0
~ 3·6 7·46 9·50 0·272 135 12·5 53-4 68·0 0·573 18·8
5·0 10·1 12·9 0·269 99·1 16·0 66-4 84·5 0·566 15·1
~ 100x50 2·9" 6·53 8·32 0·294 154 250x150 6·3 38·2 48·6 0·786 26·2
3·2 7·18 9·14 0·293 140 8·0 48·0 61·1 0·783 20'9
~ 4·0 8·86 11·3 0·291 113 10·0 59·3 75·5 0·779 16·9
50 10·9 13·9 0·289 91·8 12·5 73-0 93·0 0-773 13·7
6·3" 13·4 17·1 0·286 74·7 16·0 91·5 117 0·766 11-0
~
100 x 60 2'9" 6·99 8·90 0·314 144 300 x 200 6·3 48·1 61·2 0·986 20·8
~ 3·6 8·59 10·9 0·312 117 8·0 60·5 77-1 0·983 16'6
5·0 11·7 14·9 0·309 85·5 10·0 75·0 95·5 0·979 13·4
6·3 14·4 18·4 0·306 69·5 12·5 92·6 118 0·973 10·8
~ 12·4 0·352 16·0 117 149 0·966 8·55
120x60 3·6 9·72 103
~ 5·0 13·3 16·9 0·349 75·2 400x200 10·0 90·7 116 1-18 11·1
6·3 16·4 20·9 0·346 61·0 12·5 112 143 1-17 8·93
~ 16·0 142 181 1·17 7·05
120x80 5·0 14·8 18·9 0·389 67·6
6·3 184 23·4 0·386 54·4 450x250 10·0 106 136 1·38 9·44
~ 8·0 22·9 29·1 0·383 43·7 12·5 132 168 1·37 7·58
10·0 27·9 35·5 0·379 35·9 16·0 167 213 1·37 5·99
~ "Size not included in ISO 657 Part 14. Length per tonne rounded up. f1"!.,i'
(p.
To 884848: Part 2
.'. ::i.;

Size. Thickness Mass Sectional Superficial Approx. Size Thickness Mass Sectional Superficial Approx. ')'
Area Area Length Area .' Area Length
DxD t M A perm per Tonr>e DxD t M A perm per Tonne ~"=1
mm mm kg/m cm2 m2 mm mm kg/m ern" m2 ~<
m m

20x20 2,0 1·12 1'42 0·076 893 120x120 5·0 18,0 22·9 0'469 55'6 .J
2,6 1·39 1'78 0·074 720 6·3 22·3 28·5 0'466 44'9
8·0 27'9 35·5 0'463 35'9 _',
25x25 2,0· 1·43 1·82 0·096 700 'I
-.
2'!3" 1·80 2'30 0·094 556 10,0 34·2 43·5 0'459 29'3
3·2· 2·15 2'74 0·093 466 140x140 50 21 ,1 26·9 0-549 47"4 ~
30x30 2·6 2·21 2'82 0·114 453 6,3 26·3 33·5 0'546 38'1
2·9· 2·44 3·10 0·114 410 8·0 32'9 41·9 0'543 30'4
1
3·2 2·65 3'38 0·113 378 10·0 40'4 51·5 0'539 24'8 ._.
40x40 2,4· 2·81 3'58 0·155 356 150x150 5·0 22·7 28·9 0'589 44'1
2·6 3·03 3·86 0·154 331 6·3 28·3 36·0 0'586 35'4 1
-.
2·9· 3·35 4·26 0·154 299 8,0 35·4 45·1 0'583 28'3
3·2 3·66 4·66 0·153 274 10,0 43'6 55·5 0'579 23'0 ')
4·0 4·46 5'68 0·151 225 12,5 53·4 68·0 0'573 18'8 -
50x50 2·5" 3·71 4·72 0·195 270 16·0 66'4 84·5 0'566 15'1 i
2·9· 4·26 5'42 0·194 235 180x180 6·3 34·2 43·6 0'706 29'3
3·2 4·66 5·94 0·193 215 8'0 43·0 54·7 0'703 23'3
4·0 5·72 7·28 0·191 175 10'0 53·0 67·5 0'699 18'9 1
~
5·0 6·97 8·88 0·189 144 12·5 65·2 83·0 0'693 15'4
60x60 2·9· 5·17 6'58 0·234 194 16·0 81·4 104 0'686 12'3 '1
3·2 5·67 7·22 0·233 177 200x200 6·3 38·2 48·6 0'786 26'2 -
4·0 6·97 8·88 0·231 144 8·0 48·0 61-1 0'783 20'9 _
5·0 8·54 10·9 0·229 118 10·0 59·3 75·5 0"779 16'9 ]
-'
70x70 2·9· 6·08 7·74 0·274 165 12·5 73-0 93·0 0'773 13'7
16·0 91·5 117 0'766 11-0 -
3·6 7·46 9·50 0·272 135 ]
-
5·0 10·1 12·9 0·269 99·1 250x250 6·3 48·1 61·2 0'986 20'8
80x80 2·9" 6·99 8·90 0·314 144 8·0 60·5 77·1 0'983 16'6 ]
3·6 8·59 10·9 0·312 117 10·0 75·0 95·5 0'979 13'4
5·0 11·7 14·9 0·309 85·5 12·5 92·6 118 0'973 10'8
6·3 14·4 18·4 0·306 16·0 117 149 0'966 8'55 )
69·5 -.
90x90 3·6 9·72 12'4 0·352 103 300 x 300 10·0 90·7 116 1'18 11·1
5·0 13·3 16·9 0·349 75·2 12·5 112 143 1'17 8·93 ]
6·3 16·4 20·9 0·346 61·0 16·0 142 181 1'17 7·05
100x100 4·0 12·0 15·3 0·391 83·4 350 x 350 10·0 106 136 1'38 9'44 I
5·0 14·8 18·9 0·389 67·6 12·5 132 168 1'37 7'58
6·3 18·4 23'4 0·386 54·4 16·0 167 213 1'37 5·99 !
8·0 22·9 29·1 0·383 43·7 400 x 400 10·0 122 156 1'58 8·20
10·0 27·9 35·5 0·379 35·9 12·5 152 193 1-57 6·58
"Size not included in ISO 657 Part 14. !_
Length per tonne rounded up. The following details give exam pies of connections between steel members and between steel and othermaterials.

