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pm&dkufwifqufol
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2
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vli,f usm;r ra½G; &ifxJü woojzpfaecJh&aom trnfjzpfonf[k
qdkygvQif ,if;tcsdefukd odrDvdkufMuolrsm;u wpfnDwpfnmwnf; axmufcH
Murnf jzpfygonf/ xdkpOfu ausmif;ae onfht½G,fyifra&mufao;aom?
,if;Zmwfum;ukdMunfhzl;onfqdkapOD; rnfokdYrS rrSwfrdEdkifaom uRefawmfwdkY
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½kdufcsufrsm; qef;opfxdrdjcif;wdkYaMumifh tvGefatmifjrifaom Zmwfum;
jzpfcJhaMumif; rSwfom;&ygonf/
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qHk;onf pum;ajymaomtonf;ESvHk;jzpfum ½kdufcsufESihf wDxGifrIwGif
tm;t&qHk;rSm onfaqmif;a[refjzpfaMumif; od&ygonf/
þrQ bufpHkqdkoavmuf yg0ifzefwD;o½kyfaqmifcJholrsm;uvnf; pdwfwdkif;
usjzpfcJh? tEkynmt&vnf; atmifjrif? y&dowfuvnf; wpfcJeuf
BudKufESpfoufcJhMuaom onfaqmif;a[ref½kyf½Sifukd uRefawmfwdkY rnfonfh
enf;ESihfrQ MunfhcGihfr&Edkifawmhyg/ acwfo½kyfaqmifrsm;ESihf jyefvnfzefwD;

3
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qdkcsifygonf/
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&ef q&mBuD; OD;okcESihf wdkifyifygonf/
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q&mZ0e\ aumvdyfausmif;om;0w¬K tcef;qufazmfjyonfESihf wpfcsdef
wnf;avmufwGif wdk;wufa&;ü ygcJhygonf/ owif;pmwGif azmfjyNyD;aemuf
vHk;csif;0w¬Ktjzpfxkwfa0&ef a&ausmf½Sd yHkESdyfwkdufwpfckü yHkESdyfaeqJ
,if;taqmuftOD;rD;avmif&m q&mBuD;OD;okcukd,fwdkif oufpGefYqHzsm;
0ifa&mufí pmrlukd &,lcJh&onf[k od&ygonf/
,ck jyefvnfxkwfa0&ef onfaqmif;a[refpmrlukd ½Smaomtcg 1953
ckESpfwGif ½Ir0wkdufu xkwfa0onfhrlukd &ygonf/ ½Ir0rlukd ,lí xkwfa0
&efpDpOfaomtcg rl&if;0w¬KESihf ½kyf½SifwdkYukd zefwD;pOfu jzpfay:cJhaom
]tzktxpf} wpfck jyefay:vmygonf/ onfaqmif;a[refukd a&;om;
½kduful;cJhaomtcsdefonf ,ckacwfuJhokdY usef;rma&;todynmay;rI rysHUESHU
rxda&mufao;aomtcsdefjzpfí Zmwfvrf;xJwGif usef;rma&;ESihf ywfoufí
vGJrSm;aom tcsufwpfck r&nf½G,fbJ ygoGm;cJhygonf/ umr*kPf
taysmftyg;vdkufpm;í rdef;rrI ayGvQif temBuD;a&m*gjzpfonf[k xdkacwf
xdktcsdefu jynfoltawmfrsm;rsm; vGJrSm;pGmem;vnfcJhMuonfhtwdkif;
q&mBuD;OD;okcuvnf; t"duZmwfvdkuf ]odef;[ef} t&uf\aus;uRefjzpf?
rdef;rayG&mrS temBuD;a&m*g&onf[k ZmwfuGufqifcJhrdygonf/ ,ck

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jyefvnfxkwfa0aomtcgwGif tqdkygvGJrSm;aom usef;rma&;t,ltqukd
rl&if;Zmwfvrf;ukd rxdcdkufapbJjyifqif&ef q&mBuD;OD;okcu qE´½Sdaomf
vnf; tjriftm½Hkenf;aeNyDjzpfí ukd,fwkdifjyefvnfa&;om;&ef rvG,f
awmhyg/ odkYjzpfí q&mBuD;\tmabmfukd twwfEdkifqHk; rDatmif a&;om;
Ekdifolvnf;jzpf? q&mBuD;\ ukd;pm;rIukd cH,l&olvnf; jzpfaom q&mr
rpE´m\ tultnDukd &,lí vdktyfaomtykdif;rsm;ukd jyefvnfjznfhpGuf
a&;om;ygonf/ rpE´m jyefvnfjyifqifaomtykdif;rsm;wGif aq;ynm
½IaxmifhrS rSefuefwdusrI ½Sdonfxuf ½Sdap&ef usef;rm a&;OD;pD;Xme?
'kwd,ñTefMum;a&;rSL; ( temBuD; ) a'gufwm OD;ausmfñGefYpdef u
wnf;jzwfay;ygonf/
,ckuJhokdY onfaqmif;a[ref0w¬Kukd jyefvnf xkwfa0&mü q&mBuD;
OD;okcESihf ñSdEIdif;í rl&if;Zmwfvrf;ukd rxdcdkufapbJ jyifqifa&;om;ay;ol
rpE´m?
aq;ynmtcsuftvufrsm; rSefuefwdusrI½Sdap&ef tBuHay;Muaom -

· a'gufwm OD;ausmfvGif? 'kwd,ñTefMum;a&;rSL;csKyf ( Nidrf; )?
usef;rma&;OD;pD;Xme? urÇmYusef;rma&;tzJUG tBuHay;yk*¾dKvf?
· a'gufwmOD;armifarmifBuD;?
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urÇmYusef;rma&;tzJGUtBuHay;yk*¾dKvf?
· a'gufwmOD;wifjrihf? 'kwd,ñTefMum;a&;rSL; ( Nidrf; )?
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· a'gufwmOD;ausmfñGefYpdef?
jrefrmEdkifiHtemBuD;a&m*guif;a0;a&;pDrHcsufrefae*smESihf
'kwd,ñTefMum;a&;rSL; ( temBuD; ) usef;rma&;OD;pD;Xme wdkYtjyif

5
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ESihf oufqdkif&myk*¾dKvfrsm;tm; txl; aus;Zl;wifygaMumif; azmfjytyf
ygonf/

ausmfOD;
yg&rDpmay

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tcef; (1)

tjzLig;q,fhESpfuGuf
teufoHk;q,fhajcmufacsmif;?
pE´,m;cvkyfaygif; ½Spfq,fh½Spfukd typftcwf twJGtzuf? t,uftaumf?
tac:tjznfh? xdvdkuf wdkYvdkuf ckefvdkuf ysHvdkufESihf jrL;xl;um ul;vl;
aeMuaom odef;[ef\ vufacsmif;wdkYrSm wuúodkvfcef;r BuD;ESihftjynfh
aomw½Sifrsm;xH *DwrIdif;vTwfaeavonf/
tdyfarGUpdwfynm0dZÆmwdkY\ vIyfvIyf½G½Gvkyfaeaom vufrsm;um; tm½Hkpdkuf
aeol wpfzufom;udk xdkif;rIdif; av;vHvmapoavmuf pE´,m;0dZÆm
odef;[ef\vufacsmif;rsm;uawmh wpfzufom;ukd MunfEl;½Tifysaponf/
wpfenf;ESihfEIdif;&aomf pdwfyg&*l\ yihfuluJhokdYaom vufacsmif;rsm;rSm
jrif&oltzdkY aMumufp&m? vefYp&m? rsufvHk;jyL;p&mjzpfonf/ odef;[ef\
zswfvwfaom pE´,m;ay:u vufuav;rsm;uawmh cspfp&m? tm;usp&m?
csD;usL;p&m rsufvHk;arS;íom emr&J½SdvSonf/ ñSKdU"gwfcsif;wlonfxm;?
tdyfarGU0dZÆmonf wpfOD;csif;ukdom ñSdKUEdkifrnf/ pE´,m;0dZÆmurl cef;vHk;jynfh
½SdorQvlawGudk tpkvdkuf ta0;vdkuf ñSdKUxm;vsuf½Sdonf/

7
odef;[ef\ pE´,m;vufoHrSm wdkYvdkuf xdvdkufaomae&mwdkif;u wl&d,m
jzpfaeonf/ vlwdkif;ukd ,pfrl;ap\/ wpfcgwpf&H nmoHuav;awGudk
cyfpdyfpdyfupm;ae&mu b,fbuf 'H;k vHk;BuD;awGqDodkY a0hum vSdrfhum
ul;vmvkdufvQif y&dowfrSm vIyfvIyf½G½GjzpfoGm;onftxd onf;tlukd uvd
vdkufonf/
em;axmifaeolwpfcsKdUrSm ukd,fhtem;uvlESihf NyHK;í rsufESmcsif;qkdifrd
wwfMuonf/ wpfOD;uvnf; jyefí NyHK;jyrdvsufom;jzpfoGm;onf/ olwdkY
tNyHK;rsm;rSm pum;vHk;rxGufaomfvnf; ESpfoufwmcsif;wlonfhoabmukd
jyonf/ csD;rGrf;jcif;teuft"dyÜg,fwlonf/ vlawG vlawGrsm;aomfvnf;
pE´,m;oHukdomtm½HkpdkufaeMuaomaMumihf aomaom½kwf½kwfr½Sd? yuwd
Nidrfoufai;armaeMuonf/ tcsif;csif;pum;qdkola0;í acsmif;[efYvdkufrd
rnfukdyif pdk;aeMuonf/ aq;vdyfaomuf&ef rD;jcpfuav; jcpfvdkuf&rnf
ukdyif ½GHUaeMuonf/ pifppfrlum; aq;vdyfaomufzdkYrS owdr&Mu?
ae&mr&í aemufqHk;eH&Hukduyfum rwfwyfMum;emae&onfh vlaygif;rsm;pGm
rSm anmif;nmírS ae&mrjyifrd? rdrdaMumihf taESmihft,Suf jzpfoGm;awmh
rvdkvdk aMumihfMurdMuonf/
cef;rpifjrihfBuD;ay:wGif Bwd*HyHko@mef pm;yJGpE´,m;BuD;ESihf xdkifwD;aeaom
odef;[efudkom rD;armif;u uGufíxdk;xm;aomaMumihf y&dowf\ rsufpdxJ
wGif tm½Hk tm&r®Pdu rjym;atmif uokdPf;uGufay;xm;ovdk ½Sdawmhonf/
pE´,m;topfBuD;\ eufajymifaeaom t&dyfta,mifonfvnf;aumif;?
armifodef;[ef\ ouúvyf tusÐteuf? ½SyftusÐaumfvmtjzL? befaumuf
cJykyfa&mifESihf awmufajymifaeaom oyf&yfonfh qHyifta&mifwdkYrSm
teufMum;u tjzL? tjzLMum;u teuf? 0if;ceJ vufceJ vQyfjyufovdk
jzpfí jzpfí oGm;onf/ odef;[ef\ vufESpfzufpvHk; tEkwftodrf;

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tajymif;ta½TU oGufvufyHk? vufukdvdkufí ukd,fuygoGm;yHk? acgif;iJhyHkwkdYrSm
ydwfjzLay:wGif wifjyaom ½kyf½Sifum;ozG,f jywfjywfom;om; jrifae
Mu&onf/ þodkY [efa&mtoHyg Mum;jrifae& jcif;u ykdrdkí pdwfygvufyg
tm;&p&m½Sdonf/
odef;[efwD;aeonfrSm tqdkryg wpfudk,fcsif; wpfyifwkdif wD;í pnf;oH
uav;om b,fuay:vmrSef; rodaom wJGzufo'´g½Hkwpfckjzpfonf/
wD;yHkwD;enf;rSm oDcsif;BuD;wpfckwnf;ukd uvem;csí pdkufvdkufrwfwyf
wD;aejcif;rsKd;r[kwf/ wpfbmomwnf;jzpfvQif MumvGef;u em;tDwwfonf?
a&mihf&Japonf? NiD;aiGUEkdifonf/ þoabmw&m;ukdem;vnfaom odef;[ef
onf bmNyD;vQif b,f[mvmí b,fae&mu bmukd qufvdkufrnf[k
b,folrS twwfrodEdkifaom ya'omawGudkom zefwD;aejcif;jzpfonf/
oHrSefu ajcmufaygufa&mufcsifa&mufoGm;onf/ ajcmufaygufu ig;ayguf
jyefqif;csifqif;vmonf/ ig;aygufu ckepfoH wufwefwufoGm;onf/
toHajymif;orQrSm qDqdkif&m cJ&mcJqpf ywfysKd; ,dk;',m; wvkdif;aw;xyf
a&mpyfí pwkr"l vkyfvdkufao;onf/ þMum;xJu oHrlajymif;í teuf
acsmif;uav;awGukdupm;um urÇmYwl&d,moHawG oGif;vkdufao;onf/
xdkYaMumifh aES;&mu jrefcsifjrefvmonf/ jref&mu av;csifav;oGm;onf/
oH½dk;jrefrmyDyDukdrS pHkrufolawGtzdkY tqdkY? tydwf? tcHhtxnf <u,f<u,f
00oGif;jyvdkufovdk umvay: oHqef;uav;awGuvnf; tarmufuav;
wvlvl? EIwfcrf;eD yg;eD ZmEdkifvGefvufjywfESihf cyfqwfqwf vrf;ovm;
aom rdef;rysKdav;\ ajcvSrf;rsKd;vSrf;jyvkdufygao;onf/
wpfcgwpf&H ta½SUwdkif;qefaom w½kwf? *syef? ,dk;',m;oHrsm;ESihf
tdE´d,toHrsm; tpOftvdkuf ay:vm&mu taemufwpfcGifu toHpOfawGudk
ul;rSef;rod ul;oGm;wwfjyefonf/ ol\ pE´,m;vufoHonf urÇmukd

9
vSnfhvnf aeouJhodkYxif&onf/ olYvufoHrsm;ESihftwl Mum;emae&ol
taygif;rSmvnf; urÇmYyefwsm wpfwdkif;0ifwpfwdkif;xGuf wpfjynf0if
wpfjynfxGuf vSnfhvnfvdkufygae&ovdk½Sdawmhonf/ aemufqHk;qdk&aomf
armifodef;[efonf pE´,m; ukdomru vlxkukdyg jyKpm;aeaom
pE´,m;ua0BuD; jzpfaeawmhownf;/
y&dwfowfxJrS vlwdkif;vlwkdif; tcsdefumv rnfa½GUrnfrQ Mumjrihf
ukefvGefoGm;onfukd rnfolrQ rodvkdufMu/ oH&if;oHzsm;ukd a0SU,rf;um
em;vdkufawmhrS pE´,m;ya'om &yfem;vdkufonfudk owd&vkdufMuonf/
vlxk\vufckyfoHonf Zmwfwdkufxm;ovdk cef;rBuD;wpfckvHk; yGufavm
½dkufum yHwif[nf;oGm;avonf/

xdktcsdefwGif ...

xdktcsdefwGif wpfcef;vHk; rD;awGvif;vmonf/ pifjrihfay:wGif armif
odef;[efomru pE´,m;vuf0Jbuf cyfususrSm pm;yJGukvm;xdkif oHk;av;
vHk;ESihf tcrf;tem;rSL;? wl&d,mtoif;em,u ponfwdkYukd jrif&awmhonf/

vufckyfoHpJcgeD;avmufrS armifodef;[efxí acgif;ñGwfvkduf&m y&dowf
awGu aomaomnHatmif xyfíwD;vdkufMujyefonf/

cef;rpifjrifhESihf teD;qHk;jzpfaom a½SUwef;rsm;wGif rdef;uav;rsm; jynfhusyf
aeonf/ ausmif;olausmif;om;wdkYomr[kwf? *Dw0goemxHkaom t&yfol?
t&yfom; vlBuD;vlaumif;rsm;yg trsm;tjym;awGU&onf/ &[ef;ysKd
wpfodkufrSm vlxkESihfvkdufí vufckyfwD;rdMuao;onf/ þonfhaemufrS
owd&ovdk £a`E´qnfí &yfvdkufMuonf/

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vufckyfoHawGMum;xJwGif roJuGJaomatmfoH? vufacgufrIwfoHawGvnf;
ygao;onf/ vlwdkif;vlwdkif;onf 0rf;omtm;& axmremMuonf/ aysmfp&m
BuD;wpfckvdkjzpfaeonf/

ta½SUbufcyfusus wwd,wef;avmufwGif toufav;q,fcefY 00zdkifhzdkifh
rGefrGef&nf&nf ta':BuD;wpfa,mufem;u jzLjzLazG;azG; a&aq;ig;wpfrQ
EkxGm;vSyaom rdef;rysKduav;rSmrlum; vufckyfwD;ae½HkESihfrQ tm;r&?
ukd,fuav; w<u<u ycHk;uav; wrr jzpfaeaomaMumifh olwumxuf
xl;ovdk½Sdawmhonf/ trsm;\ vufckyfoHpJoavmuf½Sdonfhwdkifatmif
xdkrdef;rysKduav;rSm olYvufz0g;EkEkuav;ukd tem;ray;Ekdifao;? aoG;jcnfO
í yef;qDEka&mifxoavmufyif ½Sdawmhrnf/

ywf0ef;usifu tcsKdUausmif;oluav;rsm;\ rsufapmif;onf ]uJ&efaum}
[lí qdkvdk[ef½Sdonf/ wpfa,mufESpfa,mufu vSnfhMunfh&if; rJhNyHK;uav;
NyHK;vdkufMuonf/ 'gawGukd rdef;rysKduav;urjrifvdkufrd/ olYrdcifESihfwlaom
ta':BuD;u waphwapmif;u jrifvdkuf&&m orD;ukd vufukwfí owday;
vkduf&onf/

rdef;rysKdav;um; wpfcPuav;MumrS oabmaygufoGm;onf/ odkYaomf
½Suf½GUHí twD;udk &yfqdkif;vkdufjcif;r½Sdyg/ pifjrihfay:u armifodef;[efonf
rdef;rysKduav;ESihf rsufESmcsif;qHkvdkufrdaomaMumihf txl;0daoojzpfatmif
NyHK;íEIwfqufvdkufovdkvdk vkyfjyvkdufav&m rdef;rysKduav;onf tem;u
rJhMuNyHK;MuolawGudk t½GJUwkdufí ]uJ odMuyvm;}[k ajymcsifovdk aighíyif
wD;vdkufygao;onf/

11
]]aus;Zl;wifygw,fcifAsm? aus;Zl;wifygw,f}}

em,upm;yJGrSxí tcrf;tem;rSL; vkvifysKdwpfa,mufuxvmí y&dowf
rsm;tm; tbd,mpuvkyfonf/

]]ararhom;ukdMunfhygOD;? *dkufu EkdifiHa&;orm;BuD;usaewmyJ}}
rdef;rysKduav;u olYrdcifukduyfí wdk;wdk;ajymum NyHK;vkdufonf/ rdcifBuD;u
olYom;udk ESpfvdkpGmMunfhaerdonf/

tdrfrSmawmh rdcifESihfESrudk EGJUwwf qdk;wwf ZGwfw½Gwfvkyfaewwfaom
olYom;onf ,ckvdk yJGBuD;vrf;BuD;usawmh wu,fhvlBuD;vlaumif;uJhodkY
wnfwnfcHhcHh ajymEkdifqdkEkdifonfukd txifBuD;vkdufrdavonf/

]],ckaemufqHk;tpDtpOft& 0dZÆmwef; yxrESpf ukdodef;[efukd pE´,m;
0dZÆmbJGU qkwHqdyf ay;tyfcsD;jr§ifh&ef jzpfygw,f/ wuúodkvf wl&d,m
*DwtzJGUBuD;&JU em,uBuD; *Dwrdcif oD&dO*¾g0wDbJGU& pmqdkawmf a':apmjr
at;Munf ukd,fwkdifcsD;jr§ihfygvdrfhr,fcifAsm? em,uBuD; <uawmfrlyg}}

vkvifysKdonf pm;yJGwGifxkdifaeaom toufajcmufq,fausmfausmf tbGm;
BuD; ½Sd&mukd vufa0SUí acgif;ñGwfum yihfzdwfvkdufonf/

vufckyfoHawG NcdrfhNcdrfhoJonfhtxJu ydefydefyg;yg; tr,ftdkonf pdwfysKd
vufysKdxum cyf&J&JyJGcif;em;odkYavQmufcJhonf/ us,fjyefYaomezl;onf
xl;uJaomyg&rD½SifwpfOD;\ t*Fg½kyfyDovsuf½Sdonf/ qHyifusKd;wdk;usJwJ
xJwGifum; abmfaiGrQifuav;rsm; oef;aeavNyD/

12
rdkYarmufaom rsufcHk;½dk;atmufu awmufajymif0if;vufaeonfh rsufvHk;
tpHkjzihf y&dwfowfcGifukd pl;pl;pdkufpdkufMunfhvkdufonfrSm aMumuf½GUHxdwfvefY
jcif;uif;rJhí olYynm? olY0g'ESihf olY*kPfukd ,HkMunfxm;[ef rmefwpfrsKd;
aygufaeonf/

ig;awmifausmf NcHKyk0gBuD;ukdpkHcsí yifeDtusÐ eHYoma&mif&ihf&ihf? yckuúL
*efYa*ga,mvHkcsnfteufukd 0wfxm;onf/ olYzdeyfrSmawmh uwåDyg
eufjyma&mif cHkrxlryg; rEÅav;ydef;wef;uav;omjzpfonf/ olYt0wftpm;
ESihf [efyeftrlt&mrSm jrefrmh½dk;&m usyfjynfhwif;jynfh½Sdonf/

]]apmjrat;Munf apmjrat;Munf}}

þtrnfrSm *Dwavmu wl&d,mavmuwGifomru t&yfavmu wpfcGif
vHk;rSm Mum;zl;em;0½SdaeMuNyD;jzpfonf/ emrnfukd Mum;zl;aeMuoavmuf
vludk,fwkdifukd rjrifzl;ao;aom y&dowftrsm;tjym;½Sdonf/ xdkYaMumifh
wpfcsKdUu xdkif&mrSxMunfhMuonf/ wpfcsKdUum; vnfwkdifukd qefYí
arQmfMu&onf/

touftdkNyDjzpfaomfvnf; emrnfrSm ysKdvsufyif½Sdao;onf/

]]a':apmjrat;Munf}} [k tac:enf;í ]]apmjrat;Munf}} [kom EIwfusKd;
aeMuonfrSm r½dkao rav;pm;í r[kwf? emrnfysKdEkvsufyif½Sdao;ojzihf
ac:aumif;í ac:aeMujcif;jzpfonf/ bk&m;'um OD;bdk;pdefqdkvQif bdk;pdefBuD;
[kom vlxkEIwfrSmwGifaevsufyif r[kwfygavm? xkdenf;twdkif;
]]apmjrat;Munf}}/

13
wpfcgu *DwokckrtEkynmjzihf rdef;rwdkY\ txGwftxdyfwdkifatmif
a&mufcJhzl;onf/ oD&dO*¾g0wD [laombJGUrSm xdkpOfu jrwfEdk;tyfaom
bGJU*kPfwpfckjzpfonf/ pmqdkawmf[kac:&mü oDcsif;BuD;? oDcsif;cefYwdkYukd
qdk½HkrQomr[kwf? jrefrmhyefwsm jrefrmhwl&d,mtjrKawjzpfaom apmif;aumuf
udk &if0,fxm;í upm;Ekdifaom *kPf[dwfu twdwf\ ausmfaZmjcif;
avSum;qihfjzpfonf/ jrefrmhapmif;aumufukd jrefrmwdkif; wefzdk;tjynfh
xm;Muonf/ ya'o&mZfacwfuqdkvQif awmf0ifawmfoHk; uefYowfcJh
Muonf/ ]]ywåvm;vlav? yavGEGm;ausmif;? apmif;rSrif;om;}} [laom
tqdkawmfyif½SdMuonf/ eef;wGif;½SdorQ tEkynmpmqdkawmfESihf rdzk&m;rSeforQ
apmif;aumufESihfruif;cJhMu/

apmjrat;Munfonf ya'o&mZfacwfu aumif;wmukduGufí ,ckvufxuf
txd apmihfxdef;cJhonf? aqmifMuOf;cJhonf? raysmufrysuf&atmif
toufESifhxyfwlarG;jrLcJhonf/ þtaMumif;rsm;udk tcsif;csif;ajymqdk
a0zefaeoHonf cef;rBuD;wpfckvHk; Oauúma#,svdk jzpfaeMuonf/

]]t[rf;-t[rf;}}

apmjrat;Munfu EIwfcrf;ukd vufESifhtkyfí acsmif;[efYvdkufonfESihf
wpfNydKifeuf &mausmfaxmifeD; y&dowfBuD;onf rD;ukda&ESihfowfvdkufovdk
qdwfNidrfem;pGihfukefMuonf/ tbGm;BuD;u y&dowfukd tEdkif,lvdkufjcif;
jzpf\/

]]EdkifiHhrsufESmzHk;? wdkif;jynfacgif;aqmifBuD;awG ay:xGuf&mjzpfwJh wuúodkvf
ausmif;BuD;rSm wl&d,m*Dwokckr tEkynmudk ,ckvdk pdwftm;xufoefpGm

14
avhvmtm;ay;MuwmawGU&awmh a':a':jzihf tvGefw&m ESpfaxmif;tm;&
½SdvSygw,f/}}

tbGm;BuD;\toHrSm tm;pkdufíratmfbJESihf vlxkukd vTrf;NcHKoGm;onf/
toHMoZm wnfNidrfav;eufí jywfom;vSonf/ cE¨mukd,fuav;rSm yg;vQyf
vQyfjzpfaomfvnf; EIwfrSxGufvmorQ pum;vHk;wkdif;rSm apmif;BudK;ukd
vufESihfcwfvdkufouJhodkY oefoefrmrmatmifjrifpGm½Sdonf/omom,m,mESifh
&mZoHaygufaeonf/ vlwdkif;rSm a[mfrleef;&m½SdvSaom olYtrlt,lukd
{u*¾wmjyKí wpfckwnf;aom tm½Hkom½SdMuonf/

]]taysmfwrf; *DwarGUavsmfolawGteufrSmjzihf tckwD;jyoGm;wJh armifodef;[ef
[m pE´,m;0dZÆmbJGUukd xdkufwefolwpfa,mufvdkY qHk;jzwf&ygr,f}}

y&dowfu a0gceJaeatmif av;eufpGm axmufcHovdk vufckyfoH ay;vkduf
aomaMumifh em,uBuD;onf rdefYcGef;pum;ukd wefYxm;vdkuf&onf/

armifodef;[efrSm tcrf;tem;rSL;ESihf ,SOf&yfae&mu yDwdNyHK;uav;
NyHK;vkdufrdonf/ tcrf;tem;rSL;u armifodef;[ef\ vufukd 0rf;omtm;&
qkyfukdifzspfñSpfvkdufonf/

azmfjycJhaom rdef;rysKduav;urlum; olYrdcifukd wpfpHkwpf&muyfajym&if;
ESpfaxmif;tm;& MobmjyKvsuf ywf0ef;usifu ausmif;olawGtm;
cyf<um;<um;Munfhvkdufonf/ y&dowfvufckyfoH rpJao;ojzihf a':apmjr
at;Munfu acsmif;wpfcsuf[efYí yJGukdxdef;vdkufjyefonf/ twefuav;
MumrS olYpum;olqufonf/

15
]]armifodef;[efuvnf; rdrduRrf;usifaom þynmukd aysmf½Hkyg;½Hkom
oabmrxm;bJ wdkif;jynfBuD;udkyg wl&d,m*DwqdkwJh tEkynmeJY wkd;wuf
atmif wpfzufwpfvrf; pGrf;aqmifEkdifygapvdkY a':a':u qkawmif;NyD;
a½TwHqdyfukd csD;jr§ifhay;tyfygw,fuG,f om"k om"k}}

tbGm;BuD;\ pum;ed*Hk;wGif cef;rBuD;wpfckvHk; yGufavm½kdufoGm;awmhonf/
tcrf;em;rSL;onf pm;yJGay:u a½TwHqdyfaowåmi,fukd tbGm;BuD;vufodkY
w½dkwao,lay;vkdufonf/ tbGm;BuD;u a½TwHqdyfukd zJjym;rS ukdif xkwfí
OD;acgif;ñGwfvifhaom armifodef;[eftm; yef;uHkpGyfovdk pGyfay;vkduf&m
tcsif;ESpfvufrcefY a½TwHqdyfBuD;rSm eufjymouúvyftusÐta&mifukd
aemufcHjyKí <um;<um;0ihf0ihf½Sdawmhonf/

owif;pmwkduf toD;oD;rS "gwfyHkowif;axmufwdkYrSmum; pifjrihfem;wGif
ysm;yef;cwfrQ "gwfyHkwzsyfzsyf ½kduf,lMuavownf;/

___________

tcef; (2)

]]uJ jrihf? owif;pmcsNyD; aumfzDaomufygOD;? at;ukefawmhr,f}}

aemufwpfaeYeHeuf or*¾aysmfyJGpm;½HkxJwGif armifodef;[efu rsufESmcsif;qdkif
xkdifvsuf owif;pmukd tm½Hkpdkufaeaom rdef;rysKduav;tm; wdkufwGef;

16
vdkuf\/ owif;pmxJwGif a':apmjrat;Munfu armifodef;[eftm;
a½TwHqdyfqJGay;aeyHk "gwfyHkESihf acgif;pOfuvnf; pmvHk;BuD;rsm;a&;um
owif;tus,fukd atmufwGifazmfjyyg½Sd avonf/

armifodef;[ef\ vuf0Jvuf,mrSm nu tcrf;tem;rSL;vkyfaom vkvifESihf
jrihf\rdcifBuD;jzpfonf/ olwdkYwawGum; armifodef;[efukd tawmf&if;ESD;pGm
ajymqdk&,farmaeMuonf/

]]ukdausmfoef;? jrihfu odyfxGm;vmwmyJaemf? rESpfu uRefawmf armfvNrdKif
vmwkef;u 'Davmufr0ao;bl;}}

jrihfu NyHK;íodef;[eftm; rsufvTmyihfí Munfhvdkufonf/ ukdausmfoef;[k
tac:cH&aom tcrf;tem;rSL;u olYESrudkol trSwfrxifMunfhvkduf&if;

]]tvum;Asm eif;uefpm; eif;ueftdyfaewm}}
]]vkyfNyD ukdukdujzihf}}

jrihfu EIwfcrf;uav;plí olYtpfukdukd &efrlvdkufav&m tem;u rdcifBuD;
ESihfwuG oHk;a,mufom;rSm w0g;0g;&,fvdkufMu&onf/

]]ukdukdodef;[ef 'Dwpfcg armfvNrdKifukdygvmrS 'DvufoHawGukd tm;&yg;&
em;axmif&r,f? vdkufcJhaemf ukdukdodef;[ef? ukdukd ryg ygatmif ac:cJh}}

aemufqHk;wGif jrihfu olYtpfukdokdY tyluyfvkdufonf/ armifodef;[efu
bmrSjyefrajymbJ NyHK;íom aevdkufonf/

]]iguawmh ausmif;ydwfwkdif; ac:wmygyJAsm? olu rvdkuf&ifom}}
]]tyGg; rvdkufrae&bl;vdkY ZGwfukdifaygh}}

17
ausmfoef;\ pum;tqHk;wGif jrihfu pdwfvdkufrmefyg ajymvkdufrdonf/
xdkYaMumifh armfvNrdKifZmwdjyum tyGg;[k atmfvdkufum ]]ZGwfukdifaygh}}
[laom tzsm;owfí rodrom toHuav;0Jvmavonf/ &efukefol
&efukefom;rsm;tzdkYawmh þvdk pum;uav;0JoGm;wmuav;rSm em;t&om
½SdvSonf/

]][JhorD; orD;uvJ ae&mwum qdk;csifwmyJukd}} [k rdcif rif;uawmf
rkqdk;rBuD;u olYorD;ukdol [efYvdkufonf/ NyD;awmhrS odef;[efbufokdY
vSnfhí ...

