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‫البرنامج الوطني‬
‫دكتور لكل مصنع‬


Final Project Report

(in arabic and english)
‫استرجاع االمذيبات العضويه ومعالجة المياه في مصنع دهانات الكيلني‬
Participant Zaid Ahmed Al-Anber
Name ‫زيد احمد العنبر‬
(in arabic and english)
Company Name ‫مؤسسة دهانات الكيلني الصناعيه التجاريه‬
(in arabic and english) Kilani Paints Industrial Commercial est.

Dec. 1 2009
Table of Contents

SUMMARY (in Arabic and English)……………………………………………. .1

1.0 Section 1.....................................................................................................3
2.0 Section 2 .....................................................................................................8

3.0 Section 3 …………………………………………………………… 11
4.0 Section 4........................................................................ ………..13
5.0 Section 5....................................................................................................23
6.0 Section 6....................................................................................................30
7.0 Section 7....................................................................................................33
8.0 Section 8....................................................................................................34
9.0 Section 9....................................................................................................37

Appendices 1: Physical properties of solvents

Appendices 2: Attachments
A. Approvals and Acceptance letter of the project output
<Factory Manager Approval and acceptance letter to be attached>
B. Poster < in the FFF format>
C. Faculty and Factory surveys
D. Approval of the 20% payment

At the beginning of the study, I was concentrated on crucial problem which

is the recovering and reusing of solvent (such as Toluene) in the Kilani

factory. But during my visiting to the Kilani Factory, I found another

problem which is the wastewater. Therefore, I included the treatment of

paint industrial wastewater in this study as well.

Actually the solvents and paint wastewater were discarded into the public

sewerage network. These cause environmental and economic problems.

Therefore, reducing and recovering the quantity of solvents waste and

treatment of paint wastewater are beneficial for the owner of the plant as

well as for the environment.

Our objectives were handled these problems by minimizing and recovering

the solvents wastes and treatment of paint wastewater.

The purpose of the solvent recovery process is to separate the solvent

from paints and impurities to produce a solvent can be reused for the

original application and different purposes in Kilani factory. Our process was

involved a physical treatment which is sedimentation followed by

distillation of solvent.

Based on our experimental results the installation of a distillation unit can provide at least

90% solvent recovery from waste of solvent. We can an approximate, save of $20,000 per


The purpose of paint wastewater treatment is to separate the water from paints and impurities

to produce water can be reused in different industrial purposes in Kilani factory. Our process

was only involved a physical treatments which are sedimentation and then coagulation
‫‪process. About 85% of water was recovered by coagulation process. We can an approximate,‬‬

‫‪save of $4000 per year.‬‬

‫في البداية ‪ ،‬كانت الدراسة تتركز على المشكلة الحاسمة في مصنع دهانات الكيلني والتي‬

‫هي استرداد وإعادة استخدام المذيب )مثل التولوين( في المصنع ‪.‬ولكن أثناء زياراتي للمصنع ‪,‬‬

‫لقد وجدت مشكلة أخرى تتمثل في المياه المستخدمه )مياه الصرف الصناعي( في تنظيف‬

‫التنكات والمعدات بعد عملية النتاج ‪.‬وبناء عليه لقد شملت معالجة مياه الصرف الصناعي في‬

‫‪..‬هذه الدراسة ايضا‬

‫في الواقع تلك المشاكل تسبب مشكلت بيئية واقتصادية للمصنع ‪.‬لهذا السبب ل بد من‬

‫استعادة المذيبات ول بد من معالجة المياه الصناعيه لكي يتم النتهاء من المشاكل البيئيه ومن‬

‫ثم المشاكل القتصاديه‪ .‬وبناء على ذلك كانت أهدافنا العامه في هذه الدراسه بمعالجة هذه‬

‫‪.‬المشاكل عن طريق استعادة المذيبات ومعالجة المياه الصناعيه من الدهانات‬

‫فالهدف الول هو استعادة المذيبات من الدهانات والشوائب بحيث يمكن إعادة استخدام‬

‫المذيبات في صناعة الدهانات وأغراض مختلفة في مصنع الكيلني للدهانات ‪ .‬تمت العمليه‬

