bggvytygykhghgdhgdhgcvbde6 jhhbrc6u jh jjhg niuh hed tyf y d ytr
guyguy

© All Rights Reserved

40 views

bggvytygykhghgdhgdhgcvbde6 jhhbrc6u jh jjhg niuh hed tyf y d ytr
guyguy

© All Rights Reserved

- 3D Stability Analysis of Gravity Dams on Sloped Rock Foundations Using the Limit Equilibrium Method
- geotechnical engineering_Course Outline Cegb333
- Bio Technical Stabilization of Steepened Slopes
- 363
- Statically Indeterminate Structures (Statics)
- Sme
- Roc Plane Tutorial
- 00010912_55853
- Komitmen Wujudkan Green Mining
- Under Cut and Fill
- Analytical Solutions for Toppling Failure_Bobet
- Ppr2015.0100ma
- 20670212
- Reinforcement With Piles
- 1. Geotechnics and Slope Stability - R 0
- Stable Kel2 Cek-1
- GEET1
- 11 Balachowski WEB
- Wei-2010 Soil Nailed Slope by Strength Reduction and Limit Equilibrium Methods
- COMPARISON OF LANDFILL STABILITY ANALYSIS RESULTS BASED ON LITERATURE RECCOMMENDATIONS

You are on page 1of 45

2.2. STABILITY OF EARTH

SLOPES

by

Dr. T. Venkata Bharat, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor

Department of Civil Engineering

IIT Guwahati Guwahati 781039 IIT Guwahati, Guwahati-781039

METHODS OF STABILITY ANALYSIS

Limit Equilibrium Method (choice of analysis here!)

based on equilibrium of forces

requires knowledge of statics

soil is considered to be on the verge of failure

Limit Analysis based on Plasticity Limit Analysis based on Plasticity

based on equilibrium of stresses

requires numerical methods

generally, analysis is done using software packages

such as Plaxis, Geostuido (Slope/w) etc.

2

STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE

Infinite slopes have dimensions

that extend over great distances g

as compared to their depth

The assumption of an infinite

length simplifies the analysis

considerably.

A i i f i fi i l i A representative section of infinite slope is

considered in the figure.

In order to use LEM for the analysis the failure In order to use LEM for the analysis, the failure

mechanism should be postulated first.

It is reasonable to assume that failure occurs on a

3

plane parallel to slope.

STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE

A slice of soil is considered between the surface of

the slope and the assumed slip plane as shown in p p p

figure in the previous slide.

Draw free-body diagram of forces acting on this

slice and then formulate equilibriumequations.

4

STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE

The factor of safety (F) of a slope is defined as the

ratio of the available shear strength of the soil (

f

) g (

f

)

to the minimum shear strength to maintain

stability (mobilized strength,

m

where

f

F

=

tan

f n

=

S

for Effective Stress

Analysis (ESA)

for Total Stress

Case I: ESA without the effect of seepage forces

m

f u

S =

Analysis (TSA)

=

tan

tan

F

=

at limit-

equilibrium

5

tan

STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE

Case II: ESA with the effect of seepage forces (J

s

)

L t id d t ithi th lidi Let us now consider groundwater within the sliding

mass and assume that the seepage is parallel to

the slope. The seepage force is given by

from Statics from Statics,

At limit equilibrium,

6

STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE

Case III: TSA

Th h t th li l f TSA i The shear stress on the slip plane for a TSA is

The factor of safety F for TSA is given by:

At limit equilibrium,

Critical value of z occurs at:

7

INFINITE SLOPES SALIENT POINTS

The maximum stable slope in a coarse-grained

soil, in the absence of seepage, is equal to the , p g , q

friction angle of the soil.

The maximum stable slope in a coarse-grained

soil, in presence of seepage, is roughly half of

the friction angle of the soil.

The critical slope angle in fine-grained soils is 45

and the critical depth is equal to the depth of the

tension cracks 2s

u

/. tension cracks 2s

u

/.

Infinite slope mechanism is usually not observed

for fine-grained soils. For such soils, rotational g ,

failure mechanism is more common.

8

INFINITE SLOPE AN EXAMPLE

Dry sand is to be dumped from a truck on the side

of a roadway. The properties of the sand are = y p p

30, = 17 kN/m3 and

sat

= 17.5 kN/m3.

