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Final Step

Finally, a means for comparing alternative job and work organization designs is presented. This is in the form of a
checklist which covers the areas of work content,
work organization,
working conditions,
social opportunities and
career opportunities.
The method is illustrated in the Analysis of Job Design and Work Structure proforma, (contained in the PDF version of
this article) where an example of an analysis of clerical work is presented. If the work in this section of this organization
is expected to change, then the job design / work organization project team would use the analysis proforma.
This would then form the basis of a discussion document for the project team and for consideration of feasible
An analysis of the proposed jobs, or those to be redesigned can be carried out, so as to form a basis for discussion with
the project team and later consideration of feasible alternatives.
In the Job Profile Design Summary for an invoice clerk ( contained in the PDF version of this article ) career
opportunities and work organization were assessed particularly poorly. The work content also scored below average.
Jobs being replaced by the new systems could be engineered to offer greater opportunities for job holders in this
The design team now has a method for looking at broader aspects of the job beyond those normally considered in
financial appraisals. They are in a better position to consider the implications on and for employee motivation of the
proposed changes as well as considering other options.

Principles of Job Design
The following key factors need to be taken into consideration when designing roles:
Greater variety in a job can improve the interest, challenge and commitment of the role holder to the task. Doing the
same repetitive tasks may offer little challenge and can lead to role holders losing interest or becoming and dissatisfied.
Variety means more than simply adding an extra but similar duty. For example, processing different forms would not
make the work more meaningful as there may be no extra challenge. Some other type of relevant activity may,
therefore, be worthwhile incorporating into the job.
Alternatively, too much variety can also be frustrating and a source of conflict and dissatisfaction. The optimum amount
of variety will differ from person to person and will depend on the level of the position, and the needs of the job.
Individuals need to feel responsible for the work they are doing, either individually or as part of a team. Their work
should be clearly identified so they can see that they are personally responsible for the outcomes (successes and
failures) that occur as a result of their own actions. If the responsibilities are clear, then the role holder and their
supervisor will be better able to know if the accountabilities of the position are being delivered. The employee should
be able to understand the significance of the work they undertake and where it fits into the purpose of the
This goes hand in hand with responsibility. Autonomy means giving more scope to individuals to regulate and control
their own work within the parameters set for the job. The role holder will need to have some areas of decision-making
that they can call their own, within the overall framework of their job. For example, this might include scope for
exercising some discretion over their method of working in order to deliver.
Task identity
Individuals often receive more satisfaction from doing a whole piece of work. This is more likely to occur when a task
or job has a distinct beginning and end which is clearly apparent to the roleholder and others who work around them. It
is highly desirable that people see the end results of the work they have produced, either on their own or as a part of a
Everyone benefits from information on how they are doing and this helps roleholders feel motivated and contributes to
their development in the role.
Providing genuine feedback is primarily the responsibility of the line manager, and can built in to the formal working
relationship through e.g. regular one-to-one meetings to discuss work objectives.
The staff review and development appraisal procedure provides one important mechanism for nominated supervisors
to communicate and give feedback to staff members.
As well as information on the standard of their performance, the role holder will need to know what their particular
targets are and how they relate to the overall operation of the work unit and the University. This can be clarified to a
large extent through the PD33, the Model Appraisal Form PD25 and the Personal Development Plan PD26.
In most cases a role should provide the hole holder with an opportunity for interaction with other employees, who in
turn are important sources of feedback at many levels. Colleagues and customers should be encouraged to give
appropriate feedback, recognition and support to members of staff.
Participation in decision making
Most people want to take part in decision making about matters that directly affect their work. As a result of
experience they also have considerable potential to contribute. People are, generally, far more likely to act upon and
own decisions that they have had a part in making. Being told about matters affecting people and the job they
undertake is clearly better than no communication at all, but it doesn't allow for effective involvement which in itself
can be motivational. Interchange of ideas is better still and unless people can participate in the discussion of matters
that affect their work, they may not be satisfied in their job, or contribute to their full potential. Participation and
contribution to wider-ranging issues can be encouraged through e.g. institutional meetings, specialist subject
Recognition and support
People usually aspire to have jobs that contribute to self-respect, particularly through acceptance and recognition by
fellow workers and their supervisors. Jobs need to encourage sound working relationships between individuals, provide
clearly defined areas of responsibility and where possible, support teamworking. This can reduce an individual's feeling
of isolation, which may result in negative feelings about work and the workplace.