‫بالترسيب اول ومن ثم التبخير والتقطير‪ .‬تم استرجاع ما يقارب ‪ %90‬من المذيبات العضويه‪.‬‬

‫‪.‬بناء على ذلك سوف يتم توفير ما يقارب ‪ 20000$‬سنويا‬

‫اما الهدف الثاني فهو معالجة المياه الصناعيه الموجوده في المصنع‪ .‬وتمت العمليه بالترسيب‬

‫اول للمواد العالقه ومن ثم استخدام طريقة التجميع‪ .‬في هذه العمليه يتم استرجاع ما يقارب‬

‫‪ %85‬وتوفير ما يقارب ‪4000$‬‬



Kilani paints Company is owned by official Jordanian organizations. It is located in
Mafraq with 45000 m2 land. 200 employees in over 10 locations around in the Middle East

are joining the Kilani Paints. The production of paints began effectively in 1974 in Jordan.

The Kilani vision is to operate successfully in all the Middle East markets through:

• Customers are our partners of success.

• Change is an opportunity.

• Continuous improving of our employees, knowledge and processing capabilities.

• Competence through innovative products and operational excellence.

• Finally commitment to sustainable development.

Kilani History as follow:

✔ 1974 paint Co. establish to distribute paints in Jordan.

✔ 1978 contribution in a local paints factory

✔ 1980 established a distribution in Irbid.

✔ 1984 established a distribution in Zarka.

✔ 1994 kilani paint lunched powder coating to be the first powder coating plant in

Jordan and the third in the Middle East, under the license of Croda Paints England.

✔ 1996 Kilani Paints launched auto and industrial paints.

✔ 1997 established in Palestine

✔ 1998 established in Sudan.

✔ 2002 kilani paint opened a regional office in Iraq.
✔ 2006 Kilani paints opened a showroom in Zarka, Irbid and Amman to launch the

special effects paints

In general, Kilani paints produce the following:

➢ Water based paints

➢ Decorative paints

➢ Oil based paints

➢ Insulation and production paints

➢ Auto paints

➢ Synthetic paints

➢ Auxiliary paints

➢ Powder coating paint

➢ Nitrocellulose paints

➢ Special effect powder.

➢ Champion Glue, white spirit, Adhesive, Sperto, and others


Paints are manufactured in batch blending tanks according to specific recipes. The Paint

Factory Production facility in Kilani can be separated into two distinct areas:

� Water Based

� Solvent Based such as Toluene, Xylene, Methyl ethyl ketone, Methyl isobutyl ketone,

Acetone, and Methylene chloride. The physical properties of some of these solvent are

presented in the Appendix A.

1. Water Based
The water based acrylic area has two blending tanks where specific acrylic paint recipes are

produced. The general ingredients for these types of paints are water, pigment, resin, additives

and biocides (anti fungal/bacterial agents). The pigment is added to the blending tank in a

powder form. To prevent pigment dust emanating throughout the factory, vacuum extraction

units are used. Any residual pigment dispersing out of the blending tank is drawn up into the

extraction unit, which then passes through a number of filters. The filtered residual powder is

collected as solid waste.

After a batch of paint was produced the blending tank and all associated tools used with

that batch (eg. agitator) need to be cleaned. Before the cleaner production initiatives the

blending tanks were cleaned by a low-pressure water rinse technique. All wastewater was

then stored in underground sludge-holding tank. This is the first problem is facing the

Kilani’s Paints.

2. Solvent Based
Solvent-based paints contain essentially the same core ingredients as acrylic paints besides

the distinction in base. Solvent-based paints are not susceptible to fungi and bacteria therefore

no biocide is required.

