Abstract—This is an introductory paper on -transform-based
methods for electromagnetic transient simulations of power systems.
Since the theory of the -transform was originally developed
for the analysis of time series data defined at equidistant time
steps, simulation models developed using -transforms can readily
be used in electromagnetic transient simulations based on the
same time step. First, this paper briefly introduces the basics of the
-transform, and then applications to electromagnetic transient
simulations of power systems are reviewed

© All Rights Reserved

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Abstract—This is an introductory paper on -transform-based
methods for electromagnetic transient simulations of power systems.
Since the theory of the -transform was originally developed
for the analysis of time series data defined at equidistant time
steps, simulation models developed using -transforms can readily
be used in electromagnetic transient simulations based on the
same time step. First, this paper briefly introduces the basics of the
-transform, and then applications to electromagnetic transient
simulations of power systems are reviewed

© All Rights Reserved

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interpolators in z-transformelectromagnetic

transient analysis in power systems

Prof. W.D. Humpage, B.Sc, Ph.D., K.P. Wong, M.Sc, Ph.D., and T.T. Nguyen, B.E.

Indexing terms: Power systems and plant, Transmission and distribution plant, Mathematical techniques,

Matrix algebra, Power transmission, Electromagnetic transients, z-transforms

Abstract: In the original development of z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis in power systems,

transmission-line impulse responses and surge-impedance functions formed initially in the frequency domain

were mapped into the z-plane by bilinear transformation, although it is known that this transformation is

one that gives rise to a form of distortion error. In now providing means by which this error may be avoided,

methods are investigated in the paper by which transmission-line response functions can be synthesised

directly in the z-plane. Given the high accuracy in function definition which this can provide, an examination

is made of the relationships that are to be satisfied between the step length in the time-domain and trans-

mission-line aerial-and earth-mode transit times. In particular, it is shown that residual errors arising from the

frequency dependence of the earth-mode transit time are amenable to analysis and then, based on this, to

control by interpolation. Drawing on trial analyses of a 400 kV single-circuit untransposed line, the paper

then evaluates the further advances in z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis that these further

developments can achieve.

List of principal symbols

F(cS),F(z) = matrices of transmission-line forward-

impulse responses in the frequency domain

and the z-plane, respectively

Z

0

( CJ ) , Z

0

( Z) = surge-impedance matrices

X(co) = matrix of propagation coefficients

a(co), p(co) = real and imaginary parts of X(co), respect-

ively

v(to), V(Z) = vectors of transmission-line voltages

i'(co), i(z) = vectors of transmission-line currents

F

s

(z),F

r

(z) = forward characteristics at sending and

receiving ends, respectively

B

8

(z),B

r

(z) = backward characteristics at sending and

receiving ends, respectively

H(z) = general z-plane response function

H

s

(

z

i)

=

specified value of H(z) at the rth sampling

point

Q(6) = weighted error function to be minimised

9 = vector of function coefficients to be found

W(co

t

) = positive real weighting function

N = number of product terms in H(z)

M = number of frequency-domain and z-plane

sampling points

Pik,P2k = pole pairs of H(z);k= 1, 2, . . . ,N

r\k,

r

7k = zero pairs of H(z)\ k = 1, 2, . . . , N

T = wave-propagation transit time

At = step interval in time-domain recursive

sequences

/ = transmission-line length

m = integer value of ratio T/At

e = T/At m

co = angular frequency

z = z-transform operator

Subscripts s and r identify variables at the switching and

remote ends of the transmission line, respectively.

1 Introduction

While several different methods of electromagnetic transient

analysis in power systems [14] have now been developed

Paper 1868C (P9) received 15th June 1981

The authors are with the Department of Electrical & Electronic Engin-

eering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia

6009

104

0143-7046/82/030104 + 07 $01.50/0

and widely applied, recent work [5,6] has investigated an

analysis formulation which is based on the z-transform. In

the new formulation, transmission-line equations in the

frequency domain are successively transformed first into the

z-plane and then into the time domain. Thereafter, the formu-

lation is wholly in the time domain, and the sequences in

solution, to which the steps of transformation through the

z-plane lead, are of recursive form. The earlier work has

sought to develop this analysis method and to evaluate its

principal properties in practical application.

