Abstract—This is an introductory paper on -transform-based
methods for electromagnetic transient simulations of power systems.
Since the theory of the -transform was originally developed
for the analysis of time series data defined at equidistant time
steps, simulation models developed using -transforms can readily
be used in electromagnetic transient simulations based on the
same time step. First, this paper briefly introduces the basics of the
-transform, and then applications to electromagnetic transient
simulations of power systems are reviewed

© All Rights Reserved

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Abstract—This is an introductory paper on -transform-based
methods for electromagnetic transient simulations of power systems.
Since the theory of the -transform was originally developed
for the analysis of time series data defined at equidistant time
steps, simulation models developed using -transforms can readily
be used in electromagnetic transient simulations based on the
same time step. First, this paper briefly introduces the basics of the
-transform, and then applications to electromagnetic transient
simulations of power systems are reviewed

© All Rights Reserved

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3, JULY 2007

1799

Task Force on Frequency Domain Methods for Transient Studies

Working Group on Modeling and Analysis of System Transients Using Digital Simulation

General Systems Subcommittee, IEEE Power Engineering Society

Taku Noda, Member, IEEE, and Abner Ramirez, Member, IEEE

methods for electromagnetic transient simulations of power systems. Since the theory of the -transform was originally developed

for the analysis of time series data defined at equidistant time

steps, simulation models developed using -transforms can readily

be used in electromagnetic transient simulations based on the

same time step. First, this paper briefly introduces the basics of the

-transform, and then applications to electromagnetic transient

simulations of power systems are reviewed.

II.

-TRANSFORM

Definition

In Fig. 1, the solid line shows a continuous-time waveform

, and it is sampled at equidistant time steps as marked by

the circles. The time scale is normalized by the sampling interval

. We first define a train of impulses (Diracs delta functions)

as

circuits, power systems, signal processing, switching transients,

time series, transforms.

(1)

Using

I. INTRODUCTION

-TRANSFORM has both frequency-domain and time-domain properties. It has a close relationship with the Laplace

transform. In fact, the -transform of a waveform can be obtained by simple replacement of a variable in its Lapace transform expression. Thus, a -transformed function can be considered as a frequency-domain expression. However, at the same

operator implies a one-sample delay in the time

time, the

domain.

The theory of the -transform was originally developed for

the analysis of time-series data defined at equidistant time steps.

A pioneering work in the development of the -transform theory

for sampled-data control systems can be found in [1]. Reference

[2] is a good introductory text book focusing on discrete-time

signal processing. For electromagnetic transient (EMT) analysis

of a power system, Humpage et al. [3][6], Hauer [7], Angelidis

and Semlyen [8], and the first author of this paper [9], [10] applied -transforms for the modeling of transmission lines. Girgis

et al. [11][13] and Wang and Watson [14] used -transforms

for obtaining a reduced-order equivalent of a power network.

First, this paper briefly introduces the basics of the -transform, and then the above mentioned applications to EMT simulations of power systems are reviewed.

Manuscript received May 2, 2006. Paper no. TPWRD-00236-2006.

Task Force Members: Luis Naredo (Chairperson), Abner Ramirez, Akihiro

Ametani, Alberto Gutirrez, Andrea Mansoldo, Ani Gole, Antonio Lima, Atef

Morched, Bjrn Gustavsen, David Wilcox, Felipe Uribe, Fernando Moreira,

Francisco de Len, Juan Martnez, Leonardo Guardado, Marisol Dvila, Michel

Ritual, Naoto Nagaoka, Neville Watson, Pablo Gmez, Pablo Moreno, Reza

Iravani, Sandoval Carneiro, Taku Noda, Venkata Dinavahi, Victor Ortiz, Washington Neves.

Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2006.886793

can be expressed by

(2)

(3)

If we use the notation

for

and define

(4)

(5)

This is the definition of the -transform of

and denoted

. As shown in the above, the

hereafter by

-transform of a waveform can be obtained simply by replacing

the complex frequency by using (4) in its Laplace transform

expression.

A. Mapping Between the

and

Planes

plane as shown in Fig. 2. An interesting property of this mapping

is that the left-hand side of the plane is mapped inside the unit

circle on the plane. The stability of a discrete-time system

can be assessed by checking whether all poles of the system

are inside the unit circle or not. A discrete-time system having

1800

main corresponds to shifting the time-domain waveform in the

for

positive time direction by one time step. Thus,

is equivalent to delaying the waveform

by samples.

