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2 2 STABILITY OF EARTH

CE 303 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING - II

2.2. STABILITY OF EARTH
SLOPES
by
Dr. T. Venkata Bharat, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
IIT Guwahati Guwahati 781039 IIT Guwahati, Guwahati-781039
METHODS OF STABILITY ANALYSIS
Limit Equilibrium Method (choice of analysis here!)
based on equilibrium of forces
requires knowledge of statics
soil is considered to be on the verge of failure
Limit Analysis based on Plasticity Limit Analysis based on Plasticity
based on equilibrium of stresses
requires numerical methods
generally, analysis is done using software packages
such as Plaxis, Geostuido (Slope/w) etc.
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STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE
Infinite slopes have dimensions
that extend over great distances g
as compared to their depth
The assumption of an infinite
length simplifies the analysis
considerably.
A i i f i fi i l i A representative section of infinite slope is
considered in the figure.
In order to use LEM for the analysis the failure In order to use LEM for the analysis, the failure
mechanism should be postulated first.
It is reasonable to assume that failure occurs on a
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plane parallel to slope.
STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE
A slice of soil is considered between the surface of
the slope and the assumed slip plane as shown in p p p
figure in the previous slide.
Draw free-body diagram of forces acting on this
slice and then formulate equilibriumequations.
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STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE
The factor of safety (F) of a slope is defined as the
ratio of the available shear strength of the soil (
f
) g (
f
)
to the minimum shear strength to maintain
stability (mobilized strength,
m
where
f
F

=
tan
f n

=
S
for Effective Stress
Analysis (ESA)
for Total Stress
Case I: ESA without the effect of seepage forces
m

f u
S =
Analysis (TSA)

=
tan
tan
F

=
at limit-
equilibrium
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tan
STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE
Case II: ESA with the effect of seepage forces (J
s
)
L t id d t ithi th lidi Let us now consider groundwater within the sliding
mass and assume that the seepage is parallel to
the slope. The seepage force is given by
from Statics from Statics,
At limit equilibrium,
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STABILITY OF INFINITE SLOPE
Case III: TSA
Th h t th li l f TSA i The shear stress on the slip plane for a TSA is
The factor of safety F for TSA is given by:
At limit equilibrium,
Critical value of z occurs at:
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INFINITE SLOPES SALIENT POINTS
The maximum stable slope in a coarse-grained
soil, in the absence of seepage, is equal to the , p g , q
friction angle of the soil.
The maximum stable slope in a coarse-grained
soil, in presence of seepage, is roughly half of
the friction angle of the soil.
The critical slope angle in fine-grained soils is 45
and the critical depth is equal to the depth of the
tension cracks 2s
u
/. tension cracks 2s
u
/.
Infinite slope mechanism is usually not observed
for fine-grained soils. For such soils, rotational g ,
failure mechanism is more common.
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INFINITE SLOPE AN EXAMPLE
Dry sand is to be dumped from a truck on the side
of a roadway. The properties of the sand are = y p p
30, = 17 kN/m3 and
sat
= 17.5 kN/m3.
Determine the maximum slope angle of the sand in
(a) the dry state (b) the saturated state without (a) the dry state, (b) the saturated state, without
seepage and (c) the saturated state if groundwater
is present and seepage occurs parallel to the slope
d h f h l Wh i h f l towards the toe of the slope. What is the safe slope
in the dry state for a factor of safety of 1.25?
(will be solved in the class)
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ROTATIONAL SLOPE FAILURE
Slopes made up of
homogenous fine-grained homogenous fine grained
soils have been observed to
fail through a rotational
f il h i failure mechanism.
The failure surface is
assumed to be circular (top assumed to be circular (top
right) or noncircular
(bottom right).
The analysis also takes into
account the presence of a
h i f i hi h phreatic surface within the
sliding mass.
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STABILITY ANALYSIS OF A ROTATIONAL FAILURE
A free-body diagram of the assumed circular
mechanism would show the weight (W) of the soil g ( )
within the sliding mass acting at the centre of
mass.
If seepage is present, the seepage forces (J
s
)
would be present.
The forces resisting the clockwise rotation of the
sliding mass are the shear forces mobilized by
the soil along the circular slip surface. the soil along the circular slip surface.
We must now use statics to determine whether the
disturbing moments created by W and J
s
exceed g y
s
the restoring moment provided by the soil.
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TSA:
Q (kN)
d
Q
d
w
c L r
u a
c L r
F
Wd
=
u a
c L r
F
Wd Qd
=
+
u a
c L r
F
Wd P d
=
+
u a
c L r
F
Wd Qd P d
=
+ +
12 Q
Wd Qd +
w w
Wd P d +
Q w w
Wd Qd P d + +
Presence of load, Q
Presence of crack
Presence of load and crack
FRICTION-CIRCLE METHOD
Considered forces:
Weight of soil mass in Weight of soil mass in
failure zone, W
Sum of cohesive forces
ti ll l t h d acting parallel to chord
AB, C
m
The resultant of
frictional forces, R
Factor of safety
ti i b d equation is based on:
tan
f
m
c
F F F