Corresponding to the separate stages of transformation

from which the method derives, transmission-line forward-

impulse-response and surge-impedance functions, formed

initially in the frequency domain, were mapped to the z-plane

in the original work [5,6] by bilinear transformation. How-

ever, it is generally acknowledged that this transformation is

one which introduces a form of distortion error. High accu-

racy in response-function definition is achieved over an initial

range of frequency; beyond which progressively increasing

errors arise. When nominating the step length in the time

domain, it is necessary to bear this in mind, and to choose

the step length so that the distortion errors are negligibly

small over the range of frequencies relevant to the electro-

magnetic transient modes of system operation for which

analysis is to be carried out. The first purpose of this paper

is that of developing methods by which transmission-line

forward-impulse-response and surge-impedance functions may

be synthesised directly in the z-plane; thereby avoiding

altogether the errors arising when they are formed by bilinear

transformation from their counterparts in the frequency

domain.

It then remains to satisfy the requirement that the step

length in the time domain should be an integer submultiple

of wave transit times. The different wave transit times for

aerial and earth modes of propagation are usually accommo-

dated without difficulty in meeting this requirement; but the

frequency dependence of the earth-mode transit time rep-

resents a further source of errors. The second purpose of the

paper is that of showing that residual errors due to the non-

linear frequency dependence of earth-mode wave transit

times are amenable first to systematic analysis and then to

a substantial measure of control by interpolation.

In distinct, but closely related ways, direct z-plane response

synthesis and earth-mode interpolation offer further advances

IEE PROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 3, MA Y 1982

in the recently derived analysis fomulation [5, 6] . No previous

paper has referred to the developments in z-transform electro-

magnetic transient-analysis methods in power systems to

which this paper is devoted.

2 General form of z-plane functions

Transmission-line equations in the modal axes rearrange to

the scattering form [5, 6]

v

s

(to) Z

o

(oo)i

s

(cS) = F(oS) [v

r

(cS) + Z

o

(co)/

r

(co)] (1)

v

r

(co) Z

o

(oj)/

r

(co) = F(cS) [v

s

(CJ) + Z

o

(w)/

s

(CJ)] (2)

in which

F(cS) = exp{-A(co)/} (3)

In eqns. 1 and 2, Z

0

(co) is the matrix of surge-impedance

functions and F(co) is the matrix of forward impulse

responses. In eqn. 3, A(co) is the matrix propagation co-

efficients and / is the transmission-line length. Eqns. 1 and

2 transform directly into the z-plane to give:

v

s

(z)-Z

0

(z)i

s

(z) = F(z)[v

r

(z) + Z

0

(z)i

r

(z)]

v

r

(z)-Z

0

(z)i

r

(z) = F{z) [v

s

(z) + Z

0

(z)/

s

(z>]

where

F(z) =

Z

b

(z) = Zt{Z

0

(u>)}

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

The first purpose of this paper is to form F(z} and Z

0

(z)

directly as z-plane functions, rather than by deriving these

from rational-fraction forms of F(oS) and Zo(co) and the

z-transform, as eqns. 6 and 7 imply. As the steps involved

in achieving this are closely similar for F(z) and for Z

0

(z),

it is useful to adopt a general function H(z) in the detailed

working, and in terms of which both F(z) and Z

0

(z) can

subsequently be interpreted. On this basis, the factored

second-order form widely adopted in digital filter design is

used in which:

(8)

c

k

z~ +d

k

z

- 2

For this form, the'requirement is therefore one of finding

the a

h

, bk, Ck, d

k

and A coefficients of eqn. 8. In this work,

the quasi-Newton minimisation method, in conjunction with

a weighted mean-square error function, is used for this pur-

pose. The general form of eqn. 8 ensures that coefficient

values found by this process, and by which transmission-line

impulse response and surge-impedance functions are defined

in the z-plane, are always real.

then formed from:

M

Q{Q) =

f = i

(10)

in which p is positive and even. IV(co,) is a positive real

weighting function, and H(z

t

) is the value of the//(z) function

of eqn. 8 at the /th sampling point. 9 is the vector of unknown

coefficient values to be found so that:

i ' = a

Xt

bi

i

c

ll

d

lt

...

t

a

ki

b

h

,c

k

,d

h

,A

01)

In defining the H(z) function, it is required to find a set of

coefficient values 0* such that:

Q(6*) = minmax

M

- \H,(z

t

)\]\

P

(12)