In general, solvent-based paint is produced by mixing chemicals (primarily resins, dry

pigment, and pigment extenders) in a container equipped with a high-speed mixer. Solvents

and drying oils also are added during this step. After mixing, the batch may be transferred to a

mill for additional grinding and mixing. Next, the paint base or concentrate is transferred to a

tank where the tints, thinner (usually a volatile naphtha or blend of solvents), and the balance

of the resin are added and mixed. Upon reaching the proper consistency, the paint is filtered to

remove any non-dispersed pigment and transferred to a loading hopper. From the hopper, the

paint is poured into cans, labelled, packed, and stored in the appropriate location. Figure 1

illustrates the specific production processes for paint production in the plant.
The blending tank cleaning process is done with a solvent. This is the second problem is

facing the Kilani’s Paints.

Solvent required cleaning the mixing and dispensing equipments and tanks between batches is

the major source of solvent waste in the manufacture of solvent-borne paint. Information from

company records and from interviews with key staff was gathered to determine the volume of

wash solvent (mineral spirits) diverted from the waste stream by implementation of the reuse

program at Kilani

The volume of wash solvent diverted from the waste stream could vary from year to year,

depending on the product mix and the annual production. This low-tech system has, however,

produced an appreciable reduction in solvent waste at Kilani. Production figures and

background information collected during site visits to Kilani indicate that Kilani diverted

about 12000 gal of solvents per year.
Fig. 1. General flow scheme of paint production.



Until recently, the Kilani Company did not think of waste minimization of organic solvent
and water as a priority and little attention was paid to the processes used for cleaning tanks

and other equipment. Then wastes typically generated from painting are:

 Cleaning solvents which generate high amounts of solvent wastes are used in cleaning

of reactors, tanks and other equipments. As an example of such these equipments in

Kilani factory as shown the figure 2

More than 12000 gal of dirty wash solvent was generated each year in Kilani paints

Company. Most of this waste was sent off-site for disposal. (Economical and

environmental problems)

 Cleaning water which generate also high amount of solvent waste are used in cleaning

of reactor, tanks and other equipments.

More than 1000 m3 of dirty wash water was generated each year in Kilani paints

Company. Most of this waste was also sent off-site for disposal. (Other Economical

and environmental problems)
For both problems; Recycling and Recovering is the economical common
sense and environmentally corrects solution

Depends on the above, our objectives are:

1) Evalute the pollution prevention. Evalute the amount of solvent and water diverted

from the wastestream.

2) Constuct and built up a unit which has a cabability to recover the solvent from

washed-solvent in order to produce a solvent that can be reused for the original

application or a lower grade solvent which can be used for different purposes.

3) Constuct and built up a unit to treat the wastewater in the factory.

4) Evalute the economics. Evalute the costs and cost saving of this pollution preventing


5) And finally evaluet the product quality. Evalute the quality of the paint formulated

with wash solvent to ensure product quality.

To do so, the project will be carried out with the following strategic objectives:

 Random choice of cleaning solvent will be replaced by an evaluation process, leading

to a choice of one single solvent for all tank and equipment cleaning;

 Manufacturing procedures will be modified to minimize the use of wash solvent and


 Create a solvent recovery model to recover weekly batches of such solvent for using

and recycling in the paints applications.

 Create a wastewater treatment model.

 Evaluate the economic viability

 Reduce environmentally harmful
Figure 2: equipments of Kilani paint process.


The pollution prevention potential of this system is based on the reuse of wash
solvent and wastewater that formally were disposed of. The benefits of prevention

potential are:

➢ Reduce the amount of wash solvent that must be disposed of as waste.

➢ Reduce the amount of solvent that must be purchased for use in the paint production.

➢ Decreased industrial wastewater discharges to sewage treatment facility.

➢ Reduced need for costly on-site pre-treatment system

➢ Increased ability to meet designated pre-treatment discharge limits.


A major source of solvent waste in the manufacturing of solvent paint is the solvent required

to clean the mixing and dispensing equipment between batches.
Kilani paint informs me that they used about 25-30 gal of solvent to clean equipment between

batches of production. As I found in the factory, 0% of the wash solvent is reused or

recovered in paint processes. They disposed all the wash solvent.

I also found that the annual solvent waste as shown in the following table. This information

based on 2008.