Determine the maximum slope angle of the sand in

(a) the dry state (b) the saturated state without (a) the dry state, (b) the saturated state, without

seepage and (c) the saturated state if groundwater

is present and seepage occurs parallel to the slope

d h f h l Wh i h f l towards the toe of the slope. What is the safe slope

in the dry state for a factor of safety of 1.25?

(will be solved in the class)

9

ROTATIONAL SLOPE FAILURE

Slopes made up of

homogenous fine-grained homogenous fine grained

soils have been observed to

fail through a rotational

f il h i failure mechanism.

The failure surface is

assumed to be circular (top assumed to be circular (top

right) or noncircular

(bottom right).

The analysis also takes into

account the presence of a

h i f i hi h phreatic surface within the

sliding mass.

10

STABILITY ANALYSIS OF A ROTATIONAL FAILURE

A free-body diagram of the assumed circular

mechanism would show the weight (W) of the soil g ( )

within the sliding mass acting at the centre of

mass.

If seepage is present, the seepage forces (J

s

)

would be present.

The forces resisting the clockwise rotation of the

sliding mass are the shear forces mobilized by

the soil along the circular slip surface. the soil along the circular slip surface.

We must now use statics to determine whether the

disturbing moments created by W and J

s

exceed g y

s

the restoring moment provided by the soil.

11

TSA:

Q (kN)

d

Q

d

w

c L r

u a

c L r

F

Wd

=

u a

c L r

F

Wd Qd

=

+

u a

c L r

F

Wd P d

=

+

u a

c L r

F

Wd Qd P d

=

+ +

12 Q

Wd Qd +

w w

Wd P d +

Q w w

Wd Qd P d + +

Presence of load, Q

Presence of crack

Presence of load and crack

FRICTION-CIRCLE METHOD

Considered forces:

Weight of soil mass in Weight of soil mass in

failure zone, W

Sum of cohesive forces

ti ll l t h d acting parallel to chord

AB, C

m

The resultant of

frictional forces, R

Factor of safety

ti i b d equation is based on:

tan

f

m

c

F F F

= = +

13

c

F F F

such that F = F

c

= F

FRICTION-CIRCLE METHOD

Important relations

( )

Ch d L th

c

C

( )

Arc Length

tan

Procedure:

( )

ChordLength

m

AB

c

C

F

=

( )

( )

ArcLength

ChordLength

m

AB

C

AB

L r =

tan

=

m

F

Assume a failure plane such as ABDA

Obtain the weight of soil mass, W, in the failure zone by

graphical techniques

Find the direction (parallel to chord AB) and distance of C

m

from center, O

Assume F

m

Find the direction of R (passes through intersection of Wand

C

m

, and runs tangent to -circle)

Draw force polygon and find the magnitude of C

m

Obtain F

c

and compare with assumed F

and repeat the procedure till F

c

= F

14

METHOD OF SLICES

One approach that is commonly used to analyze

rotational failure is to divide the sliding mass into g

an arbitrary number of vertical slices and then

sum the forces and moments of each slice.

15

METHOD OF SLICES

Of course, the larger the number of slices, the

better the accuracy of our solution. y

However, dividing the sliding mass into a number

of vertical slices poses new problems.

We now have to account for the internal or

interfacial forces between two adjacent slices.

Lets now attempt to draw a free-body diagram of

an arbitrary vertical slice and examine the

f i hi li forces acting on this slice.

16

FORCES ACTING ON A VERTICAL SLICE

17

METHOD OF SLICES KNOWN QUANTITIES Q

18

METHOD OF SLICES UNKNOWN QUANTITIES Q

19

METHOD OF SLICES

If there are n slices, we have to obtain the values of

6n-1 parameters. p

However, we only have 4n number of equations.

That leaves us with 2n 1 unknowns That leaves us with 2n-1 unknowns.

Therefore, the problem is statically

indeterminate indeterminate.

For example, if there are 10 slices, well have 6x10-

1=59 unknowns but only 10x4=40 equations 1 59 unknowns but only 10x4 40 equations.

Therefore, in order to obtain a solution, we have to

make certain simplifying assumptions or use an a e ce ta s p y g assu pt o s o use a

iterative method

20

METHOD OF SLICES

Several solution methods have been developed

depending on the assumptions made about the p g p

unknown parameters and which equilibrium

condition (force, moment or both) have been

satisfied satisfied.