The particular results shown could be collected from a project group charged with designing/ redesigning a new/
existing facility in a company. The team could comprise members of management and supervision. At the design stage
no operatives had been recruited.
Considerable initial differences will be apparent in the opinions held by members of the team and considerable time
will need to be spent in elaboration and debate.

Working environment
A job must be designed to support a safe and healthy working environment that is inclusive, non-discriminatory, free
from harassment, occupational health and safety hazards.
The following questions may be useful to consider when designing a job:
How suitable is the amount of variety in the position?
How much responsibility is there in the position?
How much opportunity does the position give for autonomy?
To what extent are the duties and tasks to be performed whole tasks?
How much feedback is provided about performance?
How much opportunity is provided for participating in decisions?
To what extent does the position provide for support and recognition?
Is there a safe and healthy work environment?
The following checklist may also be helpful in the process of job design:
Does the position:
Carry out tasks using a range of knowledge and skills?
Have clear objectives?
Combine a variety of tasks which together form a coherent whole?
Constitute a significant contribution to the total function of the organisation, which can be readily communicated
to the staff member?
Provide problem solving opportunities, appropriate developmental growth potential and a reasonable degree of
Allow for an appropriate level of discretion and decision making by the roleholder?
Optimise the utilisation of existing skills?
Optimise potential for the acquisition of new skills which improve opportunities for career development?
Incorporate working arrangements that provide for tasks covering a variety of subject matter, pace and method of
work, experience and training?
Ensure in its design, the job is directly responsive to the needs of the organisation?
Assure occupational health and safety and the well-being of the role holder within the design of the job?
Achieve physical and social integration with other positions and staff in the workplace?
Achieve neutrality in relation to assumptions about the sex, race or other possible discriminatory factors unless
this is needed by a particular job?

What is job design?
"Job design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities, on the methods
to be used in carrying out the job, in terms of techniques, systems and procedures, and on the relationships that should
exist between the job holder and his superior subordinates and colleagues."
Through job (re)design, organisations aim to improve productivity by offering challenge, reducing repetitive or
mechanistic elements and increasing responsibility levels through job design techniques: job enlargement, job
enrichment, job rotation and other non-monetary means.

Job design (also referred to as work design or task design) is the specification of contents, methods and relationship of
jobs in order to satisfy technological and organizational requirements as well as the social and personal requirements
of the job holder. Its principles are geared towards how the nature of a person's job affects their attitudes and behavior
at work, particularly relating to characteristics such as skill variety and autonomy. The aim of a job design is to
improve job satisfaction, to improve through-put, to improve quality and to reduce employee problems (e.g.,
grievances, absenteeism).

Core job dimensions[edit]
1. Skill variety This refers to the range of skills and activities necessary to complete the job. The more a person
is required to use a wide variety of skills, the more satisfying the job is likely to be.
2. Task identity This dimension measures the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and
identifiable piece of work. Employees who are involved in an activity from start to finish are usually more
3. Task significance This looks at the impact and influence of a job. Jobs are more satisfying if people believe
that they make a difference, and are adding real value to colleagues, the organization, or the larger
4. Autonomy This describes the amount of individual choice and discretion involved in a job. More autonomy
leads to more satisfaction. For instance, a job is likely to be more satisfying if people are involved in making
decisions, instead of simply being told what to do.
5. Feedback This dimension measures the amount of information an employee receives about his or her
performance, and the extent to which he or she can see the impact of the work. The more people are told
about their performance, the more interested they will be in doing a good job. So, sharing production figures,
customer satisfaction scores etc. can increase the feedback levels.
Critical psychological states[edit]
The five core job dimensions listed above result in three different psychological states.
Experienced meaningfulness of the work: The extent to which people believe that their job is meaningful, and that
their work is valued and appreciated (comes from core dimensions 1-3).
Experienced responsibility for the outcomes of work: The extent to which people feel accountable for the results of
their work, and for the outcomes they have produced (comes from core dimension 4).
Knowledge of the actual results of the work activity: The extent to which people know how well they are doing
(comes from core dimension 5).
Techniques of job design
Job rotation[edit]
See also: Job rotation
Job rotation is a job design method which is able to enhance motivation, develop workers' outlook, increase
productivity, improve the organization's performance on various levels by its multi-skilled workers, and provides new
opportunities to improve the attitude, thought, capabilities and skills of workers.
Job rotation is also process by which
employees laterally mobilize and serve their tasks in different organizational levels; when an individual experiences
different posts and responsibilities in an organization, ability increases to evaluate his capabilities in the organization.