In using the quasi-Newton minimisation algorithm for this

purpose, the case is taken for which p = 2, so that Q(d) is

of weighted mean-square error form. It is then convenient

to separate the^l coefficient in eqn. 8 by using:

H(z

t

) = AG(

Zi

)

so that:

T-2

(13)

(14)

Separating A correspondingly in the vector of coefficients

gives:

where

0' = ai,bi,ci,d

lt

. . . ,a

k

,b

k

,c

k

,d

k

05)

(16)

The weighted mean-square form of the error-function then

becomes:

Q(d>,A)=

M

07)

The differentiations dQ(<p,A)/dA and dQ((f>,A)l^(l> now

follow, and unknown coefficient values in the H(z) function

are found from the following iterative sequence

(a) At iteration step n + 1, calculate G(zf) using:

c(z

,

(18)

3 Quasi-Newton minimisation

3.1 Error function and coefficient-finding algorithm

At any frequency value co

f

, specified values for the H(z)

function of eqn. 8 are available from the known forward-

impulse-response and surge-impedance functions in the fre-

quency domain together with the z-transform operator:

= exp{/cJ,-Af}

(9)

In eqn. 9, At is the sampling interval, or step-interval, in the

time domain. Specified values formed in this way, at the

ith sampling point in the z-plane, are denoted by H

s

(z

t

). A

frequency-weigh ted error function [7] to be minimised is

in which a, b%, c and d are coefficient values from the

immediately previous step. The iterative sequence is started

when n = 0 from initially estimated values of the coefficients.

(b) From the known transmission-line response functions

in the frequency domain, calculateH

s

(z

t

) for / = 1, 2, . . .,M.

(c) Calculate the optimum value for the A coefficient

from:

M

in+l

\A\

M+l _

M

(19)

W(wi)IG(zi)l

n+l

IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 3, MA Y1982 105

(d) Calculate the differentials:

*\G(z

t

)\ *\G(z

t

)\ d\G(z

t

)\

da

n

h

for

k = 1 , 2 , . . . , 7 V

i = 1 , 2 , . . . , M

From these individual differentials form:

*\G(z,)\

for

A: = 1, 2, ...,N

(e) Calculate the gradient from:

A

n + 1

}

M

= 2

1 = 1

(20)

" I " . (*,)!]

30*

(/ ) Calculate coefficient values from [8]

(21)

in which //(0, ;4

n + 1

) approximates to the inverse of the

Hessian matrix, and is updated as in Reference 8. In eqn.

21, 7 is the value of i// which minimises Q(<Pk + \ps,A

n+1

)

where s is the direction of search as formed from:

s = -

(22)

(g) Repeat the steps (a)-(f) until a convergence criterion

is satisfied.

3.2 Guaran teeing stable system functions

Coefficient values formed from the procedure of Section

3.1 may not necessarily lead to F(z) and Z

0

(z) functions

which are themselves inherently stable. For stability, the

pole and zero locations of the functions should lie within

the unit circle in the .7-plane. .From these conditions, checks

and controls may be derived by which "tife iterative procedure

of Section 3.1 can be constrained so that the coefficient

values found from it always lead to stable system functions.

From the form of H(z) in eqn. 8, there are pairs of poles

and of zeros corresponding to each of the terms in the product

series. If p

l f e

and p

7

k are pole locations deriving from the

fcth term, then:

Pik

and

k = 1, 2, . . . , 7V

k = 1, 2, . . . , / V

(23)

(24)

There are similar relationships between zero locations and

the ah and b

h

coefficients.

At each iteration in the algorithm of Section 3.1, all pole

and zero locations are evaluated from coefficient values

calculated in step (/ ). When these satisfy the criteria for

stable-system functions, the sequence proceeds 1o the next

iteration without further intervention. If they are not satisfied,

constraints are introduced before continuing to the next

iteration. If, foi example, the pole denoted by p

ik

in eqns.

23 and 24 is found to lie outside of the unit circle, then the

coefficient values determining it are recalculated using:

+ P

Pik

d

k

= Pik/Pik

(25)

(26)

Corresponding recalculations are made where a zero location

is found to violate the conditions for stability. With the

recalculated coefficients, the iterative process is continued

until convergence is achieved. At convergence, all pole and

zero locations fall within the z-plane unit circle; and the final

set of coefficient values are those for which the F(z) and

Z

0

(z) functions defined in terms of them are inherently

stable-system functions. On taking inverse z-transforms, the

recursive sequences for solution in the time domain are

inherently stable sequences.