Tables on the next two pages provide a summary of

methods that have been proposed methods that have been proposed.

Computer programs (such as SLOPE/W or

XSTABL) are available for all the methods listed XSTABL) are available for all the methods listed

in the table.

21

SWEDISH CIRCLE METHOD

Forces acting on a slice:

Weight of soil mass Weight of soil mass

Cohesive forces (C) in the

opposite to the direction of

b bl d probable wedge movement

Reaction (R) at the base

inclined at to the normal, inclined at to the normal,

assuming slippage is

imminent

Assumptions:

The interslice reaction forces are equal and opposite

Sh f h i li d b 22

Shear forces at the inter-slice are assumed to be zero

SWEDISH CIRCLE METHOD

Factor of safety:

n

1

sec cos tan

n

j j j

j

n

cb W

F

=

+

=

1

sin

j j

j

W

=

j

,

and base angle,

j

, may be negative for few slices

23

SWEDISH CIRCLE METHOD

N and T curves:

N

N A =

T

T A =

where A

N

and A

T

are areas of N- and T- diagrams, respectively

24

RIGOROUS METHODS

Bishop's Simplified

J b ' Si lifi d Janbu's Simplified

Janbu's Generalized

Spencer

Morgenstern-Price

General Limit Equilibrium (GLE)

Corps of Engineers Corps of Engineers

Lowe-Karafiath

25

BISHOPS SIMPLIFIED

The effect of forces acting on the

sides of the individual slices are

taken into account

Disregards the shear forces on

the inter-slices (X

1

= X

2

= 0)

Method satisfies moment

equilibrium and vertical force

equilibrium

26

BISHOPS SIMPLIFIED

Factor of Safety:

1

n

( )

1

1

tan

i

j j j j

j

n

c b W ub

m

F

W

=

+

=

1

sin

j j

j

W

=

where

A F b th th id it ti h i i d

( )

1 tan tan cos m F

= +

As F appears on both the sides, iterative approach is required

by assuming the F and finding the value. The assumed value

is compared against the computed.

The process is continues until both the values match

27

INTERSLICE FORCES

Interslice shear forces are required to calculate the

normal force at the base of each slice.

The interslice shear force (X

i

) is computed as a

percentage of the interslice normal force (E

i

) according

to the following empirical equation proposed by g p q p p y

Morgenstern and Price (1965):

where:

= the percentage (in decimal form) of the function

used and used, and

f(x) = interslice force function representing the relative

direction of the resultant interslice force

28

VARIOUS INTERSLICE FORCE FUNCTIONS

29

METHODS OF SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS

30

ASSUMPTIONS IN VARIOUS METHODS

31

COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS

32

Provided in the Additional_read folder in CE303 dropbox link

DESIGN CHARTS

Slope stability analysis based on design charts is

useful

for preliminary analysis

for rapid means of checking the results of detailed

analyses analyses

to compare alternates that can later be examined by

rigorous analysis

to determine the approximate value of the F as it allows

some quality control check for the subsequent

computer-generated solutions

To back-calculate strength values for failed slopes to aid

in planning remedial measures

33

DESIGN CHARTS

Taylors chart (1948)

Bishop & Morgenstern (1960) Bishop & Morgenstern (1960)

Spencer (1967)

Janbu (1968) ( )

Hunter & Schuster (1968)

Chen & Giger (1971)

OConnor & Mitchell (1977)

Cousins (1978)

Ch l & S ( 98 ) Charles & Soares (1984)

Barnes (1991)

34

DESIGN CHARTS

Taylors chart (1948)

Bishop & Morgenstern (1960) Bishop & Morgenstern (1960)

Spencer (1967)

Janbu (1968) ( )

Hunter & Schuster (1968)

Chen & Giger (1971)

OConnor & Mitchell (1977)

Cousins (1978)

Ch l & S ( 98 ) Charles & Soares (1984)

Barnes (1991)

35

TAYLORS CHARTS (1948) ( )

Taylors charts provide the stability values in terms

of stability number, S

n

using friction-circle y ,

n

g

method

F F F = =

Condition:

Analysis by these charts is valid for simple sections

and homogeneous soils

c

F F F

= =

and homogeneous soils

In general,

failure surface passes through the toe when the slope is

steep

base failure (failure extends below toe) occurs when

either the slopes are flatter or/and firm stratum exists p

below the toe

36

TAYLORS CHARTS (1948) ( )

Fig. Conceptual section by Taylor

37

next figure

Total Stress

Analysis (TSA):

9

4

8

)

T

S

(

1

9

Stability number

C

H

A

R

T

In terms of F.S.