]][kwfw,f armifodef;[ef&JU? ckvJ Munfhawmav wpfaeYuwnf;u
armfvNrdKifukdjyefzdkY? tJ'g rif;nu pE´,m;wD;r,fqdkwm olYtpfukdajymwmeJY
a':a':hukd ZGwftaecdkif;wm tJoavmuf}}

rif;uawmfBuD;u vuf[efajc[ef rJhumNyHK;umESihf odef;[efukd vdyfywf
vnfatmif ajymjyaeonf/ odef;[efuawmh jrihfukdom MunfhNyHK;aeonf/

]]tr,f araruvJ? 'DvdkyJGrsKd;rSm wD;wmem;axmif&cJbdjcif;? aMomf 'geJYav
ukdukdodef;[ef}}

xdktcdkuf ausmif;om;oHk;av;a,muf odef;[efpm;yJGem; 0ifvmí 0rf;om
tm;& vufqGJEIwfqufvdkuf ojzihf jrihfrSm rqwfwiHh pum;wefYoGm;NyD;
cyfNyHK;NyHK;Munfhaevdkuf&onf/

]]uGef*&ufusLav;½Sif;Asm ukdodef;[ef}}
]]oihfc½kAsm oihfc½k? vm aomufMuygOD;}}

18
]]aomufygAsm aomufyg? a[; ukdausmfoef; cifAsm;tpDtpOfawG tm;vHk;
aumif;ygw,fAsm? y&dowf rqHhwmwpfckyJ cGuswm}}
]]'guawmh rwwfEdkifbl;avAsm? [J[J vl'Davmuf vmvdrfhr,fvJ rxifrd
bl;As? [J[J vmAsm aumfzD aomufMuygOD;}}
]]Edk; Edk; oihfc½k}}

ausmif;om;rsm;u jzLjzLazG;azG;BuD;jzpfaom jrihfukd rsufpdawG0JNyD;rS tyg;u
cGgoGm;Muonf/ jrihfuawmh olwdkYukd *½krpkduf? wuúodkvfausmif;awmf
BuD;wGif ay:jyLvmjzpfaeaom odef;[efukdom txifBuD;aerdonf/

]]ukdukdodef;[ef? 'DZifbma[ma';us&if vdkufjzpfatmif vdkufcJhygaemf?
jrihfarG;aeY}}
]][Jvdk csefyD,HBuD;}}

bdkqefqef anmifememtoHuav;rsm; Mum;u jzwf0ifvmaomaMumihf
Munfhvdkuf&m tif;,m;olav; ig;a,mufwpfpk 0kdif;vmMujyefonfukd
awGU&jyefNyD/

]]csefyD,HBuD; odyfaumif;wmyJ½Sif? t[kwft[kwf}}
0rf;'g;zl; 0rf;'g;zl; bJ&D;0rf;'g;zl;}}
]]uGef*&ufusLav;½Sif;? 0dZÆmBuD;}}

ausmif;olawGu wpfa,mufwpfaygufajym&if; wpfa,mufu vufqJGum
EIwfqufaejyefonf/ jrihfonf xdkrdef;uav;awGukd £a`E´ESihfMunfhrdonf/
rdef;rysKdawGuvnf; ausmif;rSmrawGUzl;aomjrifhukd apmif;iJhí Munfhvkduf
Muonf/ odef;[efESihf qufpyfí awG;MunfhvkdufMuonf/ t&dyftuJ

19
cwfvkdufMuonf/ tem;urif;uawmfBuD;ukdyif olwdkYrsufvHk;u csrf;om
ray;/

jrihfonf olwkdYukdawmh ,cifuav;uEIwfqufcsD;usL;oGm;aom ausmif;om;
wpfodkufavmuf arwåmr½Sd ]]enf;enf;awmhykdw,f}} [k qdkvkdufcsifonf/
trSefuawmh 'if;wkdYausmif;olawGukd ,ckvufpm;acs&onf r[kwfavm/
nu olwdkYwawGyif jrihfukd ]]uJ&efaum}} [lonfh tMunfhESihf MunfhcJh
Muonf/

]]'Dwpfcg pdwfygvufygwD;vkdufwmyJ xifw,f/ odyfaumif;wmyJ/}}
]][J[J 'DvdkayghcifAsm? vufawGUwJhtcg wD;aumif;wmyJAs/ [J[J}}

jrihfuawmh ausmif;ol\ajympum;rSm ½dk;rS½dk;&JUvm;[k atmufarhvdkufrd
onf/

]]igvmem;axmifwmodvdkY odyfaumif;atmifwD;vdkufwmvm;}} [k aighum
apmif;csdwfum ajymvkdufavovm;[k xifvdkufrdonf/ wu,fqdkawmh
jrihfonf olYtvdkbufukd olqJGíawG;um vdyfjymroefYjzpfoGm;jcif;om
qdk&ayrnf/

]]csefyD,HBuD; uRefrudk oifay;&r,faemf}} [k ausmif;olwpfa,mufu
pum;prjywfatmif 0ifajymae aomtcg jrihfu ]]uJ ½SifwkdYyJajymaeMu?
ajymaeMu}} [k qdkcsifovdk oufrcsí olwdkYrSvTJum wpfjcm;ae&mukd
Munfhaevdkufonf/ a>ra>rcsif;ajcjrifovdk ausmif;olawGu jrihf\trlt&m
ukdjrifvdkufMuonf/

20
]]tm;wJhtcg oifay;yghr,fAsm}} [k armifodef;[efu ajzí rqHk;rD
wpfa,mufu ]]urf;rGefrif}} [k qJGíac: oGm;NyD; olwkdYtcsif;csif;
rsufpdrSdwfjyvkdufonf/ xdkYaemufusdwfajymNyD; usdwf&,f&if; ta0;odkY
a&mufoGm;Muonf/ jrihfuolwdkY&JUaemufykdif;ukd Munfhvkdufygao;onf/
NyD;awmhrS odef;[efqDvSnfhum

]]ukdodef;[efwdkYuawmh odyfrsufESmyGihfaewmyJaemf [J [J [J}}
]][,f 'Daumifrav; vkyfNyD}}
ausmfoef;u olYESrukd ol[efY&if; &,fvdkufonf/
]]pE´,m;awmfawmhvnf; rsufESmBuDwmayhgorD;&,f}} [k rif;uawmfBuD;u
pum;ukdzmypfvdkufNyD/ NyHK;ppeJY vkyfaevdkufonf/
]]jrihfarG;aeYus&if ukdodef;[ef armfvNrdKifukdvmwD;ay;&r,faemf}}
]]wD;yghr,f jrihf&m? wD;yghr,f}}
]]ukdukd ygatmifac:cJhaemf 'DESpfawmh 'gyJ}}
]]at;yg[ jrihfuvnf; em;ylvkdufwm wuwJ}}
]][kwfom;yJ orD;uvnf; ac:cJhyghr,fqdkwm}}
]]pdwfcsyg jrihf&JU 'DESpfawmh vdkufjzpfatmif vkdufcJhyghr,farmifodef;[efu
'kwd,rÜd cH0efay;vkduf&onf/ jrifhrSm toufq,fhajcmufESpfavmufom
½dSao;í uav;pdwf raysmufwpfaysmufjzpfonf/ zcifrJhojzihf rdcifBuD;u
tvdkvkdufxm;av&m tcgcyfodrf; qdk;EGJUíomaecsifonf/ ZGwfw½Gwf
vkyfwwfonf/ armfwifvdrf;ausmif;uxGufí wuúodkvfodkYvmcsifonf[k
ylqmaomfvnf; rdcifBuD;wGif wdk;wdk;azmfr½SdíwpfaMumif;? aiGaMu;u
cifyGef;onf 0efaxmufrif;r½Sduwnf;u tenf;i,f usOf;usyfoGm;í
wpfaMumif;? orD;i,fukd ausmif;tdyf? ausmif;pm; wpfa,mufwnf;xm;&ef
pdwfrcsEkdifonfu wpfaMumif;wdkYaMumifh jzpfonf/

21
armfvNrdKifNrdKUay:rSmawmh rif;uawmfBuD;a':jrvIdifonf NrdKUrd? NrdKUz?
NrdKUrsufESmzHk;wpfa,mufjzpfygonf/ 0efaxmufrif;BuD; uG,fvGefoGm;onfh
wkdifatmif olYt½Sdeft0gu <uif;usef&pfcJhygao;onf/ &yfrI ½GmrI rif;yJG pdk;yJG
wdkif;wGif rif;uawmfBuD;rygvQifrNyD;ay? toufav;q,fqdkaomfvnf;
rif;uawmf½kyf &mZ½kyfygaomaMumihf 00cefYcefY usufoa&½Sdonf/ pum;
tajymtqdk &nfrGefonf/ i,fpOfu t*FvdyfoDv½Sifausmif;xGuf jzpfaom
aMumifh bdkqefonfhpdwfu t&dyfyrmuyfvsufygonf/ jrihfrSm ratwl
orD;jzpfonf/ rath½kyf&nftwdkif; 00wkwfwkwfjzLjzLazG;azG; BuD;jzpfonf
omru a[ma[m'dkif;'dkif; &J&Jwif;wif;ESihf bdkqefonf/

]]uJ om; 'DaeYnae ararwdkYjyefr,f? tppt&m&m qifqifjcifjcifoHk;aemf?
armifodef;[ef rif;oli,fcsif;ukd owday;yguG,f}} [k rdcifBuD;u EIwfquf
vkdufonf/
]]araruvnf; vlukd uav;uav;vdkufvkdY}}
]]ukdukduvnf; rdbqdkwm 'DvdkyJ ajym&wmaygh}}

EIwfoD;aumif; vQmyg; 0ifvkyfvdkufaom jrihfukd odef;[efu oabmuspGm
MunfhNyD; NyHK;aevdkufonf/ jrihf trlt&mrSm {&mr tysKdBuD;vdkjzpfaeonf/
ausmfoef;xuf ti,fqdkayr,fh tvHk;t&yfrSm ausmfoef;\ tpfrBuD;vdk
jzpfaeonf/ tvHk;t&yfESihf t½G,fomru pum;t&muvnf; tpfrBuD;
ozG,f Mo0g'ay;vdkufcsifao;onf/

]]uJ oGm;r,f jrihfwdkY? ukdudkodef;[ef armfvNrdKif vkdufjzpfatmif vkdufcJh}}

aemufqHk;pum;rSm odef;[efukd armfvNrdKif rvm vmatmif owday;
oGm;aom EIwfqufjcif;omjzpfonf/

22
armifodef;[efESihf armifausmfoef;um; wpfa,mufukd wpfa,mufMunfhí
NyHK;vdkufrdMuonf/

___________

tcef; (3)

a*gwrAk'¨onf yGihfawmfrl&m rZÑdra'orSonf okemy&EÅwdkif;odkY a'o
pm&DjzefYcsDawmfrlcJh&m yifv,fjyif0,f [oFmzdkr wpfaumiftay: wpfaumif
xyfí uwfoD;uwfowfem;aeMu&aom ajruGufuav;wpfckukd jrifawmf
rl&mü

]]þae&müum; igbk&m;\ omoemawmf0,f [Hom0wD[laom rif;aejynf
BuD; jzpfvmvwåH}} [k Asm'dwfay;cJhonf[lí ordkif;q&mrsm;u qdkMuonf/

wzefvnf; taemufwkdif;om; ukvm;ukefonfwpfpkonf yifv,fqdyfurf;
NrdKUjzpfvmaom xdkt&yfxdkNrdKUodkY a&mufvmí rif;jyKolESihf ppfbufNydKifrnf
½Sd&m wpfa,mufcsif;? wpfOD;csif;owf&ef vHbm;trnf½Sd t&yftvGef
jrihfvSaom ukvm;ppfolBuD;tm; vTwfvdkuf\/ xdkukvm;BuD;tm; Oyg,f
wHrsOfjzihf cdk;í tEdkif,lvdkufaomaMumifh xkdumvrSpí Oyg,fcdk; ,if;rS
wzef OóyJcdk; [laom trnfwGif\[lí &mZ0ifq&mwdkYuqdkjyef\/

23
rnfodkYyifjzpfap [Hom0wDyJcl;[k uREkfyfwkdYodaeMu&aom yJcl;NrdKUonf
rEÅav;? armfvNrdKif? &efukef[lonfh ta&;BuD;aom NrdKUBuD;oHk;NrdKU\
tcsuftcsmvrf;qHkvrf;cGjzpfaomaMumifhvnf;aumif;? qefa&pyg; trsm;qHk;
xGuf&m a'ojzpfívnf;aumif; pnfum;ausmfMum;vsuf½Sdonf/

OD;atmifBuD;
oD&dr*Fvmqefpufykdif½Sif

NcH0wGifemrnfa&;í NcHxJwGif oD;pHkyGihfpHkO,smOfuav;tv,fü oyf&yfaom
ESpfxyfwdkufuav;onf odkufNrdKufpGm 0ihf<um;vsuf½Sdonf/ xdkwdkufuav;
\ {nfhcef;qDodkY a&mufatmifoGm;í waphwapmif;Munfhvdkuf&vQif touf
av;q,fcefY ta':BuD;wpfOD;ESihf av;q,fausmfcefY ta':BuD;wpfa,muf
&if;&if;ESD;ESD; &,farmajymqdkaeMuyHkukd awGU&Mum;&rnfjzpfav\/

av;q,fcefYta':BuD;rSm ydefydefyg;yg; tom;jzLjzL a½Tukdif;rsufrSefwyfí
zswfzswfvwfvwf oGufoGufvufvufjzpfonf/ ½kyf&nfwifí MunfMunf
vifvif oefYoefYjyefYjyefY½Sdonf/ olYvufxJwGif owif;pmwpfapmif
ukdifxm;&m xdkowif;pmrSm armifodef;[ef pE´,m;0dZÆmbJGU&aom "gwfyHkESihf
owif;tjynfhtpHkyg½Sdavonf/ t0wftpm;ukdMunfh&jcif;tm;jzihf NrdKUxJu
vmvnfaom {nfhonfESihfo@mefwlonf/

av;q,fausmfta':BuD;uawmh 00zdkifhzdkifh½Sdonf/ EIwfav;ovdk olYukd,f
BuD;uvnf; av;vHyHk&onf/ odkYaomftpOfcsKdNyHK;aeonfhrsufESmxm;u
oabmxm;jynfh0í cifrifwwfaomtwGif;ADZukd ay:vGifaponf/ &,f&,f
armarm taomt½Tef;uav;awGñSyfí {nfhcHaeyHk½Sdonf/

24
]]vufpoyfawmh ra½TñGefYu om;acsm&JUowif;ukd vm<um;&wmukd; [J [J
[J}} owif;pmukd rsufpda&mufoGm;&if; &,foGrf;aoG;ypfvdkufonf/
]]usKyfom;ayr,fh ½Sifhorufavmif;rdkY usKyfu rsufESmvdktm;& vmjy&wmyg
ra½TESpf&,f? usKyfu<um;wmr[kwfygbl;/ wuxJ usKyfu <um;aum
om;ukd ½SifwkdYtykdifay;&awmhr,fhOpöm vufvGwft<um;BuD; jzpf½Hk½Sdawmh
raygh}}

ta':BuD;ESpfa,mufonf ukd,fhpum;ukd toD;oD; oabmusoGm;ouJhodkY
[m;wkdufí &,fvkdufMuonf/ þrQavmufyif &if;ESD;Muonf/

owif;pmukdifívmjyaom ta':BuD;rSm armifodef;[ef\rdcif yJGuawmfBuD;
a':cifñGefYqdkoljzpfí tdrf½Sif OD;atmifBuD;uawmfrSm a':zGm;ESpfjzpfonf/
olwdkYESpfOD;rSm ajymremqdkrem Xmae i,foli,fcsif;jzpfonf/ crnf;cruf
awmfMu&ef &nfoefxm;MuyHk&onf/

]]trmMuL awGUNyD;yvm;}}

a':cifñTefUu olYacR;ravmif;owif;pmukd awGUrawGU&nf½G,fí ar;vkduf
onf/

]][J [J ½Sif vmjywmaemufusao;w,f? olu usKyfukd t&ifvmjywm}}
]]tif; 'Dvdk jzpf&r,f}}

ESpfa,mufom;NyHK;vdkufMujyefonf/ a':cifñGefYonf trmMuLukd apmif;iJhí
vdkuf½Smonf/ vlukd,fwkdifukdawmh rawGU&? {nfhcef;axmihfwpfaxmihf
wGif½Sdaom pE´,m;ay:u cyfNyHK;NyHK;vkyfaeonfh trmMuL\ "gwfyHkuav;
om awGU&onf/ "gwfyHkxJu ½kyf&nfMunfh½HkESihf rqlrBuHK ig;&HUukd,f

25
uav;uJhokdY £a`E´jynfhpHkaom toufq,fh½SpfESpfcefY rdef;rysKduav;\
ukd,fwpfykdif;yHkrSm cspfp&maumif;vSonf/ aiGaygifaxmufrSefxJwGifoGif;í
pE´,m;cHkay:rSm wifxm;vsuf½Sd&m olYtem;wGif aiGyef;tdk;uav;ukd
A[dkjyKí wpfzufpGef;uvnf; olYom; armifodef;[ef\ aiGaygifoGif; "gwfyHk
ukdygjrif&onf/ om;awmfarmifu olY"gwfyHkukd b,ftcsdefursm; vmí
ay;xm;ovJ rod&aomaMumihf NyHK;vkdufrdao;onf/

]]b,foGm;ovJ trmMuL}}

a':cifñGefUu olYorD;avmif;ukd ar;vdkufonfhtwGuf

]]olYtdyfcef;xJ0ifNyD; "gwfyHkygwJh owif;pmyJ Munfh½l;aeovm;rS rodwm}}
]][J [J [J 'gjzihfvnf; olYtawG;eJYol aeygapawmhav [J [J [J}}

pwifíar;vdkufaom a':cifñGefYuyif wkdufatmufxyf {nfhcef;ESihf
uyfvsuf½Sdaom trmMuL\ tdyfcef;uav;ukd vSrf;Munfh&if; ydwfyif
vkdufawmhonf/

xdktcdkuf toufoHk;q,fcefY axmifaxmifarmif;armif;vkvifBuD;wpfa,muf
{nfhcef;xJodkY0ifvmcJhonf/ olYvufxJwGif iSufavSmiftdrfuav; wpfvHk;
yg \vmí omvdumuav;ESpfaumifrSm 'ef;pD;vsufom;½Sdonf/

]][Jh armifbouf eif b,fuvmwmvJ}} [k a':zGm;ESpfu ar;vkdufonfukd
xdka,musFm;ysKdBuD;u ½kwfw&ufjyefrajzao;bJ a':cifñGefY½Sd&mokdYvSnfhí
]]aMomf ta':vnf; a&mufaeoukd;}} [k EIwfqufvkdufonf/
]]at;uJGU rif;iSufavSmiftdrfBuD;u bmvkyfzdkYwHk;}}

26
]]aMomf [J [J trmMuLu arG;csifvScsnfh ylqmvkdY awGUwmeJY0,fvmwm}} [k
ajymajymqdkqdk avSmiftdrfukd {nfhcef;aumfaZmay:csí qdkzmtvGwfwpfvHk;
ay: odkY xdkifvkdufonf/ rdef;rBuD;ESpfa,mufuawmh a':if;wnf armif;wnf
EdkifvSaom boufukdMunfh&if; wpfa,mufESihfwpfa,mufNyHK;vkdufrdMuonf/
[efaqmifrIr½Sd? y&d,m,fryg? <um;0grIuif;aom boufuawmh ta':BuD;
awG\ t&dyftuJudkrS cwf&aumif;rSef;rod? vufukdifyk0gjzLukd xkwfí
olYezl;us,fBuD;ukd acR;okwfvsufom½Sdonf/

]]aeygOD;? rif; tck pufxJu vmwmvm;}}
]][kwfuJh cifAs}}
]]rif; OD;aum}}
]]pufujyefoGm;wm cyfapmapmuyJ cifAs}}
]]EdkY rif;u bmvdkYvmwmwHk;}}
]]trmzdkY omvdumuav; vmykdYwmav}}
]]trav;awmf ae&m½SmvdkY wuwnf; igh tvkyfudpöeJYrsm; vmovm;vdkY}}

a':zGm;ESpfutjypfwifoa,mifajymaeonfukd boufuawmh NyHK;NzJNzJpyfNzJNzJ
vkyfíom acgif;BuD;iHkYaeonf/ Mum;xJu a':cifñGefYrSmrl olwkdYESpfa,mufukd
Munfh&if; wpfpHkwpf&mawG;aeovdk cyfai;ai;½Sdavonf/

]]uRefawmf jyefawmhr,f}}

boufu ezl;ukd vufukdifyk0gESihfokwfNyD;vQifNyD;csif; aumufumiifum
ajymNyD; xvdkufonfhtwGuf a':zGm;ESpfu tHhtm;oihfoGm;&onf/

]][Jh t½l;vm; eihfOpöm ckvm ckjyefawmhrvm;}}

27
]]uRefawmf trmhzdkY omvdumvmykdYwmygvdkY ajymyaum}}
]]uJ 'gjzihfvnf; <u <u}}

boufu a':cifñGefYukd NyHK;íEIwfqufovdkvkyfum cyf,dkY,dkY xGufoGm;
av&m a':cifñGefYrSm rcsdNyHK;uav; NyHK;ae&mu oufrwpfvHk;csvdkufrdonf/

]]olYjrifawmh ½SifhorD;tBuD;yJ oGm;oGm;owd&rdw,f? tckqdk trmjzLqHk;wm
tcgvnfawmif½SdNyDaemf}}[k a':cifñGefUu pum;pvkdufrdonf/

xdkpum;onf a':zGm;ESpftwGuf idkcsifvsufvufwdkY qiftdyf&m qdwfEId;
qdkovdkjzpfoGm;ouJhokdY {nfhcef;wpfae&m½Sd eH&Hu "gwfyHkBuD;wpfyHkukd
rsufpda&mufoGm;rdonf/ "gwfyHkBuD;um; q,fhESpfvufrt½G,fjzpfonf/
"gwfyHkxJwGif boufu acgif;aygif; tkyfaygif; ykqdk;awmif½Snf? ykd;tusÐ
&ifzHk;ESihf uwåDygyHkBuD;ay:wGif ykqpf'l;us xdkifaeonf/ olYtem;u
rdef;rysKdwpfa,muf xdkifrodrf;tusÐ tcsdwfvHkcsnf Zmy0gukd a'0DNcHK NcHKí
wJG½kdufxm;onf/

olwkdYESpfa,muftv,fwGif &mausmpD; aiGzvm;BuD; wpfvHk;½Sd&m ,if;
txJwGif oajycufuav;rsm; vSypGm vef;qef;aeonf/

a':cifñGefYonf a':zGm;ESpfMunfh&mukd vkdufMunfhonf/ xdk"gwfyHkBuD;um;
armifboufESihf trmMuL\ tpfr trmjzLwkdY vufxyfay;pOfu yJGxdkif
½dkuful;xm;aom yHkBuD;jzpfaMumif; csufcsif;odvdkufonf/

a':zGm;ESpfu "gwfyHkrS rsufvTmcsvdkuf&if;

28
]]tif; tcgvnfeJY oHk;vaygh rcifñGefY&,f}} [k wpfukd,fwnf; nnf;ovdk
nnf;aevdkufonf/ olYrsufvHk; tpHkwGif rsuf&nfuav;rsm; a0hoef;vmcJhNyD/
a':cifñGefYonf bmpum;rS rajymbJ tvdkufodpGm Nidrfaevdkuf&onf/

]]'DaumifBuD; i,fi,fuwnf;u ukd,fhpufxJrSm ½dk;½dk;om;om; vkyfvmcJh
wmrdkY ay;pm;vdkufygw,f? 'if;wdkY tcgvnfrS raygif;vkduf&bl;}}

oufrBuD;udk av;av;wJGUwJGUcsvdkuf&if; a':zGm;ESpfu olwkdY\ twdwfawG
udk pOf;pm;vdkufrd½Smonf/ boufrSm tvHk rHk½Gm tnm bkwvifom;
jzpfonf/ OD;atmifBuD; a':zGm;ESpfwdkYpufwGif vlysKdayguft½G,fu omref
wmvDpma&;uav;upí vkyfukdifcJhaom aqG;rsKd;eD;pyf tvkyform;av;
jzpfonf/

tnmom;yDyD ½dk;om;onf/ BudK;pm;onf? oabmaumif;onf? ½dkao
usKd;EGHaompdwf½Sdonf? wpfjcm;qdkí bmrSolYpdwfxJwGifxnfhxm;[efrwl/
qefpuf? pyg;? qeftdwf? aiG? pm&if;ESihf xrif;[if;om twG,ftwm
½Sdonf/ 'gawGudkom tm½HkjyKonf/

OD;atmifBuD;onf boufukd oabmusonf/ tzufzufucdkif;Munfhonf?
tzufzufuprf;Munfhonf? wpfcsKdUae&mukd rsufESmvJTMunfhonf? rsufESmvTJ
oavmuf auseyfp&momawGU&onf/ pyg;todrf;? qefta&mif; t0,f?
pufupm&if;tif;? aiGbufaMu;bufuyg pdwfcs&onf/ xdkYaMumifh
wjznf;jznf; tcGihfta&;ay;um ig;ESpf cefYtMumwGif olYpufwGif
refae*smcefYvdkufonf/

29
bouftzdkUuawmh qefpufwpfvHk;ukd tkyfcsKyf&rS ykdíyifyrf;ae&onf/
ykdí*½kpdkufonf? armfjcif;? <um;jcif;? aysmfjcif;? yg;jcif;onf tnmom;
bouftzdkY bmrS t"dyÜg,fr½Sd/ t0wftpm;aomfrS ykd;ykqdk;opfopfukd
cg;ay:wif& onfhtcg olYrsufESmBuD;rSm rcsKdrcsOfjzpfaewwfonf/
xdkYaMumifhyif csnfvHkcsnf 'l;ajcovHk;ay:atmif tNrJ0wfí zdkoDzwfoD
zdk;½dk;zm;&m; tvkyfawGMum;wGif rtm;atmif olYwpfukd,fvHk;jr§KyfESHxm;NyD;om
awGU&wwfonf/

OD;atmifBuD;ü om;a,musFm;[lí wpfa,mufrSr½Sd/ trmjzLESihf trmMuL
nDtpfrom½Sdonf/ trmjzLu tysKdaygufomom? trmMuLu *g0efrS
rcRwfao;/ xdktcsdefupí boufukd aqG&if;rsKd;csm om;wpfa,muf
wlwpfa,mufozG,f wu,fhoHa,mZOfESihf cifwG,fae&avonf/ bouf\
t&dyftjcnfudk tNrJMunfhaeaom rdbESpfyg;pvHk;u tdrfwGif; tdrfjyif
boufukd,fwkdif xGuf0if oGm;vmaeonfhtawmtwGif; tdrfwGif;a&;
a0,sm0pötcsKdUwkdYukdvnf; vkyfay;csifvkyfay;oGm;onf/ ukd,fhorD; ESpf
a,mufpvHk;tm;vnf; &J&Jwif;wif; yGihfyGihfvif;vif; qufqHwwfwmom
½Sdonf/ trmjzLukd olYESrt&if;vdk oabmxm;í av;pm;oavmuf
trmMuLukd uav;i,f uav;ozG,f usDp,faemufajymif &efp½Hkom
wwfonf/ bmrqdk tvdkvdkufzdkYom odonf/ tysKdvlysKd[laom Am[D&
pdwfawG wqdwfurS r0ifpm;aMumif; vlyg;BuD;jzpfaom OD;atmifBuD;
udk,fwkdifodcJh&ojzihf bouftm; omí pdwfcsauseyfaecJhMuonf/

þodkY wpfESpfu wpfESpfMumav qefpufvkyfief;wGif bouf r½Sdrjzpfonfh
tajcodkY a&muf½SdcJhav&m vlysKdBuD;zm;zm;u ausmfvmaom bouf
oHk;q,feD;yg;avmufwGif wpfjcm;rdef;r,loGm;rSm awGUoGm;rSmukdyif pdk;&drf

30
vm&ayonf/ xdkYaMumifh vufvGwfrcHEdkifonfhtwlwl tvkyform;aumif;
wpfa,mufukd orD;tBuD;ESihf ae&mcsum wpfoufvHk;cdkif;pm;zdkY vifr,m;
ESpfa,muf acgif;csif;½dkufMuonf/ orD;ukd em;oGif;í wD;acgufMunfhMu
onf/ trmjzLrSm boufESihf rnm;cifuwnf;u toGifwlaom tysKdBuD;
jzpfonf/ a½S;qefonf? ½dk;onf? at;at; vlvlaewwfonf? pum;
enf;onf? oabmaumif;onf? boufESihfae&mcsxm;&ef BuH½G,fonf[k
ajymjyaomcgrSm olYrSm tHhMojcif;vnf;r½Sd? 0rf;omjcif;? 0rf;enf;jcif;vnf;
uif;bdonf/

]]'gawmh tarwdkY oabmyJav tarwdkY orD;yJ[m}}

þvdk ½dk;taomtajzom ay;azmf&onf/ olYpdwfxJrSm rdb\ arwåm
apwemwdkYukd t<uif;rJh ,HkMunfxm;[efwlonf/ rdb\MoZmukd vufcH
em,ljcif;jzihf rdb\apwemarwåmukd aus;Zl;wHkYjyef&efom wpfckwnf;aom
qE´½Sdonf/

uJ orD;uawmh auseyfygNyD/ orD;ukd wpfcgrSrsufpdESihfyif qef;qef;
rMunfhzl;aom ukda½Tbouf vl½dk;BuD;ukd em;cs&efcufao;onf/ olu
vkdcsifygonf[k ajymvmvQif OD;atmifBuD;tzdkU rsufESmtylu rsm;pGm
oufom&ef½Sdonf/ ,ckawmh tnmom; a&a0; rxHkwufao;BuD;ukd
a,mu©rvkyfrnfholu awrd tvdkprf;cef; zGihf&rnfu cufvSonf/ odkYaomf
boufvdk vlrsKd;ukd ½Sufp&mr½Sd[k OD;atmifBuD;uwpfxpfcs pdwfykdif;jzwf
xm;onf/

]]a[haumifBuD; rif;eJY trmjzLeJY igae&mcscsifw,f? rif;oabm b,fvdkvJ}}
[k ajymonfh tcsdefu boufonf rsufvHk;BuD;rsm;jzihf vSefí Munfhvdkuf

31
\/
]]b,fvdkvJ rif;oabm}} [k xyfar;aomtcg
]]uRefawmfhrSm r*Fvmaqmifp&m ykdufqHr½Sdbl;cifAs}} [k ½dk;½dk;BuD;
ajzypfvdkufaomaMumifh OD;atmifBuD;wGif £a`E´rS rcsKyfwnf;EkdifawmhbJ
EIwfcrf;arG;BuD;um;oGm;atmif cGufxdk;cGufvef &,fvdkufrdawmhonf/

þodkYaomenf;jzihf olwpfyg;\ *kPfyumoe? "e? Opöm wdkYukd rrufaom
OD;atmifBuD;onf olY*kPf? olY "e&dyfNrHKwGif;0,f vdr®maomorD;ESihf
tykd;aoaom tvkyform;wpfa,muftm; aoG;om;t&if; odrf;oGif;
vkdufawmhonf/

odkYaomf oaAÁocFg&m tedpömonf wpfESpfrSrMumcif trmjzLwpfa,mufukd
uGufí OD;OD;zsm;zsm; tedpö oGm;aomaMumihf rcsdwifuJ 0rf;enf;aMuuJGpGm
cHvkdufMu&avonf/

a':zGm;ESpf\pdwfonf vufypfwpfwGuf twGif;uav;0,f þodkYaom
ol\twdwfukd jyefvSefoHk;oyf vdkufrdavonf/

]]tif; tjzLqHk;wm tcgvnfeJYoHk;v? tcgvnfeJYoHk;v? ckawmh
'if;ygoem;p&m jzpfaeNyD rcifñGefY&,f/ olYr,m;olcspfvdkufwmqdkwmvnf;
wkefvdkY}}

a':zGm;ESpf\ pum;tqHk;owf0,f toHawGyg wkefívmawmhonf/ tvdkuf
urf;qdk;rod pum;prdaom a':cifñGefYrSm qwfaqmhrdí tdrfa½SUyl
tdrfaemufrcsrf;omovdk olygcHpm;vdkuf&jyefonf/ xdkYaMumihf rD;ukd a&ESihf
owf&awmhovdk

32
]]at;av olwkdYzl;pmaygh b,fwwfEdkifrvJ/ uJ uJ uRefrjyefr,f}} [k
aemufqHk;wGif "r®a&at;ESihf owfvdkuf&onf/
a':zGm;ESpfrSmum; ai;vsuf? awG;vsuf? aqG;vsuf ...