3) Initial Value Theorem: The initial value of a waveform

can be obtained by its -domain function with

(7)

4) Final Value Theorem: The final value of a waveform can

be obtained by the following formula:

(8)

Fig. 1. Continuous-time waveform is plotted by the solid line, and it is sampled

at equidistant time steps as marked by the circles. The time scale is normalized

by the sampling interval.

be a single(othershot waveform having values only for

with

wise zero). The -transform of the periodic function

for each period is given by

(9)

C. Inverse -Transform

Here, three methods to obtain the time-domain waveform

from its -domain expression

are introduced.

with

1) Power Series: If the power series expansion of

is obtained

respect to

all poles inside the unit circle on the plane is stable, since the

corresponding continuous-time system having all poles on the

left-hand side of the plane is stable. The perimeter of the unit

of the plane ( is

circle corresponds to the imaginary axis

the angular frequency).

Another interesting property is the fact that the mapping is not

one by one. Equation (4) indicates that if the angular frequency

is increased along the imaginary axis of the plane, the corresponding locus on the plane turns around on the perimeter

of the unit circle any number of times. The sampling theorem

tells that frequency components higher than the critical angular

cannot be preserved by sampled data.

frequency

of the upper

This is equivalent to that the end point

perimeter of the unit circle corresponds to

;

if the angular frequency is increased beyond this point, the locus

overlaps on the lower perimeter that is the frequency response

for negative frequencies. Aliasing is also closely related to

this topic.

B. Properties of -Transform

(10)

then

.

can be ex2) PFE (Partial Fraction Expansion): If

panded into partial fractions of the form (here, we describe a

contains first-order

method applicable to the case where

fractions only)

(11)

then, using the -transform

by

is given

(12)

3) By Definition: It can be proved that the inverse -transis analytically obtained by

form of

(13)

relation is satisfied:

(6)

.

where is a closed loop enclosing the convergent area of

In most cases, the integration above can be evaluated by applying Cauchys residue theorem.

1801

(19)

additions, which are very efficient if the

tiplications and

model order is small. Equation (19) is closely related to the

concept of recursive convolution which was originally developed for transmission-line modeling [15]. The same arithmetic

operation as (19) is called an IIR (Infinite Impulse Response)

filter in the field of digital filter design and also an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) model in the field of time-series

analysis.

useful for replacing with in a frequency-domain expression:

B. Norton Equivalent

Fig. 3. Norton and Thevenin equivalent circuits derived by the rational function

of z

in (17).

(14)

If

rewritten in the form

(20)

(15)

where

(21)

in Fig. 3(a), which is compatible with the nodal conductance

formulation used in EMTP-type programs.

A. Rational Function and Recursive Convolution

The inputoutput relation of a linear time-invariant system

can be described by

C. Thevenin Equivalent

If

(16)

is the transfer function of the system and

and

are the input and the output, respectively. If

and

are, respectively, considered to be the voltage and the current of a network component,

is the admittance of the comand

are the current and the voltage,

ponent. If

is the impedance. In most -transform applications to EMT simis replaced (approximated)

ulations, the transfer function

by a rational function of

in the form

where

(17)

Some methods identify the coefficients

,

in the frequency domain by fitting the frequency response

of (17) with given

, and others in the time domain by

matching the time response of (17) with recorded or calculated

data. Let us assume that (17) has been identified by some

identification method. Substituting (17) into (16) gives

(18)

(22)

where

(23)

and can be interpreted into the Thevenin equivalent circuit

shown in Fig. 3(b).

D. Representation of Wave Propagation Function

When the propagation function

of a transmission line

of length with its frequency dependence is modeled in an

into a

EMTP-type program, it is common to decompose

corresponding to the traveling time and

pure time delay

representing the wave deformation

a transfer function

(24)

is replaced by (17), the wave

If the deformation function

deformation in the time domain can efficiently be calculated by

term does not

(19). Since the time delay is associated, the

1802

shown in Fig. 3.