Job enlargement[edit]
See also: Job enlargement
Hulin and Blood (1968)
define Job enlargement as the process of allowing individual workers to determine their own
pace (within limits), to serve as their own inspectors by giving them responsibility for quality control, to repair their
own mistakes, to be responsible for their own machine set-up and repair, and to attain choice of method. Frederick
referred to the addition of interrelated tasks as 'horizontal job loading'.
Job enrichment[edit]
See also: Job enrichment
Job enrichment increases the employees autonomy over the planning and execution of their own work. Job
enrichment has the same motivational advantages of job enlargement, however it has the added benefit of granting
workers autonomy. Frederick Herzberg
viewed job enrichment as 'vertical job loading' because it also includes tasks
formerly performed by someone at a higher level where planning and control are involved.
Scientific management[edit]
See also: Scientific management
Under scientific management people would be directed by reason and the problems of industrial unrest would be
appropriately (i.e., scientifically) addressed. This philosophy is oriented toward the maximum gains possible to
employees. Managers would guarantee that their subordinates would have access to the maximum of economic gains
by means of rationalized processes. Organizations were portrayed as rationalized sites, designed and managed
according to a rule of rationality imported from the world of technique.

Job design is the allocation of specific work tasks to individuals and groups. Allocating jobs and tasks means specifying
the contents, method, and relationships of jobs to satisfy technological and organizational requirements, as well as the
personal needs of jobholders .

Key Elements of Job Design
In order to better understand job design it is helpful to define some key elements and their relationship with job design
A task can be best defined as a piece of assigned work expected to be done within a certain time. It is important to
strictly and thoroughly identify tasks that need completion.
Motivation describes forces within the individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort
expended at work. Individuals need to be compelled, excited, and passionate to do their work. Hence, it is essential to
design jobs that motivate employees.
Resource allocation occurs when organizations decide to appropriate orallocate certain resources to specific jobs, tasks,
or dilemmas facing the organization. Jobs need to be constructed so that efficiency of the worker or department is
maximized. Organizations need to use the resources andcreativity of their employees effectively and efficiently. In job
design it is necessary to identify and structure jobs in a way that the company's resources are being efficiently used.
Appropriate resource allocation allows large organizations to foster and develop innovation in their workforce.
Reward systems also play a role in job design. Reward systems include compensation, bonuses, raises, job
security, benefits, and various other methods of reward for employees. An outline or description of reward packages
needs to be established while constructing jobs.
Taylorism, also known as scientific management, is a foundation for systematicjob design. Frederick Taylor developed
this theory in an effort to develop a "science" for every job within an organization according to the following principles:
Create a standard method for each job.
Successfully select and hire proper workers.
Effectively train these workers.
Support these workers.
The Socio-Technical Systems Approach
The Socio-Technical Systems Approach is designed around the evolution from individual work to work-groups. This
approach has the following guiding principles:
The design of the organization must fit its goals.
Employees must be actively involved in designing the structure of the organization.
Control of variances in production or service must be undertaken as close to their source as possible.
Subsystems must be designed around relatively self-contained and recognizable units of work.
Support systems must fit in with the design of the organization.
The design should allow for a high quality working life.
Changes should continue to be made as necessary to meet the changing environmental pressures.
Core Characteristics Model
Another modern job design theory is the Core Characteristics Model, which maintains five important job elements that
motivate workers and performance:
skill variety
task identity
task significance
job feedback
The individual elements are then proposed to lead to positive outcomes through three psychological states:
experienced meaningfulness
experienced responsibility
knowledge of results
Psychological Empowerment Theory
Psychological Empowerment Theory posits that there is a distinction between empowering practices and cognitive
motivational states. When a person is aware of the impact they are having, they benefit more than if they
cannot attributepositive impact to any of their actions.
Overall Trend
There are many more iterations of job design theory that have evolved, but one general trend can be identified among
them: There is a move towardsautonomous work teams and there is emphasis on the importance of meaning derived
from the individual.