___________

tcef; (4)

'DZifbmv\ wpfaeYaomnaecif;uav;jzpfonf/

aqmif;aeonf toufomcdkcsifaom tvkyform;vdk tcsdefukdcdk;í taemuf
bufrdk;okdY 0ifcsifvSayNyD/ aeY em&DoHk;q,f? n em&DoHk;q,f[k jrefrmhtvdk
ajcmufq,f½Sdonfteufu ae0ef;onf wefcl;ESihf oDwif;uRwf ESpfvwGif
om tcsdefrSefvkyfonf/ olYqifajcuawmh 0gqdkvrSm ajcmufem&Dwdwd
ykdítdkAmwkdif;qif;&aomaMumihf jymodkvrSm ajcmufem&Dwdwd apmapmpD;pD;
toufomcdk&ygonf[k ajymvdk[ef½Sdonf/ xdkYaMumifh eDazsmhazsmhaom
taoG;uav;vTwfum avmuukd rsufESmcsKdaoG;aeawmhonf/
aqmif;aeonf t&dyfukd½Snfapí aqmif;avonf t&yfukd arT;aponf/
wpfenf;tm;jzihfqdk&aomf aiGESif;rsm;wa0a0½SdavNyD/
yef;oZifabmfaiGjzLwkdYuvnf; wMuLMuLarT;MuavNyD/

33
rdk;aumif;uifwpfjyifvHk; wpfcgwpfcg 0Vm[if;vif; tjyma&miftqif;ESihf
Munfvifaewwfonf/ wpfcgwpfcgawmh ukdyZÆKef pdwfrausí vlYjynfukd
rdk;a&oGef;OD;awmhrvdk vkyfwwfygao;onf/
trmMuLwkdY wdkufuav;u{nfhcef;rSm taemuf,Gef;,Gef;u wdk;0ifaeaom
aea&mifjcnfaMumihf jrLrIefuav;rsm; twef;BuD;jzpfaeovdk xif&onf/
trmMuLonf a&rdk;csKd;NyD;p oeyfcg;bJusm;uav;ESifh a½T0ga&mif[yf
aeovdk½Sdawmhonf/ {nfhcef;t0 tjyifbuf cyfususavmufwGif
ukdbouf BuD;0,fvmay;aom omvdumavSmiftdrfuav; csdwfxm;onf/
twGif;u omvdumarmifESHonf 0ifqJ 0ifvwåHaom aea&mifaMumifh
tljrL;um w*l;*l;w*J*J ckefqGckefqG vkyfaeMuonf/
trmMuLu olwdkYukdMunfh&if;tem;uyfvmcJhonf/ trmMuLajymapcsifwmu
olwdkY\bmom&if;jzpfaom rm*"\ *l;*l;*J*Jr[kwf/ olYukd rr [k
vlYbmom vlYpum;ESihf EIwfqufvkdufapcsifonf/
]]rr vSw,f rr vSw,f}} [k csD;rGrf;apcsifonf/
'grS r[kwfaomf
]]omvdum qDay;yg? apmapmx? rMum;vm;}} [lonfh omvdum
rlvwef;pum;awGudk ½Gwfqdkjyapcsifonf/ ,ckawmh ESpfaumifpvHk;
w*l;*l;w*J*J/
]][Jh pum;ajymMuav ighvdk vdkufqdkprf;}}
]]omvdum}}
]]qDay;yg}}
]]apmapmx}}
]]rMum;vm;}}

34
trmMuLu pdwfygvufyg ausmif;q&mruav;vdk wdkifay;av&m omvdum
ESpfaumifpvHk;u *J *J [kom jyefajymazmf&ojzihf pdwfysufoGm;onf/
]]tvum; vlpum;vnf; rajymwwfao;bl;}}
]]ukdboufBuD;uvJ pum;ajymwwfwm½Sm0,fcJhygqdkcgrS}}
trmMuLu pdwfrausrcsrf;ESihf 0,fvmay;olukdyif tjypfwifaevdkuf
jyefao;onf/
]]wjznf;jznf;aygh orD;&,f yAÁwawmifajc odaEéwjznf;jznf;wJh}}
pum;oHESihftwl rdcifBuD;rSm aemufyg;u&yfvsuf½Sdonf/
]]'gawmif armifbouf 'if;b,fae&mu awGUvmvdkY0,fcJhovJrS rodwm?
ighorD;uvnf; ae&m½Sm&efaum oHa,mZOfr½Sd oHa,mZOf½SmvdkY}}
trmMuLonf olYrdcifukd apmif;iJhíMunfh&mu NyHK;NyHK;uav;awG;aerdonf/
wd&pämefrsm;ukd vlrI vlpum; oifMum;onfhtcg vlajcwdwfí qdwfNidrfonfh
ntcgrS oifMum;&onf/ xdktcsdefrS olwkdYwawG wnfNidrfí tm½Hkpl;pdkuf
Muonf/ xdkaemufwpfrsKd;vnf;½Sdao;onf/ omvdum Muufwla½G;wdkY
rnfonf olwdkYrm*"ESihf wpfaumifcsif; cGef;wHkYvS,faeMuvQif vlYpum;ukd
awmfawmfESihfrajymwwf/ xdkYaMumihf avSmiftdrfwpfckxJwGif wpfaumifpD
cJGxm;&onf/ odkYrS olwdkYcsif;pum;rajymEkdifbJ ½Sdcsdrfhrnf/
trmMuLonf wpfpGef;wpfpMum;zl;aom omvdumoifwef;ukd trSwf&í
]]arar olwdkYukd wpfaumifpDcJGxm;rS jrefjrefpum;wwfowJh? cGJxm;&
raumif;bl;vm;[if}} [k wkdifyifvkdufavonf/ rdcifBuD;onf wpfcPav;
pOf;pm;ovdkvkyfvkdufNyD;rS orD;\ykcHk;uav;ukd,k,pGm vufwifvkduf&if;
]]vlpum;rwwfcsifvnf; aeygap orD;&,f? 'if;wdkY cspfolcsif;
rauGuGif;ygapeJY}} [k jznf;jiif;oufompGm w&m;csvdkufavonf/

35
trmMuLonf xdkpum;Mum;&awmhrS 'dwfueJ pdwfxJwGif wpfrsKd;wpfrnf
wkefvIyfoGm;rdonf/ [kwfonf? rSefonf? {uefyifjzpfonf/ ukd,fuawmh
wpfukd,faumif;? ukd,fhvdkbomMunfhí ajymrdonf/ omvdumuav;awG
bufuaeMunfhí ukd,fcsif;pmvdkuf&vQif tcsKyftaESmif tavSmiftydwfcH
&onfaomfrS vGefvSNyD/ olYcrsmrsm;rSm obm0ukdu wpfyifysHul;
aumif;uifav[kefrSm jrL;aecJhMu&onf/ ,ckrl ESpfawmifywfvnfrSr½Sdaom
oHcsKdifhwGif;0,f ukd,fucspfvdkYarG;í tpmauR;onfxm;OD;? tawmifuav;rS
tm;&yg;&jzefYí ysHp&mr½Sd/ taeusyf tawmifanmif;NyD; pdwfraumif;
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trmMuLonf a½SUukdqufírS rawG;awmhbJ
]]at;av 'Dtwdkif;bJ aewmaumif;ygw,f/ pum;wwfcsifwwf
rwwfcsifae}} [k ajymajymqdkqdkESihf tdrfa½SUNcHbufodkY xGufcJhavwmh\/
trmMuL wkdufzdeyfcRwfu qif;vkdufonfESihfwpfNydKifeuf NcH0u pdkufpdkuf
0ifvmaom odef;[efukd rarQmfrvihf awGUvkduf&onf/ qG,fwmtusÐ
vufjywfukd atmufu½SyftusÐcH0wfí befaumufa&ñSda&mifukd qD;xm;
onf/ aer0ihfw0if odef;[efukd jrifvdkuf&onfrSm tawmfuav; tqifajy
oGm;onf/ olYvufxJwGif zufpdrf;ESihfvdyfxm;aom txkyfBuD;wpfck ygvm
onf/ wpfpGef;wpfp xdk;xdk;axmifaxmif xGufaewmukd Munfhvkduf½HkESihf
oZifyef;xkyfrSef; odomygonf/ trmMuLtzdkYawmh yef;ukdjrifvdkuf&jcif;u
ykdí 0rf;omoGm;rd\/
]][,f ukdodef;[ef ausmif;ydwfvdkufNyD [kwfvm;}}
armifodef;[efu tajzray;Ekdifao;? NyHK;NyHK;BuD;vkyfumom trmMuLtem;
a&mufatmif ajcvSrf;usJBuD; rsm;ESihfuyfvmonf/ tem;a&mufonfESihf

36
wpfNydKifeuf wpfayGUwpfykdufBuD;ygvmaom a0jzmñGefYvef; &eYHoif;aeonfh
yef;xkyfBuD;ukdom xdk;ay;vkdufonf/
]]tdk oZifyef;awGygvm;? tr,fav; aumif;vkdufwJh tcufBuD;awGaemf?
ukdodef;[ef0,fvmcJhwmvm;? tdk aus;Zl;wifvkdufwm}}
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rdef;uav;wdkY\ p½kdufpdwf"gwft& BudKufwwfvSaom vufaqmifjzpfojzihf
aqGUaqGUckefawmhravmuf tljrL;aeyHkukd odef;[efwGif ESpfESpfNcdKufNcdKuf
tm½HkcHpm;aerdawmhonf/
]]wu,fyJ aus;Zl;wifvkdufwm ukdodef;[ef&,f}}
]]tr,f olu olpdrf;usaewmyJ}}
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0ifajy;av\/ odef;[efonf oGufvuf½Tifysaom orifrav;ozG,f
olYoufvS,f\ aemufausmukdMunfhí yDwdvIdif;xum 0ifvkdufí oGm;&
avonf/
]]arar arar ukdodef;[ef0,fvmcJhwmwJh? aumif;vkdufwmaemf? tcufBuD;
awG vwfvwfqwfqwf bk&m;wifr,f? bk&m;wif&r,f? usefwmawG
þukd,f tukefyefypfvdkufr,f}}
trmMuLu tHMoaeaom olYrdcifteD;wGif uEGJUuvs vkyfaevdkufonf/
]][Jh armifodef;[ef b,fwkef;u a&mufvmwmvJ? ausmif;ydwfvkdufyvm;}}
]][kwfuJhBuD;BuD;? ckyJ a&mufa&mufcsif; 'DxGufvmwmyJ}}
]]oZifyef;awGuvnf; rsm;vSyguvm;uG,f? xdkif xkdkif}}
odef;[efu qdkzmay: okdY 0ifxkdifvkduf&if; trmhxHodkY rsufpda&mufoGm;um
]]rrsm;ygbl;BuD;BuD;&JU? ig;&mwnf;yg}}

37
]]atmifrm? araruvnf; 0,fwJhvlu 0,fvmwJhOpöm? 'Dxufrsm;&if
omaumif;ao;}}
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0,fwJholu 0,fay;&&if}}
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&,foGrf;aoG;íjyvkdufonf/
]]uJ armifodef;[ef? 'DrSmyJ xrif;pm;oGm;}}
]]tdk aeygap BuD;BuD;}}
]]tr,f xl;xl;axGaxG vkyf&wmvkdufvdkY? wuwJ? oGm; orD;?
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wpfvufpwnf; pm;Mu&atmif}}
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qdkzmay:wGif tNidrfhom;xkdifMunfh ae&aom odef;[eftzdkYrSmum; trmMuL\
ukd,fvufvIyf½Sm;rIrSeforQ EIwfcrf;yg;u pum;xGufvmwmrSeforQ
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odef;[ef trmMuLwdkYrSm i,fpOfuwnf;u yGef;wnf;&if;ESD;vmMuaom
tcspf"gwfjzpfonf/ csKd;½kyftdk;ykwf uav;rsm;ESihf upm;cJhMuonfhtcsdefupí
,ckvlysKdtysKd jzpfvmonfhwkdif cdkifNrJaeMuonf/ b,frdburqdk odef;[ef
wdkYESpfa,muftm; ]]eifwdkYarmifESr}} [k ac:a0: rkwfjcif;jyKcJhMuonf/
,ckBuD;vmonfhwdkifatmif ESpfOD;om;ukd vufvGwfpy,f tcGifhta&;
ay;xm;onfrSm avmuD\"r®wm wPSm\taMumif;ukd rpOf;pm;rdír[kwf?

38
odef;[efutrmMuLukd pGJpGJNrJNrJcspfaeaMumif; od&oavmuf trmMuLuvnf;
pHkrufaeonfukdod&aomaMumihf jzpfonf/
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wpfa,mufESihfwpfa,muf om;ay;orD;,l MunfjzLESpfoufaeMuonfrSm
txift½Sm;jzpfae½HkrQru
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ajymifavSmifajymqdkonfukd ½Sufudk; ½Sufuef;ESihf Mum;cJh&onftxd jzpf&um;
odef;[efESihftrmMuLwdkYwGif wdwfwdwfykef;&nf;pm;rS rjzpfvkdufMu&bJ
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jzpfMuavonf/
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ESihfrS EIdif;pmír&/ trmMuLu Muufom;yef;uefxJrS tonf;tjrpf
wpfzwfukd odef;[ef\ pm;vufp xrif;yef;uefxJodkY ZGef;ESihfaumfcyfí
xnfhay;vdkufaomtcg a':zGm;ESpfESihf OD;atmifBuD;wdkYrSm trSwfrxif
wpfa,mufrsufESm wpfa,mufMunfhí NyHK;vkdufrdMuonf/
xrif;pm;aomufNyD;onfESihfwpfNydKifeuf odef;[efay;vmaom oZifyef;wdkY
ukd bk&m;wif&if; auseyfaerd onfrSm trmMuLyifjzpfonf/
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aeMuonfrSm aeYpOftrIjzpfí rxl;jcm;aomfvnf; odef;[eftwGufrlum;
trmMuLESihf ESpfudk,fcsif; qHkqnf;atmif apmifr cGihfvTwfouJhokdY ½Sdaom
aMumifh yDwdrjzpfbJraeEkdifawmhacs/

39
wpfywfvQKdqHxHk;uav;ukd zHk;awmhrwwf oZifyef;rsm;yefxm;vsuf
avSum;em;wGif cHnm;vSypGm½Sdonfh pE´,m;ay:u aiGyef;tdk;uav;odkYvnf;
av;ig;q,fcuf oGm;ípdkufaeonfh trmMuLtem;odkY odef;[efudk,fwkdif
ra,mifrvnfuyfoGm;rdonf/ aMumhaeatmifNzD;vdrf;yefqifxm;aom
ukd,fvHkuav;ukd r0EkdifaomMunfhjcif;jzihf MunfhaeaomaMumihf trmMuLrSm
½SdK;wdk;½SefYwefYjzpfvkduf&onf/
]]Munfhygvm; vlem;uyfvmNyD; Munfhaevdkufwm pm;awmh 0g;awmhr,fh
twkdif;? xdkifaeyg [dkrSm bmvkyf xvdkufvm&wmvJ [if? awmfawmf&Jae
azazwdkYjrihfrS [kwfayh jzpfaer,f}}
trmMuLu qD;í [efYvkdufaomfvnf; odef;[efuawmh rNzHK/ rxHkwufaw;?
NyHK;NyHK;BuD; ai;azmfom&onf/
]]Munfhygvm;vkdY? ajymaewm rMum;wJhtwkdif;}}
]]tr,f vlBuD;awGujzihf a½Smifay;&atmif qif;awmifoGm;MuNyDOpöm? ol
tifrweftuJukdifcsifw,f Munfh½Hkuav;rS rMunfh&bl;wJhvm;}}
]]Munfhwmu vGef vGefvGef;w,f}}
]][J [J 'g vGefvGef;ovm;}}
]]Munfhygvm; £a`E´&&ukd raeEdkifbl;vm; ukdodef;[ef? wuwJ vlYtem;
uyfaewJhOpöm}}
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uav;rsKd;yif odef;[efrSmawmh tonf;ESvHk;ukd qJGvIyfvkdufovdk ½Sdawmh
onf/
]]cspfwJhpdwfu Aavmifqefaewm? cE¨mukd,fu b,f £a`E´&EdkifawmhrvJ}}
]]ykdvdkufwm}}
]]vdkawmifvdkao; cifAsm;}}

40
]]Munfhygvm; ½kyfukdu rcsKdrcsOfeJY}}
]][kwfw,fav tem;u wpfz0g;rS rcGgcsifwJhaumifukd ESifypfaewm}}
]]'gjzihf bDatatmifatmif jrefjrefBudK;pm;ygawmhvm;vdkY}}
]][Jh BudK;pm;vdkufwmawmh rajymeJY? 'D*&D&csifvSvdkY 'Davmufr[kwfbl;?
bDatatmifrS MuLMuLeJYaygif;&rSmrdkY rsufcGufeJY pmeJYudk rjywfbl;? 'gayr,fh
[J [J 'gayr,fh}}
]]'gayr,fh bmjzpfovJ}}
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yl;yl;uyfuyfaecsifao;wmaygh}}
]]Munfhprf; Munfhprf;? ajymvdkufwm yufyufpufpuf? [kwfw,f ½Sihfukd
b,foluBudKufvdkY orD;&nf;pm;jzpf&rSmwJhwHk;? [kwf [kwfao;awmh}}
trmMuLu odef;[efudkausmcdkif;ae&mu jzKef;ceJYvSnfhí &efawGUvkdufonf/
xdkYaemuf csufjcif;yif rsufESmcsif;rqdkif0HhouJhokdY ajymNyD;onfESihf wpfNydKif
euf ausmay;vkdufjyefonf/
]]atmifrm? aumifrav;wpfa,muf vdrfw,fa[h vdrfw,f}}
odef;[efu trmMuL\ rsufESmem;odkY0Jum vufñSdK;ESihf u½dku½dk
vkyfjyae&mu vufukdjyefrcsawmhbJ ycHk;uav;udkvSrf;qGJ vdkufonfhtwGuf
trmMuLwGif ',drf;',dkifESihf &ifcGifxJygcJh&avonf/
]]tdk tdk MunfhygOD;? &rf;vdkufwm? [dkrSm aemufaz;u[mawG jrifukef
awmhr,f? wpfcgwpfcgvmrSjzihf 'Dvdkcsnf;yJ? vTwfprf;yg}} [k yg;pyfuvnf;
rmefrJí ukd,fuvnf; twif;½kef;xGufaeaomaMumifh odef;[efu vufESihf
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]] tdk b,folrS vmrjrifygbl;? odNyD;om;awGyJ[m? vmvnf; MunfhMurSm
r[kwfwJh[mukd ½kef;aevdkufwm? wuwnf;}}

41
]][iftif; [iftif; vTwf vTwf}}
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ajymprf; ajymprf;}} [k pum;ukd vrf;aMumif;vTJypfvkdufrS Nidrfovdk
jzpfoGm;um
]]tr,fav; ½Iyfvdkufwmaemf}} [k pdwf½IyfouJhokdY em;o,f qHpav;udk
wpfcsufESpfcsufukwfvkdufonfrSm cspfp&muav;vdk jzpfaejyefawmhonf/
]]ajymprf;yg? bmqkrsm;awmif;ovJvdkY}}
]][iftif; vTwfqdk}}
]]ajymrSvTwfr,f}}
]][ihftif; vTwfrSajymr,f}}
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]]Munfhygvm; oltifrwef tusyfukdifwwfw,f? ½SifeJYaygif;&ygapvdkY
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uJvTwf}}
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onf/ 'gawmif ½dk;½dk;rvTwfvdkufao;bJ ESm0ESihf trmMuLUyg;ukd wpfcsuf
a0SUvdkufaomaMumihf trmMuLu uref;uwef;½kef;txGufvdkufwGif
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a,mifwda,mifcsm awmifukdif ajrmufukdifvkyfae&onfukd ta0;wGif½Sdaom
trmMuLu
]]aumif;w,f aumif;w,f 0rf;omw,f tm;&w,f}}
[k vufñSKd;uav; u½kdu½kdvkyf&if;ceJYaeawmhonf/

42
i,f&muBuD;vmcJhMuaom a,mu©ravmif;BuD;awGu uarmufur jzpfae
½Smaom odef;[efukd rjrifusKd;uRefjyKvkdufMuonf/ xdkrQru tdrfacgif;&if;½Sd
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]]armifodef;[ef pE´,m;wD;rvdkYvm;? vkyfprf;uGm wpfyk'favmuf}} [k
acsmftvJwGif a&mxkdifEdkifatmif a':zGm;ESpfukd NyHK;jy&if; OD;atmifBuD;u
pum;pay;vdkufonf/ a':zGm;ESpfuvnf; £a`E´rysuf reD;ra0;u qdkzmay:
xdkifvkduf&mu
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pE´,m;? wpfcku trmMuLyifjzpfonf/ ,ck trmMuLukd rsufarSmufjyKí
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tcgyifjzpfawmhonf/
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rtm;&atmif twJGtquf b,fqufnmajymif; EGJUaESmif;oHNidrfh wtdrfhtdrfh
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]]pE´,m;wD;qdk 'DvdkrSaygh? trmMuLwkdYrsm; ykd;omukef armifyHkapmif;rwwf}}
]]OD;atmifBuD;u Mum;jzwfí a0zefvdkufavonf/

43
]]tr,f azazuajymNyD? olYwkvdkYawmh b,fjzpfrvJ? olu csefyD,HBuD;[m
trmvJ oDcsif;jzpfatmifavmufawmh aeYwdkif; wD;aeom;yJ}}
]][if eifwD;oavmufeJY pE´,m;topfrsm; ylqm&ao;ovm;}}
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{nfhaxmufcHvdkufavonf/
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]]oDcsif;BuD;awGu cufw,fazaz&JU? twD;wifr[kwfbl;? tqdkvnf;
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]]tif; qdkprf;ygOD; *E¨rmaAGxJrSm bmrodwmvJ}}
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]]xl;w,f trm xl;w,f xl;yHkukd ajymjyr,f? awmbJGUqdkayr,fh rlv
pmqdkawmfBuD; &nfñTef;wJhawmu omrefvloleD;wJh awmrsKd;ukd qdkvkd[ef

44
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usufxm;onf/ rSwfwefwm rSwfxm;onf/ 'gawGu ukd,fhzdkY udk,fha&;&m
r[kwfygavm/ ukd,fhzdkY ukd,fha&;&mqdkí oHk;q,fhwpfbHku xGufajrmuf

45
avmufatmif tmoDoqdkvQif rSefcsifrSrSefrnf/ yJcl;a½Tarmfa"mbk&m;BuD;\
b@mawmfxdef; a*gyu vlBuD;wpfOD;jzpfaomaMumifhomvQif roifrae&
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]]bmjzpfvdkY tu©&mav;vHk;jzpfEkdifygvdrfhaemf}}
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46
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qdkwmu wpfzufurf;cwfw,f tJovdkMum;zl;wmyJ}}
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47
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oifae&wkef;yJ}}

48
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ajr[nf;vdkY wkefavmufwJh? a&rD;tpHkjyawmfrlEkdifaom jrwfpGmbk&m;/}}

49
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pum;pazmfay;vdkufjyefavonf/

50
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]]onfaqmif;a[refyg arar&JU}}

51
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52
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t,OfwumhMuiSef;? ,ckumv tcsKdUu oZifyef;[k tac:yifqef;Mu

53
aomfvnf; yef;wumhbk&if ajrwGifrayguf½HkrQru 'k*E¨½SdorQ roefYaom
XmewGif oefYpifyef;oefY r&yfwefYbJ a½SmifvTJumoGm;avh½Sdonfwpfjzm/
omoem0w¬Kue,frsm; qufqHvQifvnf; wpfcgwnf;a½Smif½Sm;í ajymif;
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rif;aygif;? Budwfaygif;pkaqmif;onfhtcg oefYpifyef; yg&onfwpfaxG/
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]arwåmpm}½Gwfjyaeavonf/
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yGJawmfaumuftpm;vGwfowJh/ wpfESpfwpfcg oefYpifyef;ay:&ifom

54
yefawmfyef;&,fvdkYcsnfeDyg;odkif;aqmif;NyD; NAJwdkufawmfqufo&onfwJh/
tJ'Dyef;awmfqufawGvm&if aejynfawmfu aps;csKdtaumuftcGefpm;&owJh/
aps;aumufawGayghvuGm}} [k yufvufukvm;xkdifBuD;ay:rSaeí
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]]tvJh tbdk;BuD;u tvmBuD;yJ}} [k qdkvdk[ef½Sdonf/ trmMuLurl zatukd
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ygonf/}} vdkY 0efaxmufawmfrif;OD;wifu qdkxm;awmh csKyfcs,fovdk

55
awmhjzpfaew,f/ 'gayr,fh bk&m;ukdtrSL; xm;NyD; OD;OD;zsm;zsm; uyfcsifvdkY
qdk&ifaum}}
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a½SUoGm;aemufvkdufnDrnD tqifajyrI½Sdr½Sd tuJcwfae[efom½Sdonf/
b,foluajymajym NyHK;NyHK;BuD;om em;axmifaeonf/
tcsdefonf nOfheufrSef;rod eufvmav\/
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pum;ukd ajymMum;ae&rl w&dyf&dyf wa½GUa½GUukefvGefaom tcsdefwdkYukd
owdrxm;rdwwfMuay/
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bouftzdkY wpfoD;wpfeef;pdkufay;cJhonf/
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tvkyf½Hk;onf bouf\ blrdeufoefjzpfcJhonf/ olYb0\ wdk;wufBuD;yGg;
&m atmifajrrSefcJhonf/ xdkae&muyif trmjzLukd &cJhonf/
odkYaomf NrdKUwGif;u wkdufukdum; nwdkif;vdkvdk tvkyfudpöt00rsm;ESihf
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]]a[; armifbouf vm vm xkdif}}
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]]tr,f armifodef;[ef b,fwkef;u a&mufaeovJ? ausmif;ydwfvdkufyvm;}}
]][kwfuJh ukdbouf 'DaeYyJ}}

56
aqG&if;rsKd;csmjzpfaeaom armifboufonf armifodef;[efwdkY om;trdukdyg
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reD;ra0;u trmMuLukdyg pyfNzJNzJESihf vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&m pdwfrvHkaom
trmu rsufapmif;ESihf jyefyufvdkufonf/ trmMuLukd boufu p aeus?
aemufajymifaeMujzpfonf/ olYvufay:rSmyif BuD;jyif;vmcJhaom trmMuLukd
boufu uav;rav;t½G,favmufxuf ykdí txifrBuD;/
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]]uJ trmu oDcsif;qdkuGm}}
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orD;uvnf;}}
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ay:wGif½Sdaom pnf;uav;ukd aumufukdifum wpfcsufESpfcsufcwfMunfh
vkdufao;onf/

57
xdkYaemuf odef;[efubJGUcHí onfaqmif;a[refukd tpjyKawmhav&m
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yefqif&m a½Tauom jref;ygvdkY?