These are notthe only solutions to a particular connection, nordo they coverall the problemsthatcan arise. In designing connectionsthe aim should be to produce the desired structure with detailsthatare neat, simple and can be easilyfabricated and erected.

7.1.1 Baseplate Details 7.2.1 Column to Column 7.3.1 Beam to Column 7.3.2 Portal Frame Details 7.4.1 Beam to Beam

7.5.1 Beam to Purlin

7.6.1 Column to Cladding 7.7.1 Beam Restraint

7.8.1 Vertical Wind Bracing 7.8.2 Horizontal Wind Bracing 7.9.1 RHSTypical Details 710.1 RHS and CHS Joints 8.1.1 Steel Lintels

8.1.2 Roof Lights, Glazing, Gutters 8.2.1 Steel to Brickwork

8.3.1 Steel to Concrete

8.4.1 Steel to Timber

8.4.2 Steel to Timber

8.5.1 Steel to Wood wool

8.6.1 Steel to Concrete Flooring 8.7.1 Steel to Cladding

TYPICAL DETAILS OF CONNECTIONS 49

-

'"''''
<II •

,f.' xv
~~~ 1 N°· o/5-¥ ho~ for H.D. lSol#

H.ol..e- ;;";I!' - lSoU;- oU<v. + 6mm.

~l"o~~I.-u~
~. \ ~.
"'11' '" ..'"
if \ ~
1 "~ \~
\.... ~ \.. V
~
.1
.. .. :j "l' .. ..

.. '" "'11'
rI- !J~~
xv b

4 N°· o/~~cz:.. n..o~ For H.D. &o~

Z N°· o/~~~ h-o"_ fo,. H.D.l5oo~

c

~~i*~~

~:~: , a

;~1r~ J

d

H-o~ Fo,.. ft.o~ Down- ~oLto, to 00 fi'W owb ~ M~ "'-"'~ ~ __ a.-re- ea#.

e

H-o~ i-n- eon-e. Fo~. . to I>e- Mo~ wi-Mv ..v "~!1 pe!'~k.>n- Oruv, ~~ AM< 01' w...,u..,.

. . I f~tv. &01>1:1; to bt;. Hti-n-~~~r

J

2 N°· H. D. 50~

~e>~ to per, ~m.. ~~ ~~_OI""~, 4U-ow~ 5D mm. mUl. m-ov~ MK'V gro~ Hi" ~~ '" I : I u.~ / ~ 1ire>HJi;-.

notes:

~~a:-p~ a,.r<~ to b~ ~~rw:cV irtv ~,..~ wiA>W ~74421.

W~ to ~ j..ry ~tt~ wiA:+v B~ 5J35.

BoU:<? to ba;. i.w ~r~ wi.-t+v B74J90. 1-k>f..1V ~i.-;~ - BoL.-ob-~. + ~ mm .

Fot"' ~ ~~ ~~ 7~ D~~~ ~.

'x' ~j,g~ trw w~ ~rlP 0I11t'V ,.0;.cv I"CUI)A.wruV.

Baseplate Details 7.1.1 51

~plM:.e- Jt.~. &o~to Fl-g~

a

0
- !If- - • r- .
~ - ~f- - ~ f- ~
0 .f- -r rt - • ~=c~
z -
c
11\ J----, .I_ .!.r-

iT" ~--
"""' t--WcU3 t.
\v- oM!:f.
III
0 1-51" .
r-.
xV ....

b

notes:

~p~ ~ ~ to bIZY ~i-grnuV i41r ~,...~ w£.t.+v ~449.

w~ to ~ i-f1... ~I'"'~ wvt:-lv ~SI3S.

80~ to b(tl i.-rv a.e-c;cl'"'~ wi.Mv fuezy fOt.+oLU~:- 854190 -8~ 80~ 01'"' 8~ 4~~S -l-Uqf1...- ~~#v rrkUotY gri-p Bo~.

Fo!"' ~ cu>J..v~ en- ~i-9tY of ~JO~ ?H' ~'f;;eW O(Ui-gt1M"'? ~.