= = +
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c
F F F

such that F = F
c
= F

FRICTION-CIRCLE METHOD
Important relations
( )
Ch d L th
c
C
( )
Arc Length
tan

Procedure:
( )
ChordLength
m
AB
c
C
F
=
( )
( )
ArcLength
ChordLength
m
AB
C
AB
L r =
tan

=
m
F
Assume a failure plane such as ABDA
Obtain the weight of soil mass, W, in the failure zone by
graphical techniques
Find the direction (parallel to chord AB) and distance of C
m
from center, O
Assume F

and draw friction circle with radius rSin

m
Find the direction of R (passes through intersection of Wand
C
m
, and runs tangent to -circle)
Draw force polygon and find the magnitude of C
m
Obtain F
c
and compare with assumed F

Change the value of F

and repeat the procedure till F
c
= F

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METHOD OF SLICES
One approach that is commonly used to analyze
rotational failure is to divide the sliding mass into g
an arbitrary number of vertical slices and then
sum the forces and moments of each slice.
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METHOD OF SLICES
Of course, the larger the number of slices, the
better the accuracy of our solution. y
However, dividing the sliding mass into a number
of vertical slices poses new problems.
We now have to account for the internal or
interfacial forces between two adjacent slices.
Lets now attempt to draw a free-body diagram of
an arbitrary vertical slice and examine the
f i hi li forces acting on this slice.
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FORCES ACTING ON A VERTICAL SLICE
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METHOD OF SLICES KNOWN QUANTITIES Q
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METHOD OF SLICES UNKNOWN QUANTITIES Q
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METHOD OF SLICES
If there are n slices, we have to obtain the values of
6n-1 parameters. p
However, we only have 4n number of equations.
That leaves us with 2n 1 unknowns That leaves us with 2n-1 unknowns.
Therefore, the problem is statically
indeterminate indeterminate.
For example, if there are 10 slices, well have 6x10-
1=59 unknowns but only 10x4=40 equations 1 59 unknowns but only 10x4 40 equations.
Therefore, in order to obtain a solution, we have to
make certain simplifying assumptions or use an a e ce ta s p y g assu pt o s o use a
iterative method
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METHOD OF SLICES
Several solution methods have been developed
depending on the assumptions made about the p g p
unknown parameters and which equilibrium
condition (force, moment or both) have been
satisfied satisfied.
Tables on the next two pages provide a summary of
methods that have been proposed methods that have been proposed.
Computer programs (such as SLOPE/W or
XSTABL) are available for all the methods listed XSTABL) are available for all the methods listed
in the table.
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SWEDISH CIRCLE METHOD
Forces acting on a slice:
Weight of soil mass Weight of soil mass
Cohesive forces (C) in the
opposite to the direction of
b bl d probable wedge movement
Reaction (R) at the base
inclined at to the normal, inclined at to the normal,
assuming slippage is
imminent
Assumptions:
The interslice reaction forces are equal and opposite
Sh f h i li d b 22
Shear forces at the inter-slice are assumed to be zero
SWEDISH CIRCLE METHOD
Factor of safety:
n
1
sec cos tan
n
j j j
j
n
cb W
F

=
+

=

1
sin
j j
j
W
=

It may be noted that the tangential component, T

j
,
and base angle,
j
, may be negative for few slices
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SWEDISH CIRCLE METHOD
N and T curves:
N
N A =

T
T A =

where A
N
and A
T
are areas of N- and T- diagrams, respectively
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RIGOROUS METHODS
Bishop's Simplified
J b ' Si lifi d Janbu's Simplified
Janbu's Generalized
Spencer
Morgenstern-Price
General Limit Equilibrium (GLE)
Corps of Engineers Corps of Engineers
Lowe-Karafiath
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BISHOPS SIMPLIFIED
The effect of forces acting on the
sides of the individual slices are
taken into account
Disregards the shear forces on
the inter-slices (X
1
= X
2
= 0)
Method satisfies moment
equilibrium and vertical force
equilibrium
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BISHOPS SIMPLIFIED
Factor of Safety:
1
n