58
onfyef;rS jrwfyef;awmf}}
taqmifukdif vkvifysKd? vHkrysKdwkdYonf 0efBuD;wwdkif;BuD;wdkY\ a½SUrS
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wa½GUa½GUvdkufyg vSrf;vmvsuf½SdMuonf/ uGrf;tpf? axG;tif? a&wHaumif;?
vufzuftkyfponfwdkYrSm rdrdwdkYoufqkdif&m rSL;BuD;rwfBuD;wdkYtwGuf
jzpfonf/
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wGif &ifharmif;aom [oFmy'g; a&mifonf &JaoG;&Jrmefukd wuf<uatmif
zefwD;aeouJhodkY½Sdonf/ a½SUokdif;? aemufodkif;cif;í tv,fA[dku
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apmokeE´m jzpfcsdrfhrnf/ olYvufwGif wpfayGUwpfykduf½dSaom aiGzvm;BuD;ukd
av;jrwfpGm ukd,frScGgí aqmif,lcJhonf/ xdktxJu pdrf;zefYzefY0gEkaoG;
jzLazG;,Sufoef; vef;qef;aeaom oZifyef;cufwdkYrSm odkif;awmfwGif
qifxm;aom omcgoabFmydwfjzLjzLEkESihf t,Ofcsif; vkaeouJhokdY
xif&onf/
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wD;um wpfodkufwpf0ef;vdkufygcJhaom toHk;awmfcHwdkYrSmvnf; jrL;xl;í
½TifysuckefoDqdkvsuf ½SdMuonf/
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jzpfonf/ olonf Mum;zl;em0 odef;[ef\A[kokwrS wpfqihfaygufzGm;
vmaom OD;aESmuf½kyf½Sifrsm;ukd Munfhae&jcif;omjzpfygonf/

59
odef;[ef\pE´,m;vufoHaumif;oavmuf trmMuL\tqdkuvnf; cHhnm;
ay:vGifonf/ Xmefu½kdPf;usjcif;? tqJGtiiftjzwftawmufaumif;jcif;?
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tMum;wGif upm;csifwkdif; upm;aeMuaomaMumifh wdwfqdwfvSaom
ntcsdefwGif tm½Hkykdírdavonf/ wD;oluvnf; tm;yg;w&? qdkoluvnf;
pnf;0g;wus? em;axmifolrsm;uvnf; tom;ygaeMujcif;aMumifh wpfwkduf
vHk;NidrfaeMuav\/
wu,fqdkawmh vlwdkif;vlwdkif;onf oDcsif;NyD;onftxd ukd,fhtawG;
ESihfukd,f idkifaerdMuonf/ boufonf olYZeD;onftrmjzLukd oGm;í
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]][Jhaumifav; igh wD;jycJhprf;}}
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]][m trmwD;wmu pE´,m;ay: <uufavQmufwmeJY w,fwlwm}}

60
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jzpfvmaomaMumihf

61
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]]uJ b,ftydk'fvJ rrSwfrdbl;qdkwm}}
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ajym&aomfvnf; pdwfwGif;um; tpfrtwGuf 0rf;enf;yufvuf vGrf;emx
aeonfh toHomjzpfav\/
]]tdk 'gvm; 'gu bmrSrcufygbl;? Munfhaemf? ½dk;wHqihfzl;iHk? 0wfrIef 0wfrIef
avwihfqHk;? oZif oZif yef;*rkef;i,fESihfav;}}
odef;[efu olukd,fwkdifqdk&if; pE´,m;vufuGufawGudk cyfrSefrSefwD;jyonf/
]]tJ'Dtykd'f[m *E¨rmawmifxJu ]qGwfcsLi,f ,liif yefqifav yefqifav
yefqifav &nfpl; qifrnfom pdwfu,ful;} qdkwmeJY bmrSrxl;bl;/
b,fuav;enf;enf;zufvdkuf&if omNyD;cHhoGm;wmaygh? uJ wD;Munfhprf;}}

62
trmMuLu enf;enf;pdwf0ifpm;vmum odef;[efae&mukd,lí wD;Munfh
onf/ odkYaomf twJGtzuf tenf;i,f[maeao;ojzihf odef;[efu
tem;uyfíjy&jyefonf/ wpfcgwpfcgvnf; tm;rvdk tm;r&jzpfvmonfh
tavsmuf trmMuL\ aemufausmbufu ycHk;ukdausmfí odef;[ef\
vufESpfzufpvHk;ukd toHk;csíjy&jyefonf/
eD;pyfyGef;wD;íaejcif;onf trmMuLüom pE´,m;ukd tm½Hkpl;pdkufvSí
owdrjyK*½krxm;? ausmrS r,m;aomf vnf; odef;[efwGifrl olYacgif;ay:u
a0aeatmifyefxm;aom oZifyef;&eHYESihfa&mí trmMuL\ ukd,feHYuav;
rsm;u tcspf"gwfukd EId;vdkufqGvdkuf vkyfaeaomaMumihf rMumrMum
w½SL;½SL;w½SJ½SJ rpl;r&J jzpfae&avonf/
]]'guav;jy&wmawmif pdwfr½Snfbl;vm; ukdodef;[ef? [kwfvnf;[kwf
yg&JUav? trmhukdu wpfcgjyvnf; r&? ESpfcgjyvnf;r&}}
]]tdk tdk r[kwfygbl;}}
]][ihftif; trmuÚmPfukdxdkif;w,f awmfNyD}}
]]tdk r[kwfwm? wD;rSmomwD;yg trm&}}
]]EdkY bmjzpfvdkY oufrBuD;cscsae&wmvJ}}
]]oufrcswmu tdk wD;omwD;ygvdkYqdk}}
]][iftif; oif&wJhvlukd tm;emw,f}}
trmMuLu odef;[ef\rsufESmukd armhMunfhvdkufaomtcgrSm tcspfcdk;?
tcspfrIdif;a0í rsufawmifBuD; pif;aeaom rsufESmuJukdowdxm;rdawmh&m
rdrdausmjyifwpfckvHk;rSmvnf; odef;[ef\ &ifcGifwGif;odkY vHk;vHk;vsm;vsm;
ra&muf½Hkwpfr,f jzpfaeonfukd od&onfESihfwpfNydKifeuf ausmcsrf;í
MuufoD;xvmawmhavonf/

63
xdkYaMumifh cspfonf[k qdk&apumrl aMumufwmuvnf; wpfzufwpfvrf;
u½Sdao;aomaMumihf wD;aeaom acG;ajcuav;rS<uí qwfueJ x&yf
vdkufonfESihf
]]xdkifygtrm&JU b,fxrvdkYvJ ukdodef;[ef 'Dvdkaewmuav;rS rESpfouf
Ekdifbl;vm;}} [k [efYvdkufrS cyfawGawGuav;jyefxkdifvdkufrdjyefonf/
]]trm}}
odef;[efu pdwfyifyef;oHESihfac:jyef&m þwpfcgwGifrl aMumufaMumuf½GUH½GHU
ESihf acgif;rSrazmf0HhawmhbJ
]]½Sif}} [k toHwkefuav;ESihfom xl;vkdufaomaMumihf
]]ukdodef;[ef pdwfarmae&wm odw,fr[kwfvm;trm}} [k aoG;wdk;prf;
vdkuf&m tb,fukd&nf½G,fí tb,fukd qG,fonfukd &dyfrdaeNyDjzpfaomf
vnf; odygw,f[líum; 0efrcH0Hh? razmfjy0HhaomaMumihf &ifuav;wGifom
ykZGefqdwfckefovdkomckefae½Smav\/
xGuf0ifoGm;vmaeonfrSm umvMumjrihfaeNyDjzpfonfhwdkif odef;[eftm;
tckwpfcgavmuf rnfonfh tcgurS raMumufr½GHUcJhzl;onfukd trSwfjyKrd
avonf/ ,ckwpfBudrfum; aMumuf½GHUrQru tlwGif;? tonf;wGif;uyg
½dk;wdk;½Gwjzpfatmif ½dk;wGif;csOfqDxJu vIdufvIdufwufaeaomaMumihf
*emrNidrfEdkifonfESihftwl pE´,m;cvkyfuav; rsm;ukdom yGwfoyfupm;
ouJhodkY ae&avonf/
tcef;BuD;rSm cgwkdif;xufNidrfoufpGm olwdkYESpfOD;tm; tuJcwfaeav\/
odef;[ef\ tlwGif;oabmukd rajymcifuodESihfNyD;jzpfaom trmMuLwGif
tcef;BuD;Nidrfaeav touf½I rSm;awmhrwwf pdwfaemufavjzpfbdonf/
wu,fhwu,fqdk&vQif cspfrIBudKufrIxuf 0goemcsif;wlrIu &Jwif;yGef;wD;

64
atmif aqmif½GufvIHUaqmfjcif;jzpfcJh&m xdkokdY&Jwif;yGef;wD;pGmaerdjcif;aMumifh
pdwf\tqihftwef;wpfrsKd; wdk;wuf vmawmhonfukd ,ckrS&dyfrdawmhonf/
pE´,m;wD;aepOfu ynda`E´wnfMunfrIonf ,ckodef;[ef\ &ifcGifESihfrjcm;
awmhaom vufarmif;BuD;rsm; tMum;wGifae&aomtcg pMu0VmwpfjyifvHk;
ukef;aMumif;avQmufajy;ae&ouJhokdYvnf;aumif;?tZ#maumif;uifavtjyif
umvü rdk;wdrfwdkufrsm;ESihftwl vGihfyg;vSnfhvnfae&ouJhokdYvnf;aumif;
trsKd;rsKd;acsmufcsm;aeavonf/
rnfrQavmufyif rdrdukd,fukdrdrd acwfqefí a,musFm;rsm;ESihf ycHk;csif;
,SOf0Hhonf[k txifBuD;cJhrdvihfupm; wu,fhwu,f bDvl;awGU'l;awGU
awhawhqdkifqdkif tcspfwvif;ü ppfcif;íNydKifaeMu&onfh ,ckvdk
rdepfuav;wGifrl Zmwfwlom;r[kwfonfukd cJGcJGjcm;jcm;BuD; odomEkdifawmh
onfESihftrQ [',"mwfrSmavjzwfíupm;aeouJhodkY ½Sdacsonf/
]]trm ukdodef;[efajymwmukd jyefajymygOD;}}
]]trm bmajym&rSmvJvdkY}}
]]ukdodef;[ef bmjzpfvdkY pdwfarmae&w,fqdkwm trmodw,fr[kwfvm;}}
trmMuLrSm rnfokdYrQjyefrajzEkdif qGHUtaeouJhodkY ½Sdav\/
]][if vdkY trm}}
]]bmvJ ukdodef;[ef&JU}}
]]trmodw,fr[kwfvm;}}
]]trmb,fodwwfrvJ ukdodef;[ef? apawm y&d, tbdnmOf&wJh &[EÅmr
BuD;rS r[kwfao;wm}}
]]rodvdkY odatmif ajymjy&ifaum}}
]]ajymjy&if em;axmifae&rSmaygh}}
]]em;axmifae½HkeJY rjzpfao;bl;av? tif; vdkufOD;rSaygh}}

65
]]tdk [dk [dk ukdodef;[efuvJ? uav;uav;yHkajymaewmvdkufvdkY tif;
vdkuf&OD;rSmvm;}}
]]r[kwfbl;av oabmwlzdkYajymwm}}
]][m bmrSef;rod&cifu oabmwl&r,fqdkwmawmh ukdodef;[efyJ pOf;pm;
Munfhprf;ygOD;? EkdifxufpD;eif; rusvGef;bl;vm;}}
odef;[efwGif pum;rqufEkdifavmufatmif tHhtm;oihfoGm;av\/ pwif&ef
cufygbd toufaMumihfarmifyl qdkouJhokdY tpcufaeawmhavNyD/ pum;
wwfí yg;eyfvdr®maom trmMuLtm; vdk&if;a&mufatmif rnfuJhokdY
qJG&ygrnfenf;/ trmMuL odonf/ trmMuLodaeNyDjzpfaMumif;ukdvnf;
odef;[efodxm;ygNyD/ odkYaomf odkYaomf todacgufcuft0ifeufaeonf[k
qdk&rvm;/ tdyfa,mifaqmifolukd tEId;cufonf[k qdk&rvm;/ odef;[efwGif
rpl;r&Jjzpfae&av\/
]]trmu odyfNyD; pum;wwfwdkif; vSnfhywfaewmukd;}} [k om nnf;rdonf/
]]ukdodef;[efukd trmuvSnfhaewmr[kwfygbl;/ ukdodef;[efuom trmhukd}}
trmMuLu pum;ukd qHk;atmifrajym0HhouJhokdY wkefwkef,if,ifESihf &yfqdkif;
ypfvdkufonf/ rMum;0Hhaom pum;vHk;BuD;rsm;onfvnf; odef;[ef\
EIwfzsm;rS eihfeihfeJeJBuD;xGufvmawmhrnfukd trmMuLü txdwfwvefY
,HkMunfaeaomfvnf; xoGm;&efrjzpfonfhtavsmuf onf;cHae& ouJhokdY
½Sdonf/
]]trmodygw,f trm&,f/ ukdodef;[ef b,fvdkjzpfae&w,fqdkwm trm
aumif;aumif;BuD; odygw,f/ oufoufrJh trm ynm½SdESdyfpufaewmyg}}
odef;[efu ajymajymqdkqdk trmMuLxkdifaeaom pE´,m;wD;cHkuav;\
tpGef;wpfzufodkY0ifí uwfoD;uwf owf wifyg;vTJ xkdifcsvdkufonf/
]]trm ukdodef;[efukd pdwfrqdk;eJYaemf}}

66
trmMuLrSm olajymvdkufaom pum;xuf usOf;usOf;usyfusyf wdk;rda0SYrdaom
tawGUtxdu rdk;BudK;puf txdcHvdkuf&ouJhokdY jzpfoGm;aomaMumihf
]]qdk;ygbl;}} [k vTwfueJ yg;pyfuxGufoGm;rdonf/ NyD;rS igrSm;NyD[k
aemifwBuD;&vihfupm; odef;[ef\ toem;pmESihf t,lcHvTmukd vufcH
vkdufrdNyD;jzpfaeojzihf wtdtdESihf rdrdbufokdYygvmatmif qJGaeaom
odef;[ef\ vufukd ½kef;aomfvnf; vHk;vHk;BuD; r&awmhacs/
]]ukdodef;[ef 'Dvdkawmh rvkyfygeJY}}
trmMuL\avoHrSm a'goryg? tmPmoHra&muf? toem;cHovdkom
½Sdonf/
]]trm trm ukdodef;[efukd rcspfbl;vm;trm&,f}} [k xyfí ar;aejyef&m
xdkar;cGef;ukd ajz&efavmufawmh trmMuLtzdkYvG,fulygonf/ okdYaomf
xdktar;ukd tajzuav;wpfckESihf ed|dwHoGm;rnfr[kwfbJ ]]cspf&if oem;yg}}
[laom aemufqufwJGu xGufvmvdrfhOD;rnfukd BudKwifí&dyfpm;rd
aomaMumihf cufjyefonf/
]]ukdodef;[efukd rcspfbl;xifyg&JU trm [if? ukdodef;[efuom aoravmuf
cspfaeayr,fh trmuawmh}}
odef;[ef\toHrSm wu,fh0rf;enf;oHrsKd;ay:aeavonf/ þvdkqdkjyefawmh
Eke,fMuifemwwfaom rdef;uav;twGuf ,lusHK;r&p&m &ifxkrem
jzpfrdjyefao;onf/
]]pOf;pm;Munfhygvm; ukdodef;[ef? rcspf&if 'Dvdkaeyghrvm;}}
rsufESmomay; a½Ta&;yk*Hwufwwfaom 0goemrSm a,musFm;uav;awG\
ADZjzpfonf/
]]rawmfbl;xifw,f ukdodef;[ef? enf;enf;z,fay;ygOD;? trm raewwf
awmhbl;]] [k pdwfarmovdk ajymonfukd

67
]]'geJY cspfw,fqdk trm&JU? udkodef;[ef rcspf&bl;vm;}}
]]cspfawmh cspfwmaygh? cspf&ygw,f/ tckvnf; rkef;aevdkYvm;}}
]]rrkef;vdkY ykdifpdk;ykdifeif; cspfcsifwmukdajymwm}}
]]r*Fvmraqmifcif 'DvdkyJaeoGm;yg ukdodef;[ef? trm rcspf0Hhbl;/
awmfawmfMum zG[Jh vGJap z,fap r*Fvmraqmifjzpf&if}}
]][m edrdwfr½Sd ermr½Sd trmajym&ufwmaemf? 'Dtajca&mufrS bmjzpfvdkY
r*Fvmraqmifjzpf&rSmvJ? armifhukd r,HkvdkYvm;/ wpfrdk;atmufrSm wpfa,muf
vdkYrSwfxm;wJhtaumifyg/ trmh rsufESmuav;&,f? a[m'DrsufvHk;uav;?
a[m'DESmwHuav;awGrSm armifhtoufwpfykdif;0ifaeNyD;om;yg/}}
odef;[efu tvGwf&NyD;om; pmwpfykd'fukd rxpfraigh ½Gwfjyovdk rxpfraigh
wwGwfwGwfajymaeavonf/
a[m'D ESmwHuav;? rsufvHk;uav;? rsufESmuav; pojzihf rdrdukd,f
t*Fgtpdwftykdif;uav;rsm;ukd wpfckpDwpfckpDcJGjcm;í od'd̈wifaeaom
odef;[ef\ ½lyaA'uxm pum;uav;rsm;onf wu,fh wu,fqdkawmh
b0ifaoG;ajrmufatmif rodromajr§mufxdk;yihfaumf vkyfaeMuovdk½Sdonf/
]]cufwmyJ ukdodef;[ef? trm pdwfnpfvmNyD}}
trmMuLu em;o,fpukd ½IHU½IHUrJhrJhESihfukwf&if; nnf;vdkuf½Hkomwwfonf/
wu,fom&ufpufEdkifvQif jywfjywfom;om; ajymvdkufzdkYom½Sdonf/
,ckawmh rsufESmaouav;ESihf ylqmaeonfh odef;[efukd tb,fhaMumifh [k
twwfrod&bJESihf rMunfh&ufovdkvdkjzpfaomaMumifh wdkuftjyifzufokdYom
ai;aerdonf/
]]trm&JU ukdodef;[efukd tvdkvdkufw,fqdkwJh *kPfuav;ukd ,lprf;ygaemf
aemf aemfvdkY? oem;w,f r[kwfvm;? EdkYjzihf trmu bmjzpfvdkY bmjzpfvdkY
ukdodef;[ef raeEkdif rxkdifEdkif cspfcsifatmif vSaeao;vJ? uJ aemufNyD;

68
ukdodef;[efukd cspfw,fvnf;qdkao;&JU? 'DaeYnawmh bmyJjzpfjzpf rmw*F
ZGJrsKd;eJYuyfaerSmyJ rjyefbl;? rjyefbl;? ukd,fawmh trmhtdyf&mxJrSm
oGm;tdyfaeawmhr,f/}}
odef;[efu ajymajymqdkqdk ZGwfw½Gwfvkyfum trmhtdyfcef;qDodkY
oGm;awmhrnfwuJuJjzpfaeaomaMumihf
]]tdk 'gu b,fukdvJ? Munfhprf;ygOD;aemf? cufvkdufwm/ oDcsif;wufrdwm
cGuswmyJ}} [k ZGwftwif; qJGae&ojzihf idkrJhrJhuav;jzpfvmav\/
]]ukdodef;[efukd 'DavmufrS tvdkrvdkufcsifbl;vm; trm&JU}}
]]tvdkvdkuf&if ukdodef;[efu trdkufapmfum;vmrSmukd;}}
]]'g apmfum;wmrSr[kwfbJ? cspfvdkYyJ[m}}
]]cspfwmvJ apmfum;wmrsKd;yJ r[kwfvm;}}
xdkuJhokdY ESpfa,mufwnf; wBudwfBudwf wwdk;wdk; ½kef;olu½kef;? qJGolu
qJGaeMupOf trmMuL\rdcifBuD; acsmif;wpfcsuf[efYoHMum;vdkufaomaMumifh
ESpfa,mufom; tBuH&usyfí rwfwyfu NidrfoGm;Mujyefav\/
rdef;rrsm;onf a,musFm;awGxuf wcFPkyÜwådÚmPfomonf[k qdkMu\/
tcspf"gwfESihf&pfywf,SOfwJG rIdif;xJwGifrdaeaomtcgum; a,musFm;ESihfrdef;r
rjcm;em;Muawmhacs/ xHkxdkif;rIdif;taeonfomrsm;awmh\/
þtcgtcdkuf trmMuLom owd&vdkufygrlum;
]]a[monfrSm arar}} [k rdcifBuD;tm; atmfac:vkduf½HkrQESihf odef;[efrSm
vufeufcsí ppfajyNidrf;oGm;&ayrnf/ tu,fí rdcifBuD;xGufvmapOD;awmh
]][Jh bmvJ trm}} [k ar;onfhwkdifatmif
]]ukdoef;[efu jyefawmhrvdkYwJh EIwfqufaew,f}} [laom pum;csKd;
ajzvdkuf½HkrQESihf odef;[eftzdkY acsmftvJwGif a&mxdkif&awmhum NyHK;wrJhrJh
rcsihfr&J awmufcwfí wyfacguf&awmhrnfjzpfonf/ ,ckrlum;

69
þwcFPkyÜwådqdkonfwkdYrSm rrkef;Edkifaom arwåmwdkYtMum; qJGvm;iifvm;ESihf
vGihfyg;aysmufysufMu[efwlonf/ ratBuD;xGufvmí yufyif;ygjrifrnf
udkom pdk;&drfaerdaomaMumihf
]]uJyg ukdodef;[ef trmhukdoem;&if jyefygawmh}}
]]r&ufpufygeJY trm&,f}}
]]&ufpufwm r[kwfygbl; ukdodef;[ef uJ uJ 'gjzihf reufjzefusrS}}
trmMuL\ wcFPkyÜwådum; ,ckrS rqDrqdkif vufyHom;"g;ESihfcsKdifrdonf/
tvJGoHk;pm;toHk;csrdonf/ ,ckvwfwawm ab;tEÅ&m,fukd umuG,fjcif;
rQjzpfonf/ reufjzefcgqdkaom &ufcsdef;um; BudK;½Snf½SnfESihfvSefrnfh pum;
aemifcgay;awGUwdkif;awmif;[laomta<u;ESihfwlav&m reufjzefcg odef;[ef
vmvQif þuJhokdYyif pum;vufcHíajymqdkcGihfrS ay;awmhrnfr[kwf?
'grsKd;awGudkvnf; odef;[efqdkaom a,musFm;wpfa,mufu tpif;om;
odxm;onf/ odonfrodonftyxm; a,musFm;qdkaom owå0g\p½kdufukd
rodem;rvnfao;íom þuJhokdY BudK;½SnfESihfvSefvdkufjcif;jzpfav&m
url;½l;xdk; EGm;odk;BudK;jywf ,aeYaiG wpfusyfESihf reufjzef aiGwpfaxmif
rvJaom a,musFm;wkdY\ pdwfukd owdrxm;íom[k qdkEkdifawmhayrnf/
]][ifhtif; [ihftif; ckyJukd,fhukdrkef;aeNyDr[kwfvm;/ eufjzefqdkwJhpum;u
xrif;&nfylvmvdkY vQmvTJwJh pum; aemifcgay;awGUwkdif;awmif;vkyfrvdkY/
odw,f 'Du}}
odef;[efonf pum;qH;vQifqHk;csif; pGwfceJaeatmif trmMuL\ tcef;
xJodkY 0ifoGm;vkdufaomcPüyifvQif rdcifBuD;vnf; avSum;0odkY a&mufvm
onfukd awGU&av\/
]]orD; b,fhES,f wdwfcsufom;aumif;vScsnfh? armifodef;[efaum jyefoGm;
yvm;}} [k ar;vkdufaomtcg trmMuLtzdkY jzKef;ueJ rajzwwfawmhay/

70
]][Jh trm wpfa,mufwnf; bmidkifaewmvJ? tdrfa½SUuwHcg;awGvnf;
rydwf&ao;yguvm;? armifodef;[efaum armifodef;[ef jyefoGm;yvm;}} [k
xyfí ar;vkdufaomtcg w&m;olBuD;u Ncdrf;ajcmuf aigufirf;í tppfcH
&onfh w&m;cHyrm
]]arar [kwfuJh}} [k EIwfrS vGwfxGufoGm;av\/
þodkYESihf rdcifBuD;ukd,fwkdif wHcg;rsm;ydwfqdkYaeaomaMumifh trmMuLü
ig;t½kd;rsufaeaom vufwdkYuJhodkY rdrdtcef;qDodkYom vSnfhwMunfhMunfh
vkyf&if; pdwf½Iyfae&av\/ cufwmyJ ig b,fhES,fvkyf&yghrvJ [laom
jyóemonf OD;aESmufwpfckvHk; arTaESmufacsmufcsm;aeav\/
]]'Dvl[m ZGwform;BuD;yJ/ awmufwJhuyf uyfaeNyD/ ararhukd wdkifvkduf&
aumif;rvm;/ tdk ½Sufp&mBuD;ygav/ b,fajymvdkYjzpfrvJ}}
xdktcdkuf ]][Jh trm b,fihgaemufcsnf;yJ vdkufae&wmvJ? oGm;tdyfcsnf
awmhav}} [laom rdcifBuD;\ toHukdMum;&rS rdrdum; a,mifwda,mifcsmESihf
rdcifBuD;\aemufyg;u oGm;av&m uyfvdkufaerdaMumif; owd&rdawmhonf/
]]oGm;tdyfacsawmhav trm}}
]]trm aMumufw,f arar&JU}}
trmMuLu vTwfueJajymvkdufrdonf/
]]bmaMumufae&wmvJ? bmjzpfvdkYvJ? aMomf 'DaeYrS bmjzpfaewmwkef;}} [k
tHhtm;oihfumar;rS trmMuLwGif aMumifwufwufBuD; jzpfae½Smonf/
]]tdk trm bmrSrjzpfygbl;}}
]]'geJY aMumufw,fqdk}}
]][J [J [J trmvdrfwm tvum;}}
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yGwfoD;yGwfoyf vdrfzJhaeaomaMumihf rlrrSefaom orD;i,fukdMunfh&if;

71
a':zGm;ESpfwGif wpfpxufwpfp ouFmruif;Ekdifatmif jzpfvmojzihf
xl;xl;qef;qef; Munfhaerdav\/
]][Jh aumifrav; eifbmjzpfaewmvJ ajymprf;}}
]]aMomf araruvJ trm bmrSrjzpfygbl;vdkYqdkae}}
]][ifhtif; eifwpfckckjzpf&r,f bmvJ}}
]]t[D; bmrSrjzpfygbl; uRefr}}
a':zGm;ESpfum; wdk;íxdwfvefYum rouFm[efESihf ppfaMumae½HkrQru
zcifvkyfolukdyif vSrf;í ac:OD;awmh rvdkvkd½SdvmaomaMumihf trmMuLwGif
aMumuftm;vefYtm;ESihf acR;jyefvmav\/
]]r[kwfygbl; arar&JU? tcke ukdodef;[efuav}}
]]tif; odef;[efu bmajymoGm;vdkYvJ}}
]]trmhukdav}}
]]tdk cufvdkufwm nnf;udkbmajymoGm;vdkYvJ bmvJ bmvJ}}
]]o&JtaMumif; wapätaMumif;awG a,mq&mBuD;taMumif;awG? aemufNyD;
aemufNyD; pkef;ua0taMumif; awG? olzwfwJh0w¬KawGxJu[mawG [J [J [J
trmaMumufvmwmeJY ararhukd t[d}}
trmMuLu uEGJUuvs pdwfrvHkovdkvdk wpfvHk;csif; avQmhcsrS a':zGm;ESpfwGif
auseyfoGm;rdonf/ a':zGm;ESpf auseyfoGm;Edkifaom taMumif;&if;cH
uvnf;½Sdonf/ olukd,fwkdif uG,fvGefavNyD;aom orD;onftaMumif;udk
rsuf&nfpufvufESihfajymqdkum wufoGm;NyD;onfh tjcm;rJhü armifodef;[ef
onf usef&pfcJhaomtrmMuLtm; ayvuFwmeH aovuFwmeH qdkaom
pum;prsKd;ESihf qufpyfí emembm0? 0dembm0? 0dnmOfavmu
taMumif;rsKd;ukd ajymoGm;Ekdifayonf/ þodkYyif awG;,lvdkufrdonf/

72
]]w,f 'Dtaumif aemufwJhaumifyJ? rdef;uav; vdyfjymi,f&wJhtxJ
b,fu r[kwfw½kwfawG ajymoGm; &ygvdrfh? tvum;orD;? tvum; oGm;
oGm;tdyfcsnf? tdyf&m0ifrSm bk&m;ykxdk;½Sdcdk; Mum;vm;? 'gawGudk ta&;pdkuf
p&mrSwfvdkY? vm vm arar jcifaxmifcsay;r,f}} [k ajym&if; orD;i,fukd
zufwJGtm;ay;um tdyfcef;xJ ta&muf vdkufydkYay;OD;rnfjyKonfhtwGuf
]]tdk udpör½Sdygbl;? uRefr raMumufygbl; oGm;ygawmhav/ trm
raMumufawmhygbl;}} [k ajymajymqdkqdk OD;cifatmif rdrdut&JpGefYí
0ifcJh&aomfvnf; bDvl;BuD;apmifh&mocsØKif;okdY ta&mufvmcJh&onfh
r,fumumyrm &ifwzdkzdk acgif;wBuD;BuD; MuufoD;arG;nif;xaeav\/
okdYESihf rdcifBuD;ab;rS oDoDav;vGwfvmcJhNyD;vQif rdrd\txifü
ckwifay:wGif ikwfwkwfuav; xdkifaevdrfhrvm;? auG;auG;uav;
tdyfaevdrfhrvm;[k atmufarhcJhaom odef;[efukd ckwifay:ürawGU&ojzihf
tHhtm;oihfum 0rf;omoGm;NyD;rS rdcifBuD;\&efukdaMumufojzihf wHcg;uG,fü
ykef;atmif;aeaMumif; &dyfrdawmhav&m ckwifay:wGif vluom [efrysuf
xdkifae&aomfvnf; pdwfrSmrlum; aqmufwnf&mr&Ekdif½Smay/
vlajcwdwfovdk½SdrS bom;acsmu wHcg;½GufMum;u xGufvmNyD;vQif
aMumufaMumuf½GUH½THUESihf tem;uyfvm aomaMumihf iSufBuD;0efykduJhokdYaom
odef;[ef\ajcvSrf;ESihf trlt&mrSm aMumufp&mMum;u &,fp&mBuD;wpfck
jzpfaeav\/
]]trmhukd oem;&if ckaejyefxGufoGm;ygvm; ukdodef;[ef&,f}}
]]'DavmufawmifyJvm; trm&,f? trmhukd ukdufrpm;ygbl;/ vleJY vlcsif;yg/
aMumufp&mr[kwfwmukd aMumufae&if cspfw,fqdkwm tvum;jzpfae
rSmaygh? 'DrSm ukdodef;[ef ajymyg&apOD;/ urÇmtp yxruwnf;u
tcspfaMumifhjzpfvm&wJh vlawG? ewfawG? wd&pämef? Nydwåm? tol&um,f

73
awGyg? avmurSm touf½Sdw,fqdkwJh yk*¾dKvfrSeforQ[m tcspfwHk;
tcspfcJawGygyJ/ aemufqHk;ukefukefajym&&if tmoa0gukefcrf;wJh bk&m;?
&[EÅmawGawmifrS tEkyg 'daoo edAÁmefra&mufrcsif; cE¨m0efvufp
rodrf;ao;orQ tcspfaMumifhjzpfvm&wJh twåabm cE¨mukd,f BuD;awGudk
xrf;½Gufae&ygao;w,ftrm? ukdodef;[efwkdY trmwdkY qdkwmawmh
tcspf½kyfrSm tcspfemrfrukefao; EkdifvdkY a[m'DtcspfbHkrSm ½SufzdkYaMumufzdkY
bmrSrvdkygbl;/ cspfw,fqdkwJhpdwfukdawmh trmjrifatmifjyvnf; rjyEdkif?
jrifvnf; rjrifpaumif;wJh apwodufrdkY trmrodwmeJY jiif;aewmyg/
jyrsm;omjy&&if jrif;rdk&fawmifaum bmrdkYvJ r[mork'´&mawGuaum
bmrDvdrfhrwHk;? EIdif;p&m? wkp&m½Sdukdr½SdvdkY trmukd,fwdkifthHMooGm;rSmyg/
'Dawmh trm ukd,fwkdif oem;vmrSmrkcsygyJ}}
odef;[efajymorQpum;wdkYrSm trmwpfcgrS rMum;zl;ao;onfh pum;
txl;tqef;rsKd;jzpfaeaomaMumihf olajymwmawG [kwfrsm;[kwfrvm;[k
xifpm;rdav\/ odef;[efukdMunfhvdkuf&aomtcg oem;pzG,f ñId;i,f
aeonf ukdvnf; jrif&av\/
]]trm cspfawmhcspfygw,f ukdodef;[ef&,f cspfayr,hf}}
]]bmjzpfovJ trm}}
]]aMumufvdkY}}
]]tdk [dk [dk raMumufygeJYawmh trm&,f? ukdodef;[efcspfwmukd b,fvdk
vkyfjy&rvJ? toufaojy&rvm;? &ifESpfjcrf;cJGjy&rvm;}}
þtcsdefum; odef;[efu yg;pyfESihfomajyma[maeaom tcsdefr[kwfawmh/
vufuvnf; ycHk;uav;ukd jznf;jznf;qJG,líaeav&m trmMuLü a&pD;
oefvSaom oHvGifjrpfzsm;u awmopfwHk; arQmcsvdkufouJhokdY pdwfxJwGif
wvSyfvSyf wqwfqwfjzpf&if; wHk;wdkufwdkuf urf;wdkufwkduf uwdkuf