What employees receive for the work they perform at a company. What is expected in return for providing a
product or service
Appears in these related concepts:
Employee Involvement
Compensation's Link to Competitiveness
Benefit Management
Scientific Management

a theory of management of the early 20th century that analyzed workflows in order to improve efficiency A
theory of management intended to maximize labor productivity and economic efficiency. Also known as
Taylorism, it was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s, and involved the rational
analysis of workflows. It attempted to adjust the time and motion of workers' activities so as to maximize their
efficiency. This theory was one of the earliest attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes, and to
Appears in these related concepts:
Scientific Management: Taylor and the Gilbreths
The Transformed National Economy

Methodical, regular, and orderly. Carried out using a planned, ordered procedure.
Appears in these related concepts:
Naming Brands
Vender Performance Measurement
Define Objectives and Formulate Problem

scientific management; a theory of management of the early 20th century that analyzed workflows in order to
improve efficiency Scientific management; a theory of management of the early 20th century that analyzed
workflows in order to improve efficiency.
Appears in these related concepts:
Frederick Taylor
Scheduling Work
Faults with the Classical View

To distribute according to a plan. To distribute according to a plan.
Appears in these related concepts:
Planning Defined
COGS Input

A characteristic or quality of a thing. a characteristic or quality of a thing
Appears in these related concepts:
Features & Attributes
Management Requirements for Leading Change
Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Self-governing. Governing independently. Acting on one's own or independently; of a child, acting without
being governed by parental or guardian rules.
Appears in these related concepts:
The Federal Tax System
Stages of Team Development
Divisional Structure

A benefit is a "general, indirect and non-cash compensation paid to an employee" that is offered to at least 80
per cent of the staff.
Appears in these related concepts:
Downward Communication
Speed of Innovation
Determine a Course

A distinguishable feature of a person or thing.
Appears in these related concepts:
Personal Biases
SWOT Analysis
Core Characteristics Model

The part of mental functions that deals with logic, as opposed to affective which deals with emotions. The part
of mental functions that deals with logic and memories, as opposed to affective which deals with emotions. the
part of mental function that deals with logic, as opposed to affective which deals with emotions The part of
mental functions that deals with logic, as opposed to affective functions which deal with emotion. the part of
mental functions that deals with logic, as opposed to affective functions which deal with emotions
Appears in these related concepts:
Nonrational Decision Making
Defining Psychology
Introduction to Educational and School Psychology

A security mechanism, policy, or procedure that can counter system attack, reduce risks, and resolve
vulnerabilities, synonymous with safeguard and counter-measure. a separate group or subject in an experiment
against which the results are compared where the primary variable is low or nonexistenceInfluence or authority
over. A separate group or subject in an experiment against which the results are compared where the primary
variable is low or nonexistent.
Appears in these related concepts:
Random Assignment of Subjects
Managing to Prevent Fraud
Fulfilling the Controlling Function

the most important part of a thing; the essence Describes dominant capitalist countries which exploit the
peripheral countries for labor and raw materials.
Appears in these related concepts:
World-Systems Theory
ERG Theory: Alderfer
Porter's Competitive Strategies

The quality or ability to create or invent something.
Appears in these related concepts:
The Drive of an Entrepreneur
Fostering Innovation

The extent to which a resource, such as electricity, is used for the intended purpose; the ratio of useful work to
energy expended. The extent to which time is well used for the intended task. Improved efficiency was a
principle goal of progressives, one they thought attainable by the application of scientific and rational thought
to social problems. The extent to which time is well used for the intended task.
Appears in these related concepts:
Some Benefits of Teamwork
Why Study Organizational Theory: an Overview

The granting of political, social, or economic power to an individual or group. The process of supporting
another person or persons to claim personal power.
Appears in these related concepts:
Instilling Accountability
Increasing Empowerment
Employee Responsibility

Critical assessment on information produced Critical assessment on information produced. Critical assessment
of information produced. The receivers' verbal and nonverbal responses to a message, such as a nod for
understanding (nonverbal), a raised eyebrow for being confused (nonverbal), or asking a question to clarify the
message (verbal). Critical assessment on information produced,
Appears in these related concepts:
Role in Providing Feedback to Management
Responding to External Environment
Complaint Procedures