( )
1
1
tan
i
j j j j
j
n
c b W ub
m
F
W

=

+

=

1
sin
j j
j
W
=

where
A F b th th id it ti h i i d
( )
1 tan tan cos m F

= +
As F appears on both the sides, iterative approach is required
by assuming the F and finding the value. The assumed value
is compared against the computed.
The process is continues until both the values match
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INTERSLICE FORCES
Interslice shear forces are required to calculate the
normal force at the base of each slice.
The interslice shear force (X
i
) is computed as a
percentage of the interslice normal force (E
i
) according
to the following empirical equation proposed by g p q p p y
Morgenstern and Price (1965):
where:
= the percentage (in decimal form) of the function
used and used, and
f(x) = interslice force function representing the relative
direction of the resultant interslice force
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VARIOUS INTERSLICE FORCE FUNCTIONS
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METHODS OF SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS
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ASSUMPTIONS IN VARIOUS METHODS
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COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS
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DESIGN CHARTS
Slope stability analysis based on design charts is
useful
for preliminary analysis
for rapid means of checking the results of detailed
analyses analyses
to compare alternates that can later be examined by
rigorous analysis
to determine the approximate value of the F as it allows
some quality control check for the subsequent
computer-generated solutions
To back-calculate strength values for failed slopes to aid
in planning remedial measures
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DESIGN CHARTS
Taylors chart (1948)
Bishop & Morgenstern (1960) Bishop & Morgenstern (1960)
Spencer (1967)
Janbu (1968) ( )
Hunter & Schuster (1968)
Chen & Giger (1971)
OConnor & Mitchell (1977)
Cousins (1978)
Ch l & S ( 98 ) Charles & Soares (1984)
Barnes (1991)
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DESIGN CHARTS
Taylors chart (1948)
Bishop & Morgenstern (1960) Bishop & Morgenstern (1960)
Spencer (1967)
Janbu (1968) ( )
Hunter & Schuster (1968)
Chen & Giger (1971)
OConnor & Mitchell (1977)
Cousins (1978)
Ch l & S ( 98 ) Charles & Soares (1984)
Barnes (1991)
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TAYLORS CHARTS (1948) ( )
Taylors charts provide the stability values in terms
of stability number, S
n
using friction-circle y ,
n
g
method
F F F = =
Condition:
Analysis by these charts is valid for simple sections
and homogeneous soils
c
F F F

= =
and homogeneous soils
In general,
failure surface passes through the toe when the slope is
steep
base failure (failure extends below toe) occurs when
either the slopes are flatter or/and firm stratum exists p
below the toe
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TAYLORS CHARTS (1948) ( )
Fig. Conceptual section by Taylor
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next figure
Total Stress
Analysis (TSA):
9
4
8
)
T
S
(
1
9
Stability number
C
H
A
R
T
In terms of F.S.

L
O
R

S
c
d s
c c
F
c N H

= =
T
A
Y
L
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c'' Analysis:
9
4
8
)
T
S
(
1
9
In terms of F.S.
c c
F

= =
C
H
A
R
T
F

=
c
d s
F
c N H
= =
L
O
R

Sd

T
A
Y
L
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PROBLEM - 1
Given a soil slope with height, H = 12 m, DH = 18 m,
= 30
0
c = 58 kPa = 19 kN/m
3
find = 30
0
, c = 58 kPa, = 19 kN/m
3
, find
F of S
The distance from toe to the point where critical circle
appears on the ground
F of S, if there are heavy loadings outside the toe.
(will be solved it in the class)
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PROBLEM - 2
Given a soil slope with height, H = 12 m, = 30
0
, c
= 24 kPa, = 20
0
, and = 19 kN/m
3
What is the , ,
.
factor of safety of the slope?
(will be solved it in the class)
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SPENCERS CHARTS (1967) ( )
Based on solutions computed using Spencers
method, which satisfies complete equilibrium , p q
Charts are used to determine the required slope
angle for a preselected F of S
Solutions for three different pore pressure ratios,
r
u
: 0, 0.25, 0.5.
Pore water pressure ratio (r
u
) is the ratio of pore
water force on a slip surface to the total force due to
weight of the soil and any external loading weight of the soil and any external loading
Assumption: firm stratum is at great depth below
the slope
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6
7
)
Developed friction:
t
s

(
1
9
6
Developed friction:

d
= tan
-1
(tan/F)
s

c
h
a
r
t
n
c
e
r

s
S
p
e
4
3
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PROBLEM - 3
Given a slope with height H = 18 m, c = 9.6 kPa,
= 30
0
, = 19.6 kN/m
3
, r
u
= 0.25, determine the , ,
u
,
maximum slope angle for F of S of 1.5.
( ill b l d i h l ) (will be solved in the class)
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PROBLEM FOR ASSIGNMENT - 1
Given a soil slope with height, H = 12 m, = 30
0
, c
= 24 kPa, = 20
0
, and = 19 kN/m
3
find the factor , ,
,
of safety of the slope using the following methods:
TSA based on moment equilibrium
Friction-circle method
Swedish circle method
Bishops simplified method
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