4 z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis with

direct synthesis of z-plane functions

In Fig. 1 is shown the earth-mode forward impulse response

function for a 160 km, 400 kV transmission circuit, for which

the principal data is that of the earlier work [5]. In the

original z-transform development [5], this is represented

in the s-plane by:

(1 +/ i s+/

2

s

2

) exp { smAt}

(l+f

3

s+f,s

2

)(l+

gl

s+g

2

s

2

)

;- for s =

(27)

If T is the wave-propagation transit time? then m in eqn.

27 is given by:

m = T/At

(28)

Coefficient values/! /

4

and g

x

and g

2

are formed by least-

squares minimisation, and the F(s) function is transformed

to the z-plane using:

z - \

(29)

In the z-plane:

F{Z) =

b

2

z~

2

+ b

3

z

- 3

b

A

z

- 4

(30)

l!

c c

! &

c <u

1.0

0.8

C.6

C.t,

0 2

0

2 3 A 5

frequency , rad/s x 10

Fig. t Distortion error in earth-mode forward impulse response

160 km, 400 kV single-circuit transmission line

from transmission-line data

calculated from 4th-order z-plane function derived by bilinear

transformation with step length SO jus

106

IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 3, MAY 1982

in which the a and b coefficients are found directly from the

f&n&g coefficients of eqn. 27.

Interpreted in the co plane using z = exp {jcoAt}, the

F(z) function of eqn. 30 is also shown in Fig. 1. The differ-

ence between this and the actual function calculated from

400 kV transmission-line data [5] is a measure of the distor-

tion error to which the bilinear transformation of eqn. 29

gives rise. Similar, though generally smaller, distortion errors

arise in the surge-impedance function when formed in the

z-plane by bilinear transformation from the frequency domain.

1 2 3 A 5 6

frequency, rad/s xlO

A

Fig. 2 Accuracy of forward impulse response representation from

direct z-plane synthesis

Earth mode of 160 km, 400 kV single-circuit transmission line

from transmission-line data

calculated from frequency-weighted 2nd-order function syn-

thesised directly in the z-plane

Turning now to where z-plane functions are formed directly

using the development of Section 3, Fig. 2 indicates that the

distortion error of Fig. 1 is now avoided. Moreover, the high

accuracy with which the transmission-line impulse response

is represented in Fig. 2 is achieved with a second-order form

for F(z), whereas fourth-order forms were used throughout

the earlier work. Taken further, first-order forms can also

be derived. From numerous trial studies, it is the authors'

preference to use second-order forms both for F(z) and for

Z

0

(z) in their application to ground modes, and to use first-

order forms for both in the case of aerial modes. A typical

accuracy of representation for the earth-mode surge

impedance is shown in Fig. 3.

Distortion errors in forming F(z) and Z

0

(z) by transform-

ation from corresponding frequency-domain functions by no

means transcribe proportionally into electromagnetic transient

solutions. As the earlier work confirmed, exceptionally high

solution accuracy Can" be achieved when fourtlvorder represen-

tations of response functions are used in conjunction with

>tep-length settings of about one-tenth of wave transit times.

Avoiding distortion errors allows a similar accuracy to be

ichieved with longer step lengths, thereby further reducing

computing time requirements. As the step length is progress-

ively increased, however, a time-shift form of error appears

which is unrelated to the accuracy by which the F(z) and

0 1 2 3 4

frequency . rad/s xiO*

1

Fig. 3 Surge-impedance function

Earth mode of 160 km, 400 kV single-circuit transmission line

from trnasmission-line data

calculated from frequency-weighted 2nd-order function syn-

thesised directly in the z-plane

Z

0

(z) functions are defined. This error is shown in Fig. 4

when the step length is increased to 110 jus. Here, the z-

transform solution is compared with a frequency-domain

solution for which the frequency separation is 200 rad/s,

the upper frequency limit is 10

s

rad/s, and the step length in

the numerical evaluation of inverse Fourier transforms is

20jus. For the single line solution of Fig. 4, the z-transform

computing time is 120 ms. This is less than 0.1% of the com-

puting time required for the frequency-domain solution with

which it is compared. The source of the time-shift error in

Fig. 4 is in the relationship between the step length and the

wave transit times. It remains to examine this source of

700

580

',60

340

o 220

100

-20

-140

-260

-380

-500

3

C >

O - *

n o

3 -

z o

a >

ti me. ms

Fig. 4 Switching overvoltage solution with extended step length

160 km, 400 kV single-circuit transmission line: phase a energisation

frequency domain

z-transform with 110 /is step length

errors and then to counter it. The origin and nature of the

errors suggest that some form of interpolation might be

considered in reducing them.