'X~i.'9~ ~ w~ t1jf<n' ~?¥ I"'<UJ.~~.

Column to Column 7.2.1 52

If ~
I
'Tl ',.
~ -

I

C4-fJ It.

I

I /

d

-

a

~ ~

v x v
-; -
-
~
[\_ End-- It.
IiHo·lJo~ r: ...,
....w ~E =I~
J
I
~

-1 f- d

b

e

Fi-n. Jt...

c

"---++- Notc-fy "tOp cmoV I*trv. F I-a.n.g~ M'OIM'WV Co[..um.ry.

notes:

~ot'k. i:o bG!" cWs-'-9~ j,.yy ~t'~ w~ &~449.

w~ ~ 00 ~ ~r'~ wVf;tv B75135.

6o~ ~ ~ i.ty ~t"~ wiA*v ~ f'oUew~ ;- ~~ 41~O - e~ ~o~ or 6~ 4~~S - ~I--v ~w~i;+y -ft"~1'V' ~ri-p ~o~ .

'X' ~~~ ~ weUY f;yfOlP ~ ~~IP t'~JM,rcz.cV.

Beam to Column 7.3.1 53

~~f. I!.f.. (FiA:t-eW)

EI10It It. GN'" 8o~

Erut.-rl.

b

~f.It'~. (FiA:U-oV)

-

I

-

,

FJ-.a..t.- or Low- r~ POl"'f:@

c

notes:

~o .... k. -j;o ~~i-g~ j,woUGO"'~ UJj...#y ~~449.

w~ to 00t i-tv «-ee-Or~ wiA:fy ~~51~5.

So~ to Joe. i.-rv ~Y'~ wi.#v ~ FOUoLUi-n-g:- B~41~O - S~ BoJA;v erg~43~S -!-Ugh-- ~'f:.ro~ fh.e.-f:i.orv gt'i-p 601lko.

':f~i.g~ #W w~ ~fO«/~';';~ r'cz:oJ.'#t"w.

Portal Frame Details 7.3.2 d 54

H
-e; ~ -"
~
U j'

Web 7f'1~ It's-. (Fi-#d) ,oj:.h.- ~144+

l'l N°· Sovt:.

i .

~ -

L

.. ~ (3

e

~
i
I
I
x
t
I ErwV t.
& NO·!JoU. t

a

ErwV It.

rI-1I"t'fo- t.> H~1
1
It. H"'I
I
'" v fO:!:l '" ""
.xV -4~1 X17
-4cl
Fi>ftuV F~ rt.. 1«- OIW- of U.~. (F~) 10 N°'50~

x

b

x

Ew It.

c

d

x

F~ f-Wf"f. t~. PJ/~. (~Mf"', o~ if ,.~/~, tUfo~ 0rY ~1MnV *i:-r~#V)

U.B. fokowrv

U.C. C4f"V n- """'c:cV w~£- f~~ s.orrw ~~i..f"'~.

e

notes:

~o,.k. to be- ~i-g~ i,.ty a-eeot"'~ w ih+v 1% 449.

w~ to b~ i.-rv a,.e.cor'~ LU Vt:-Iv 5~ 5135.

5oV1:7 to ~ i-n-- a.uol"~ UJ i.#v ~ roU-ow i-rvg :- ~4J90 - e~ 80~ 01'" B7439S - f-U91v €>WUJ..9"l*v rl"i,.e:Uory 9""j..p Bo~.

Fo,... ~ euVv~ eee: ~~ Dcu-i-g1W>l"6 ~.

'X' ~~~ ttw w~ 1ype-~foi¥' t'~~a;cV.

Beam to Beam 7.4.1 55

~j..e. ~- F.W. or bol;l;e.c;tV to F~ct-

a

11

'Z' Pw.-r1Mv

b

c

notes:

~~o"k. 1;.cI ~ ~i-g~ W a..«ct'~ wj)l;..h..- B~449.

w~ to Io~ i.-tv DI;GoeOr~ wVf;tv ~? 5135.

Bo~ to ba-; iAv ~r~ wiA*v B~4190. PIM'IMv ~t;+ to !P-IM-V ~ r~J.U..r~. CiMv~uV ~o~ ~ p~ WMh4-r~ to ~~~~~.

'x' cU.sig~ ~ w~ typtz.'a1'U>V ~i-7t&- r~l#t<cz:oV.

Beam to Purlin 7.5.1 56

d

.-

I

-

I

e

a

b

c

rl ,
;
/OJ. ......
~- ~
~~~
vT~
-
~" _ .... _j
pl_.