A desired result that one works to achieve. A result that one is attempting to achieve. a result that one is
attempting to achieve
Appears in these related concepts:
Setting Objectives
Setting Goals
Goal-Setting Theory

a number of things or persons being in some relation to one another A number of things or persons being in
some relation to one another. A vertical column in the periodic table, which signifies the number of valence
shell electrons in an element's atom.
Appears in these related concepts:
The Periodic Table
Secondary Groups
Primary Groups

A number of things or persons who have some relationship to one another.A subset of a culture or of a society.
Appears in these related concepts:
Time Pressure
Limitations of the Five Forces View
Differences Between Groups and Teams

a significant or strong influence; an effect A significant or strong influence; an effect.
Appears in these related concepts:
Applying the Decision Tree
Types of Social Responsibility: Philanthropy
Types of Social Responsibility: Sustainability

The act of innovating; the introduction of something new, in customs, rites, and so on. The creation of better or
more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or ideas that are not readily available but will soon
be. A change in customs; something new and contrary to established customs, manners, or rites. As used here,
innovation describes an idea or product that is new to the company in question. The introduction of something
new; the development of an original idea.
Appears in these related concepts:
Characteristics of Innovative Organizations
Cultural Lag

The act of repeating a process with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target, or result. Each repetition of
the process is also called an "iteration," and the results of one iteration are used as the starting point for the
Appears in these related concepts:
Leadership and Decision Making: Vroom-Jago
Promoting Ethical Behavior through the Planning Process

The act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources
efficiently and effectively. administration; the process or practice of managing. administration; the process or
practice of managing Administration; the process or practice of managing.
Appears in these related concepts:
Differences and Commonalities Between Management and Leadership
Sensitivity to Human Relations

Willingness of action, especially in behavior. The psychological feature that arouses an organism to action
toward a desired goal and elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. Willingness to perform
an action, especially a behavior; an incentive or reason for doing something. Willingness of action especially in
behavior Motivation is the psychological feature that arouses an organism to action toward a desired goal and
elicits, controls, and sustains certain goal directed behaviors. An incentive or reason for doing something.
Appears in these related concepts:
Introduction to Motivation
Managerial Perspective on Motivation

something required
Appears in these related concepts:
Attitudes Influence on Behavior
Enhancing Sender Skill
Acquired Needs Theory: McClelland

an entity, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external
environment Organization is the way in which a writer lays out his argument. Better-organized arguments are
often more effective ones. the quality of being constituted of parts, each having a special function, act, office,
or relation; to systematize The way in which something is organized, such as a book or an article. A group of
people or other legal entities with an explicit purpose and written rules. The third stage of the perceptual
process, and the process by which we mentally arrange the information we've just attended to in order to
make sense of it; we turn it into meaningful and digestible patterns.
Appears in these related concepts:
General Organization of Somatosensory System
Reading Carefully and Closely
Types of Organizations

Productivity is a measure of the efficiency of production and is defined as total output per one unit of a total
input. The rate at which goods or services are produced by a standard population of workers. A ratio of
production output to what is required to produce it (inputs). The state of being productive, fertile, or efficient;
the rate at which goods or services are produced by a standard population of workers. the rate at which goods
or services are produced by a standard population of workers. The rate at which products and services are
produced relative to a particular workforce.
Appears in these related concepts:
Benefits of Innovation
Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory
Changing Worker Productivity

the ability of a product or service to consistently meet or exceed customer requirements or expectations. the
degree to which a man-made object or system is free from bugs and flaws, as opposed to scope of functions or
quantity of items
Appears in these related concepts:
Informative, Persuasive and Reminder Advertising
Quality Control
Product Quality

a duty, obligation or liability for which someone is held accountable
Appears in these related concepts:
Decentralizing Responsibility
Codes of Conduct
Social Responsibility Audits

The expected behavior of an individual in a society.
Appears in these related concepts:
Group Dynamics
Mintzberg's Management Roles

Any norm, convention, or requirement.
Appears in these related concepts:
Comparing Results and Standards
Taking Corrective Action
Setting Objectives and Standards