Kilani production data
Number of batches 400 batches
( estimated)/year
Quantity of solvent used to clean 30 gal.
Solvent required for cleanup only 12000 gal.
Solvent reuse/recover Zero gal.
Waste reduction Zero

The volume diverted from the waste stream could vary from year to year depending on the

product mix and the annual production. It should be noted that the waste reduction is zero in

Kilani Paint factory.

This wash solvent is labelled and stored in 1 m3 tank for addition back into the same or very

similar paint production with three months.

As first step, we advised the employees at Kilani paint make a conscious effort to minimize

the amount of solvent required for cleaning by techniques such as:

✔ Scraping the mix tanks to remove many paint solids before solvent cleaning.

✔ Minimize cleanup of work areas and equipment by taking care when adding

raw materials and dispending finished batches.


Our main aims were, to investigate wastewater characteristics, to examine possible treatment

methods, to suggest ways to reduce wastewater production and select the most appropriate

waste minimization options to advice to the Kilani paint factory.
A Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment is a systematic procedure for identifying

ways to reduce or eliminate waste water. The assessment consists of a careful review of a

Kilani paint factory’s operations and wastewater streams and the selection of specific areas to

assess. After a particular wastewater stream or area is established, a number of options with

the potential to minimize waste are developed.

The main sources of wastewater in Kilani factory is the cleaning wastes such as the cleaning

of the reactors, tank and other equipments. I found that the total amount of discharged

wastewater in the Kilani plant is approximated 10-20 m3/d .Therefore to give treatment of

these amounts of wastewater and to state pollution prevention options appropriate for this

industry; we carried out a laboratory works such as coagulation process and some tests.




I classified the process of washed (or waste) solvent in Kilani factory as follow:

Class one:

I must emphasize that our processes only work because the company employees were

involved from the beginning; the problem and its ramifications was explained to them,

and their cooperation made, and makes, the program work well.

Class two:

Then I went to the second step which is the process. Here we divided the process into

three part processes:

First process (Storage area):
In the storage area, I marked the used solvent as groups (for example group 1, group 2

…etc). Group 1 is washed solvent from white, group 2 is washed solvent from clear

paint, and group 3 is washed solvent from gray paint and so on.

This process is eliminated the need for substantial volumes of solvents needed for

tank rinsing and flushing after each batch. Then, whenever possible, the solvents used

for mill wash and filter flushing was either used in that batch or held in marked drums

for the next batch of the same or similar color. See the Figure below.

Second process (Initial Treatment):

Wash solvents generated in other areas that were not amenable for reuse in the

production process was, and is, collected in others drums/tanks. This material is

allowed to sit and settle undisturbed for several days. High level of suspended solid

may be separated from solvent by sedimentation or gravity settling. At that time, the

clear, thin solvent is decanted from the top of the drum/tank and is used as the first

wash on specified mills, some portable tubs, filling machines, etc. This process of

settling and decanting continues until the material in the drum/tank becomes too thick

or heavy to be usable as a wash solvent. The drum/tank is then labeled and dated as a

hazardous material and set aside for treatment as shown in the third process. See

Figure 3.
Figure 3: Tanks in Kilani factory

Third process (recovery process):

It is the treatment process. We design and construct a process for solvent recovery.

This process is consisting distillation unit which capable of handling 120 tons per year

of dirty (washed) solvent.

The distilled solvent is, in most cases, about 96-97% pure. Initially, it will be intended

to use the distilled solvent, but even 3-4% dilution significantly reduced cleaning

efficiency. It will be trialed as a partial replacement for purchased solvent in several

blended thinner formulations which Kilani paints will find to be satisfactory in many

of the products. By using the distilled solvent to replace new solvent, it will be easily

converted to a relatively cheap solvent that can be sold.


As shown in the figure 4:

A. Feed Tank Reservoir. A stainless steel tank with a sloping bottom for proper

B. Reboiler. Cylindrical glass with a capacity of, approximately, 3.8 - 4.0 gal at

operating level. The boiler, covered with foam rubber insulating material. The main

heating element is a stainless steel heated bayonet-type 3-phase electric heater with a

nominal power rating of 15 Kilowatts at 240 VAC. The power to the heating elements

is controlled by an electronic switch which operates by cycling the heater on and off in

1 to 3 seconds intervals. The relative times the heaters are on or off determine the

amount of power supplied to the reboiler. The reboiler also has a drainage stop-cock.