IV. APPLICATIONS TO EMT SIMULATIONS

A. Modal-Domain Transmission Line Modeling

The dynamics of an -phase transmission line is described

by coupled partial differential equations (PDEs). The modal

theory proposed in [16] can be used to transform the coupled

PDEs into decoupled PDEs which can be solved independently. Since each PDE describes a natural mode of propagation, the decoupled domain is called the modal domain. Voltages

and currents

in the phase coordinates are interfaced

and

in the modal domain by the linear

with those

transformation

(25)

where

and

are called the voltage and current transformation matrices. When the frequency dependence due to the

skin effects of the conductors and the ground is neglected, Bergerons solution for each modal PDE can be expressed in the following form in the time domain [17]:

(26)

where and

are the current and the voltage at the sending

end, and and

are those at the receiving end. The characteristic admittance is denoted by , and the current sources

and

are calculated by

(27)

Next, we consider the case where the frequency dependence is

taken into account, and thus, the characteristic admittance and

the propagation function are frequency dependent. If the frequency-dependent characteristic admittance is denoted by

in the frequency domain and the propagation function

is

and a wave deformadecomposed into a pure time delay

as described in Section III-D, (26) and (27)

tion function

are formally rewritten using Laplace transforms in the form

are calculated. As explained in Section III-D, the conto

and

are

volutions are carried out by (19), and the outputs

added to the current sources of the Norton equivalents at both

ends. Finally, for each mode, we obtain the -domain equivalent

and are approxcircuit shown in Fig. 4(a). Assuming that

imated to be real and constant, the phase- and modal-domain

quantities are interfaced using (25) as shown in Fig. 4(b). In this

way, a modal-domain transmission-line model is implemented

in an EMTP-type program.

The remaining task is to identify rational functions of

for

and

. Humpage et al. [3][6] first fit given frewith the rational function of

quency response of

(30)

using a two-stage least-squares procedure. They use

(31)

(28)

(29)

denotes an inverse Laplace transform. The inverse

where

Laplace transforms in (28) and (29) can also be denoted by

can be denoted by

convolutions. For instance,

, where

is the impulse response of the characteristic admittance. Let us assume that

and

are,

in (17). Then,

respectively, replaced by rational functions of

for the

according to Section III-B, the terms

for the receiving end in (28)

sending end and

can be realized respectively by Norton equivalents shown in

and

Fig. 3(a). Regarding (29), since the terms

admittance), where

(32)

Equations (30) and (31) are then transformed into the -domain

.

using BLT in (14) to obtain rational functions of

Hauer [7] uses

(33)

and

in the frequency domain via a nonto fit both

linear optimization technique, and then BLT is used to obtain

rational functions of

.

1803

discontinuity.

Fig. 5. z -domain equivalent of a phase-domain transmission-line model (the

three-phase case is shown here but this equivalent is applicable to general

n-phase case).

In a modal-domain model, the modal transformation matrices

are assumed to be real and constant. This assumption is appropriate for most overhead lines. However, the transformation

matrices of some vertically-arranged overhead lines and underground cables show significant frequency dependence. Phasedomain transmission-line models [8][10] have been proposed

to avoid errors due to the use of real constant transformation matrices for such transmission lines by directly formulating equations in the phase domain rather than in the modal domain. In

(28) and (29), all quantities have been scalar for the modal-doas vectors

main formulation. If we consider , , , and

with length of the currents and voltages at the sending and

and

as by

receiving ends, respectively, and

matrices, (28) and (29) become the equations for a phase-domain formulation and this leads to the equivalent circuit shown

in Fig. 5.

and

with the

Angelidis and Semlyen [8] replace

matrix rational function of

(34)

which directly realizes a matrix-vector convolution, where

and

are the coefficient matrices of size by . The elements

of the coefficient matrices are identified by a frequency-domain

term of

is used for the

least-squares procedure. The

in the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 5.

conductance matrix

On the other hand, the first author of this paper [9], [10] reand

by a rational function

places each element of

in (17), and the terms of

are used to form the

of

by conductance matrix

in Fig. 5. The coefficients of the

are identified by a frequency-domain

rational functions of

least-squares procedure.