Y d

e

notes:

~teekvo,.1t. tc ~ ~;..gtw::cV i-t-v ~I"'~ UJ Vf:.ty 13~ 449.

w~ t:o 00- j,ty ~,.~ wi.-#v B~ 5135.

l3oVk- tc b~ j,ry ~I"'~ wi.#v ~4190. ~cMN~uV f>o~ ~ JO~ WCll-?~ f;o ~~H~~.

'X' d4;s~~ ~ w~ t1jpa;t~ ~i-7e:; I"'UJ.w#<!UV .

Column to Cladding 7.6.1 57

r~~ cwt;.-
&W#W~
/- V J
--- ~ J,e, I~OW JO
!J"'~
- - a b

c

notes:

6~""'1<, to b~ oUuj..g~ j,w a-u-ol"'~ wiA*v 8G449.

w~ 1;0 ~ i-tv ac-eol"'~ wiA*v MwJJ,e, ~

8? 5135 . 2 N°· &014

Bo~ to b~ i-tv ~I"'~ wVf:.W ~41~O.

Not'~ JOlM'~ 01"' ~~ JOI"'OV~ ~t>M:ljM...t;y

t;o "};oJO F~(Z:'. MY ~ P"'ov~ 5-mb~

1:0 1:01" lMJ.CV 8o-tot:oJ7'V F~~.

'X'~~~ ~ ~ ~roe- ~ ~~IZ' r~wi-r~.

Beam Restraint 7.7.1 58

d

II

II

~.

e

x

Fi-tv. F I-oOr' LwW

a

d

b

C.H.S. IJr~ "kG- or ~w,---I~ ~

I====~~

x

6~lb.

EMi--rt.

e

c

notes:

7~O"'k, to b~ oku-j;g~ j,.n,- a.u-o""~ w i.t-fy ~44~.

w~ -f;o bsz;. i.-rv (il..U01"~ wi;t:fv B~ S!3!7.

eof;l;c;. i;-o bCZ/ i--tv ~,...~ w i.;Mv ~ foUowi-ng:-~~4190 - B~ ~olM;- 01"' ~!14395 -tU-gw ~i;r~1*v rY'i.-oU-orv gri.-p Bo~.

·x'~j..g~ i;M. w~ t;yfO~ a.noV ~~~ t"~l#re:oV Wf1.1w~ ~ a,o n;oi;-- ~ #14' cW.s-i--!1w ttI-IM7-b ot-Uow fo,.. ~~!:I mo~.

Vertical

Wind Bracing 7.8.1 59

C.H.S. ~r~

a

"

1:1

b

II!