C. Column. Consist of sections each assembled from a 3-inch ID glass pipe section.

Each section contains process fittings for feed, pressure and temperature measurement.

The column, when assembled, is approximately 31 inches in height, bolted to the

boiler at its bottom and to the vapor riser at its upper end by means of a bell reducing

coupling section and a flexible Teflon expansion joint.

D. Condenser. A glass shell-and tube type heat exchanger, which contains the

equivalent of 1.3 sq. ft. of spiral-tube heat exchange surface. The tube side coolant is

water from the municipal water supply. Thermocouples are placed in the tube side to

monitor the inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling water. The spiral condensing

tube is 160 inches long coiled to a length of 18 inches. The tube is 3/8-inch OD, with

0.019-inch wall. The shell side condensate drains through a 3/8-inch line to the

distillate receiver. The cooling water supply to the condensed is equipped with a flow-

switch that will cut the power to the reboiler if there is a loss of water flow to the unit.

E. Feed Pumps. A stainless steel pumps are used for the feed.

F. Distillate Receiver. A 3-inch OD by 12-inch long Pyrex glass tube that is flanged top

and bottom with stainless steel caps. Condensate enters from the condenser through a

3/8-inch tube into the top, which is fitted with a thermocouple. There is a valve drain

at the bottom.
G. Feed Preheaters. Cartridge-type rated at 1500 Watts at 240 VAC and sealed in a

stainless steel type enclosure. Peheater is controlled from an ON–OFF type

temperature controller.

H. Thermocouples. Thermocouples are installed at various locations throughout the

distillation column system. These thermocouples are connected to a digital scale for

monitoring and dataloging. These thermocouples are slow to respond to temperature

changes and record temperatures that are slightly lower than the stream inside the

column. All temperature values are displayed and saved to file in degrees Celcius.

Figure shows a typical continuous distillation column. The washed-solvent (paint and

solvent) mixture is fed to the column at one or more points along the column. liquid

runs down the column due to gravity while the vapour runs up the column. The vapour

is reduced by partial vaporization of the liquid reaching the bottom of the column. The

remaining liquid is withdrawn from the column as bottom product rich in heavy

component. The vapour reaching the top of the column is partially or fully condensed.


A. Distillation Column Start-Up Procedure.

Turn on the cooling water to condenser. Check that water flows to the drain from the cooling

water outlets in the rear of the column. Do not start any operation until cooling water flow

is visible in drains. Note that the reboiler heater will not turn ON unless there is flow in the

cooling water line.

1. Fill the reboiler with washed solvent. To charge the boiler, open the feed bypass ball

valve F-5, (located near the reboiler quick connect port Q-1).
2. Trace the feed line from the reservoir tank through the feed pump and then connect the

flexible tubing feed line to any desired feed port.

3. Turn the main power switch "on", then the feed pump switch.

4. Observe the liquid level in the boiler.

5. Shut feed pump off when the reboiler is full (drain light turns on)

6. Set proportional power control switch for the boiler to the desired heating rate value to

expedite the start-up. Generally, it is best to turn full power on until boiling begins, then

reduce the power to the desired value.

7. Turn the boiler power switch on; a pilot light should indicate heat input. The System

should heat up and begin boiling in 10 to 15 minutes if full power is applied.

8. While the System is heating up, open the distillate receiver overflow. The distillate drain

valve should be closed.

9. When boiling starts and condensate starts to form in the condenser, turn the feed pump on.

Adjust the feed flow to the desired flow rate.

A. Distillation Column Shut-Down Procedure. (See Figure 4):

1. Turn boiler power switch off.

2. Turn off feed preheater.

3. Turn off feed pump.

4. Shut off cooling water to condenser and pumps.

5. Do not drain the hot paint from the reboiler. The reboiler can only be drained when it is



The amount of solvent recovery by using distillation process is shown in the following table.