74
u½kduf uaomuarsm tcspf[laom a&,OfaMumwGif arsmygoGm;
vdkufonfESihfwpfjydKifeuf qHxHk;uav;ay:rS oZifyef;yGihfuav;rsm;onf
acgif;rSruGmbJvsuf acgif;tHk;BuD;ay:odkY tcdkifvdkufñGwfusoufqif;av&m
odef;[efwGifrl rdrdrsufESmatmufu oem;p&m oZifcufuav;ukd rerf;&uf
erf;&uf erf;vdkufav\/
aqmif;nonf avmuBuD;wpfcGifvHk;tm; aiGESif;okefokefBuJvsuf½Sdonf/
ajrmufjyefavnif;onf waqGUaqGUckefí O'[dkajy;vTm;upm;aeonf/
aiGMu,fyGihfuav;rsm;onf uwåDygeufjym rsufESmusufukduyfí wpfOD;ESiYf
wpfOD; rsufpypfum t&dyftuJjy&if; twif;ajymvdk[ef vu©Pm½SdMuonf/
]]trm}}
odef;[ef\ tac: om½Sdonf/
txl;ESihf tajzum; trmMuL\idk½IdufoH/

___________

a&mifjcnfwpfaxmif tvif;aqmifonf[k pmqdkMuaomae0ef;onf aiGESif;
rIefrIefMum;rS tm;,lí acsmif;ajrmif;Munfh½Iae½Smonf/ olYrsufESmBuD;rSm
½SufaoG;jzef;aeovdk eDjref;jref;? 0gMuihfMuihf? NyHK;pdpd? pyfNzJNzJ[k xif&onf/
trmMuLarG;xm;aom omvdumarmifESHwdkYrSm wwGwfwGwf wpmpm
rm*"oH&ihfa<u;í at;csrf;onfh eHeufcif;ukd ½Tifvef;pGmqD;BudKí aerif;ukd
EIwfqufaeMuonf/ rdk;aygufu ½IH;&aom tHhrqHk; ESif;aiG&nfwkdYESihf

75
ta½SUajrmufrS{nfhonfawmf ukdavjynfonf yef;&eHYrsm;ukd vufaqmif
o,f,lí avmuGwfvkyf½Smonf/
trmMuLUtdyfcef;rS jywif;aygufwHcg;½Gufuav; wpfzufwpfcsufrSm olwdkY
tcsif;csif;&ifMum;aphyHkr&? ukdavjynfajcxdk;í aoG;uJGaeMuav&m cef;qD;
ZmjymvJhvJhu ulvSnfhMuyg[k vuf,yfíac:ovdk wa0SUa0SU w&rf;&rf;
jzpfae½Smonf/
trmMuL\ puf&mcef;uav;um; wdfwfqdwfNidrfoufvsuf ½Sdaewkef;yif/
wpfa,muftdyfvnf;ru ESpfa,muftdyfvnf;r&aom paumpu ckwif
ay:wGif ½kdU½dkU,Jh,Jh wapmif;vSJí arS;rSdwfae½Smolum; trmMuL wpfa,muf
wnf;/
vuf,meHyg;ü jym;csyfEGrf;acG ñId;i,fae½Smonfh yef;oZifaiGyGihfuav;
wdkYonf ½dk;qihfzl;wH taer[efawmhbJ ra<uwefbJESihfa<u&onfhtavsmuf
*kPfrarmuf rmefr<um;Ekdifawmhojzihf ocifrESihftvm;wl uHwltusKd;ay;
tdyfarGUaq;rjy,fhwjy,fvdk ½Sd½Smonf/
'dkbDom;rusaom tdyf&mcif;jzLjzLazG;uav;rSmvnf; aeom;r&vIdif;xí
*,ufjzmum roufromjzpfae ½Smav\/
]]rpHkolcufvSaygh? uuú#&moD? wpfuGufrS omrMunfw,f? wpfem&DraEG;}}
qdkouJhokdY aiGESif;ESihfa&mí avnif;uygavmvdkufojzihf wpfukd,fwnf;
usef&pfcJhonfh trmMuLwGif rMumrD odrfhceJ jzpfoGm;um rsufcGHuav;
<uvmav\/
OD;pGmyxr z½kdz&J tazmfESifhuJGae½Smaom acgif;tHk;BuD;wpfvHk;ukd rdrd
acgif;&if;em;wGif awGUvdkuf&aomaMumihf odef;[eftm;owdr&bJ raeEkdif
awmhum xdwfxdwfysmysmjzpfoGm;NyD;rS nbufu reufbufrul;cif txl;
awmif;yefí ESifvkdufaomaMumihf rcGgcsif cGgcsif xGufoGm;yHkudk tm½Hkxifjrif

76
vmawmhojzihf þwGifrS reufBuD;apmapm tawmrowfEkdifatmif
vGrf;ovdkvdkjzpf&jyefav\/
xdkaemufwpfzef oZifysHaiGOuav;wdkYu a<upvk'Pf&mESihf jyefvSefum
wkdifwef;aeMuovdk jrif&jyefojzihf 0rf;enf;yef;enf; acgif;tkH;BuD;tem;u
aumufíukdifvdkufrdum u½kPmoufovdkjzpfaeav\/
trSefuvnf; u½kPmouf&ayrnf/ oZifolYcrsmrSm i½kyfoD;ESihfaygif;rdí
MuufoGefygtaxmif;cH&ovdk trmMuLacgif;ay:a&mufrdí ta<uapm&
½Smonf/ tajcavQm&½Smonf/ yef;uav;\ nOfhOD;uESihf vHk;0rwlaom
ocFg&ukd oHa0*wifrdonfhaemuf rdrdukd,fukdrdrd ypöa0u©Pm
wifMunfhvdkufaomtcg roufrom &wufjzmí ½Sufp&mwpfckukd
atmufarh&onfhenf;wl vlZmwfü ESpfb0ajymif;NyD; cE¨mukd,fwpfckvHk;
a[mif;EGrf;cJhavNyDwum;[k 0rf;enf;yufvufjzpf&jyefav\/
odkYaomf þMum;xJu tcspf\t&om ayrwPSmu ykdykdomomBuD;
wpfrsKd;ay:atmif EId;aqmfum owday;aejyefojzihf t"du&BuD; pJGovdkvdk
jzpfvsuf nOfhoef;acgifarSmifrkdufwGif cGihfvTwfvdkufrdwmutp oem;&awmh
rvdkvdk tHk;puf&m,SOfwGJí wpfckwifwnf;aecJh&aomaMumihf ylaEG;arT;BudKif
aom odef;[ef\ &ifaiGUyif tckxufwdkif aEG;aearT;aeao;ovdkvdk/
wpfwufpm;vnf; MuufoGef? ESpfwufpm;vnf; MuufoGefjzpfojzihf
vufvGefcsuf vGefap axGvmauvm wDwDwmwm yvDyvmvkyfoGm;aom
odef;[ef\ t,kt,tjyKtrlwnf;[laom ork',wkdYukd ,cknqufí
ESpfoufpGm aecsifovdkvdk? tESDvdkvdk tESmvdkvdk bmvdkvdk nmvdkvdk
&ifwGif;uzdkvmjyefonfESihf eD;&macgif;tHk;BuD;ukd pdwf½Sdvuf½Sd b0ifESihf
qJGzdxm;vdkufrS aeíxdovdkvdk oufom&m&Ekdifawmhonf/
þodkY þyHk Edk;aevsufESifh tdyf&mrS rxcsifaoma0'emjzpfaepOftwGif;

77
]]trm aejrihfvSygyaum orD;&,f? rEdk;ao;bl;vm;}}
rdcifBuD;toHukdMum;rS awG;aeaom pdwfESihfauG;aeaom ukd,fukd
uykdu½dkajymif;vJvkduf&&if; tcef;jyif bufodkYxGufcJhum rsufESmrdk;ESmopfí
aumfzDpm;yJG0ifxkdufvkduf&aomfvnf; cgwdkif;url tdyf&muEdk;vQifEdk;csif;
tirf;r& qmavmifrGwfodyfwwfaom tusihfonf ,aeYrS xl;jcm;pGm
ajymif;vJoGm;onfukd awGU&avonf/
tdrfacgif;&if;bufokdY rsufESmrlumxkdifrdí jrif&aom bk&m;pifrS oZifcuf
uav;rsm;rSm aqmif;avjynf yufzsef;í nOfhOD;uxufyif vef;aeavonf/
raeYu naebufrS wpfNydKifeuf&aom oZifyef;csif;wlapumrl bk&m;pifrS
yef;rSm ,kwfrmnpfax; udavom tnpftaMu;wdkYukd y,fcGgpGefYtyf
ruyfrNid oDv0dok'¨djzpfawmfrlaom bk&m;½Sif\ t&[H*kPfawmfukd cdkvIH
cpm;ae&aomaMumihf vef;onfxufvef;vmEkdifvsuf umr*kPftcspfaq;
wnf;[laom tnpftaMu;wdkYukd &pfarS; aysmfyg;vkdufrdaom rdrdacgif;rS
oZifyef;rsm;üomvQif ñId;EGrf;&da&mf yef;azmfr0if oDvrpifMu,fonf\
tjzpfukd qifjcif EIdif;pmp&m jzpfaejyefaomaMumihf
]]ig pdwftvdkudk vdkufrdavjcif;? [d&DMowåyÜ uif;vkdufrdavjcif;}} [k rdrd\
raumif;rIukdqifjcifí MowåyÜoHa0*&vkdufrdonf/
rdrdukd,fudkyif ro'Davmufatmif jzpfaepOf pE´,m;ay:½Sd aiGyef;tdk;uav;
xJrS oZifcufwdkYuvnf; rqif&ufatmif vef;qef;aeonfudk awGUvkduf
jyefav&m
]]onfaqmif;a[ref ajrmufjyefavnif;aqmfw,fukd}} [laom odef;[ef\
oDcsif;ukdwuf,loDqdkcJhyHkESihf odef;[efwD;yHk wJGyHk zufyHk o'´g½HktpkpkwdkYukd
owdqGay;aeMujyefvsuf twl,SOfwJGí xkdifrdMuyHkrStp pufcef;&dyf

78
v,fwGif tBudwfte,f opömNydKifí arwåmESpfcdkif vef;cJhMuonfukdvnf;
vGrf;avmufatmif aoG;aqmifaeMu jyefav\/
]][Jh trm aumfzDaomufav? bmidkifae&jyefwmvJ}}
rdcifBuD;u½kwfw&uftajym trmMuLu vwfwavmay;xm;onfh aumfzDylyl
ukd a,mifwda,mifuef;ESihf armhaomvdkufrd&m tmawG? vQmawGtylavmif
oGm;ojzihf zGD; zGm;ESihf £a`E´raqmifEdkifatmif ysmysmavmifavmif axG;xkwf
vdkuf&onfhtcg
]][Jh [Jh trm}} [k rdcifBuD;rSm xdwfxdwfysmysm jzpfoGm;&onf/
]]aMomf 'Duav;r nuwnf;u bmjzpfrSef;rodygbl;}}
a':zGm;ESpfuyif olYorD;olMunfh&if; nnf;wGm;vkdufjyefonf/
]]trm bmjzpfvdkYvJ arar&JU? aumfzDuvnf; ylvdkufwm}}
orD;u rdcif\rsufESmukd armhrMunfhbJ rdrd\tjzpfukd ½SufpEkd;í
aumfzDomtjypfwifvkdufrdonf/ wu,fqdkawmh tjypf½Sdolonf tvum;
ae&if; ukd,hfvdyfjymu ukd,hfukd tNrJwapvSefYaeavonf/
]]tJ'gcufw,f? taiGUwaxmif;axmif;eJY aumfzDukd ylrSef;rodwm?
bmjzpfovJ aeraumif;bl;vm;? nnf;Munfh&wm em;a0wdrfawmifeJY nu
tdyfysufovm;}}
a':zGm;ESpfu orD;i,f\ezl;ukdprf;Munfh&atmif vufvSrf;vdkufrdonf/
]]bmrSrjzpfygbl; arar&JU? araruvnf; vlukd uav;av;usaewmyJ}}
]]odygbl;awmf nursm; tdyfraysmfvdkYvm;vdkY? vef;vef;qef;qef;r½SdbJ
idkifwdidkifwdkifeJY? xawmhvnf; aejrihfrS? nD;azazawmif pufxJoGm;NyD}}
a':zGm;ESpf\pum;rqHk;rD wdkufxJokdY uref;uwef;avQmuf0ifvmaom
ajcoHukdMum;&ojzihf ESpfa,mufpvHk; NyKdifwlvSnfhMunfhvkdufrdMuonf/

79
]]BuD;BuD; BuD;BuD; BuD;BuD; b,foGm;ygvdrfh}} [k wqufwnf; ar;ar;½Sm½Sm
vmaeaom odef;[efukd awGUvdkuf&jcif;twGuf reufBuD;apmapm uaom
uarsmjzpfvmyHkukd tHhtm;oihf&if; trmMuLü txdwfwvefY jzpfoGm;av\/
]][Jh armifodef;[ef bmjzpfvmwmvJ? 0ifcJhav/ wdkYaumfzDaomufaew,f}}
a':zGm;ESpfu xrif;pm;cef;xJrS vSrf;ac:vdkufonf/ 0ifvmvQifvmcsif;
odef;[efESihf trmMuL rsufvHk;csif; qHkvdkufrdonf/ odef;[efu NyHK;ppeJY
jzpfoGm;oavmuf trmMuLu ½SufaoG;uav;jzef;um rsufvTmatmufcs
vdkufrdonf/ eHeufcif;\ tvif;a&mifonf rsufESmylp&mtm;ay;aeonf/
]]uJ aumfzDaomuf}}
odef;[efu trmMuLESihf uyfvsuf½Sdaom ukvm;xdkifwGif 0ifxkdifvdkufonf
ESihfwpfNydKifeuf trmu rsufESmudk armhrMunfhbJ u&m;xJrS aumfzDwpfcGuf
iSJYay;vdkufrdonf/ apwemonf b,fBudKb,fMum;uxGufvmMuonfrod/
rsufESmuav;u plovdkvdk tdkoa,mifa,mif ½Sdaeayr,fh 0wfauswef;aus
ruaom Av0o'¨gw&m;onf 00BuD;aomufpm;wmukdrS Munfhcsif½Smonf/
]]rif;Opöm bmjzpfvmwmvJ? apmapmpD;pD;}}
]]uRefawmf armfvNrdKifukd tckvkdufoGm;&rSmrdkY}}
]]armfvNrdKifukd bmudpöwHk;}}
rdcifBuD;uar;aepOf trmuqwfueJ acgif;armfíMunfhvdkufrdonf/
]]tdk uRefawmhfoli,fcsif;wpfa,muf tvSLvkyfvdkY tJ'gvlukd,fwkdif
nuvmac:wm wpfnvHk;uRefawmf tdrfrjyeffawmh}}
rlrrSefaom odef;[efu vTwfueJtajym trmMuLuodrfhueJYtjzpf
a':zGm;ESpfuuGufueJ odef;[efrsufESmudk Munfhvdkuf&mu
]][J eifnu 'DujyefoGm;wmtapmBuD;yJ tdrfrjyef&atmif b,frsm;
ukd;acsmif;ukd;usif; vnfae&vdkYvJ}}

80
]][dk [dk uRefawmhf oli,fcsif;wpfa,mufeJY tvnfvGefaeMuvdkY? [J [J [J}}
]]aMomf aMomf vufpowfawmh armfvNrdKifukd vdkufawmfrlr,fhtaMumif;
vmEIwfqufwmayghav/ tif; rif;ukdrsm; vlukd,fwkdif vmyihf&oukd;}}
]]taumif;yihfwmr[kwfbl; BuD;BuD;&? pE´,m;twD;cdkif;rvdkY/ cufvdkufwm
r&ru ZGwftwif;yJ/ cifwmuvnf; nDtpfukdavmufcifaeawmh jiif;vkdY
raumif;awmhbl;}}
trmMuLu em;omaxmifae&onf/ odef;[efarmfvNrdKifukd vkdufoGm;rnf
qdkwmawmhMum;uwnf;u em;rcsrf;om remvdkwdk½Snf jzpfaerdonfhtwGuf
]][dkuvnf;twif;ac: ukd,fuvnf; wD;csifvkdufwm eefYeefYwufaewmyJ
r[kwfvm;? bm[efvkyfNyD; jiif;ae&ao;vJ}} [k 0ifí aighvkdufaomaMumihf
rdcifBuD;u &,farm&if;
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]]olukd,fwdkifuvnf; <um;csifcsifyg arar&,f tvum;}}
]]r<um;csifygbl; trm&m [J [J [J ausmif;ydwfwkef; at;at;aecsifwmyg}}
]]awmfyg}}
]]uJ uJ aumfzDaomufygapOD; orD;&,f? at;at; rEkdif&ifuefqdkawmhvnf;
ukd,fuaqmif½Gufay;rS aumif;rSmuvm;}}
a':zGm;ESpfu ajymajymqdkqdkpm;yJGrSxí xGufoGm;aomaMumihf þwGifrS
ESpfa,mufwnf;usef&pfojzihf trmMuLtwGuf pdwf½Sdvuf½Sd ajymcsifwmawG
ajym&atmiftcGihf&½Smonf/
]]'D armfvNrdKifukd rvdkuf&ifrjzpfawmhbl;wJhvm;}}
]][Gef? b,faumif;rvJ trm&JU? olYcrsmrsm;u wrifwum vkdufap
csifvGef;vdkY vlukd,fwkdif vmac:wJh Opöm ukd,fu}}

81
]]at;av zsufayr,hfvnf; tykdygyJ? olukd,fu ½Gykd;xdk;aewJhOpöm? [if;
awmfawmfMumom armfvNrdKifol jzLjzLazG;azG;BuD;awGeJY awGUaeygOD;r,f/
ajymvkdufygay&JU? tckawmh pdk;Edkifaomfvnf; ykdifcJonfqdkovdk rykdif0ufarG;
ae&ao;vdkYaygh/ EdkYr[kwfrsm;qdk&if oGm;&ygvdrfhr,f tm;BuD;BuD;}}
trmu rsufapmif;uav; cyfapGapG EIwfcrf;uav; cyfplpl rMunfjzLovdk
aqmifhaqmihfatmifhatmifh jzpfaeyHkuav;rSmyif odef;[eftzdkY ESvHk;ava0SY
aqGrsKd;arhae&awmhonf/ cspfo0efaMumifaom pum;uav;rsKd;um; cspfOD;
cspfzsm; cspfpcifp MuifemprsKd;wGif oMum;rSm qm; toihftwihf
cwfvkdufouJhodkY auseyfp&m av;av; yifyif½Sdygayonf/
]]NyD;awmh b,fawmhjyefvmrSmvJ}}
trmu aigufqwfqwf tai:wl;wl;/
]]MumvS ig;&ufaygh trm&,f}}
odef;[efuawmh aysmhpdpd tdnufnuf/
]]ig;&ufawmif? tvSLuav;oGm;wm ig;&ufawmif[kwfvm;}}
ig;&ufqdkwm bmMumwmrSwfvdkY trmuvJ}}
trmonf ayghysufysufajymvdkufaom odef;[efukd aphaphMunfhrdum
pum;qGHUí ½GUHwGefYwGefYjzpfoGm;rdonf/ ukd,fuawmh ]ig;&ufawmif}?
oluawmh ]ig;&ufwnf;} oabmcsif;uJGyHku 0rf;enf;p&maumif;vSonf/
]tif; a,musFm;? a,musFm;} okdYuvdkYom nnf;vdkufrdí
]]tckawmh ajymEkdifNyDukd? ajymayghajym? 'Dvdkacs;us&m aysmfcsifwJhMuufvdk
ayghysufysufaecsif&if bmjzpfvdkY vlukd'ku©ay;&ao;ovJ ukdodef;[ef&,f/
cgwdkif;vdk at;at;aeygawmhvm;/ tckawmh r&ukwfuwf olrsm;ukd
pdwfqif;&JatmifvkyfNyD;awmh}}

82
trmhtoHonf pum;rqHk;rD wpf0ufwpfysufu wkefwkef,if,if
jzpfvmawmhonf/ rsufcrf;uav; ESpfzufu prf;a&pdkYvmvsuf yg;tdkY
uav;rsm;eDjref;vmum rsufvHk;uav;rsm;yif rsuf&nf,Ofa0ha0h0Jae
aomaMumihf cgwdkif;xufuJí ½Tef;pdkawmufajymif ta&mifwzdwfzdwf
xGufaeav\/ wwkefwkef wqwfqwfjzpfaeaom EIwfcrf;yg;uav;ukd
rNidrfNidrfatmif a½SUoGm;jzLjzLazG;uav;ESihf ukdufzdxm;vdkuf&onf/
odef;[efonf olYt,ltqESihf olYpum;rSm;oGm;rSef;owd&í idkifae½Hkom
wwfonf/ b,fupí b,fvdk acsmh&rnfukd awG;ae[ef½Sdonf/ rdef;rysKd
uav;wpfOD;\ arG;aeYr*FvmyJGtwGuf oGm;&efudpöukd oli,fcsif;tvSL[k
tb,fhaMumihf vSD;vTJajymrdonfukdvnf; olYukd,folem;rvnfvdkufrd/
trmMuLjzpfyHkESihf awG;Munfhvkdufawmh ,ckvdk vdrfvdkufrdonfukdyif
awmfao;\[k qdk&rnf/
armfvNrdKifol jzLjzLazG;azG;BuD;awGeJYvnf; awGUaeygOD;r,f[k ajymuwnf;u
ausmfoef;\ESr jrihfukd rsufpdxJ ajy;jrifvkdufrdonf/ ukd,fjrifovdk
trmom jrifvdkuf odvkdufygrlum; ,ckxufpdwfrcsEdkifp&m? pdk;&drfp&mawG
cHpm;ae&ayOD;rnf/ okdYayr,fh rdef;uav;yDyD pdwfrcsEkdifwmom½Sdonf/
udk,fhtwGufuawmh trmuvGJvQif zJGESihf qefuJG[k rajym0Hhapumrl
vwfwavmtm;jzihf trmhwpfa,mufwnf;om cspfaerdonf/ aemufukd
vnf; tNrJcspfaerSm aocsmonf/ tNrJcspfaep&maumif;aom trm/
odef;[efu þvdkawG;aepOf trmuawmh ai;aerdonf/ rdef;rrsm;u
a½SUuajy;oljzpfí a,musFm;rsmu aemufuvkdufzrf;&olrsm;jzpfMuol[laom
pum;rsKd;rSm tcspf&nfrvnfcif olpdrf;jyifjyifa&jyifjyifb0u rSefaom
jy,k*fpum;jzpfaomfvnf; vGefvGefusL;usL; tcspfxl;jzihf rl;½l;&pfywfí
Zmwf&nfvnfvmaomtcgwGifrlum; xdkpum;onf jyefajymif;u ajymif;jyef

83
jzpfvm&onf/ a½SUa&;ukdawG;awmwwfaom rdef;rvdr®m obm0rSm tzrf;ukd
a½Smifí ta½Smifukd zrf;wwf&rnfjzpfonf/
]]ukdodef;[ef}}
]][if}}
]]tck ukdodef;[efvufcsuf[m b,ftxd pl;aeyvJqdkwm owdxm;rd&JUvm;}}
]]aMomf trmuvJuG,f? ukd,fuazmufjym;rSmrdkYvm;}}
]]r[kwfbl;av? trmajymygOD;r,f? tpu ukdodef;[efukd trm twefwef
awmif;yefcJhw,f}}
]][kwfygw,f trm&JU}}
]]twefwefawmif;yefygvsufeJY EdkifhxufpD;eif; olYEkdifiHrif; rif;rlNyD; ½l;aq;
wdkufcJhNyD;awmhrSawmh trmjzihf b,fae&moGm;oGm; pdwfrcsEkdifawmhbl;/
trmeJY ukdodef;[ef 'Dvdku 'Dvdk cspfaeMuygNyDqdkwm owif;pmxJxnfhNyD;
r@yfwdkif wufEkdif wuf0Hhao;wJhtcgrsKd;vnf; r[kwfao;awmh trm&JU
b0[m ukdodef;[ef&JU pdwfwpfckwnf; rSmom wnfae&awmhwmyJ}}
trmu oufjyif;uav;wpfcsuf rIwfxkwfvdkufNyD;/
]]aMomf rdef;r rdef;r rdef;uav;rsm;jzpf&wm w,fNyD; taMumif;qdk;yguvm;/
aemufNyD; ausmif;ydwfwmurS q,f&ufavmuf&,f [dkujyefvmwmeJY
&efukefjyef&rSmeJY 'Du rsufpdatmuf em;atmufrSm aeapcsifwdkif; ae&zdkY
½dSawmhrSmvnf; r[kwfygbl;}} [k 0rf;enf;yufvuf ajymaomtcg
ukdodef;[efudk,fwdkif aemufqHwif;vmrdonf/
]][kwf½Smom;yJ/ ausmif;ydwfwJh&ufuav;ukefatmifawmh aeapcsifrSm
ayghav/ igvkdufyghr,fvdkY 0efcHvkdufrdwm rSm;wmyJ/ ighukd'DavmufcspfaewJh
vltay: igpdwfraumif;atmif vkyfovdkusaeNyD}} [k awG;rdavonf/

84
]]tdkuG,f trmuvnf; oGm;&r,fhvl pdwfraumif;atmif/ 'Duaum
vdkufcsifvSvdkYrSr[kwfbJ/ pOf;pm; MunfhygOD;? nuawGU&wmuav;avmufeJY
wif;wdrfEkdifwJhaumifr[kwfygbl;/ tNrJcspfaecsifwJhaumifyg rm&JU}}
]]tif; nuawGU&wm[m trmhukd 'ku©ay;rSmyJxifyg&JU}}
]]a[m ajyma&mhr,f edrdwfr½Sd ermr½Sd? raumif;wwfvGef;vdkY vkduf&rSmygvdkY
ajymygyaum}}
]]at;av armifwdkYu a,musFm;uav;yJ embufur½Sdygbl;/ xoGm;&if
ajc&mvuf&m usef&pfcJhwmrS r[kwfbJ? rdef;uav;awGrSmom awG;&if
ylp&mawG rqHk;Ekdifwm}}
]]ylp&mawG awG;ae&atmif olpdrf;w&HqHawGvkdufvkdY trm&,f? rdeJYzeJY
rMumcifae&mcsMuawmhr,fh Opöm? 'Dwpfcgjyefvm&if trmBudKufwJh oZif
yef;awG trsm;BuD;0,fvmcJhr,f odvm;? trmuvnf; ukd,fjyefrvmcif
]onfaqmif;a[ref} ukd tuGufykdifatmif usihfxm;aygh? nu ukdodef;[ef
wD;jywJhtuGufawG rSwfrd&JUr[kwfvm;}}
odef;[efu xkdif&mrSxum trmhycHk;uav;ukd ukdifum ,k,k,,
ajym½Smonf/
]]ig;&ufu ykdrMumeJYaemf ukdodef;[ef}}
]]tdk rMumbl;? ig;&ufawmif tvGefqHk;}}
]]ukdodef;[ef 'grS ausmif;rzGihfcifuav;rSm trmeJY wlwlae&rSmaemf}}
]]tif;yg trm&JU}}
]]trmawmh trmhukd,feJY armifhpdwfjzpfukefNyD}}
]]armifuvnf; 'Dtwkdif;ygyJAsm}} [k ajymajymqdkqdk yg;uav;ay: odkY ukef;í
½IdufvdkufaomaMumihf trmMuLwGif rjiif;rqef jyKorQcH&if; 0rf;enf;oH
uav;aESmí

85
]]t&ihft&if rmeBuD;cJhorQ ck armihfajc&if;rSm yHkus&wmyJarmif}}
xdktcdkuf rdcifBuD;toHMum;&ojzihf odef;[efuvnf; £a`E´&& trmMuL
uvnf; usvkvk rsuf&nfukd okwfí ryl½kyfqifvkduf&avonf/
]]uJ &xm;tcsdefeD;NyD? uRefawmfoGm;ygOD;r,f BuD;BuD;}}
}}at; at;}}
]]oGm;r,f trm}}
trmMuLu yg;pyfrStoHrxGuf acgif;uav;ukdom NyHK;a,mifa,mifndwfí
EIwfqufvdkuf&onf/ rdcifBuD;a½SUrSm odef;[eftm; cyfpdrf;pdrf;uav;
aejyvdkuf&onf/
odef;[efwkdufxJrS xGufcsdefavmufwGif
]]aMomf a½T0gwdkYukd a&vJay;OD;rS}} [k omvdumuav;ESpfaumifukd &r,f½Smí
tdrfa½SUta&mufxGufcJh rdonf/ odkYaomf omvdumavSmiftdrfem;ra&muf?
odef;[efausmcdkif;í xGufoGm;aom yef;NcHxJu vrf;uav;okdYom rsufpdu
a&mufoGm;onf/
]]ukdodef;[ef}}
]]odef;[efu aemufrS trmMuLtoHaMumihf ajcvSrf;wHkYoGm;NyD; orifvnfjyef
vSnfhMunfhvdkufrdonf/ wdkuf0wGif awGawGuav; &yfaeaom trmukd
oem;rdonf/ xdkYaMumihf MuifempGmvufukd vIyf,rf;í EIwfqufvdkufrdonf/
trmMuLonf wa½GUa½GUa0;oGm;aom odef;[ef\aemufykdif;ukdMunfh&if;
tb,faMumifh aemufuvdkufí ac:&onfukd pOf;pm;ír&/
trmonf pdwfvufav;vHpGmjyefvSnfh0ifcJhonf/
wudud wuJuJ toHMum;rS omvdumavSmiftdrfuav;em;odkY a&mufaerSef;
owd&onf/ omvdum uav;ESpfaumifrSm ckefqGckefqGESihf wef;ay:
wufvkduf atmufqif;vkduf jrL;xl;aeMuonf/ wpfaumihfwpfaumif

86
wdkYvdkufqdwfvkdufusDp,faeMuonf/ wpfaumifua½Smifajy;vQif wpfaumif
u tawmifuav;jzefYum jzefYum vdkufaeonf/
]]tif; pum;wwfatmifqdkNyD; olwdkYukd wpfaumifcsif;cJGrxm;rdwm awmfao;
w,f/ [kwfw,f? ukd,fcsif; pmMunfhawmh olYcrsmrSm rajymwwfayvdkY?
ajymwwf&if ighukd b,favmuf&efawGUvdkufMurvJ}}
þodkYawG;íMunfhaepOfrSmyif omvdumESpfaumif vdkufwrf;ajy;wrf;
upm;rIaMumihf avSmihfcsKdihfxJu a&cGufuav; arSmufoGm;awmhonf/
]][,f a½T0guvnf; aqmhvdkufwm? Munfhprf;? a&cGufawmif arSmufukefNyD?
a[m'Daumif a[m'Daumif eiftxD;eJYwlw,f/ eif awmfawmfuJw,f}}
trmonf a&½Gwf&if; wHcg;uav;zGihfum txJu a&cGufukdEIdufvdkufonf/
rdrdwdkYukd ñSif;qJ&efrlawmhrvdkY xifovm;rod/ odkYr[kwf usOf;usOf;
usKwfusKwf tcsKyfaESmifcHae&onfukd tmCmw xm;avovm; rajymwwf?
omvdumtBuD;uav;u trm\vufukd qufueJ qJGqdwfvdkufav&m
trmu tr,fav; [k vefYí vuft½kyf xdkiSufuav;onf pGwfueJ
avSmiftdrfrS xGufí ysHajy;avawmhonf/
]] [,f [,f }}
½kwfw&uf trmMuLvkdufízrf;ygao;onf/ avSmifcsKdihfwGif;0,f taeMumí
tawmifanmif;aeaom omvdumuav;uvnf; wdkufwGif;rS jzKef;ueJawmh
rxGufEkdif/ okdYaomf usefwpfaumifyg vGwfajy;OD;rnfukd pdk;í avSmifcsKdihf
wHcg;uav;ukd jyeftydwfjzihf Asmrsm;ae&av&m aemufqHk;üum; taESmif
tzJGUrS vGwfatmifxGufoGm;aom iSufuav;ukdawmh trmMuL rrdvdkuf
awmhay/
trmMuLrSm wpfcPuav;twGif; pOf;pm;&if; idkifaerdawmhonf/
___________