C.H.~. Br~

iI'

c

!.: •.

notes:

~o"'k.. -t>o b~ ~j,.gtv¢eV j,ty a-eeo".~ wiA:+Y ~~449.

w~ to k» £,tv a.-eeo".~ LV vtf"V &~ 5135.

e>ovt+ to b~ i-rv ~".~ wUfv #w fo[..J...ow~:- &!-4Ig0-B~ Bo~ 0,..

&!- 4395 - tU-g1v ~~n~:rf;+v f",.,k:l;.i.orv g"'j,p Bo~.

'X'Msi9~ ~ wcUW tyPe/' ancV ~~cz> t'1UJ.u.U-uY.

Horizontal

Wind Bracing 7.8.2 60

d

ii

l.

h.

,_.

C.H.~. BI"~

e

c

\ ~ [;
F= 1= I
l~ 1= I
J I 1%

~ x J I

M1.g14:- ~~ I

~£% I

~~l

d

b

~ __J

I'.ng~~~ 1 N°· &a~

L~ l!ii-r~ to R.H~. Cot.u.m-tv F~.

e

notes:

~~o,..k. to be- cW;s.i.g~ iAv Df,OCO"'~ wVt-l-v ~~ #9.

~i4V to Io~ to J~ 4-%D .

H.-oU-ow 7~tU- to Io~to ~~4646: p""",of;- 2. En-M of eUV noU-ow ~fo1.o5. to faf:;-~. w~ to Io~ j..ty ~t"'~ wiA*v

!J~ 5'~5.

&014 to be- j,ry GI-CeO"'~ W vt:+v #w;. FoU-owH1.-g:- &5419D - 8~ &a~ a,.. ~4"5-

H-i-gtv ~~#V F"'~rv ~,..i-to ~aJ...'k..

'Y: M+j.gt"UlYRu ~ I.f.)~ type- ~,~~ ,..~~uv.

RHS. Typical Details 7.9·1 61

a

CJ-I5-. L~ ~t-t-~2:' Ov~La-fo Joiflvt;.-.

b

c

notes:

'~o,.k. to be- ~j..g~ j,.ty a,.ee.o,...~ wiA:+v 65- 44'.

~~ "to bcvf:o 85-4360.

H.ou.ow 5~~ to be-t:o 854846: PM""P" Z. E~ of c:KY K-ou.ow 5~J1..S 1:0 Iw~. w~ to be- i.-t'V ~,...~ wiA;+v EJ*5'~~.

EJo~ i:o be- j.-w ~~ wi-Uv ~ FoUowi-ng:- EJ604"0 - lS~ lJoJA::s ot< S5-4!J'~H.igJ-y ~i;tt~i;.f-y F,...j..e>I;.i.oty 9r'i-p &ovu,.

'X' M+j..g~ ~ wel.cV "tijpa:-- ~ s.;,,;rz, 1"~tUV.

RHS. and eHS. Joints 7.10.1 d CH~. L~ GYo"~CZ;- ~~ 62

~r-
-

,- _;;::; ~-v
s., ...... -\ ~
- f-

\_ , e

! .

~ ~ i I I I 2 » 2 I ,

J )

I

a

E""'1>~~1v fot' ro~i;et-o~ Oor~ Lon-g

Com-b~ L~

b

ElYP~ l'I'l%W rot" p~~j,n,g.

OOt"1TUWV Long A-yrl;orv Li-gM1U"' - wcUglvb' L ~

c

d

E~~ rn,.u.lv rot' phH-ter~

Dorrrwwv Lo~ A-yrt:orv E(V/~ L~

e

notes:

Fot"' fvt-1""'~ i.-tvfol"~rv eri> Dol'"'rrJ..a.f1./

Long L~ '5-~ ~ "P~~""" ~kz;fy.

Fot"' i.-tvFo,..~t-v orv ~~a:~ '5-l--I-f'roU1t.-r~ Pl""'O~ ,.~ ~~CU''5-D~.

Dot"'tl"U'H"V Lon.g E>Vi::1U'~ L ~ a-t'a::~ FI""'orTY M-U-cV 6~ com..pt.y ~ wVl:+v ~~ 1449/1/ 1972 Gr,..~ HRIS f'v1:,.p, oU-p ~~~ i--tv a.eecl""'~ w~ BG 7'Z!:l : ro~b 1 : 1961.