Our results based on 4 gal as basis of washed solvent.
Kilani production data
Number of batches 400 batches
( estimated)/year
Quantity of solvent used to clean 30 gal.
Solvent required for cleanup only 12000 gal.
Solvent reuse/recover 10800 gal.
(90%*12000 gal)
Waste reduction 1200 gal.

It can be observed that the percentage of solvent recovery is

Percentage = 10800/12000
= 90%
One site sample collection and testing

Different wasted solvent of Toluene after the cleaning of tanks were collected after the

batches of production. The sample was taken at the end of the tank washing. We used the

washed solvent that used in the cleaning of black tanks, which is the difficult one to be

handed. This sample was pumped as the feed of distillation unit. Most the solvent was

vaporized and condensed at the top of the column and paints was collected in bottom of the

boiler as shown in the figure below. The condensed solvent was analysed using gas

chromatography and viscometer. The following results that we obtained:

Property Value ( our results) Literature
Assay 96% 99 %
Boiling point 108 C 110 C
Density 0.859 g/cm3 0.862 g/cm3

From our results, we can see that the most of the disposal washed solvent can be recovered

and recycled. Also, on comparing these results with those values of the literature, we see that

a good agreements between them. It means that, even if we use the distillated Toluene

(recovered Toluene) in the production of paints, we expect that the properties of paints will

not be changed.

Also we have to concentrate on the other important point which is the solid waste that

remaining in the boiler after the distillation process. These solid are paint constituents and
can be reuse it again in the manufacturing of the paints. This part needs more studies and

research. Therefore, I advised the Kilani factory to concentrate on this point in another

Feed Receiver


Figure 4 : Distillation Column



Water Problem

The major hazardous wastewater sources are process water, cleaning residue mixed with

water, and spills that occur when paint is inadvertently discharged in the production area. The

total amount of discharged water in the plant is approximated 10-20 m3/d. Although this

amount is quite low in comparison to other industries, the cost of treating and disposing of

this wastewater is significant.

White paint washing’s currently constitutes over 50% of wastewater produced during

cleaning operations. The other 50% comes in the form of other colours wash water. These

other colours washings are also discharged into other tanks. See Figure 5.
Figure 5. Washing tank by water


In this part we used a simple process to treat the wastewater which is called coagulation



Coagulation and flocculation processes are an important part of water and waste water

treatment. The processes of coagulation and flocculation are employed to separate suspended

solids from water. The particles are essentially coated with a chemically sticky layer that

allows them to flocculate and settle in a reasonable period of time.

In wastewater of paint, in general, coagulation precedes chemical or biological processes

which are pre-treatment for the removal of suspended solids, foam and high molecular weight

compounds. Coagulation is also used for the removal of turbidity , water clarification

and organic load abatement (COD , BOD).
Destabilization of a colloidal suspension results in joining of minute particles by

physical and chemical processes which presented by neutralizing the forces that keep the

colloids apart. Cationic coagulants provide positive electric charges to reduce the negative

charge (zeta potential) of the colloids. When the coagulant added to the water numerous

species of hydroxyl metallic complexes are formed because the complexes, which are

hydrolysis products.

Wastewater Samples

Wastewater samples are collected from the discharges of Kilani paint factory. The wastewater

is mainly characterized by its color variation and high load of Chemical Oxygen Demand

(COD). The characteristics of the raw wastewater (RW) are as shown in the table below

Parameter concentration
pH 7.35
Conductivity, ms/cm 2.35
Turbidity (NTU) 26.98
COD, mg/l 9600
BOD, mg/l 16324
Total phosphorus, mg/l 7.52
Chloride, mg/l 266
Sulphate, mg/l 2389

Methodology and Procedure

In this part, we carried out the work based on the lab scale. Four equal-volume beakers are

used; 500 ml of paint wastewaters was taken in a 1000 ml worked volume beaker and, after

addition of coagulant aid, mixed for 5 min at 150 rpm to insure complete dispersion. See

figure 6.
Figure 6: The four sample of wastewater of paints

The four equal-volume beakers are used to examine the four different dosages of coagulant in

each run. The sample bottles are thoroughly shaken for re-suspension of possibly settling

solids and then the appropriate volume of sample is transferred to the corresponding test

beakers. The optimum coagulant doses are determined on the basis of COD and color removal

and the amount of sludge produced.