87
omvdumav; vGwfoGm;jcif;ESihf armifodef;[efxGufoGm;jcif;rSm taMumif;
csif;rqdkifaomfvnf; tusKd;csif; rNydKifvmygapESihf[k rIdif&mu qkawmif;
vdkufrdonf/ wudud wumum atmfjrnfum ckefqGckefqGESifh usef&pfcJh
½Smaom oHcsKdihfuav;twGif;u omvdumazmfrJhuav;ukd jrifae&jcif;rSm
trmMuLtzdkY uoduatmufEkdifvSonf/ pEdk;paemihf xifrdonf/ olYtazmf
uawmh vufoyfukd,fuRwf vGwfxGufoGm;avNyD/ avSmiftdrfrS vGwfxGuf
oGm;NyD;aom iSufoli,fonf xdkavSmiftdrfodkY jyefía&mufygOD;rnfavm?
jyefí0ifygOD;rnfavm/
omvdumESihf odef;[ef/
wGwfwD;wGwfwm ajymonfhae&mwGif odef;[efonf omvdumuav;ESihf
wlvSbdonf/ omvdumuav; ESihfwlaom odef;[efudk,fwkdif trmMuL\
taESmiftzJGUrS omvdumuav;vdkyif vGwfxGufoGm;onfrSm xef;oD;
a<ucdkuf usD;eif;cdkufomjzpfygapawmh/
odef;[ef\ oHo*¾ukd raeYnurS &if;&if;ESD;ESD;vufcHcJhzl;onfhwdkifatmif
rsufpdatmufrS xGufoGm;cgeD;wGif olYukdwwGwfwGwf wwrf;wrf;rSmcJhjcif;rSm
rdef;uav;wefrJh t½SuftaMumufenf;yg;vGef;ír[kwf/ tajrmftjrif
BuD;rm;jcif;aMumihfomjzpfonf/ trmMuLum; tysKduav;pifppfjzpfvihfupm;
avmuBuD;\ uarmufur tcspfppfwdkY\'ku© qdkonfwdkYukd Mum;zl;em;0
A[kokw½SdcJhonf/
xdkYaMumihfyif odef;[efu tcgcgtwefwef ]cspfy&ap? toem;cHaomfvnf;
jiif;y,fawmfrltm;w,f} vkyfcJhonf/ vufyl;vufMuyf rawGUrrdatmif
a½SmifEkdiforQa½SmifcJhonf/ trsKd;rsKd;tzHkzHkaom y&d,m,fa00kpfwdkYjzihf
atmifjrifpGmwdrf;cJhonf/ þodkYwdrf;&if;a½Smif&if;u ra½Smifomonfh

88
vrf;ajr§mifMum;wGif nm;jzpfatmifnm;cJh&NyD;rSawmh trsm;aom rdef;uav;
wdkY\ wHwGm rl&m rm,m rvkyfcsifawmhay/
ql;ay:zufusvQifvnf; zufaygufí zufay:ql;usvQifvnf; zufom
ayguf&aom obm0ukd tNrJowdxm; rdaomaMumihf ½SufaMumuf
tm;em&rnfrSm tjypfuif;pifaom tysKdpifb0ujzpfí tHkYykef;yl vlrod iHk;ql
vlrod? ESpfa,mufwnf; cspfrdNyD;rS qdkvQifum; armifrif;BuD;om;\
apwem? arwåmay:wGifom rdrd\ toufESihft½Suf tusKd;quf
jzpfaeaMumif; aumif;aumif;BuD; pOf;pm;rdonfESihf wpfNydKifeuf r½SufEkdif
raMumufEkdif tcspfESihfwuGaom odef;[ef\twåabmukd ykdifEkdif&efom
BudK;pm;&ayawmhrnf [k odxm;avonf/
rnfokdYyifjzpfap odef;[efum; xoGm;vQif ajc&maysmufEkdifavmufonfh
vlysKd? vGwfvyfolwpfa,muf/ þodkYESifESif wpfavmuvHk;u xifMu
jrifMuayrnf/ odef;[efvdk vlysKdrqdkxm;ESihf r,m;BuD;ikwfwkwfESihf
a,musFm;awGyif rSm;csifvQifrSm;Muonf/ rdkufcsifvQifrdkufMuonf/ vdkufcsif
vQifvnf; vkdufMuonf/ olwdkY olwdkYum; a'gifvdkufusus? jym;vdkufusus
obm0ukd NyHK;NyHK;uav;cHEkdifonfh a,musFm;rS a,musFm;/
'gESihfawmifrS rdef;rwdkYrnfonf qdwfuG,f&mt&yfukd&vQif raumif;rIukd
jyKNrJ[k qdkcJhMuonf/ [kwfygayonf/ a,musFm;awGrl raumif;rIukdjyKp&m
qdwfuG,f&mt&yfyifrvdk? xdkqdwfuG,f&mqdkaomt&yfukd &onfjzpfap?
r&onf jzpfap vGwfvyfpGmjyKEkdifMuonfrSm rdef;rawGxuf wpfyef;om
vsuf½Sdonf/ xdkYaMumihf a,musFm;qdkolawGudk avSum;rSoHk;xpfqif;
oGm;vQif rdef;rawGu pdwfrcs&onfrSm ,xmblwusygayonf/
odkYygvsuf ]r½Sdraumif; ½Sdraumif;bJ raygif;vnf;cuf? aygif;vnf;
cufonf} [laom pum;rsKd;onf vnf;aumif;? ]rdef;rqdkwm aqmif;av

89
yrmnD? avSESihfjrif;vdk pD;eif;olaemuf vdkufygMuonf} [lonfwkdY
vnf;aumif; £w¬d0uF H e'D0uF H ponfwkdYonfvnf;aumif;? ppfwuf
a,musFm; a>rorm;ESihf a&oGm;c&D;? qifpD;wrQ pdwfu b,fcg rcs&monf
obm0qdk; rdef;rrsKd; ponfh csKd;csKd;zJhzJh pmrsKd;pum;rsKd;wkdYrSm rdef;rawGudkom
&nfñTef;cJhMuonf/
a,musFm;qdkolwdkY\ ya,m*aMumihf rawmfwqrSm;,Gif;cJhMuaom rdef;rom;
awGudkom wpfvifu ESpfvif? wpf&nf;pm;u wpf&nf;pm;ajymif;rdvQif
raumif;awmhoavmuf vG,fvG,fulultxifao;Muaom a,musFm;
rsm;tzdkYuawmh ewfjynfü ewforD; wpfzufig;&mxm;í pHpm;Muonf
qdkonfh ewfa,musFm;awG\b0ukd csD;usL; tm;us½Smonf/ oHk;uka#
ajcmufoef;rQaom ewforD;wdkYESihfwuG okZdwm? okrmvm? okeE´m? okpdwåm
[lí r,m;BuD;? r,m;i,f toG,foG,fwdkYukd ,liifcHpm;onfh odMum;rif;
pnf;pdrfwkdYukd vdkvm;Muonf/ ya'o&mZfacwfu wkdif;jynftkyfcsKyf
rif;vkyfolawGyif eef;& aqmif& rdzk&m;awGomru ukd,fvkyfawmfawG
w½kef;½kef;ESihf xifwkdif; usihfcJhMuonfukd *kPf,lí trSwfjyKcJhMuonf/
xdkYaMumihf xdkYaMumihf trmMuLonf a,musFm;xJu a,musFm;wpfa,muf
jzpfaom olY&nf;pm;odef;[efukd ylyefrdonf/
odef;[efum; ½kyfacsm\? oabmaumif;\? acwfynm½Sd\? ykdufqH
csrf;om\? xdkxufvGefaom*kPfxl;u wuúodkvfe,fwpf0dkuf wHcGefpdkuf
pE´&m;csefyD,H tEkynmorm;jzpfonf/ *Dwqdkaom *Dwonf vlYpdwf"gwfukd
tqJGaqmifEkdifqHk;jzpfonf/ vl\pdwfqdk&mü a,musFm; rdef;r rusef
tusHK;0ifaomaMumihf tcspfppfajrjyif0,f txufjrufqHk;aom vufeuf
wpfckjzpfayonf/

90
trmMuLonf wpfaeYvHk; odef;[eftaMumif;ukdom pOf;pm;aerdonf/
pOf;pm;wdkif;vnf; aomuawGom wpfckNyD;wpfckxyfawG;rdonf/ a':zGm;ESpf
udk,fwkdif orD;i,f\xl;jcm;yHkukd t&dyftuJcwfrdawmhonf/
[kwfoavmuf rxifEkdifvihfupm; xifoavmufwmh[kwf&rnf[k twyf
pJGum orD;i,ftm; udk,fcsif;pmí oem;rdonf/ a':zGm;ESpftxifum;
uav;csif;arwåm½SdaeMuNyDqdkaom tqihftwef;avmufomjzpfonf/ nOfhOD;
bufokdYul;cJhvQif rdcifBuD;ü raeEkdifawmhbJ
]][Jh orD; aeraumif;vkdYvm; nnf;Munfh&wm ysif;p&mBuD;udkath? pE´,m;
wD;ygOD;? [dkarmifodef;[efjyoGm;wJh oDcsif;av;[mav bmwJh}}
]]onfaqmif;a[refyg arar&JU}}
]]at;at; tJ'DoDcsif;[m w,fem;axmifaumif;w,f? usufoa&½SdygbdoeJY?
tJ'g ighorD; vnfvnfywfywfBuD; wD;wwf&ifaumif;rSmyJ}}
]]aumif;aumif;awmh rwD;wwfao;bl; arar}}
]]enf;enf;yg;yg; usihf&if; wD;MunfhygOD;vm;uG,f vm vm}}
trmMuLonf rdcifBuD;\ u,ku,ifvkyfrIukd &dyfrdvkdufonf/
armifodef;[efpdwfaMumihf rdrdwpfaeYvHk; cyfrIdifrIdifawGawGBuD; jzpfaeonfudk
&dyfrd½SmonfESihftrQ orD;uav; pdwfajyvufaysmufrI&atmif pum;a&m
azma&mESD;aESmonfukd trmMuL rawG;rdbJ raeEkdif/ rdcifwkdY\ oufñSm
aomu½kPmukd rMunfñdk rav;pm;bJ raeEkdif/
]]'gawmif ararhcrsm ightjzpfrSefudkrod½SmvkYdaemf? odrsm;odvkduf&if
b,favmuf&ifxkremjzpf½SmrvJ}} [k ,lusHK;r&jzpfvdkuf&ao;onf/
xdkYaMumihf pE´,m;wGif pdwfa&mufae&onfurS aeomxdkifom
½SdOD;rnfjzpfaomaMumihf pdwfygvufygwD;&ef pE´,m;qDodkYxcJhNyD;vQif

91
0ifxdkifumwdkYMunfhrdav\/ pE´,m;ay:rSoZifyef;uav;rsm;um; vef;qef;
½Tifyswkef;yif/ vufaqmif½Sifum; ta0;odkYoGm;cJhNyD/
]]aMomf trm pE´,m;wD;rvdkYvm;? vkyfprf;? vkyfprf; em;axmif&atmif?
armifodef;[efuvufxyfoifcJhwm olYtuGufuav;awG &avmufa&maygh}}
ajymajymqdkqdk 0ifvmolrSm vmaeus udkboufyifjzpfonf/ vl½kd;oavmuf
tvkdufurf;qdk;rod? ajymrdajym&m vTwfceJajymvkdufonf/ apwem
rSefaomfvnf; trmMuLrSm emomcHcufrsufceJjzpfoGm;&ao;onf/
]]at;uG,f 'gaMumifh wD;prf;ygvdkY cdkif;xm;&w,f}} [k a':zGm;ESpfu
0ifíaxmufvkdufonfwGif trmMuLu boufukd rauseyfovdk cyfplplom
jyefMunfhvkduf&½HkESihf vspfvsLjyKvkduf&avawmhonf/
boufESihf trmMuL\tpfr trmjzL tdrfaxmifuscgptcsdefavmufwGif
trmMuLum; <uyfqwfqwf aqmhawmhawmh? EGJUqdk;qdk;aom tysKdayguf
uav;omjzpfaomaMumihf ½dkao&rSef;rod? aMumuf&rSef;rod? tpfru
tvdkvdkufí tcspfydkoavmuf? bouftay:wGifvnf; qdk;cJhEGJUcJhonf/
boufukd,fwdkifuvnf; rdrd\tvkyf½Sif\ orD;taxG;vnf;jzpfjyef
tpfrESihfrdbrsm;uyg 0dkif;0efajr§mufpm;jyefojzihf rdrduonf;cH&onf
omr[kwf/ yifukdpdwf&if;uvnf; cifrifxm;aomaMumihf yGef;wD;vmcJh&
avonf/
]]ukdboufBuD; trmhukd pdefuwDyg tusÐ0,fay;prf;yg}}
]]ukdbouf &efukefoGm;&if vufywfem&Duav;0,fcJhygaemf}}
þodkY ylqmwdkif; 0,fíray;onfur½Sd/ u&duxcHum0,fí ay;wwf
aomaMumihf

92
]]tdk ukdbouf bmawG0,fvm&jyefwmwHk;? 'Daumifrav; ylqmwdkif;om
0,fay;ae&&if qHk;rSmr[kwfbl;}} [k tpfrjzpfoluyif 0ifí [efYwwfonfh
tcg
]]atmifrm 'guav;awGavmuf0,fay;&wmeJY rJGoGm;awmhr,fhtwkdif;?
w,fNyD; ckrSESajrm&rSef;odae vdkufwm? rraum ararwdkYypönf;awG
rjzKef;bl;vm;}} [k uufuufvefatmif &efawGUwwfjyefaomaMumihf
]]nnf;vdkcsif&if ararwdkYukd ylqmygawmhvm;}} [k ajymrdvQif
]]aMomf vufpoyfawmh olYvifuav;ykdufqHukd xdvdkYajymaewmukd;?
aumif;ygNyDawmf aemufwpfcg ylqmawmh oabm½Sdajymyg? olwdkY[m
uav;rsm;usawmh odwwfvkdufwm}} [k aqmifhaqmihfatmifhatmifhvkyfwwf
jyefavonf/
armifbouftzdkYuawmh trmajymorQ NyHK;íomMunfhaewwfonf/
tvGefqHk;ajymcsifvdkYajymonfhwdkifatmif trmMuLtm; tNrJwrf;cGihfvTwfí
olYbufuom a½SUaevkdufay;azmf&onf/
]][J [J [J [kwfouG,fh? [kwfouJGU? olYtpfrawmh olYwpfa,mufyJ
Edkifr,fhol½Sdw,f? trmjzLuvnf; [kwfw,f? [kwfy nDrav;yJ[m
o0efaMumifvkdufwmvGefa&m? wdkYvdkrsm;jzihf ajymvkdY&&if& r&&if [pfatmf
idkypfvdkufrSmcifAs}} [k ajr§mufxdk;yihfaumfajymwwfaomaMumihf þvdktcgrsKd;
wGif r,m;jzpfolu
]][if;aemf oluyg rD;avmif&mavyihf vkyfaejyefyvm;? rdkufonfxuf
rdkufatmif tqdyfyifa&avmif;aewm aumif;w,frsm;rSwfaeovm;?
olYtvdkvkdufvGef;vdkY aumifrav; urf;wufaewm [if;}} [k wu,fh
rsufESmxd rsufESmxm;ESihf Budrf;0g;vkdufonfhtcgwGifvnf; NyHK;NzJNzJ
pyfNzJNzJvkyfae&mu rsufESmydk;owfí rckwfwwfonfh aMumifuav;vdk

93
jzpfoGm;&jyefavonf/ wu,fqdkawmh boufrSm ukd,hfrdef;rukdaomfrS
tvdkvdkufí tBudKufukd acsmhaygif;aewwfonfh vl½dk;vlaumif;BuD;
wpfa,mufjzpf½Smonf/
xdkaeYnu pE´,m;wD;&ef boufukd,fwkdif trmMuLtm; acsmhajr§muf
cdkif;&jyefonf/ trmMuLESihf armifodef;[efrSm yGef;wD;&if;ESD;vmMuolyDyD
wpfaeYaeYwGif ESpfzufrdbu ae&mcsxm;ay;Mu&rnfh cspfoltcsif;csif;
jzpfaMumif;udkvnf; wpGef;wp&dyfrdxm;onfhtwdkif; rMumrMumvnf;
trmMuLESvHk;ava0SUatmif rxdwxdESihf usDpm; cRwfpGm; upm;vmcJh
avonf/ trmMuLurlum; boufu upm;vdkufwdkif; ½I;½I;½Sm;½Sm;ESihf
½Suf&rf;&rf; wwfonfhwdkifatmif cspfoltwif;pum;Mum;&jcif;ü ra&mifh&JEdkif
atmif ½Sd&avonf/
]]ukdboufBuD; 'Dwpfcg &efukefukd pufypönf;awG oGm;0,f&if trmhukd
oZifyef; &mxkyfwpfxkyfavmuf 0,fcJhprf;yg}}
]]tvdk rqDrqdkif vufyHom; "g;eJYcsKdifvdkufavAsm/ usKyfoGm;&wmu
ta&mif;t0,feJY zkwfylrD;wdkuf uwdkufu½kdufajy;ae&wm? rSmjcif;rSm&if
ausmif;rSmZdrfeJYaeaewJh armifodef;[efukdrSmzdkYaumif;wm/ [kwfw,f
armifodef;[efuqdk&if oZifyef;rajymeJY tmom0wDEG,feDewfyef;awmif
cl;ay;r,fhtaumif [m; [m; [m;}}
]]tdk odom;yJ? 'gawmh ukdboufBuD; ajymzdkYrvdkygbl;}}
]] [m; [m; [m; [m; }}
]] [if;aemf? udkboufBuD; }}
]]od&ufom;eJY vludkwifpD;NyD; t0,fcdkif;&ao;ovm;}}
]]tdk rcdkif;ygbl; rcdkif;ygbl;? 'DZifbmv ausmif;ydwfvdkYjyefvmrS olYukd
rSmvkduf&r,f? uJ bmajymOD;rvJ}}

94
]]rajymygbl;Asm? rajymygbl; [J [J [J}}
t[kwfyif trmMuLu armifodef;[efukd pmwpfwef aywpfwefay;í
oZifyef;t0,fcJhcdkif;vkdufonf/ ,ckpE´,m;ay:u oZifyef;uav;rsm;
yifr[kwfygavm/ tdk yef;udkjrifvQif yef;½Sifudkowd&vSonf/ ,ck owd&yHk
rsKd;rSm xdcdkufvSonf/ ,cifh,cifu wpfcgwpf&Howd&apumrl ayghaygh
qq/ 'DuaeYn owd&wmrsKd;uawmh av;eufvGef;tm;BuD;vSonf/
0w¬KxJ? ½kyf½SifxJ &nf;pm;ukdvGrf; rsuf&nfpufvufuscJhMuolrsm;ukd
ykdvGef;vGefY [k txifao;cJhzl;onf/ ½IwfcscJhzl;onf/ wuwJawmf [k
oa&mfcJhzl;onf/ wdkYrsm;jzihf onfavmuf[kwfaygif[k avSmifcJhzl;onf/
,ckawmh ,ckawmh armifrif;BuD;om; jr§m;csuftonf;wpf0uf pl;0ifNyD;
uwnf;u ausmcsrS "g;jyrSef;odovdk cyfxdxduav; cHpm;&ygNyD/
odef;[eftaMumif;awGudk tEkpdwfíawG;ae&onfrSm taysmfBuD;aysmfí
[pfatmfNyD; oDcsif;qdkvkdufcsif ovdkvdk? b0ifzdk&mu vGrf;wNyD;
[pfidkvdkufcsifovdkvdk? iSufuav;vdk tawmifaygufNyD; olYqDta&muf
vdkufMunfh vdkufcsifovdkvdk/
]]tdk cufvdkufygbd ukdodef;[ef&,f}} [kom nnf;vkdufcsif½Smawmhonf/

___________

95
trm

udkodef;[efukd pdwfrqdk;eJYaemf trm? ig;&ufeJY jyefvmcJhr,fvdkY ajymcJhNyD;rS
uwdysuf&wJhtaMumif;uawmh usKdufxD;½dk;bk&m;udk tm;vHk;uqJGMuwmeJY
twif;jiif;aomfvnf; r&EkdifvGef;vdkY vkdufoGm;&OD;r,fuG,f/
tckavmufqdk trmarQmaevdrfhr,f? a'gyGaevdrfhr,fqdkwm ukdodef;[ef
awG;rdygw,fuG,f/ 'gaMumihf ukdodef;[ef awmif;yefygw,f trm?
ukdodef;[ef vdkufcsifvGef;vdkY vdkuf&wmr[kwfygbl;uG,f/ tm;emp&mBuD;
jzpfaevkdY rvdkufcsifbJvkduf&wmyg/ ukdodef;[efvnf; trmhukd tNrJowd&?
tNrJvGrf;vsufygyJ? 'gayr,hf usKdufxD;½dk; ujyefvQif ausmif;ukdwkduf½kduf
wuf&awmhrvdkjzpfaewJhtwGuf ukdodef;[eftay: cGihfvTwfygawmhaemf/
'grS rauseyf&if aEG&moDausmif;&uft½SnfBuD;ydwfawmh trmoabm½Sd
&efawGU&atmif ukdodef;[efjyefcJh yghr,fuG,f/ 'DawmhrS xkcsifoavmuf
xkygaemf/ BuD;BuD;wdkYyg usef;rmap&ef qkawmif;ygonf/

odef;[ef

]]b,fudkay;zdkYvJ ukdukdodef;[ef}}
]][if aMomf jrihfuvJ vefYvdkufwm}}
odef;[efonf pmukdtqHk;owfa&;NyD;í pmtdwfwGifxnfhawmhrnftvkyf
tem;ujzKef;ueJ ar;vkdufonfh toHaMumifh vefYoGm;rdonf/ vSnfhMunfh
vdkufawmh jrihfjrihf NyHK;NyHK;uav;a&mufvmawmhonf/
]][J [J [J ukdodef;[efu b,folYqDpdwfa&mufaeovJrS rodwm}}

96
]]ajyma&mhr,f jrihfujzihf}}
]]EdkY r[kwfbl;vm;? tem;vla&mufvmwmawmifrS rodbl;qdkawmh}}
]][J [J 'gu trSwfwrJhudk;jrihf&JU}}
]]'Davmufawmifpdwf0ifpm;&atmif b,frsm;ay;zdkYa&;aevdkYygvdrfh}}
]]aMomf tdrfukdyg}}
armifodef;[efu r&Jw&JESihf ajAmifvdrfvkdufrdonf/ tb,fhaMumifh þuJhokdY
rkom0g'vdkuf&onfukd odef;[ef rpOf;pm;rd? aMumufíavm? ½Sufíavm
odkYr[kwf ajym&rSm rwihfw,fíavm? rnfokdYyifjzpfap odef;[efum;
pdwfygvufygvdrfí t&om½Sdygbdonf/
jrihfjrihfwdkYwkdufodkY odef;[ef,cka&mufaeaomtBudrfrSm yxrtBudrf r[kwf
yg/ 'kwd,tBudrf? wwd,tBudrf avmuf½SdygNyD/ rESpfaEG&moD ausmif;
&uf½SnfBuD;ydwfpOfu oli,fcsif;ausmfoef;qJGaqmifrIaMumihf wpfv eD;yg;
aysmfyg;pGmvmívnfzl;ygonf/
om; oli,fcsif;ESihfywfoufí rkqdk;r rif;uawmfBuD;ESihfomru
orD;av;jrihfjrihfESihfyg arwåmul;puf &if;ESD;vmcJhrdonf/ rk'HkuefBuD;okdY
aysmfyJGpm;xGufcJhMuzl;onf/ bDvl;uRef;odkY 'l;&if;oD;pm; oGm;Muzl;onf/
usKdu©rDodkY a&vnfbk&m;zl;oGm;cJhMuonf/ armfvNrdKifoBuFef Murf;w,fqdkí
vnf; a&yufcHxGufcJhMuzl;onf/
.wpfacgufxufwpfacguf a&mufav &if;ESD;av ae&mwumwGif &J&J
wif;wif; aqGrsKd;&ifcsmuJhodkY jzpfvmMuonf/ ,ckESpf jrihfjrihf\ q,fh½Spf
Budrfajrmuf arG;aeYr*FvmyJGBuD;wGif pE´,m;wD;ay;NyD;í oli,fcsif;0wå&m;
ausyGefukefqHk;onfhwkdifatmif yJcl;odkYrjyef&ao;/ usKdufxD;½dk;bk&m;okdY
waysmfwyg;BuD; oGm;Mu&atmif twif; aoG;aqmifMujyefavonf/

97
.....armfvNrdKifolyDyD jzLjzLwkwfwkwfuav;jzpfaom jrihfjrihftm; owdxm;í
MunfhrdonfrSm ,ckrSjzpfavonf/ ,cifa&mufzl;cJhaom tacgufrsm;xuf
xGm;usKdif;pdkjynfvmonfudkvnf; ododomomBuD; rSwfrdonf/ 'gxuf
,ciftacgufrsm;xuf eD;eD;uyfuyfa&ma&m0if0ifjzpfvmonfukdvnf; odod
omomBuD; owdxm;rdonf/
.....odef;[efum; &[EÅmr[kwf? vSwmjrifvQif cspfcsifonfh tEko, tHkYykef;?
udef;atmif;onfh omrefa,musFm; wpfa,mufomjzpfonf/ jzLjzLazG;azG;
a&aq;ig;BuD;vkdvSaom jrihfjrihfukd t&omcHí Munfhp&m rsufpduav;
ESpfuGif; ygonf/ csKdomaom yD,0gpm avmuGwfpum; cyf0J0J armfa½TNrdKif
avoHuav;awGudk Mum;&wdkif; ESpfoufatmif em;ESpfzufygonf/
aygif'geHYuav; woif;oif;? udk,fwGif;eHYuav; wBudKifBudKifukd
*E¨m½HkvIdifatmif tmemyge oGif;Ekdifonfh ESm&if;ESmwHvnf;ygonf/ tqHk;ukd
qkd&aomf odef;[ef\ ½lyu©E¨mü a0'emu©E¨mjzpfp&m tm½Hkig;yg;
pvHk;ruif;rqdwf rydwfrqdkYEkdifao;onfh vkvifwefpdk tnMwvlysKd
uav;jzpfaomaMumihf jypfrSm;rdonfukdawmh odef;[efom olYtjypfol
odcJhonf/
.....odkYaomf pdwfaemufukd ukd,frygp&m twG,ftwmawGu½Sdí awmfyg
ao;onf/ yxrtwG,ftwmum; usef&pfcJhonfh &nf;pm; trmMuL\
oem;p&mrsufESmuav;jzpfí 'kwd, ql;wyfwHwkdif;rSm tcspfqHk;oli,fcsif;
ausmfoef;\ rsufESmjzpfayonf/ t&dyfcdkcdk tcufcsKd;csKd; þrQavmufawmh
rqdk;0Hh r,kwfrm0Hhay/
.....]]ukdukdodef;[ef rvdrfeJYaemf? awmfawmfMum tarhqD r[kwfbJeJY
&nf;pm;qDay;wJhpmvnf; jzpfaeygOD;r,f [J [J [J}}
.....]][m jrihfuvJ [J [J [J}}

98
.....]][kwfw,fav jrihfawmh bGif;bGif;yJBudKufw,f/ &nf;pm;½Sd ½Sdw,faygh/
bmjzpfao;vJ? r*Fvmaqmif&if jrihfwdkY aumif;aumif; vufzJUGcsifvdkY
ajymaewmyg}}
.....]]tdk jrihfuvJ awmufwD;awmufwJh}}
.....]]'gjzihf ukdukdodef;[efrSm &nf;pm;r½Sdbl;ayghav}}
.....]]tdk usm;ukdufygw,fqdk emwm½Snfvm; ar;wm usaeygNyD}}
.....]]rodbl;av? rESpfu ausmif;ydwfwkef;uawmh wpfvavmuf Mumatmif
awmif aysmfaysmf½Tif½TifaecJh&JUom;eJY? 'Dwpfcgvmawmh csufjcif;jyefcsifwm
usKdufxD;½dk;awmifrS renf;ac:rS vkdufr,fajymwm yJcl;omjyefajy;csifaewm}}
.....odef;[efum; NyHK;½HkomNyHK;ae&awmhonf/ þodkY ajymqdkaeaomtcsdefum;
{nfhcef;wGif a':jrarvnf;r½Sd? armifausmfoef;vnf; tjyifokdYxGufaeqJ
tcgjzpfonf/ umvorD;ESihf umvom; b,fpum;u b,fodkYcsDvQif
b,fqDukd&nf½G,faMumif;?aumif;aumif;BuD;odonfhwkdifatmifarmifodef;[ef
tzdkYuawmh tdyfcsifa,mifaqmifae& ayawmhonf/ 'gayr,fh jcpm;onfh
r@dKifMumMumrS cdkifyghrvm;/
xdktcdkuf NcHwGif;odkYarmif;0ifvmaom um;oHukd Mum;vdkuf&aomaMumihf
armifodef;[efu rsufESmykd;owf vkdufonfhtcsdefwGif jrihfuvnf; odef;[ef
tyg;rS ra,mifrvnfcGgxGufoGm;avonf/ um;wHcg;zGihfí qif;vmolrSm
0efaxmuf OD;pdk;jrihfqdkoljzpfonf/ OD;wyfíac:&aomfvnf; toufrSm
oHk;q,fausmfuav;omjzpfonf/ armifodef;[eftaejzihfajym&vQif
udkpdk;jrihfrSm rif;uawmfBuD;ESihf tawmfyvJeHyoihfMuaom rdwfaqG&if;csm
jzpfonf/ rif;uawmfqHk;NyD;p t&m½Sdrkqdk;zdk t½G,faumif;jzpf&m
armfvNrdKifNrdKUcH rsufESmBuD;ykdif;u 0kdif;í*½kpkdufaeMuaom xifay:ol
wpfOD;jzpfonf/ jrihfukdyif csdefaeaomt&dyftuJrSm odef;[eftzdkY r&dyfrdbJ