Steel Lintels 8.1.1 63

Ii..wa..n#~ ~f:uV ~b

f PI1Mt-W Do~

~--.:.....---

~

--

--

'-~ G!.l.f'POl"u.-/-'/"/ Wooci-woov ~l-fU:,!>

a

b

c

notes:

,~ot"k, 'f;o ba:- ~iA3rw:cV j,-ry ~t"~ wi-ttv B~44~.

w~w~ ~ twoflM3~ to bIZ- i.-tv ~t'~ wi-#v CP153.

W~UJs. ~ bIZ- i.-tv ~t'~ wi.-ttv ~~ 1767.

~~~ i:okw i-tr ~t'~ wi.#v ~/091,

Roof Lights Glazing

Gutters 8.1.2

64

d

e

0'

J11

In'

~'

:~

'.II

\1

J~t-w!<'~orv \uw~' f~ of co~.

M-wv. 75 n1.m. C4'W0'Y w VI>W eJoWv.'\bu#lwf"t1' ~.

Mov~ doi-M wVi;+y voJ't11ll,.. or-H £;b J.o> F"1M4t< ~co~t.e~~.

~IDm.m. 9N)O fO/",~It1"/"'uV.

OJO~n-RoV brj.c.k,work.

a~·

~l4-~Y'~ wUow~ oWFflU"~v_.~ I11.QV~.~~ t:o Jo~.""p ~DD C-/05-. V~~.

Mov~ do~ wVt:+v eof'l11Ot"IPH-l-bf4, ~ iMU'V ~1111"~J4, ~.

~~f4,~t"~ tMk>w~ d-YFfU'~vet"~ mov~~~ t:o IP~ ~ ~DD t:-/~. Ve-t'~.7~~

~(i.~~~) wC!lM-ow ~~f>t<~ t7«1~ i-1Y~ ~~ol.-W~w.

d

7~rv of ~~I'V i.tY uwiAy I""'~ wi#v b~tw JO~. MAxt. 7S"..m. M'V~ wiMY : \ bw+tetof~' ~.

Mov~ 10~ wVl;+v eom."t"~i4rl ~ fi..Uer ~co""'1"~~ ~.

b

11M-v~uV *'~ or~~ ~~~~~ ~~ ef11..gJ..e-.

e

~~rvof~rv i.tY t:-IWi-iy fOt"o~ wJMv b£tum..Mw I"~

Mf,w. 7Sm.m. C4'J~ wVf;#v ~~.'\b~f"~' "fMu..

c

notes:

7~orJ<,. to Joe. ~~~ iw CfI,UOI'"~ wiM-v ~G-44~.

~"'~Ol'"kt to ~ cMui-9~ i-w C'I-CCO,..oj.a..n.cewi;l;+v IH: %18, ere? I'll 0,.. c.~ III.

Steel to Brickwork 8.2.1 65

R.C.

-

........

:iI~\

EI"l-ilV It.

f5o~ i--1vto ~ w~IM'e-~ ~eo~~

a

~
Itf'. W . ~~a It>
~
~ ~
!.# wvt:fv _/ 0
L
15
rt:~. ~
ruMo"~ --g..C. c.o
I--tVE~ H.D. E!>o W4+fH::.f" iMo ~.

b "tu-b~.

I~~~ - f\..oof E"'-'gr/ ~.\ BoUH1V ---~' .. m-on.o~ wWfvCo~.

c

-I~ . .;i

. ~'.":' .~.~ '''' .

r-Ml9~ ~ wi;j;.fv 7k1~M~bo~ j.1VI;o !l'O~

_--R..C;.Co~.

Steel to Concrete 8.3.1 66

Woool-woov ~~

• ..

' ..

f~~·.~OA~·.

d

~.r::.Co~

EI'WiV It .

e

~e-t' ~~

~~ ~PIMV ~fvt;.- ~fO~'

F1A:Ior- Jo~ ~ M'OWIW'V ~ k4m II-MV .'P~1Io ~#.

co

a

,.t.oo,. Jo~k n.o~ Q'lfU' ~ p~ tJnW ",~ too W.

U-.C. ~~I'V jU_"" ~ 5~ to p,..ov~ Fk+sw ~offw.

c

R4-'f"kuo bj.roMm-o~ C1V~~I"~ emW ~£MW i:o i-t-.

d

_~tU' p'*"' ~~ t:NU' Fi-n 6. a.n.W bol-t«Y ~h-. Fi-1v~.

~ 1-1. M. 01:+. ~rwm.vay~ pi.4W bo~ t-Mow-giv toroF~.

b

e

notes:

~~o,.'" i:o blP ~i-9 f14CV i-rv eI-UO"~ wVl*v B~449_

Utn.-b~ to b~ ~i-g1'kUV iAv au.-o,..~ wVf;.fv CJO uz.

8o~ to ~ i.-tv ~,...~ w i.#v ~?4r~o. W,u.Yv#'~ i;c ~ ~w.-ff~ ~~~ to fO/"~uW e-t'1U-~ of ~e-t'? ~ bolA>- ~. "lMn-bjU' ~ FM-~~:

~~ ~o~. 1'erlUU? ~ NwU- ~~91!7

NM-# &~I'LD'l

woo~ ~~UU~ ~~ I'ZIG

~,..~ fot" Um.-b1U' ~1' 1579

fX,1A;:- k-o~ i+Y"Umbet"' ~k-ou-WV Io~ M~ "Po ~ ~ ~ (Uro~j..b~ to ~n.o~ ~ of ~ boW ~ i-tv no ~ f1«)"'~ tk-fMV 1'6 mm. j..M'~et"' 1;kcMv ~ boW. ~ ~ ~~H of W44-~*" Fot" VM"i-olU- bolA:-' 7~U- iJU"f~ gwerv i-tY "UU7Hz:, ?D of CIOIJ'Z.