L

O

R

S

c

d s

c c

F

c N H

= =

T

A

Y

L

38

c'' Analysis:

9

4

8

)

T

S

(

1

9

In terms of F.S.

c c

F

= =

C

H

A

R

T

F

=

c

d s

F

c N H

= =

L

O

R

Sd

T

A

Y

L

39

PROBLEM - 1

Given a soil slope with height, H = 12 m, DH = 18 m,

= 30

0

c = 58 kPa = 19 kN/m

3

find = 30

0

, c = 58 kPa, = 19 kN/m

3

, find

F of S

The distance from toe to the point where critical circle

appears on the ground

F of S, if there are heavy loadings outside the toe.

(will be solved it in the class)

40

PROBLEM - 2

Given a soil slope with height, H = 12 m, = 30

0

, c

= 24 kPa, = 20

0

, and = 19 kN/m

3

What is the , ,

.

factor of safety of the slope?

(will be solved it in the class)

41

SPENCERS CHARTS (1967) ( )

Based on solutions computed using Spencers

method, which satisfies complete equilibrium , p q

Charts are used to determine the required slope

angle for a preselected F of S

Solutions for three different pore pressure ratios,

r

u

: 0, 0.25, 0.5.

Pore water pressure ratio (r

u

) is the ratio of pore

water force on a slip surface to the total force due to

weight of the soil and any external loading weight of the soil and any external loading

Assumption: firm stratum is at great depth below

the slope

42

6

7

)

Developed friction:

t

s

(

1

9

6

Developed friction:

d

= tan

-1

(tan/F)

s

c

h

a

r

t

n

c

e

r

s

S

p

e

4

3

43

PROBLEM - 3

Given a slope with height H = 18 m, c = 9.6 kPa,

= 30

0

, = 19.6 kN/m

3

, r

u

= 0.25, determine the , ,

u

,

maximum slope angle for F of S of 1.5.

( ill b l d i h l ) (will be solved in the class)

44

PROBLEM FOR ASSIGNMENT - 1

Given a soil slope with height, H = 12 m, = 30

0

, c

= 24 kPa, = 20

0

, and = 19 kN/m

3

find the factor , ,

,

of safety of the slope using the following methods:

TSA based on moment equilibrium

Friction-circle method

Swedish circle method

Bishops simplified method

45

- 3D Stability Analysis of Gravity Dams on Sloped Rock Foundations Using the Limit Equilibrium MethodUploaded byEdy Tejeda
- geotechnical engineering_Course Outline Cegb333Uploaded byMuhammadFarhanGul
- Bio Technical Stabilization of Steepened SlopesUploaded bymarcosalas
- 363Uploaded bygogus79
- Statically Indeterminate Structures (Statics)Uploaded bycowboys20
- SmeUploaded byNicole Durán
- Roc Plane TutorialUploaded byMarco Domichelli Mercedes Tello
- 00010912_55853Uploaded bygoyotech
- Komitmen Wujudkan Green MiningUploaded byAgustina Elfira Ridha
- Under Cut and FillUploaded bywolf1801
- Analytical Solutions for Toppling Failure_BobetUploaded bycosta426351
- Ppr2015.0100maUploaded byJayraj Singh
- 20670212Uploaded byyvanmmu
- Reinforcement With PilesUploaded by王贺
- 1. Geotechnics and Slope Stability - R 0Uploaded bySamarakoon Banda
- Stable Kel2 Cek-1Uploaded bycomanderverde
- GEET1Uploaded byAnonymous kBl0u3n
- 11 Balachowski WEBUploaded bybufalote
- Wei-2010 Soil Nailed Slope by Strength Reduction and Limit Equilibrium MethodsUploaded byJiménez Jorge
- COMPARISON OF LANDFILL STABILITY ANALYSIS RESULTS BASED ON LITERATURE RECCOMMENDATIONSUploaded byLeo
- introductionUploaded byAnkit Agarwal
- Topic 04 3DSlopeStability Peru May 2015Uploaded byNilser Fustamante Vasquez
- Slope Stability Analysis Based on the Rigid FiniteUploaded byLutfiadji Agung Hidayat
- STABILITY ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY WALL USING PLAXIS 2D v-8.6Uploaded byFadli Punye
- Slope Stability Evaluations by Limit.pdfUploaded byAgus Daud
- Numerical Analysis a Virtual Dream or Practical ReUploaded byKTMO
- geoslopeUploaded byJavier Andres Martinez Ortega
- Rock Nails Walls Design Texas RoadwayUploaded byMario Andres Rosero Quevedo
- 1407-1f-ctr.pdfUploaded byThaungMyint
- Slope stability analysisUploaded byJAYRAJ SINGH