99
raeom/ odef;[efu þodkY &dyfrdovdk ukdpdk;jrihfuvnf; jrihf\arG;aeYwGif
odef;[efESihf rdwfqufoduRrf;&NyD;onfupí odef;[ef\ t&dyftuJukd
apmifhMunfhaeyHk½Sdonf/ aumvdyfausmif;om; *Dworm;u Mum;u
jzwfokwfoGm;rnfukd rvdkwrm ½Sdaeonf/
odef;[ef\ pE´,m;vufoHukd trsm;u0kdif;ícsD;rGrf;aeMuonfhtcsdefrsKd;wGif
]]tif; wl&d,m*Dwqdkwm tysif;ajyavmufyJ oabmxm;zdkYaumif;wmuvm;?
wu,fqdkawmh pD;yGg;jzpf EkdifwJh ynmr[kwfygbl;}} [k avoHypfwwfonf/
]]'D0goemrsKd;[m w,fNyD;pdwfavwwfwmyJ}} [k csD;rGrf;ajcausmuf
ajymoHMum;uwnf;u odef;[efonf udkpdk;jrihftay: awmfawmfcsOfcJhzl;onf/
]]aMomf jrihfwpfa,mufwnf;vm;}}
{nfhcef;odkY0if0ifcsif; ukdpdk;jrihfonf odef;[efukd waphwapmif;Munfhum
rouFmovdk rsufESm&dyfESihf jrihfukd uGufíEIwfqufvkdufavonf/
]]tefu,fuvnf; ukdodef;[efwpfa,mufvHk;awmif rjrifawmhbl;vm; [J
[J}} jrihfu &,foGrf;uav; aoG;í aighawmhawmh {nfhcHvkdufonf/
pifppftm;jzihfqkd&vQif jrihfonf oltxifBuD;aom armifodef;[eftm;
txifao;aeoljzpfaomaMumihf aumif;aumif;rsufESmaMumrwnfh/
]]aMomf jrihfuvJ tdrfom;xJu wpfa,mufa,mufukdajymwmyg?
armifodef;[efawmh tjrifom;aygh? olu {nfhonfyJ[m r[kwfbl;vm;uGm
armifodef;[ef}}
vdr®myg;eyfaom vlBuD;vlaumif;yDyD rsufESmukd oumzHk;í cyfNyHK;NyHK;
qufqHvdkufonf/ jrihftzdkYajym&vQif t&m½Sd t&mcHjzpfaomfvnf; touf
BuD;aom rkqdk;zdkukd tcspfykdzdkY cufcJaeonf/ wuúodkvfausmif;om;qdkvQif
tqHk;tqr½Sd wufvrf;½Sd½HkrQru touft½G,fcsif;odyfruGmaom vlysKd
[lonfh yumoeu xif;yHkacgif;cs rSef;qí aumif;aeonf/ xdkxuf

100
omaom *kPft*Fgwpf&yfuvnf; rsufESmBuD; jrihfarG;aeYwGif txufwef;
vufa½G;pifrsm;om yJGaeyJGxkdif<ua&mufMupOfu vlwumcsD;rGrf;atmif
pE´,m;ukd EkdifEdkifeif;eif;wD;jyvkdufonfrSm armifodef;[efom jzpfaom
aMumihf jrihfwdkYwGif *kPfwuf&onfESihftrQ odef;[efwGifvnf; vlwkdif;u
ta&;,lrdwfqufjcif;udk cHcJh&yHk jzpfavonf/
xdkYaemufyifvQif 0goemygvSaom tdrfrsm;u toD;oD;zdwfac:aom
vufzuf&nfyJG? xrif;pm;yJGwdkYukd tdrfonfjzpfonfh jrihfESihfwuG
armifausmfoef;uyg vdkufykdYvnfywfae&jcif;onfvnf; jrihftzdkdY rsufESmyef;
vSovdk xif&avonf/
*DwynmonfrSmvnf; rylyif&aom tNidrf;pm;rsm;twGuf tcGihfta&;
ykdrdk&½SdEkdifvsuf em;axmif&mu 0goemygjcif;? tm;usjcif;? oif,lvdkjcif;
jzpfEdkifaomaMumihf yifpifpm;? tNidrf;pm;olaX;rsm;? t&m½Sdrsm;aygrsm;&m
'dkif;0efuGif;wGif odef;[efudk ta&;r,lol r½Sdoavmufxifay:cJhav\/
odef;[efESihfywfoufí jrihfudkyif 0goemygaom t&m½SdorD; taygif;toif;
rsm;u odef;[ef\ ZmwdZpfjrpf oabmoum, ponfwdkYukd pyfpk
vmMuavonf/
]]jrihfwkdYawmh odyfuHaumif;wmyJaemf 'DvleJYod&wm? ukd,fwdkYomjzihf
pE´,m;twD;oifrSmyJ}} [k ajymolu ajymMuvsuf wpfcsKdUr&if;ESD;onfh
rEdkif&ifumrsm;url
]]a[h jrihf? jrihfwdkYtdrf pE´,m;csdefyD,HBuD;a&mufaewmeJY wdkYrsm;tdrfawmif
vmvnfazmfr&awmhbl;ayghav? tcef;wHcg;ydwfNyD; pE´,m;ESdyfaeMuvdkYvm;}}
[k i,faygif;BuD;azmfyDyD rxdcvkyfxdcvkyfrsm;ESihf aighMuav\/
þodkY tajctaersKd;jzpfvmaomtcg jrihfpdwfxJwGif odef;[eftay:
tm½HkjyKoxufjyKrdav\/ txifBuD; oxufBuD;vmcJhav\/ pdwåaA'

101
tm;jzihfum; xl;qef;aomoabmr[kwfacs/ avmu"r®wmpdwfynmt&
xif½Sm;ausmfapmaomyk*¾dKvfwdkYtm; cifrifMunfñdkav;pm;jcif;onf obm0
"r®wmjzpf\/ rjrifzl;ao;vQif jrifzl;csif\/ rawGUzl;ao;aomf
awGUzl;qHkzl;BuHKzl;csifMu\/ todtuRrf;rdwfaqGo*F[qdkaom tqihftwef;
odkYa&mufvdkjyef\/ þodkY todtuRrf; cifcifrifrifjzpf&onfhtwGufyif
*kPf,lwwfMu\/
0efBuD;0efBuD;csKyfponfwkdYudkvnf;aumif;? tcsKdUemrnfausmf ½kyf½Sifrif;orD;?
rif;om; ponfwkYdESihf vnf;aumif;? oduRrf;&onfyifvQif udk,fhtaygif;
toif;tv,fwGif ajymírqHk;EkdifolawG trsm;tjym;½SdMuonf/ xdktxJwGif
vGwfvyfaom tysKd vlysKdjzpfcJhrl cifrifMunfñdk&mu wPSmcspfodkY ul;ajymif;
um pJGvrf;vmwwfMuonf/ Zmwfrif;om;uav;rsm;ukd om;trSwf?
wltrSwfarG;pm;wwfaom olaX;uawmf? t&m½Sduawmf? yJGuHx½kduf?
Zwfykdif½Sif rdef;rBuD;rsm;ESihf w&m;ta[maumif;aom yÍÆif;ysKduav;rsm;ukd
ypönf;av;yg;'g,dumr cHvdkonfh ausmif;tpfr tvSLUtpfrBuD;rsm;
onfvnf;aumif;? ,kwfpGtqHk; xbDNcHKatmufvrf;q&m Z&mtbdk;BuD;
yifjzpfap olwumu 0dkif;í pMumrif;avmif;[k txifBuD;í½Sdcdk;cpm;
aeMuNyDqdkvQif rdzk&m; a½G;aumufyJG0ifvdkonfh rdef;rrsm; ay:aygufvmNrJ
jzpfMuonf/ þoabmrsKd;rSm tjrihfukdvSrf;í txl;tqef;ukd cHkrifaom
pdwfwpfrsKd;\ om"u wpf&yfjzpfavonf/
jrihfwkdY\wdkufeD;csif;jzpfol yifpif&t&m½SdorD; cifrBuD;qdkolum; tysKd[dkif;
wpfa,mufjzpfav&m armifodef;[eftm; ta&;,lonfhteuf xl;uJol
wpfa,mufjzpfaMumif;ukd jrihfjrihfukd,fwdkif owdjyKrdavonf/
,cifh,cifu zHkwufatmifypfxm;aom pE´,m;ukd armifodef;[ef
a&mufvmuwnf;u aeYa&mnyg Mum;avmufatmif wD;aewwfvsuf

102
jrihfwdkYtdrfokdYrMumcPtvnftywfvmjcif;? pum;ajym&mwGif odef;[efESihf
pum;vufqHkusatmif BudK;pm;jcif;wkdUu oufaojyaeonf/
]]jrihf&JU jrihfwdkYtdrfu ukdodef;[efu aoG;BuD;wwfovm;uJGU}} [k ar;í
]][iftif; rBuD;wwfygbl;? bmjzpfvdkYvJ rrcif&JU}} [k jyeftajymwGif
]]aMomf bmaMumihfrSr[kwfygbl;? aoG;rBuD;wwf&if wdkYrsm;tdrfudk
tvnftywfac:cJhygvdkY ajymrvdkYyg/ olYcrsmysif;aerSmayghuG,f/ aemufNyD;
cifrBuD;udkvnf; pE´,m;oifay;zdkY wqdwfajymay;ygvm;}} [laom qG,fvHk;
rsm;uvnf; rdef;uav;wdkY"r®wmt& tarausmfNyD;a'G;a':vGrf;oGm;rnfukd
jrihfo0ifaMumifcJhrdonf/
odef;[efu ta&;t,lqHk;aomrdef;rysKdrSm rdrdomvQifjzpfapvdkaom raemrSm
tb,fukda&mufonf[k owdrxm;Edkifvifhupm; oabmxm;ao;cJhrdonf/
xdkYaMumifh odef;[eftm; avmuGwfo'¨gawGykdí ae&mwum vdkavao;
r½Sdatmif*½kpdkuf&onf/ rdrdtm; odef;[efu r½dk;aompdwfESihf wdwfwdwfcdk;
cspfoGm;aeovm;[k tuJcwfrd onfrSmvnf;tarm? a&vmajrmif;ay;
ajym&onfrSmvnf; twefwef? pifppfrSmawmh rdef;rom;uav;jzpfaeíom
ukd,fu rp0Hhí Mumae&onf/
olum;vlysKd? ukd,fum;tysKdjzpfygvsuf rdcifrsufESm? tpfukdYrsufESmaxmufí
aMumufaejcif;omjzpf&rnf/ xdkYaMumihf udk,fiifí olr,drf;? olwdrf;zdkY
uvnf; r[mopömawmfapmihfaejcif;twGuf tm;rvdktm;r&½Sdaeavonf/
]]udkukdodef;[ef wpfa,mufwnf;bmrsm;vmawG;aewmvJ}}
]]aMomf jrihf tvum;ygyJ}}
wpfnae armifodef;[efyef;NcHwGif;rSm xdkifíaepOf jrihfwdkufay:rSqif;í
pum;qdkvkdufjcif;jzpf\/

103
tMuifool? MunfjzLESpfouf? olYtdrfxuf0,f? wpf&ufwpfn? okccHpm;?
rsm;rsm;r[kwf? wpfvkwfxrif;? wpf½Iyf[if;udk? 0rf;wGif;avQm½SL;? oHk;&zl;rl?
xdkooltm;? jypfrSm;w&H? raemuHrQ? rBuHtyfay [laom 0d"l&ysKdUonf
odef;[ef\pdwfudkqHk;raeaom q&mwpfqljzpfav\/
]]ukdudkodef;[efukd jrihf wpfckar;OD;r,f}}
]]bmrsm;ygvdrfh}}
]][dkbufwdkufu cifrBuD;eJYodovm;}}
]][ifhtif;}}
]]rsufapmif;xdk;wdkufu cifcifav;udkaum}}
]]jrifzl;½Hk½SdMuwmyJ}}
]]'gjzihf tdrfa½SUtdrfu r&ifEkeJYaum}}
]]rodygbl; jrihfjrihf&JU? aeygOD; 'gawGudk bmjzpfvdkYar;ae&wmvJ? ajymprf;
ygOD;}} [k odef;[efu txdwfwvefYar;av jrihfwGif NyHK;pdpdjzpfav vkyfae
aomaMumihf omí ouFmruif;EdkifawmhbJ
]]bmjzpfvdkYar;wmvJjrihf}}
]]ar;aewJhvlukd ukdukdodef;[efu vdrfaewmudk;}}
]]tdk bmvdrfwmvJ? rodvdkY rodbl;ajymwJh[m}}
]]olwdkYuajymawmh}}
]]olwkdYu b,fvdkajymovJ}}
]]ukdudkodef;[efu olwdkYukd}}
]]tif; qdkprf;ygOD;}}
]]ykd;aeowJh}}
]]tvdk bk&m;a&}}
]]bk&m;a& vkyfraeeJY? tJ'goHk;a,mufpvHk;u wpfOD;pDpGyfpJGaeMuwm}}

104
tcspf&nfvnfcJhNyD;aom odef;[efonf jrihf\ r[kwfu[kwfu ukwfuwf
xkwfaom vkyfZmwfo½kyfukd &dyfrdavonf/ xdkYaMumifh NyHK;pdpdESihfjrihfudk
wpfcsufMunfhvkdufrdonf/ tom;vdkvdkY t½dk;awmif;? pum;vdkvdkY wpfrsKd;
aqmif;yHkrSm tqdk;taumif;rodao;onfhtwGuf vHkvSNyDxif&aomfvnf;
odef;[eftzdkYrSm oGm;awmhacGacG? aeawmh pif;pif; acgif;ckrif; qdkonfh
pum;xmukd tajzcdkif;onfESihf wlaeawmhonf/
]]bmvJ udkudkodef;[efu [kwfaevdkY NyHK;pdpdjzpfaewmvm;? BudKufvnf;
BudKufw,faygh? jrihf wpfcGef;ajym vkduf&if jzpfygw,f}}
jrihfu xyfí uGefYvkdufjyefao;onf/
]]'gjzihf jrihfub,foleJYoabmwlaevdkYvJ? uJ qdkprf;ygOD;}}
]]tdk 'guawmh jrihfuBudKuf&rSmrSr[kwfbJ? ukdukdodef;[efuBudKuf&rSm
ukdukdodef;[efoabmaygh}}
]]r[kwfbl;av? jrihfoabmwlrS ukdudkodef;[efu [J [J}}
jrifhonf pdk;&drfBuD;pGmESihf odef;[efudk tuJcwfvdkufrdonf/ ukd,fh½I;ukd,fhywf
um tusyf½kdufaeawmhonf/ rdrdMum;vdkaompum;u
]]tvum;ygjrihf&m? awmufwD;awmufwJh? b,folrSrBudKufygbl; pdwfawmif
rjypfrSm;rdygbl;? bk&m;pl;? rdk;BudK;ypf}} qdkaompum;rsKd;ESihf rdrdbufodkY
jr§m;OD;vSnfhvmvdkvmjim; atmuftpfxkwfjcif;rQjzpf&m ,ckawmhvdk&if;ESihf
qdkjcif;rSm y#dyu©jzpfaeaomaMumihf tHhtm;oihf½Sm½HkrQru wu,fyJ
'DoHk;a,mufxJu wpfa,mufa,mufudk BudKufaeawmhNyDvm;[k ta&;wBuD;
pOf;pm;rdavonf/
]]BudKufrSmygyJ? olwkdYuighxufvnf;½kyfacsmw,f? toufvnf;½G,fwl?
aemufNyD; racsmwdkYu eefYeefYwufaeMuwm? ihgqdkawmh udkukdodef;[efu

105
rsufESmaxmufp&mawG½Sdaeao;wm? olwdkYqdkawmh b,folYeJYrS ywfoufwmrS
r[kwfbJ}}
jrihfpdwfxJwGif remvdkrIawG uRrf;xdk;wrf;upm;aeMuav\/
]]jrihf oabmwlwmajym&rSmjzihf cifrBuD;yJ? b,fhES,fvJ}}
jrihfu olYpdwfukdolcsKyfí [efvkyfum aoG;wdk;prf;vdkuf&aomfvnf; olYtoH
uav;rSm wkefwkef,if,if jzpfae½Smonf/ xdkYaMumihf odef;[efrSm
&,fcsifonfhMum;u oem;vkdufrdjyefonf/ odkYaomf rdrdtay: tmv,jywf
oGm;Ekdifatmif
]]jrihfoabmwl&ifawmh ajymay;av? ukd,fuawmh cspfaewmyJ}} [k pyfNzJNzJ
jyefajzvdkufonfESihf wpfNydKifeuf jrihfrsufESmuav;rSm ESif;qDa&mifajy;í
idkawmhrvdk ai;oGm;avawmhonf/
]]orD;a& jrihf}}
rdcifBuD;u wkduf0rS vSrf;íac:vkdufaomaMumihf jrihfu odef;[efESihf
pum;pjzwfum rausreyfESihfyif xGufoGm;&avonf/ odkYaomf wpfvSrf;?
ESpfvSrf; vSrf;&mu odef;[efudkvSnfhí
]]udkudkodef;[ef wu,fajymwmaemf aemufawmhaMumufraeeJY}} [k rpl;r&JESihf
pum;pqufvkdufrdao;onf/ odef;[efrSmawmh &,f½Hkom&,fjyvdkuf&onf/
&,fíqHk;awmh oufrBuD;wpfvHk; ypfcsvkduf&ygao;onf/
ol rwdkYavrS olwdkYvQif wu,fjrnfwJh? NrdKUrefvnf a½TpnfBuD;ygyJ [laom
refvnfq&mawmfBuD;\ ukd,f&nfaoG;pmuJhodkY odef;[ef\ orm"drSm
jrihfjrihfuvmírwdkYygrS wkPSdbma0cyfrqdwfaeEkdifrnfjzpf&m ,ckvdk
jrihfjrihfu uEGJUu& ylwdylqmvmí wdkYvQifum; MumMumcHEkdif wGef;vSef
EkdifonfhpGrf;&nfrSm acsmufurf;yg;ukd a&pm;ovdk aeYvm;nvm; jzpfae&
jyefonf/ 'gukdvnf; ukd,hf0rf;emukd,fomodvdkufonf/

106
]]a[h ukdodef;[ef? wpfa,mufwnf; bmvmidkifaewmwHk;}}
aemufem;uvmí vSefYvkdufolrSm jrihftpfukd armfausmfoef;jzpfjyefonf/
olYukdawGUvdkuf&jcif;onf cRef;udk jrifvdkuf&aom ajymrmwifvdk qifjcifwHk
w&m;awG bGm;ceJay:vm&jyef\/ owdwref ÓmPfajruwkwf? ynmpGrf;
cRef;uJhokdYtkyf&rnf r[kwfygavm/
]][m cifAsm;uvJ ½SdrSr½SdbJ? ysif;ysif;½SdwmeJY}}
]]'gjzihf aeOD;Asm? aps;BuD;bufukdavQmuf&atmif? cifAsm;ukd wdkifyifp&m
uav;½SdvdkY uRefawmf tusÐoGm; 0wfvkduf&OD;r,f}} [k ajymajymqdkqdk
wdkufwGif;odkYcyfokwfokwf0ifoGm;onfhtcdkuf NcH0u 0ifvmolwpfOD;ukd
vSrf;jrifvdkuf&onfESihf wpfNydKifeuf ra,mifrvnf a½Smifz,fí xGufrnf
tjyKwGifrS
]]aMom ukdodef;[ef wpfa,mufwnf;ygvm;}} [k vSrf;íEIwfqufum
NyHK;NyHK;ESihfvmaeonfh cifrBuD;ukd rsufESmcsif;qdkifvkduf&jyefawmhonf/
wpfcPav;avmufu ajymoGm;aom jrihf\pum;udk trSwfr&bJ
raeEdkifojzihf aMomf? tif;? [kwfuJh ponfhpum;rsKd;jzihf &,foGrf;aoG;
&vihfupm; rsufESmrxm;wwfatmif NyHK;pdpdjzpfae&ao;onf/
cifrBuD;uvnf; tysif;ajy tvnftywf0ifcJhovdk tem;odkYa&mufatmif
pdwfat;vufat;ESihf avQmufcJhum ESpfudk,fcsif;,SOf&yfrdrS
]]jrihfwpfa,mufaum tdrfxJrSmxifyg&JU}}
]][kwfygvdrfhr,f? tckeuyJ wufoGm;ygw,f}}
þwGifvnf; cifrBuD;u pum;prowfEdkifao;bJ
]]ysif;&if cifwdkYtdrfbuful;cJhygawmh? azazwdkYujzihf udkodef;[efpE´,m;
vufoHukd ajymvdkYukd rNyD;Ekdifbl;? ukdodef;[efuvnf; 'DrSm MumMumrae
EdkifvdkYom? EdkYr[kwf&if cifhukdawmif oifay;zdkYylqmrvdkY}}

107
]][kwfuJhcifAsm? uRefawmfvnf; 'DrSmMumMumraeEkdifvdkYyg}}
}}MumMumae&ifvnf; oifay;zdkYapwem½SdOD;rSukd; ukdodef;[ef&JU}} tckawmh
ysif;wmeJY yif;wmeJY tavmawmfrdkY ajymae&wmvm;}} [k tqHk;owfwGif
t½Tef;uav;qefatmif cspfp&mtoHESihf &,fcsvdkufavonf/
odef;[efESihf cifrBuD;ESpfa,muf,SOfí NyHK;NyHK;½Tif½TifajymaeMuyHkrSm wdkufwGif;
ujrifae&aom jrihftwGuf rsufpdxJ oJESihftyufcH&ovdkjzpfoGm;av\/
]][kwfygNyD? [kwfygNyD? {uEÅ udkudkodef;[ef ihgukdajymvdkufwJhpum;[m
olYpdwfxJ½SdorQ zGihfajymvdkufwJh pum;yJjzpfrSmyg/ 'gaMumifhrdkY igu vpfwdkif;
tcGihfta&;ay;wmawGawmif t csifa,mifaqmifNyD; a½Smifa½Smifaewmaygh/
tcspft"dyÜg,fqdkwm olrodbJaeyghrvm;/ 'Dt½G,frS tNrD;rayguf
bmarsmufwJhwHk;? Munfhprf;ygOD;? ckawmh tMunf vHk;qdkufaevdkufMuwm}}
jrihf\tonf;wGif y½Gufqdwfwufovdk r½dk;r½GESihf tcH&cufae½Smonf/
cifrBuD;\ qHxHk;ay:wGifum; oZifyef;uav;rsm; wa0a0½Sdav\/
zvefe,fvHkcsnf tuGufpdyfuav;ukd0wfí pdefuwåDygeufjymyHkawmftusÐ
ay:wGif udk,fwdkifxdk;xm;aom odk;arG;vnfywfuav; rcdkYw½dkYwif
xm;onfrSm ukdodef;[efukd,fwdkif rsufpdusaerdonf/
vHk;BuD;aygufvS cHhcHh00jzpfaeaomaMumihf rif;uawmf½kyf wrf;aeav&m
cifrBuD;½kyf&nfusufoa&½Sdoavmuf jrihfjrifhrSm rsufpdaemufaerdonf/
tysKdaygufp tysKd½kdif;uav;rsm;\ tcspfpdwfum; tqdyftwmuf
r½Sdaomfvnf; tajcmuftvSefYaumif;aom vif;a>rESihftvGefwlvSonf/
xdkpum;onfrSef\/ a>rwumha>rxJwGif vif;a>rwdkYrnfonf vluom
aMumufyHk&vQif r½Sdaomyg;ysOf;ukdaxmifí a>ra[mufESihfwlatmif ½SL;½SL;
½Sm;½Sm;ESihfvkdufawmhrvdk vkyfwwfao;onf/ vluajy;av olwdkYuvdkufav?
wu,fhtrsufjyif;onfh a>rBuD;ygay/ vluom vif;a>rrSef;odí

108
raMumufr½GHU vkdufvQifum; acgif;udkajrrSm jym;jym;0yfí w&pyf
xGufajy;vkdufonfrSm aemufuvlrS rrDEkdifawmhay/
tysKduav;rsm;vnf; xdktwdkif;jzpfonf/

___________

wdrfuif;pifonfh aqmif;wGif;n aumif;uifjymatmufwGif rnf;rnf;rdkYrdkY
ukef;xaeaom usdKufomvH&ifjyifawmfxufu a½TapwD vQyfppfbk&m;rD;yGihf
uav;rsm;rSm toG,fvdkuf tqdkif;vkduf pdefBudK;oDxm;ovdk w0if;0if;
wvufvuf awmufyaeMuavonf/
oHvGifjrpf0udkjzwfajy;vmaom aqmif;avonf yifv,fa&aiGUuav;awG
udkyg wdkYuqdwf wdkYueef; qJGaqmifusDp,fvmcJhao;onf/
aps;BuD;ykdif; w½kwfwef;&yfuGufrSm oGm;ol vmol pm;ol aomufolrsm;ESihf
tvGefpnfum;aeonf/ nOfhOD;tcsdefuav;jzpfav\/
oefYjyefYxnf0gaom w½kwf[dkw,fBuD;wpfck\ oD;oefYtcef;uav;
wpfcef;xJwGif tjr§Kyfraoao;aom bD,mzefcGufpm;yJGukd tv,fuxm;í
pum;rajymao;bJ awGa0aeMuolESpfa,mufrSm ausmfoef;ESihf odef;[efwdkY
jzpfav\/
]]uJ qdkprf;ygOD;? cifAsm;wkdifyifcsifw,fqdkwm}}
odef;[efu pí yPmrysKd;vdkufaomtcgwGifrS ausmfoef;uNyHK;vmí
]]jrmtwGufayghAsm}} [k nnf;nnf;ñlñlESihf ed'gef;qifvdkufonf/
]]tif; qdkprf;ygOD;? aumifrav;wpfa,mufukd ydk;aew,fqdkygawmh}}

109
]]r[kwfao;bl;Asm? 'Dvdk'Dvdk? uRefawmfhukd vlBuD;awGu trmeJY pyfxm;
w,f}}
]][if trm? b,fu trmvJ}}
odef;[efwGif qwfceJ acgif;axmifí txdwfwvefYar;vdkufrdonf/
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110
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111
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t½G,faMumifh 0efaxmufukdpdk;jrihfu wrf;wrf;pJGcspfatmif aoG;aqmifEkdif
ygvsuf odef;[efusrS a½Smifz,fz,ftvkyfcH&onfukd uoduatmuf
jzpfae&½Smonf/ olYtzdkYuawmh &wmrvdk? vdkwmr& cGusaejcif;
omjzpfonf/

112
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ausmfoef;ESifh odef;[eftm; apmifh&if; pmzwfaerdonf/ pmzwfonf
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tay:rSmom jzpfonf/
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tjrwfjyKav zrf;pm;av? ñSif;qJav? olwdkYtm; pdwf0ifpm;av? ESdyfpuf
rif;rlav vkyfwwfonf/ bmukdrS b,fvdk[k r&nf½G,frdaomfvnf;
jrihfonf rdrdtpfukdESihf wpfckwifqDtdyfaom vlysKdcef;wGif;okdY csif;eif;
0ifa&mufcJhrdavonf/ tdyf&mudkjyKjyifay;jcif;? trIdufwHjruf½Sif;vif;jcif;
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odef;[ef\ ukd,feYHvdkvdk aygif'geHYvdkvdk acgif;vdrf;qDeHYvdkvdk/
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&iftkyfBuD;onfvnf;aumif;? wpfckpD wpfckpD uGif;uGif;uGufuGuf tm½Hk
xifjrifvmcJhawmhonf/ xdktm½HkwkdYrSm jrihftzdkYawmh om,mp&maumif;onfh
tdyfrufuav;yif/

113
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tdyf&mae&m? toHk;taqmif ponfwkdYukd tjrwfwEdk;jyKwwfMuonfhtwkdif;
tysKd½kdif;? pdwf½kdif;uav;jzpfaom jrihfonf olYpdwful;ESihfol arGUavsmf
aecJhonfrSm tcsdefudkrSowdrxm;vdkufrd/
aomufaeusr[kwfaom odef;[efonf ausmfoef;\bD,mwefcdk;aMumihf
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aomufí vlodrSmawmh ½SufwwfaompdwfrSm tawmf&,fp&maumif;aom
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jrifhwkYd om;trdtm; cyfjrefjrefa½Smifí tdyfcef;xJta&muf0if&efBuHcJhonf/
xdkYaMumifh wdkufwGif;a&mufí wpfpHkwpfa,mufrQ rawGUcJh&onfukdyif
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ykxkZOfvlysLdvl½G,fuav;rSm rvdr®mEdkifawmhay/ rsufarSmufyufyif;wGif
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jrihftm; oem;u½kPm oufoGm;onfESihftrQ udk,fwdkifuvnf; yDwd

114
aomreójzpf&onfrSm wdwfqdwfaom ncsrf;tcsdefwGif t&ufcdk;
t&ufaiGUawGuyg rIdif;wdkufaeMuawmhonf/
rSefvSonf/ t&ufqdkaom t&ufuvnf; ukd,hf&ifaoG;om;t&if;ukdyif
[if;csufípm;avmufatmif rkdufrJapcJh\/ xdkYaMumihf rHopu©KESihf
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wifyg;qHkrS pí rdkYrdkYarmufarmuf0if;0if;0g0g jynfhjynfhwif;wif;jzpfvSonfh
½kyf0g' tpdwftykdif;wdkYu zdwfac:vsuf½Sdawmhonf/
a½S;,cifuwnf;u odef;[ef\ apmihfpnf;rIwGifom wnfae&jcif;jzpfonf/
,ckawmh odef;[efuvnf; rapmihfpnf;? jrifhuvnf; olcdk;½Sd&mukd
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aq;ukdpm;MuzdkYyif½Sdonf/
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jrihfudk,fvHk;uav;ESihf xdvkrwwf uyfíxkdifcsvdkufNyD;vQif jrihf\yg;ukd
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xxdkifrnftjyK odef;[efu NyHK;NzJNzJ uav;vkyfí ycHk;uav; ESdrfxm;
vdkufonf/

115
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]]ukdukd}}

116
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vnfacsmif;xJodkY 0rf;EIwfawaq; avQmusoGm;ovdk oGm;½Smawmhonf/
tcsdef/
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117
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]]ukdukd}}
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qdkaom rdkuf½l;&Jpdwfuav;rsm;<uwkef; wufwkef; t½G,fomjzpfonf/

118
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xdkt½G,f uav;udk odef;[efpdwfaemufukd,fygjyKrlcJhavNyD/

___________

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119
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120
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121
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122
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123
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125
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126
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127
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128
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136
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137
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138
a':cifñGefYu {nfhaxmuf0ifcH½Smygonf/ ajymr,fhomajymvkduf&onf/
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wwfEkdifygrnfenf;/ ta&;BuHKvQif oufvHkaumif;Mu&awmhrnf/
]][kwfygw,forD;&,f? armifbouf olYcrsm apwemeJY oufouf
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tdrfa½SUyl tdrfaemufrcsrf;omqkdovdk tdrfwGif;a&;BuD;wpfckudk tdrfwGif;om;
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uav;rSm wpfaeYxufwpfaeY}}

139
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qdkawmh OD;atmifBuD;wdkYvifr,m;onf a':cifñGefYukdawmh aemufxyf
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½SdMuonf/ u,fwifvdkMuonf/ xdkMum;xJwGif rdrdrSm udk,fvGwf

140
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ruGmaqmif½Gufae&ayao;onf/
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]]ud ud uJ uJ}}
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wpfaumifwnf;/
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vmrdonf/
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onf olYtm; b,fodkYb,fyHkjyKrnfenf;[k tuJcwfum wxdwfxdwf
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trmhpum;awGudk acgif;uav;apmif;umiJhum ajcw<u<u tawmifuav;

141
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[k pOf;pm;rdao;onf/ odkYaomf trmMuLtzdkY olYukdcifwG,faeonfudkyif
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avESihf a&mí wdrfaMumukdysHum olYcspfoludkomvkdufvH½SmazGaeapcsifonf/
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xdkYaMumihfyif þwpfcPuav;ü trmMuLonf omvdumruav;
omjzpfvdkufcsif awmhonf/ olYrSmom tawmifaygufvQif odef;[efajc&if;
ta&muf vkdufíidkjyvdkufcsifawmhonf/
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aemufqkwfí xGufoGm;rdawmhownf;/