~~~ s-MIM.cV 10" ~ to C;P 11'1. ~H "I~, a- 'lD, g. 'II , g. 'l'l MU'V s- 'Z~ Fa,.. ~i-grv J..oacV v~ Fot" ~, ~~~, bof..t4. ~ #m-b1U"' ~~,.S-.

I

j

Steel to Timber 8.4.1 67

~ n.og9~ wuiguf, 1>W.vHn- .1oi+t+ IJMV ~p~

"U1n-buo bk>~

boVf;1uV to Web.

a

~MI.o!J tUJoW l1-UoH +~""or~ 'J;to~ulUr~"".

b

c

~U" ~ 6-tee.v ~ r~~f~Mwrv

if w~~ue.Uorv ~ O~.

notes:

~~Ol"'k- to ~ ~j;g~ iAv ~I"'~ wiA*v !s~449.

"JMn.-bCU" to bIZ" oI4+j..qrw:cV £.tv ~I"'~ W j..#v ~/O wz..

8o~ to ba:;. £..tv a«:ol"'~ w j..tfv ~~ 41 ~O. w~~~ 1;0 ~ 71-1-'f'f'~ 1..1M-~1P to p"'aN~ U"I..W-~ of ~cU'7 ~ boVlrI1MuV.

Um-b~ ~ F~~7: (He'8'4'1)

Steel to Timber 8.4.2 68

r-' .

I!:

ii,.

e.'.

a

Be-tW R.ow F ~ e-u.p w~to F~e.' of u.e.

b

c

~ f'VYecV throVl-gfv ~'f;o F~fZ/ of" u..f,.

d

e

notes:

~~Ot"k,. to ba;-~~~ ~~r~ wiA*v 87449.

Woodwoov ~f..a..b!r w bCZl' j,ty ~,..~ wiM-v 37 tt05/~ t.+<?~ ~w~ i-t'V ~r~ w~ ~~IU"~ t"~~~.

W~ ~w t'uwM1vf;.- of" ~ eorrvpr~j..orv i=~ by Wooo!.woov !7~s- j..; r~lM.-totwY, m-M'JM..'F~~~ a-cW~ ~h-o~ b~ ob~orvF~~.

Steel to Woodwool 8.5.1 69

,---I

L _

a

.

1----

I

L _

f',

"kip F~~f;ow~ b~ ~ 601+plOort 1:0

!.W iw FJ,Qar· P~.

.-

I'

b

i-I

I

L __

.,.

f'r~w~cuV Cot1oCl. f'~ F!.-oori-ng.

c

D'

....

notes:

~~ork. 1;0 w du-ig~ iN ~I"'~ wi.-tW ~~ 449.

C:OI'J.oC-f"~ Fj..OOI"'!P- i:o ba:.- ~~f144:'V £tv IUCOr~ wiMY C.P. 110: Ppwv I : 1971.