- BTech Syllabus 2010+Uploaded byAditya Sharma
- correction-assessment-i_1.pdfUploaded byRaju Raja
- AtchleyOct19.pdfUploaded byPushpaRasnayake
- 205C_midterm_1.pdfUploaded byRaju Raja
- slope deflection methodUploaded bymshahryar
- Mocks youUploaded byRaju Raja
- HallelujahUploaded byRaju Raja
- Courses and SyllabusUploaded byRaju Raja
- 3032Schedule UpdateUploaded byRaju Raja
- Model Answers Quiz 2Uploaded byRaju Raja
- Manning Reading 1Uploaded byRaju Raja
- xyusedUploaded byRaju Raja
- New Text DocumenthcunbcjbUploaded byRaju Raja
- Castigliano s TheoremUploaded byAhver Chaudhary
- OutputUploaded byRaju Raja
- Iast.lect05Uploaded byJohndelon Platino Mendoza
- 13 Determinacy and Kinematic Stability Notes Sp04Uploaded byJoeny Bui
- Appx `A'Uploaded byRaju Raja
- All_BTechUploaded byRaju Raja

- 00047815Uploaded bypendexx
- Solar System2Uploaded byDmark Kram Ned
- DrilplexUploaded byLoganBohannon
- 133: Ty Dan y Castell, Crickhowell, Powys. Archaeological EvaluationUploaded byAPAC Ltd
- Mix Designs - Calculation Sheet (v.1)Uploaded byBen Walker
- (MJ)-. SPE 75354.- Pletcher-. Improvements to Reservoir Material-Balance MethodsUploaded bySergio Flores
- Distribution of Epibenthic Fauna on TurkeyUploaded byJosé Aníbal Ruiz
- 201802 Novolux Dopo Catálogo 2018Uploaded byVEMATEL
- Calcareous Nannoplankton Biostratigraphy and Stratigraphic Correlation of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Sequences in Central, Southern, And Eastern TaiwanUploaded byAhmad Saudati
- Ground Improvement 166-3 - Ground Improvement Efficiency and Back-Analysis of SettlementsUploaded byAdrian Iorgulescu
- BASIC MAP kartografiUploaded byFathoni Alvord
- Molluscs-in-mangroves.pdfUploaded byEnrique Martinez
- VS and Mine RehabilitationUploaded byapi-19745097
- Impact of Shale Gas on Water QualityUploaded byJames "Chip" Northrup
- Standard Classification OfUploaded byKhamvanh Phengnaone
- Industrial Minerals - ArticulosUploaded bymanudem
- Bit Selection Process(RH)Uploaded byAyman
- f. y. b. a. Geography) Question BankUploaded byRadhakrishna_P_434
- Geologi geomorfologi sulawesiUploaded byFebryanSaputra
- A Study of Some Californian Indian Rock Art Pigments; David a. Scott and William D. HyderUploaded byAldo Watanave
- Cement.docUploaded byMary Grace Almiranez
- Custos Bloom Lake ProjectUploaded byHudson_Burgarelli
- Foundation of PetrophysicsUploaded bymicktunx
- Bored Pile Construction -ChrisUploaded byTerry Choi
- Geologic Time Web Quest--dbUploaded byReyes G King
- Curriculo do Eng.de Minas Osmar Portela Filho (Inglês)Uploaded byOsmar Portela Juazeiro
- The Evolution of Cetaceans Evolutionary Phylogeny, Fossil Records and Evolutionary Novelties Term PaperUploaded byJakey Labios
- Gue & Partner Geotechnical 5Uploaded byRoslan Muhammad
- moon webquestUploaded byapi-251355123
- Queen Mary PaperUploaded byAnonymous rZUfFbmg3

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.