___________

142
tcsdefonfum; ESm&nf,dk½TJonfh wydkYwGJrS waygif;? wefcl; rdk;om;
MuL;NyD;vQif uqkef? e,kef rkd;oHawGpHkcJhum 0gqdk 0gacgif a&azmifazmif
jzpfcJhjyefvsuf awmfovif;aeykpGefaocJhNyD;aemuf Mumaygif;ñGwfonfh
oDwif;uRwfodkY ul;cJh½HkrQru zHk;wkef; vHk;wkef; wefaqmifrkef;ukdvGefcJhum
ewfawmf jymodk ESif;pdkpdkokdYjyefvnf qdkufa&mufcJhjyefav\/
odef;[efonf usKdufomvHapwD&ifjyifawmfrS taemufajrmufpl;pl;ukd
rsufESmrlum ai;vsuf? awG;vsuf½Sdonf/ þrSaeí rHopu©KESihfrjrifEdkifaom
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Edkifayr,fh tm½HkxJrSmawmhay:vmavonf/
ñdkarSmif&ihfa&mfaom awmifcdk;jrLaiGUwdkYjzihf rIefwjyjyuav;jrif&aom
rkwårNrdKUuav;ESihf oHvGifjrpf0wGif pdrf;pdrf;pdkpdkusufoa&aqmifaeaom
acgif;aq;uRef;uav;wdkYrSm odef;[ef\tawG;xJu wa&;a&;aysmufuG,f
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um pdwfaysmfvufaysmf pE´,m;wD;qdkaeMuyHkjzpfvmav\/
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odef;[efonf yg;pyfucyfwdk;wdk;½Gwfvkdufrdonf/

143
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udkpdk;jrihfwdkYudk awGU&rnfjzpfav\/

144
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bmwpfckrS acgif;azmfEdkifp&mr½Sd/

145
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a':jrvIdifonf olYorD;twGuf ½Suf½SufESihfumuG,fcJhzl;onf/

146
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oabmusvGef;vSvdkYr[kwfbl;? oli,fcsif;csif; rsufESmylvScsnf&JUqdkNyD;
armifausmfoef;u wkwfwpfjyuf? "g;wpfjyufvkyfvkdY? 'DMum;xJ armifpdk;jrihfeJY
em;csygao;&JU? olYtjzpfol½SufvdkY armifpdk;jrihfeJYvufquf&rSm tm;emaewm
ayghuG,f}}
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rukefp&mjzpfaeavonf/ olYtzdkYuawmh b,fESom;arG;í b,fESvifaeae
taotvJykd;aevsufom;jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumihfyif a':jrvIdifuvnf;

147
armifpdk;jrihfqdkvQif ta&;w,lvkyfí udkpdk;jrihfuvnf; rdwfaqGaumif;yDopGm
cPcP tvnfvmjcif;jzpfav\/
odef;[efESihfwpfcgwpf&HqHkrdapumrl a':jrvIdifu ukdpdk;jrifhukd{nfhcHaewwf
vsuf odef;[efu pdwfajyvufaysmuf pE´,m;ukdacgufaeonfhtcg
]]a[h oli,f wpfqdwfavmufvnf; tdrfxJuvlawGudk tm;emygOD;?
em;nnf;vGef;vdkY acgif;awmifukdufvSNyD}} qdkaomtoHk;rsKd;
]]a[h armifodef;[ef 'DrSm{nfhaumif; apmifaumif;eJY pum;ajymaew,fuJGU?
enf;enf;jzpfjzpf tvdkuf uav;rsm;odOD;rSaygh? aeYwa'gifa'gif
nwa'gifa'gifeJY}} [laom pum;rsm;jzihf zdpD;ESdyfpufwwfjyefonf/
,cifu Mum;emírNiD;aompE´,m;oHonf yÍöodcFewfom;\apmif;oHvdk
xifcJhMuonf/ ,ckawmh oHyHk;oHvdk trSwfjyKMuavNyD/ xdkYaMumihf
odef;[efonf eD;pyf&m0goemtdk;rsm;xH aeukefaecrf;vnfí pE´,m;om
wD;ae wwfonf/ pifppfrSmawmh txifao;cH&í tdrfukdruyf
t&yfxJvnfaeav&m xdktjyKtrlu odef;[eftm; txifao;onfxuf
ao;p&mjzpfjyefavonf/
*Dwum; ol&mESihftawmfoabmcsif;wlonf/
pdwfnpfít&ufukdaomufcsifonf/ aysmfvQifvnf; t&ufukd aomufwwf
Muonf/ *Dwvnf;xdkYtwlyif? pdwfnpfvQif *Dw wD;csif qdkcsifonf/ odkYrS
pdwfajyovdk oufomovdk ½Sdvmonf/ aysmfvQifvnf; *DwESihf
wD;rIwfoDqdkí aysmfvdkufcsifonf/
wpfnaewGif odef;[efonf pE´,m;oifay;ae&onfh tdrfwpftdrfrS
jyefvmcJhonf/ jrihfwkdYwkduf0ü um;wpfpD; qkdufxm;onfudk vSrf;jrif
vdkuf½HkESihf ukdpdk;jrihftdrfvnfa&mufaeaMumif; aumif;aumif;BuD; odvdkuf&
onf/ yef;NcHwGif; wpfae&mü a,mu©ra':jrvIdifonf yef;cl;&if;

148
at;at;aq;aq; vrf;avQmufaeavonf/ a':jrvIdifukd odef;[efu
vSrf;jrifaomfvnf; odef;[ef0ifvmonfudk a':jrvIdifrjrifvdkufrd/
odef;[efonf wkdufwGif;odkY0ifvkdufonfESihf wpfNydKifeuf rsufvHk;rsm;jym
oGm;atmif a'gocdk;awGrTefvdkufrdonf/ {nfhcef;qdkzmwpfckay:wGif ukdpdk;jrifh
uxkdifí jrihfudktwif;ayGU&efBudK;pm;aeavonf/ jrihfu wtdktdk wtiftif
ESihf ½kef;xGufaeav&m
]]jrihfae&wm oem;vGef;vdkYyg jrihf&m? jrihfudk [dkaumifxufomatmif
xm;jycsifvGef;vdkYyg}} [k yg;pyfu wwGwfwGwfacsmharmhaeavonf/
wpfcPav;rSmawmh odef;[efonf rdk;BudK;pufukd ukdifvkduf&ovdk
uwkefu,ifawmif jzpfoGm;rdonf/ odkYaomf a,mu©rBuD; yef;NcHwGif;qif;
aejcif;u olwdkY\o½kyfukd xkwfajyaeum apwemawG odavmufygonf/
o&Jwapävdk wpfukd,fvHk;aoí &yfMunfhaeaom odef;[efudk t&if
jrifvkdufolrSm jrihfomvQifjzpfonf/
]][if usKyfxufomatmifxm;csifw,f [kwfvm;? xm; xm;}} odef;[efu
pdk;jrihfvdyfjymvGihfoGm;awmh rwwf toHukef[pfí atmfvkdufrdonf/
xdktwGif;uav;rSmyif a':jrvIdifajy;wufvmonfESihf wpfcsdefwnf;
vufvGef ajcvGefjzpfoGm;rSm pdk;onfhjrihfu
]]tdk udkodef;[ef}} [k uref;uwef;ajy;ízuf&efBudK;pm;vkdufao;onf/
odkYaomf wpfukd,fvHk;ewfus aeaom odef;[efu jrihf\pum;ukd vufrcH
jzef;ceJaeatmif yg;ukd vSrf;ykwfvdkufaomaMumihf jrihfxdkifíusoGm;
avonf/
]]tr,fav; usKyforD;aoygNyDawmf}} [k a':jrvIdifu &efawGUonfudk
udk,fha'goukd,frenf;Edkifatmif csKyfí

149
]][kwfw,f? [kwfw,f cifAsm;orD; cifAsm;orD;? cifAsm;BuD; avmfvnfcsif
ovdk avmfvnfayawmh}} [k rsufESmESihf twefom;ajymcsvkdufonf/
]]avmfvnfr,f[Jh avmfvnfr,f? toufwpf&m vifwpf&mjynfhoGm;yap?
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av\/
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]]ukdodef;[ef udkodef;[ef}} [k r,m;onf\ wrf;woHuav;ESihf
wpfqufwnf;
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atmfaigufvkdufonfh a,mu©r toHum; odef;[ef\em;wGif aemufqHk;
pum;omjzpfawmhonf/
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vufajy ajzwwfovdk ajzaeMuavonf/
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aumif;w,f? aMomf 'gxuf trm rSnfhxm;wJhemrnfudkawmif armifodef;[ef
wdkYtaru w,fNyD; oabmruscsifbl;uJGU? bmjzpfvdkYvJqdkawmh armifodef;
MuLqdk&if olYom;emrnfygaevdkYwJh}}
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e,fcsJUaeavonf/ twdwf umvu ywfoufcJhaom oZifyef;rsm;udk
jrifwdkif;jrifwdkif; tawG;e,fwGif taqG;<u,frdavonf/ xdkokdYjzpfaepOf

150
odef;[ef\emrnfudk Mum;vkdufaomtcg rnfolrQr½Sdonfh pE´,m;wD;aom
cHkuav;qDodkY vSnfhMunfhav\/ NyD;rS owd&um
]]aMomf olwdkYrvnf; ukdodef;[efudk ypfy,fEkdifvGef;w,faemf? emrnfrSnfh
wmupNyD; a'gorajyEkdifMuav a&mhovm;? trmuawmh 'DemrnfuvJGvdkY
b,femrnfrS rrSnfhcsifbl;? olwdkYrkef;Ekdifayr,fh trmu rrkef;Edkifbl;
ukdbouf&,f}} [k ykcufxJu EdkYpdkY½G,fuav;i,fudkvSrf;Munfh&if;
rMunfromjzpfae&av\/
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wpfaeYu tarGpm; tarGcH pmcsKyfcsKyfMu&if; uav;emrnfukd pum;pyfrdvdkY
ajymaeMuwmMum;vkdYyg/ udkboufuawmh 'Demrnfuav;yJ BudKufw,f}}
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pdwfMunfvifcsrf;ajrhvmatmif oGefoifqHk;rcJh½Smav\/ rdrd\oabmukd
vdkufavsmvdkvm;½Smonf/ odef;[ef\ "g;ckwf&mwGif vuf0ifívQKdcJhonfrSm
awmf½Hkwef½Hkarwåmr[kwfaMumif; jy½Smonf/ twGif;pum;rQom vifr,m;
t&mESihfrywfouf&aomfvnf; wpf&yfvHk;? wpf½GmvHk;u todtrSwfjyKEkdif
avmufatmifyif r*Fvmaqmifxm;ol jzpf&m boufomvQif rMuifemu
twif;ZGwfw½Gwf EdkifxufpD;eif; rdrd\cspfolukd vk,lzsufqD;EdkifaMumif;
awG;rdav\/ odkYaomf ,cktcsdefxd boufum; vufzsm;ESihfrS þpdwfrsKd;ESihf
,SOfírwdkY½SmonfrSm rGefjrwfaom a,musFm; aumif;wkdY\ pdwfudk
arG;jrLxdef;odrf;aMumif; xif½Sm;apavonf/
vlBuD;rdbrsm;\oabmum; wpfaeYaeYwGif wpfa½GUa½GUESihf rdrd\arwåm
boufvufwGif;odkYygvmvdrfhrnf[k rSwfxifMu[efwl\/ xdkYaMumifhvnf;

151
þuJhokdY tEkenf;ESihfpDpOfxm;aMumif; rdrdomru boufyg &dyfrdEkdif
avmufonf/ odkYvifhupm; trmMuL\ aqG;ajrhaeaompdwfukd npfnL;
ñSdK;EGrf;atmif ukd,ftrlt&mESifhaomfvnf;aumif;? EIwftrl t&mESihfaomf
vnf;aumif; rjy½SmbJ yuwd½dk;om;wnfMunfpGm opömapmifhodvsuf
umrykdifvifa,musFm;ozG,f apwemxm;jcif;? Muifemjcif;? u½kPm
oufjcif;jzihf ajcmufaoGUaeaom trmMuL\pdwfukd ajzazsmfae½Smol
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wpfaeYxufwpfaeY tm;ukd;av;pm;jcif;jyKcJh&avonf/
a,musFm;omref wpf&HqHwdkYESihfrwlaom bouftm; Munfñdkcspfcifaom
pdwfonf trmMuLtm; taetxdkif tajymtqdkrSpí &Jwif;yGef;wD;
vmav\/
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jyefav\/
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yxrtBudrfurl trmMuLrSm em;eihfí xihfceJjzpfoGm;rdzl;onf/ odkYaomf
uav;[lícspfp&m jrwfEdk;p&mr½Sdaom aqGrsKd;wpfodkufwGif armifodef;[ef
\ rdcifutp ighom; ighom;[laom pum;u vQmzsm;ay:rSrqif;MubJ
trmMuL\rdcifzcifwkdYuvnf; xdkenf;twdkif;jzpfum wpftdrfom;vHk;
]]ighom;}} [laom tac:rSvJGí emrnfuav;ukdyif ac:a0:jcif;

152
rjyK&ufMuaomaMumihf umvMumjrihfaomf trmMuL\em;wGif wpfjznf;
jznf;½kd;um onf;cHEkdifpGrf;avmufatmif jzpf&½Smav\/
]]trma& uav;EdkYwkdufygOD;vm;uG,f? ighom;qmvSygNyD}}
]]tdk [kwfvm;? om;av; csKdcsKdqmvSyvm;}}
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wpftdrfom;vHk;rnfolrS owdrxm; vkdufEkdifMuay/
ppf½IH;aom ppfolBuD;uJhokdY odef;[efonf acgif;idkufpkdufcsum ajcwpfvSrf;
csif;avQmufcJhav\/ vlwdkY\ pJGvrf;jcif;um; arQmhowå0gESihfwlvS\/
wpfzufudkvGwfvGwfuif;uif; vTwfvdkufonfESihfwpfNydKifeuf usefonfh
wpfzufrS ykdrdkíNrJNrHpGm½Sdwwfonf/ tqdk;½SdvQif taumif;½SdNrJ qdkaom
pum;wGif tqdk;½SdrS taumif;rSm ykdíodod omomay:vGifvmEdkifavonf/
tqdk;ukd qdk;rSef;odonfESihf wpfcsufwnf; taumif;rSm aumif;onfxuf
aumif; aMumif; t&omukd ykdíjywwfavonf/
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owd&av½Sdawmhonf/
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]]a[m ajyma&mhr,f edrdwfr½Sd ermr½Sd raumif;wwfvGef;vdkY vkdufoGm;
&rSmygvdkY ajymyaum}}

153
]]at;av armifwkdYu a,musFm;uav;yJ embufur½Sdygbl;/ 'Du
rdef;uav;rdkY awG;&if ylp&mrqHk;Ekdif wmyg}}
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ae&mcsMuawmhr,fhOpöm? 'Dwpfcgjyefvm&if trmBudKufwwfwJh oZifyef;awG
trsm;BuD;0,fvmcJhay;r,fodvm;? trmvnf; ukdodef;[ef jyefra&mufcif
onfaqmif;a[refukdEdkifatmifusihfxm;aemf}}
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ae&rSmaemfodvm;? trmawmh trmhukd,feJY armifhpdwfjzpfukefNyD}}
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owd&vmav\/
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raygh? awmfNyD awmfNyD rvGwfvyfwJh olYaysmf½TifrIukd igrzsufqD;csifawmhbl;?
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154
vufavQmhum ukd,fhrdciftdrfukdrS r0ifvdkawmhbJ yJcl;ajray:rS aysmufuG,f
oGm;awmhavonf/
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jzpfawmhonf/ tu,fí odef;[efom wpftdrftdrf0ifvkdufrdvQifum;
trmMuL\jyóemrSm ajyvnfoGm;p&m½Sdao;onf/ ,ckawmh udk,fh tjypf
ukd,f0efrcH&J? owådenf;yg;vSaom odef;[efonf vSnfhíomjyefcJhawmhonf/
&efukefNrdKU? jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmftoHvTihfXmerS oHk;q,fhwpf 'ór
av;av;? av;q,fhukd; 'ór ckepf? vIdif;vwf oHk;&mhwpfq,fhav;
rDwmrsm;rS toHvTihfaeygonf}} [k aeYpOf ajymaeustoHvTihf½HkrSm
0efBuD;rsm;&yfuGufESihfeD;onfh 0if'grD,mwGif½Sdonf/
xdkc&D;ywf0ef;usif½Sd vrf;ab;umumvufzuf&nfqdkifwGif *Dworm;rsm;
tNrJpcef;csíaeavh½Sd\/ odef;[efonf &nf½G,fcsufuif;rJhpGmjzihf xdkae&m
okdYa&mufcJhav&m
]][m ukdodef;[ef}} [k 0rf;omt,fvJ vufqJGEIwfqufvdkufrS ,cifu
awGUzl;jrifzl;aom *Dwmq&m ukdxGef;jrihfqdkolukd owdjyKrdawmhavonf/
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udkbwdk;? olu ywfwD; armifEk? oluqufuZdkzHk; armifoD;? 'guawmh
rif'dkvif vS0if;? [dkrSm ESJudkarmifarmif? oluawmh pma&;q&m aomwarmif}}
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aygif;oif;rIrSm [efaqmifrIr½Sd? <um;0grIr½Sd? 0wfaus 0wfuHk pdwfrsKd;r[kwf?
,ckrSawGU&apumrl yGihfyGihfvif;vif; &if;&if;ESD;ESD; i,faygif;BuD;azmfyrm

155
vGwfvyfpGm qufqHwwfMuNrJjzpfonf/ avmuay:wGif vlvlcsif;
vlwef;pm;trsKd;rsKd; cJGjcm;EkdifMuaomfvnf; wl&d,m*Dworm;rsm;tzdkYwGif
twef;tpm;cJGjcm;ír&? qif;&Jaom*Dworm;rsm;u csrf;omaom wl&d,m
orm;rsm;udk txifrBuD;? xdkYtwl pm;EkdifaomufEkdif tvkyftukdifae&mus
aeaom *Dworm;rsm;u pm;&rJhaomuf&rJhjzpfaeonfh *Dworm;ukd
txifrao; olwkdYtzdkYrSm yumoe tay:,Huypönf;awGudk *½kpdkufwmxuf
*DwynmuRrf;usifrI aphpHkrI *Dw0g&ifhrIukdom trGeftjrwfjyKMuonf/
aumvdyfpE´,m;0dZÆm ukdodef;[eftm; t&yfom; olaX;uav; wpfa,muf
xuf cifrifMunfñdkMuonf/ t&m½Sdwpfa,mufukdav;pm;onfxuf
olYvufoHukdav;pm;Muonf/
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oGm;NyD? tckb,foGm;rvdkYvJ}} [k ukdxGef;jrihfu qufíar;onf/
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bmrS &nf½G,fcsufr½Sdbl;}}[k odef;[efu olwdkYwkdufonfh vufzuf&nfudk
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odef;[efaemufusKcJhorQ pdwftnpftaMu;wdkYrSm olwdkYESihfawGUí tawmf
twef vef;qef;oGm;&onf/ *Dworm; rsm;onf *Dwwl&d,m
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udkxGef;jrihfu tm;udk;wpfckESihf EIwfoGufvQmoGufawmif;yefaeavonf/

156
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157
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twdwfb0awGukd arhavsmhaponf/ odkYayr,fh wpfcguawmh tawmfuav;
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rsuf&nfawGyg 0JvmcJh&onf/
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158
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odef;[ef\vufoH odef;[ef\vufoHrS tppf/

159
]]awmfprf;ygawmh pE´,m;oH&,f}}
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wpfukd,f wnf;aeonfhtcgrsm;jzihf pdwf½Iyfp&m ay:íay:ívmonf/

160
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161
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jyefcHMu&onfomrsm;onf/

162
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163
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rcs0HhMu? csívnf;r&/

164
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qufaeMuavNyD/ trSefuawmh rdkufwGif;eufaejcif;yif r[kwfygavm/

___________

aysmfzefrsm;awmh ysuf? avQmfzefrsm;awmh uGuf/
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qufízsm;aeovdk jzpfaeaomaMumifh tvkdvdkpdwfwdkaeyHk&onf/

165
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odef;[eftem;odkY aumfzDylylav; wpfyef;uefukdifum uyfvmcJhonf/
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]]q&m q&m aumfzDylyluav; q&m}}
]][if armifEkvm;? aomufcsifygbl;uGm? ighukd t&ufenf;enf;ay;ygvm;}}
]][m b,faumif;rvJq&m? 'DtawmtwGif; qifjcifwmaumif;ygw,f}}
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]]q&m}}
]][if uGm}}
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rsm;ukd vufzsm;ESihfrSrwdkY/

166
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r½Sdawmhygbl;}} [k av;av;yifyifBuD; odef;[efu jyefajymvkdufonf/
]]'Db0rsKd;bmrufp&m½SdovJuGm? wpfaumif<uuf wpfrsufESmyJ}}
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onf/ odef;[efuawmh olYrsufESmolrjrifEdkif? armifEkuom eD;eD;uyfuyf
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rsufESmrSmay:vmwmukdawmh olodukdrod/ ,ckarmifEkajymrS tBuD;tus,f
xdwfvefYoGm;rdonf/
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aeatmif tcef;uav;tjyif bufukd ajy;xGufcJhonf/ {nfhcef;wGif;rSm
rSefwifpm;yJG½Sdav&m xdkpm;yJGukdta&muf tajy;tvTm;oGm;Munfhvkdufonf/
armifEkonf pdwfrcsaomaMumihf olYaemufu rvSrf;rurf;vdkufcJhrdonf/
rSefa½SU0,f olYrsufESmol vuf0g;ESihftkyfí w½IHU½IHUidkaeaom odef;[eftm;
&ifxkremjrifvdkuf&onf/ odkYaomf odef;[efonf csufcsif;vdkyif tidk&yfí

167
olYrsufESmol aphaphpyfpyfMunfhvkdufjyefonf/ olYrsufESmxm;rSm wjznf;jznf;
cufwa&mfvmjyefonf/ tHBudwfvdkufonf/ NyD;onfhaemuf trSwfrxif
tm;&yg;& &,fcsvkdufonf/ wpfcPuav; twGif; pdwf"gwfazmufjyefí
½l;oGyfoGm;avovm;[k xif&avmufatmifyifjzpfonf/
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[m; [m;}}
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xdkt&ufukd a&aomufovdk tmomirf;irf; aomufcsvdkufonf/ armifEkrSm
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ESihf&,fí ]]ycef; ycef;bufu,frSm q,fy,f ukd;y,f usL;ygvdkY ajymif;wJh
ajymif;wl;½Gm}} [k ewfcsif;awGukd qdkqdk wD;wD; wD;vkdufonf/
wD;ítm;&jyefawmh tay:tusÐwpfxnfukd uref; uwef;qJGí tdrfay:rS
qif;oGm;awmhonf/
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armifEkonf awGa0ai;armíom usef&pfcJh&onf/
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tukcufodkY [laompum;onf odef;[efvdk q&mwpfa,muftwGuf
oufoufjzpfavawmhovm;/
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tdrfodkYrjyefbJ [dkw,f? avm*sif;wdkYüom rdk;vif;aomnrsm;onfxuf
rsm;vmonf/ ol\ aygifNcHwGifomru wpfudk,fvHk;wGif tzktydrfhrsm;

168
xlvyspf jzpfvmonf/ rsufESmESihfem;½GufwkdYrSm a&m*g½Sdef? t&uf½Sdef
wdkYaMumihf eDa&mif&ihfí xltrf;trf;jzpfvmNyD; ESm½kd;uvnf; edrfhusoGm;
avonf/ ol\½kyftqif;u e*dkESihfrwlbJ ysuf,Gif;vmonfhtwGuf
[dkw,fr,fawGutp tem;odkY w,fruyfcsifMu? 'Dvdka½Smifz,fz,fvkyfav
odef;[efa'gojzpfav? [dkw,fay:rSm ykdNyD;&rf;um;vmavjzpfawmhonf/
]][JhaumifrawG eifwkdYvdkcsifwmaiGr[kwfvm;? a&mh aiG? ,lprf;aiG? tckrS
eifwkdYu bmBuD;us,fovJ? eifwdkY0rf;xJrSm wu,fhtcspfqdkwm a½SmarG;
avmuf½SdvdkY ighukd ½GUHcsifMuwmvm;? eifwkdYESvHk;om;xJrSmvnf; tcspfr½Sd
ighOD;aESmufxJrSmvnf; tcspfr½Sd? tcspfr½SdwJhvlcsif; bmjiif;aeMuwmvJ?
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ESpfq,fwefwm av;q,f,lprf;}}
odef;[efonf t&ufukdom a&vdkaomufonfr[kwf? aiGudkvnf;
a&vdkoHk;jyonf/

___________

tcsdefonf trmMuL\om;uav; av;zufwGm;&mu rwfwyfprf;í
avQmufcsdefa&mufvmcJh½Hkru bb rr arar [k wGwfwD; wGwfwm
ajymEkdifavmufatmif vGefcJhavNyD/
boufonf olYaoG; olYom;r[kwfaMumif; tNrJowdxm;onf/ odkYayr,fh
ykvkauG;av;uwnf;u wG,fwd wG,fydk; o,fykd;vm&aomaMumihf tjrifeD;í
tMuifBuD;MuifcJh&avNyD/ wu,fqdkawmh oHa,mZOfqdkonfum; aoG;rS

169
om;rSr[kwf? wpfOD;arwåm wpfOD;rSmqdkovdk wpfOD;ukdwpfOD;u wHkYjyefjyvQif
{&mraESmifBudK;BuD;omjzpfonf/
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vufuav;ESpfzufudk qefYwef;í irf;irf;vkdufcsifonf/ tjypfrJhaom
uav;? vlYb0ukdrodao;aomuav;tm; boufonf b,fenf;ESihfrS
rpdrf;um;Ekdif/ boufurpdrf;Ekdifovdk uav;i,fu wrf;wrf;pJG pJGaeav&m
Mumawmh 0wfaus0wfukef [efaqmifjcif;rsKd;r[kwfonfh wu,fharwåm
apwemawGrSm boufwpfukd,fvHk; aoG;aMumrSeforQ wdk;vQKd;ayguf
avQmufukefMuawmhonf/
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uav;i,fuawmh tvkyfcGifrSjyefvmaom boufukdjrifvdkufonfESihf
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orQ arwåma&pifESihfaq;csvdkufovdk cHpm;vdkufrdonf/
]]b}}
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aecJhonf/ wu,fwrf;ajymMupdkY qdkvQif boufonf uav;i,fukd
awmhrcJGEdkifawmhNyD/ rae&ícJGMupdkYqdkvQif trmhukdom cJGcsifcJGEdkifrnf/
avmuBuD;wGif uav;i,fum; tjypfuif;pifonf/ oefY½Sif;Munfvifonf/
rdrd\pdwfukd ajzazsmf½Smonf/ MunfEl;ESpfodrfhatmif aqmif½Gufay;azmf

170
&onf/ ESpfumvonf jrihfoxufjrifhovdk cspfwmuvnf; &ihfoxuf
&ihfcJhNyD/

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onfhwkdifatmif *Dworm;tcsif;csif; wpfa,mufwpfayguf aemufMu
ajymifMu a[;vm;0g;vm; pm;MuaomufMu tdrfeD;csif;udkrStm;rem
t&yfuav;ukdrStm;remqdkovdk aomif;usef;aeMu&m ,ckawmh wpfaeYxuf
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tajctaerSm wpfaeYxuf wpfaeY qdk;0g;vmaomaMumihfjzpfavonf/
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awmhonf/
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qHk;jzpfcJhojzihf xrif;yJGa½SUa&muf tdrfOD;cef;wifxm;cJhonf/ ,ckawmh
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]]q&m - q&m&,f q&m0efeJYjyMunfh&atmifvm;}}
]]igrjycsifygbl; armifEk&,f}}
]]bmjzpfvdkYvJ q&m&,f}}

171
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aumif;oGm;rSmyg}}
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q&m0efu odef;[ef\tzktydrfhtuGufrsm;ukda&m? ajcvufrsm;ukdyg yiftyf
uav;wpfacsmif;ESihf wdkYum wdkYumar;onf/ odef;[efonf emwmudk
vnf;odonf/ xdwmukdvnf;odonf/ odef;[efukd acgif;rSajctqHk;wkdif
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pm;aomufcJhNyD;rS a½SmifuGif;oGm;Muolrsm;ukd EIdif;,SOfrd&m odef;[ef\&ifxJ
wGif auseyfjcif;? rauseyfjcif; 0da&m"dcHpm;&rIrsm; xdyfwdkufjzpfay:aeonf/
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]]ukdodef;[ef cifAsm;a&m*gu}}
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odef;[efuvnf; rdrd\ ysufpD;,dk,Gif;vmaeaom ½kyfvu©Pmrsm;ukd
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ajymwmygq&m}}

172
odef;[ef\xdwfvefYaMumuf½GUHaeaom trlt&mESihf r0Hhr&Jajzvdkufonfukd
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]]'Dvdk½Sdygw,f ukdodef;[ef}} q&m0efonf vnfacsmif;ukd tenf;i,f
½Sif;vkduf&if;ajymonf/
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pojzihfayghAsm/ ta&jym; a&m*gqdkwm trsm;BuD;½Sdwmuvm;/ tJ'D tzk?
tydrfh? tuGufawGrSm xHkaerS xdwm? emwmukd rodrS temBuD;a&m*gvdkY
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ukd,f&nfysufwJha&m*g r[kwfygbl;/ NyD;awmhvnf; ESm½dk;csKdifhvmwkdif;vnf;
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xifMurSmayghAsm}}
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qdkaom olY&ifxJu tpJG? olYywf0ef;usifupGyfpJGjcif;wdkYrS aygufzGg;vmaom
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]]'g 'gjzihf&if uRefawmfha&m*gu bma&m*gvdkY ac:ygovJq&m}}

173
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olYtm; ]]tEl}}[kyif tm;vHk;uxifNyD; pGefYcGgNrJpGefYcGgrnfjzpfonf/
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ysuf,Gif;aeNyDrdkY rdkufírqHk;? rdkufpwHk;atmif vHk;vHk;BuD;rdkufypf

174
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armifEkonf 'Dvdkqdkawmhvnf; tvGeftrif; pdwfraumif;jzpfvdkuf&onf/
olYrdciftdkBuD;uvnf; wpftdrfwnf;wGif ae&jcif;aMumihf rdrdtwGuf

175
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awGyifjzpfonf/

176
'gudkarmifEkodxm;onf/ 'Daus;Zl;awGudk armifEk rypfy,fEkdifwmrSefonf/
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vmaeavonf/

177
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toHaMumifuav;ESihf atmfajy;Muonf/

178
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<uygao;onf/

179
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180
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181
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]]bk&m; bk&m; ighukdrsm;}}

182
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183
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184
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185
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186
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188
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189
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193
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194
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195
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trmMuL&JUpdwfu rIefwrTm;rTm;/

196
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av;av; toHxGufvmygNyD/

197
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198
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199
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acgif;ukdwGifwGifBuD; iHkYae&½Smonf/

200
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201
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202
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203
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204
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'Dwpfcgawmh odef;[ef\EIwfrSr[kwf? teD;tyg;u a&'D,dkrS *DwvIdif;
uav;onf Moumoavmu0,f wnif;nif; wtdtd upm;aeawmh
onfomwnf;/

okcDtwåmeH y&d[&EÅK

okc
31.3.1953

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