Steel to

Concrete Flooring 8·6·1 70

I-

I

I L_

d

,--

I I

L __

P"~W~cuV c:o~~p~ F 1-001'" i.n-g.

e

, J I

a

b

c

fasteners

Uo~H" FkU~ ~""F~ 'L"Y~ of F~ IM~W

~~ IM~~------~~

d

e

e

b

A-)7rWF f:a,pJpUJg 5-Cf"~ ~~ ~roi-H9 ~crewfo wi#Y ~,.IW plMUc- ~:

10) F~to5-~

c) F~ to ~et"

DI-) 60~ t.ppmg *crew wWly ~~~ ~ ow pJ4.s1:k:> C41O.

6oa.t= d1-~ ~e-w6.

Steel to Cladding 8·7.1 71

~
Page Page Page rf
No. No. No. -.
Arctic 355 5 Fabrication drawings-Beam 13 Shot Fixings 33 1
<-
Baseplate details 51 Fabrication drawings-RHS 14,15 Space Frames 7 ,
55 Fabrication drawings-Stanchion 12 Square Hollow Sections, Dimensions 48 -
Beam to Beam, connections 'J!
.'
Beam to Column, connections 53 Fabrication drawings-Girders 14 Stalcrest 5 J
Beam to Purlin, connections 56 Fabrication drawings-Details 15 Steel to Brickwork, connections 65 .-
e,
Beam Restraint 58 Fabrication of hollow sections 6 Steel to Cladding, connections 71 i
-
Bolts, Washers and Rivets- Fabrication photographs 16,17,18 Steel to Concrete, connections 66 ~
British Standards for 27
Fasteners, History and Definition of 27 Steel to Concrete Flooring, connections 70
Bolts and screws, black hexagon 29 iL
Health and Safety at Work 11 Steel Lintels 63
Bolts and nuts, High Strength •
67,68 .. ,
Friction Grip 30,31 Horizontal Wind Bracing -details 60 Steel to Timber, connections

Joints, Dimensions 41 Steel to Woodwool, connections 69 ...
Bolts, Mechanical Properties
and Dimensions 28 Lump Load Law 22,23 Structural Tees, Dimensions 39,40 ~ ..
Bolts, Ordering Procedure 29 Manufacture of Hollow Sections 6 Transportation 21 ~,
Bolts, Strength Grade Designation 28 NodusJoint 7 Tolerances, Structural Sections 43 ~
Channels, Dimensions 41 Nuts, High Strength Friction Grip 31 Universal Beams, Dimensions 38 ~
Circular Hollow Sections, Dimensions 46 Portal Frame details 54 Universal Columns, Dimensions 40 ~
Column to Cladding, connections 57 Purchase from Mills or Stockholders 4 Vertical Wind Bracing -details 59
~.
Column to Column, connections 52 R.H.S. Typical Details 61 Weathering Steel 5
!
Corrosion Protection 35 R.H.S.and C.H.S.Joints 62 Welding, Site 9
!:
Cor-ten 5 Rectangular Hollow Sections, Dimensions 47 Welds, Testing 9
Equal and unequal angles, Dimensions 42 ~.
Roof Lights, Glazing, Gutters 64
Erection 25 ~:
INDEX ~
72 E' r

~ a

• I

3 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Change of Address

Since th is man ual was printed BSC Sections has moved to:

Other Literature

BSC,Sections has produced several other brochures which will be of interest to designers, specifiers and students in this field, notable the Structural Sections manual, and the Framed

in Steel series. Write to the -

Publications Department for details.

British Steel Corporation Publications Department POBox16

Cargo Fleet Middlesbrough Cleveland

TS38BN

British Steel Corporation

BSC Sections

Publications Department POBox24

Steel House Redcar,Cleveland TS10 50L

Constrado publishesan extremely wide range of desig n guides and technical literature. Forthe latest publications list write to:

Constrado NLATower

12 Addiscombe Road Croydon

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British Constructional Steelwork Association have a comprehensive range of technical publications available from

92-96 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London

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Photographs

The majority of the photographs illustrating processes and techniques in this manual were supplied by the companiesand organisations listed on the inside front cover

Particulars of specific buildings are as follows:

Page No. Building

Front Herman

Cover Miller Facility

Portsmouth Heavy Plate Shop

2

Roche Products

19

Sainsbury Centre

Architects

Farrell Grimshaw Partnership (Photo: Peter Brett)

Arup Associates

James Cubitt Fello Atkinson &Partners (Photo:Andrew Graham Lees)

Norman Foster Associates

(Photo: John Donat)

Farrell Grimshaw Partnership (Photo:

Richard Bryant)

Back cover: Detail of St. Enoch's Station, Glasgow (Photo: David Shalev)

B.M.W Building