It is interesting to note that the model proposed in [9] explicitly represents modal traveling-time differences by utilizing the

operator corresponds to one sample delay in

fact that the

the time domain. The phase-domain propagation function of an

-phase transmission line consists of modal components with

different traveling velocities. This means that the phase-domain

deformation function still exhibits discontinuities in the time domain due to the modal traveling-time differences after removing

Fig. 7. Linear interpolations are applied both to the input and the output of a z

function to interface with an external network with a different time step.

the traveling time of the fastest mode as in (24). Such a discontinuous response can accurately be fitted by

(35)

where is the number of modal components with distinct traveling times and the modal traveling-time differences are repreterms. The numbers of numerator and desented by the

nominator coefficients are the same, and thus the sum of

for

is equal to

. For instance, a

three-phase overhead line has the three modes; an earth-return

mode and two aerial modes. The earth-return mode is slower

than the aerial modes, and the velocities of the aerial modes are

usually almost the same as shown in Fig. 6. Thus, this can be

(the two aerial modes are represented

fitted by (35) with

by one numerator term).

Another interesting attempt proposed in [10] is to apply interpolations both to the input and the output of the calculation

in (19) as shown in Fig. 7, in order to interface with an external

network with a different time step. This practically overcomes

one of the most disadvantageous points of -transform methods;

an identified model is tied to a specific time step.

C. Reduced-Order Network Equivalents

A reduced-order network equivalent is basically used to represent a large subnetwork to reduce computation requirements,

especially in the following situations.

When a large number of simulation cases have to be

performed with different parameter values, a sub-network

which is not affected by the parameter values, is replaced

by a reduced-order equivalent to reduce computation time.

1804

When the equivalent circuit of a sub-network (or a network component such as a transformer for high-frequency

studies) is not known but its frequency or time response is

known, and if the sub-network can be replaced by one of

the equivalent circuits shown in Fig. 3, then the simulation

can be carried out.

The model proposed in [11][13] uses the Thevenin equivalent

shown in Fig. 3(b) and the coefficients of the rational function

in (17) are identified by a least-squares procedure in the time

domain. On the other hand, the model in [14] uses the Norton

equivalent shown in Fig. 3(a) and the coefficients of the rational

function are identified by a least-squares procedure formulated

in the frequency domain.

V. APPLICATION EXAMPLE

The network for this example is shown in Fig. 8. The voltage

source corresponds to

with

,

and

and its internal resistance and inductance are

respectively. In this network, there are three 10-km,

15-m height, single-phase transmission lines (TLs) represented

by their frequency domain admittance matrix:

(36)

where

characteristic admittance;

propagation constant, and the length.

The per-unit-length series impedance and shunt admittance

of the TLs are calculated considering the skin effects of both

the conductors and the ground soil. At the receiving end of each

and

line there is an - (in parallel) load with

. The frequency response of the driving-point admittance

seen from Node 1 is calculated, and based on that response a

reduced-order network equivalent in the rational function form

in (17) is identified in the following way.

The basic idea of the identification is to determine the coef,

of the rational function model

ficients

using a least-squares procedure formulated in the frequency domain [9]. However, the model order has also to be identified

at the same time. Thus, is increased from 1 to 10, and for each

order the least-squares identification process mentioned above

of the network shown in Fig. 8.

is repeated. The model order that gives the smallest rms error

is finally chosen. In those cases yielding unstable poles their

reciprocals were used. In this way, a network equivalent with

has been identified. Since the system shown in Fig. 8 includes distributed-parameter lines that theoretically possess infinite number of poles, the order of the identified model can be

regarded as a greatly reduced one. Fig. 9 compares the frequency

response of the identified model with that of the given system,

where good agreement is observed in the frequency range from

1 Hz to 1 kHz.

is connected

Assuming zero initial conditions, the source

, yielding the current delivered by the

to the network at

source as shown in Fig. 10. The identified -domain model in

the form of (17) can readily be used as a time-domain ARMA

model in (19), and the waveform shown by the solid line was calculated using the ARMA model. For comparison, the same transient was calculated by a frequency domain technique, i.e., the

Numerical Laplace Transform (NLT) [18], and superimposed

was used for the

using a dashed line in Fig. 10. Since

error tolerance in the NLT calculation, the dashed line can be

considered as the rigorous solution. The result by the identified

reduced-order equivalent closely reproduces the rigorous solution.

VI. CONCLUSION

This paper has introduced the basics of the -transform and

applications to EMT simulations have been reviewed. The application of the -transform to EMT analysis is proposed as a

methods. However, more research is needed in the case of representing nonlinear elements and switched devices in the -domain. The authors hope that this material will help the progress

of research and development in this field.