Emotional pressure suffered by a human being or other animal. A feeling of strain and pressure.Mental,
physical, or emotional strain due to a demand that exceeds the individual's coping ability. The internal
distribution of force per unit area (pressure) within a body reacting to applied forces which causes strain or
deformation and is typically symbolized by . The internal distribution of force or pressure per unit area within
a body reacting to applied forces which causes strain or deformation.
Appears in these related concepts:
Stress and Immunity
Reducing Stress
Maintaining Motivation

having structure; organized
Appears in these related concepts:
Differences Between Strategic Planning at Small Versus Large Firms
Quality Control and Assurance, an Overview

To keep from falling.
Appears in these related concepts:
Leadership, an Overview
Building Support

Any group of people involved in the same activity, especially referring to sports and work.A team comprises a
group of people linked in a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are
high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks.
Appears in these related concepts:
Defining a Team
Informal Groups

Any group of people involved in the same activity, especially referring to sports and work.
Appears in these related concepts:
Evaluate Alternatives
The Organization Chart

a set of interrelated ideas that help make predictions and explain data A coherent statement or set of ideas
that explains observed facts or phenomena, or which sets out the laws and principles of something known or
observed; a hypothesis confirmed by observation, experiment. An explanation for patterns in nature that is
supported by scientific evidence and verified multiple times by various groups of researchers A coherent
statement or set of ideas that explains observed facts or phenomena, or which sets out the laws and principles
of something known or observed; a hypothesis confirmed by observation, experiment, etc. a well-substantiated
explanation of some aspect of the natural world based on knowledge that has been repeatedly confirmed
through observation and experimentation
Appears in these related concepts:
Leadership Model: University of Michigan
Models, Theories, and Laws
Psychology and the Scientific Method

It is concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in
organizational settings. the activity of imparting and acquiring skills.
Appears in these related concepts:
Economic Importance of Small Businesses

Job design means to decide the contents of a job. It fixes the duties and responsibilities of the job, the methods of
doing the job and the relationships between the job holder (manager) and his superiors, subordinates and colleagues.

Job design also gives information about the qualifications required for doing the job and the reward (financial and non-
financial benefits) for doing the job. Job design is mostly done for managers' jobs. While designing the job, the needs of
the organisation and the needs of the individual manager must be balanced. Needs of the organisation include high
productivity, quality of work, etc. Needs of individual managers include job satisfaction. That is, they want the job to be
interesting and challenging. Jobs must not be made highly specialised because they lead to boredom.
Job design is a very important function of staffing. If the jobs are designed properly, then highly efficient managers will
join the organisation. They will be motivated to improve the productivity and profitability of the organisation. However,
if the jobs are designed badly, then it will result in absenteeism, high labour turnover, conflicts, and other labour

1. Proper scope of job
The scope of the job should be proper. If the scope is narrow (less), then the job will not be challenging. It will not give
an opportunity for development. The manager will not get satisfaction after completing an easy job. If the scope of the
job is very wide, then the manager will not be able to handle it properly. This will cause stress, frustration and loss of
control. Therefore, scope of the job must be balanced and proper.

2. Full-time challenge of the job
The job should be so challenging that it takes up the full-time and effort of the manager. So, the service of the manager
must be fully utilised. If not, the manager will have a lot of free time. He will use this free time to interfere in the work
of his subordinates. This will cause problems and conflicts because subordinates do not like unnecessary interference
from their superiors.

3. Managerial skills
The skills of the manager should be considered before designing his job. All managers do not have equal skills. So jobs
should be designed after considering the skills of the manager. So, a manager having a high level of skill should be given
very challenging jobs while a manager having a low level of skill should be given fewer challenging jobs. Jobs must be
made flexible so that it can be changed according to the skills of the manager.
4. Organisation's requirements
Jobs must be designed according to the requirements of the organisation. We cannot use the same job design for all

5. Individual likes and dislikes
People have different likes and dislikes. Some people like to work alone while some people prefer to work in groups.
Some people want to do only planning and decision making while other people like to implement these plans and
decision. So, individual likes and dislikes must be considered while designing the job.

6. Organisational structure
Organisational structure also affects the job design. Individual jobs must fit into the organisation's structure.

7. Technology
The level of technology used by the organisation also affects the job design. An organisation having a high level of
technology will have different job designs compared to an organisation having a low level of technology.