To assess the efficiency of coagulant aid on Kilani paint wastewater treatment, the following

are considered: turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color and the amount of sludge.

➢ Turbidity: The turbidity is determined by turbidity meter (HI93703

Microprocessor turbidity meter).

➢ Chemical oxygen demand: COD and other physico-chemical parameters for

wastewater characterization measurement were performed according to

standardized methods.
➢ Color measurement: Prior to color measurement, the sample is filtered through

a membrane filter (0.45µm) to prevent turbidity. Color measurements are

carried out with a spectrophotometer.

Since the wastewater contains different kinds of pigments (depending on the

production), the traditional method of applying the maximum absorbance is not

used. Color content is determined using a UV–vis (Model 7800UV–vis

spectrophotometer) by measuring the absorbance at three wavelengths (436,

540 and 660 nm) and taking the sum of these absorbencies.

➢ Amount of sludge: The volume of decanted sludge is estimate by the

volumetric method using the graduated cylindrical. Once the experiment has

been performed, the beaker contents are transferred to special graduated

cylindrical. After 1 h of settling, the sludge production is determined by direct

reading as ml of sludge/l of wastewater treated.


Treatment efficiency is evaluated in term of the recovery of treated water and pollutant

removals (turbidity, COD and color) as well as in terms of sludge production. We determined

the optimal operating conditions as follow:

 The percentage of the recovery was calculated based on the amount of wastewater

used and the amount of water treated. About 425 ml was recovered, therefore

Percentage recovery = 425/500

= 85 %

 The pH solution is an important factor in the coagulation process. The use of

coagulant at its optimum pH displays maximum pollutant removal. To optimize the

pH of the coagulation process, a known volume of prepared coagulant aid solution is

added to 500 ml of wastewater at different pH value adjusted with concentrated
H2SO4 and NaOH. The mass of coagulant aid was 600 mg/l. I found that the turbidity

removal is most effective at a pH range between 8 and 9. See figure 7

 I also studied the effect of the coagulant aid dosage on the COD and

color removal by varying the amount of coagulant in the paint

wastewater, while keeping other conditions constant (pH 8.5). I

observed that for the quantitative removal of 82% of COD and 94%

of colorings matter, a minimum dosage of 600 mg/l of coagulant aid

is required. I also observed that a further increase in the coagulant

dosage does not produce better removal rate.

 Amount of sludge was estimated by graduated cylinder as shown in Figure 8. I found

that the volume of the sludge production is 50 ml.

 I also optimized the cost of the paint wastewater treatment; I found that the operating

cost of 1 m3 is 0.15 JD

The remaining solid waste after the coagulation process is mainly paint
composition. We suggest that these wastes must to be studied and reused in the
paint production
Figure 7: pH readings

Treated water

Sludge production

nt or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Text Box Tools tab to change the forma

Figure 8: Treated water and sludge


The objective of economic estimation is to locate a payback period and cost reduction

associated with implementation of this technology for reducing the solvent waste stream and

paint wastewater. Economic estimations for evaluating the technology are based on capital

and operating costs.


The wash solvent reuse system used by Kilani Paint did not have significant capital cost. No

equipments were purchased, no addition storage area was need, and addition energy supply

was needed. Total expenditure to implement the system is estimated by us to be less $2000

($1500 +$500).


The major operating costs associated with the washed solvent reuse system are shown in the

table below. It can be seen that the labour cost are the same weather wash solvent is disposed

of or stored for reuse. The washed solvent must be collected in tanks in both cases. Electricity

is required and it is considered within the operating costs.
I. Washed solvent (Toluene)



OPERATING Cost item Annual Unit Annual

COST amount cost cost

Solvent waste disposal 12000 gal $ $ 24000


Total without reuse $ 24000

Solvent not reused 1200 gal $ $ 2400


Electricity $1600

Total with reuse $ 2400

Annual saving of $20000

wash solvent

II. Wastewater



OPERATING Cost item Annual Unit Annual

COST amount cost cost

Waste water disposal 6000 m3 $1/m3 $ 6000
Coagulant aids $ 0.2 $0.2/ $1200


Total $ 6200

Treated water 5100 m3 $1/m3 $5100


Annual saving $4000

Economic Evaluation of Washed Solvent

A simple payback period calculation for this project evaluation can be performed with the

capital cost and operation costs. The cost saving in this system comes from the reduction of

disposal charges and the reduction of solvent purchases.