REFERENCES

[1] J. R. Ragazzini and L. A. Zadeh, Analysis of sampled data systems,

Trans. AIEE, vol. 71, pt. II, pp. 225234, 1952.

[2] A. V. Oppenheim, R. W. Schafer, and J. R. Buck, Discrete-Time Signal

Processing, 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1999.

[3] W. D. Humpage, K. P. Wong, T. T. Nguyen, and D. Sutanto, z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis in power systems, Proc. Inst.

Elect. Eng. C, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 370378, Nov. 1980.

[4] W. D. Humpage, K. P. Wong, and T. T. Nguyen, Development of

z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis methods for multimode

power networks, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. C, vol. 127, no. 6, pp. 379385,

Nov. 1980.

[5] , Time convolution and z-transform methods of electromagnetic

transient analysis in power systems, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. C, vol. 127,

no. 6, pp. 386394, Nov. 1980.

[6] , z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis of crossbonded

cable transmission systems, Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. C, vol. 128, no. 2,

pp. 5562, Mar. 1981.

[7] J. F. Hauer, State-space modeling of transmission line dynamics via

nonlinear optimization, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-100,

no. 12, pp. 49184925, Dec. 1981.

[8] G. Angelidis and A. Semlyen, Direct phase-domain calculation of

transmission line transients using two-sided recursions, IEEE Trans.

Power Del., vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 941949, Apr. 1995.

[9] T. Noda, N. Nagaoka, and A. Ametani, Phase domain modeling of frequency-dependent transmission lines by means of an ARMA model,

IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 401411, Jan. 1996.

[10] , Further improvements to a phase-domain ARMA line model

in terms of convolution, steady-state initialization, and stability, IEEE

Trans. Power Del., vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 13271334, Jul. 1997.

[11] A. A. Girgis, J. Qiu, and R. B. McManis, A time-domain approach for

distribution and transmission network modeling, IEEE Trans. Power

Del., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 365371, Jan. 1990.

1805

time-domain three-phase power system impedance modeling approach

for harmonic filter analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Del., vol. 8, no. 2, pp.

504510, Apr. 1993.

[13] J. Qiu, H. Chen, and A. A. Girgis, Dynamic modeling and parameter

estimation of a radial and loop type distribution system network, IEEE

Trans. Power Del., vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 483490, May 1993.

[14] Y. P. Wang and N. R. Watson, Z-domain frequency-dependent

AC-system equivalent for electromagnetic transient simulation, Proc.

Inst. Elect. Eng., Gen. Transm. Distrib., vol. 150, no. 2, pp. 141146,

Mar. 2003.

[15] A. Semlyen and A. Dabuleau, Fast and accurate switching transient

calculations on transmission lines with ground return using recursive

convolutions, IEEE Trans. Power App. Syst., vol. PAS-94, no. 2, pp.

561571, Mar./Apr. 1975.

[16] L. M. Wedepohl, Application of matrix methods to the solution of

travelling-wave phenomena in polyphase systems, Proc. Inst. Elect.

Eng., vol. 110, no. 12, pp. 22002212, Dec. 1963.

[17] H. W. Dommel, Digital computer solution of electromagnetic transients in single- and multiphase networks, IEEE Trans. Power App.

Syst., vol. PAS-88, no. 4, pp. 388399, Apr. 1969.

[18] L. M. Wedepohl, Power system transients: Errors incurred in the

numerical inversion of the laplace transform, in Proc. 26th Midwest

Symp. Circuits and Systems, Aug. 1983, pp. 174178.

Taku Noda (M97) received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in engineering

from Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, in 1992, 1994, and 1997, respectively.

From 2001 to 2002, he was a Visiting Scientist at the University of Toronto,

Toronto, ON, Canada. He is also an Adjunct Professor at Doshisha University.

His research interest includes electromagnetic transient analysis of power systems and analysis of surges using electromagnetic-field computations.

Abner Ramirez (M96) received the B.Sc. degree from the University of Guanajuato, Mexico, in 1996, the M.Sc. degree from the University of Guadalajara,

Guadalajara, Mexico, in 1998, and the Ph.D. degree from the Center for Research and Advanced Studies of Mexico (CINVESTAV) Campus Guadalajara,

in 2001.

He was a Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, from 2001 to 2005.

Currently, he is a Professor at CINVESTAVGuadalajara. His interests are electromagnetic transient analysis in power systems and numerical analysis of electromagnetic fields.

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