Payback=capital costs/ saving in annual operating costs

Capital costs for solvent recovery in Kilani paints including material, labour and others simple

equipments are $1500. The total operating saving are $ 21600, this include saving on both

waste disposal and material purchased based on the 2008. Operating costs are affected by

reducing the volume of new solvent purchased. Because solvent prices fluctuates with the

market and the volume purchased, these saving vary somewhat.

The recovery of 10800 gal of wash solvent for reuse in paint manufacturing reduces solvent

raw material purchased by that amount. Based on the cost of $ 2 per gal for solvent, this

represents a saving of about 21600$.

The payback period of implantation of the wash solvent recovery system at Kilani paint was

approximate one month.

Payback=1500/21600= 1 month
Economic Evaluation of Wastewater

Capital costs for wastewater in Kilani Company including material, labour and others simple

equipments are $500. The total operating saving are $ 4000, this include saving on both waste

disposal and material purchased based on the 2008. The amount of treated water was found

5100 m3 per year. Based on the cost of $ 0.2/m3 for coagulant aids, the operating cost of such

coagulants is $1200/year.



✔ Hazardous wastes (solvent and water), which are generated in the Kilani paint

manufacturing industry, need to be minimized for both economical and environmental


✔ If we are looking for a way to save money on the ever increasing price of solvents that

used in paint industries, then I recovered and recycled these amounts of solvent and

then we used in other applications in the paint industries.

✔ Based on our experimental results the installation of a distillation unit can provide at

least 90% solvent recovery from waste of solvent.

✔ By using the distillation recovering process, we, an approximate, save of $22,000 per


✔ About 85% of wastewater was recovered by coagulation process.

✔ In the case of paint wastewater, the operating cost for treating 1 m 3 of wastewater is


✔ Recovering and recycling process reduce the volume of paint solvent waste requiring

hazardous-waste disposal and paint wastewater as well.

✔ In general, I solved the both problems of solvent and wastewater in the Kilani paint



Depend on our results as created in the small scale process, we (The owner of Kilani and I)

decided to go to industrial scales or large scales to recover the solvents. To do that, we bought

some equipment; these equipments are consists of evaporator, heat exchanger, vessel, pumps

and pipes as shown in the following figures:

Inlet Washed Solvent
Outlet of sludge
of Heat Exchanger

This part is already built in the Kilani Paint Factory for few days ago. We

are now in running way to collect others parts like vessels, heat

exchangers, pumps and with its piping’s. See the following Figures.

We expect that the installation of all parts will be
finished by the end of the Dec 2009, while the
operation process will be started at the
beginning of Jan 2010.


✔ The feed of washed solvent will be pumped from the vessel to the point
of feed in the evaporator.
✔ The washed solvent will be heated using an external heating that
wrapped around the evaporator.
✔ The vapour of solvent will be condensed by the heat exchanger.
✔ The sludge of washed solvent will be drained at the bottom of



Appendix A: Physical properties of solvents

Property value
Molecular weight 92.14

Boiling point 110.62°C

Vapor pressure 28.5 Torr at 20°C

Freezing point -94.99°C

Refractive index 1.4969 at 20°C

Density 0.8623 g/mL (7.196 lb/gal) at 25°C

Property value
Molecular weight 106.167

Boiling point 144.41 °C

Vapor pressure 0.7 Kpa at 20°C

Freezing point -25.182 °C

Refractive index 1.5054 at 20°C

Density 0.8802, g/cm3 at 25°C

Appendix B: Approvals and Acceptance letter of the project

Appendix C: Poster
Appendix D: Faculty and Factory surveys