5 Interpolation

5.1 Step-interval and wave transit-time relationships

On separating out the propagation coefficient matrix A (co)

into its real and imaginary parts:

A(w) = a(co)+/p(w) (31)

Wave transit times for the individual modes are then given by:

T

t

= ftM//w i = 0, 1, 2, modes (32)

and where:

= diag(ft) i = 0, 1,2, modes (33)

A basic aspect of the derivation of z-transform electromagnetic

transient analysis is that of the step-length At being an integer

sub-multiple of the wave-transit time. Ideally, therefore:

m

{

At = T

t

i = 0, 1, 2, modes (34)

where m is a positive integer.

It is often possible satisfactorily to fulfil the requirements

of eqn. 34 by choice of At. For example, if the transit time

common to the two aerial modes for a particular single-circuit

transmission line is 450/zs, and that for the earth-mode is

500jus, then step-length settings of 50/JLS, 25/US, or 12.5 jus

allow eqn. 34 to be satisfied. In ^-transform electromagnetic

transient analysis, a setting of 50jus may safely be used.

However, this leaves the question of the frequency dependence

:>f the earth-mode transit time of which that for the trans-

mission line to which the response functions of Figs. 1-3

relate is shown in Fig. 5. This frequency dependence leads

:o a residual error in solution, the magnitude of which is

related to the contribution that the earth mode makes to the

complete solution. Always, however, where step-interval

values are less than about one-tenth of wave transit times,

the error is a small one.

IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 3, MAY 1982 107

Increasing the step length as a means of reducing computing

time is clearly limited by the requirement of satisfying the

integer relationships of eqn. 34. Where the choice of an

extended step length precludes eqn. 34 being satisfied strictly

for all modes, we use:

(ra

f

+ e,) Af = T

t

i = 0,1,2, modes

for

0 < e

t

< 1

(35)

(36)

700 r,

650

600

550,

1 3 U

frequency,

Fig. 5 Variation of earth-mode transit time with frequency

160 km, 400 kV single-circuit transmission line

5.2 The impulse response

In the frequency domain, the impulse-response F(co) is given

by:

F( CJ) = (37)

Drawing on eqns. 32 and 35

for a transmission line of length /.

It has previously been shown [5] that the imaginary part

of X(co) can be decomposed into components which have

separately linear and nonlinear dependences on frequency.

On this basis:

(38)

(39)

(40)

(41)

(42)

(43)

The impulse response matrix F(cS) is then given by:

where

F

m

(co) = exp [-{a(oj)+/p

n

(co)}/] exp {-

and

= exp { jetjAt)

for

e = diag {e,} / = 0, 1, 2, modes

In these terms, F

m

(CJ) is the forward impulse-response matrix

when the wave transit times and the step interval have integer

ratios, and eqn 34 is satisfied. When this is not the case, the

forward impulse response has the product form of eqn. 40.

5.3 Forward an d back ward charac ten's tics

From the scattering form of transmission-line equations in

the z-plane, forward characteristics at the sending and receiv-

ing ends of the line F

s

(z) and F

r

(z) are defined by:

F

r

(z) = v

r

(z) + Z

0

(z)i

r

(z) (45)

The backward characteristicsB

s

(z) and B

r

(z) are given by:

B

s

(z) = v

s

(z)-Z

0

(z)i

s

(z) (46)

B

r

(z) = v

r

(z)-Z

0

(z)i

r

(z) (47)

Forward and backward characteristics are then interrelated

by:

B

s

(z) = F(z)F

r

(z) (48)

B

r

(z) = F{z)F

s

{z) (49)

On using the product form for F(z), as in eqn. 40:

B,(z) = F

m

(z)F

e

(z)F

r

(z) (50)

B

r

(z) = F

m

(z)F

e

(z)F

s

(z) (51)

When F

e

(z) = 1, and F

m

(z) is known from the developments

of Section 3, eqns. 50 and 51 transform directly into the

time domain by taking inverse z-transforms. In achieving

transformation when F

e

(z)^ 1, it is useful to take the scalar

form of F

e

(z) in which case:

F

e

(z) = z (52)

More generally, eqn. 52 applies for each mode. We now

approximate z~

e

by the polynominal form:

1

+. . . +. 4

n

( e ) z - (53)

To assist in achieving a clear presentation of the steps in

analytical development now required, a lst-order truncation

of eqn. 53 is used, in which case:

B.(z) = F

m

(z)[A

0

(e) + A

l

(e)z-

1

]F

r

(z)

B

r

(z) = F

m

(z)[A

0

(e)

(54)

(55)

Following the observations of Section 4, we now use F

m

(z)

in eqns. 54 and 55 in the form:

+az~

l

+bz

+cz~

l

+dz ~

2

(56)

The derivation of coefficients, using the developments of

Section 4, is, therefore, that for a second-order function where

the A coefficient of eqn. 8 in Section 2 is 1.0. Substituting

for F

m

(z) from eqn. 56 into eqn. 54 and crossmultiplying:

[1

1

+dz~

2

]B

s

(z) =

(57)

Expanding the RHS of eqn. 57 and rearranging:

B

s

(z) = A

0

(e)z-

m

F

r

(z)+{aA

0

(

(58)

108

IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 3, MAY 1982

On taking inverse z-transforms of both sides of eqn. 58:

*. ( ' ) =A

0

(e)F

r

(t

n

-mAt)

+ {bA

0

(e) + A,(e)}F

r

{t

n

-(rn + 2)At}

+ bA

l

(e)F

r

{t

n

-(m + 3)At)

-cB

s

(t

n

-At)-dB

s

(t

n

-7At)

Similarly, using eqn. 55:

B

r

(t

n

) = A

0

(e)F

s

(t

n

-mAt)

+ {aA

0

(e) + A

1

(e)}F

s

{t

n

-(m + l)At}

+ {bA

0

(e) + A, (e)}F

s

{t

n

- (m + 2)At]

+ bA

1

(e)F

s

{t

n

-(m

(59)

(60)

- cB

r

(t

n

- At) - dB

r

(t

n

- 2At)

These sequences are identical in form with those of the earlier

work [5]; only coefficient values are modified by the presence

of A

0

(e) and A^e). Given these coefficient values, the sol-

ution proceeds precisely as in the original development [5].

But now a linear interpolator is embedded in the formulation.

By this, the solution errors arising when the time-domain

step length is not a precise submultiple of modal wave transit

times are controlled. Although the steps of including a process

of interpolation in solution have been developed for the

particular case when the interpolator is linear, the develop-

ment follows along the same lines when an interpolator of

higher order is to be included In particular, it appears from

numerous experiments that a quadratic interpolator is in

many cases the most satisfactory choice in the present appli-

cation.

5.4 Lagrange coefficients

To complete the interpolation scheme, it remains only to find

values for the coefficients A

0

(e) and A

x

{e) in eqns. 59 and

60. More generally, it is required to find values for the coef-

ficients of the polynomial by which z~

e

is approximated.

Here we use the Lagrange coefficients [9] for this purpose. If

there are q terms in the polynomial and q is even, then:

(61)

k = 0, 1 , . ..,(q- 1)

When q is odd:

{(q-\)/2 + k}\{(q-\)l2-k}\(e-k).

k = 0, 1, . . . , ( </ - ! ) (62)

Knowing coefficient values from these forms, the recursive

sequences for solution, as in eqns. 59 and 60 for the particular

case of a linear interpolator, are defined. For clarity, we have

given here the developments for the solution of the forward

and backward characteristics. In turn, these are solved from

the relationships of eqns. 44-47 involving transmission-line

current and voltage variables and the suige-impedance func-

tion. The detailed steps here are those of the original work

[5].

IEEPROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 3, MA Y 1982

6 Solutions with interpolation

While the interpolation scheme of Section 5 leading to modi-

fied coefficients in the time-domain recursive sequences may

be applied in principle to all modes, trial applications indicate

that it has its greatest effectiveness when applied to earth

modes. The discontinuities in aerial-mode-solution values

can in some cases reduce the error control which interpolation

can provide. By comparison, the more rounded and damped

responses for earth modes allows interpolation safely to be

applied in all applications. Moreover, as the aerial-mode

transit times are almost constant, the step interval can be

selected to satisfy the integer relationships of eqn. 34 for

these modes. Thereafter, the earth-mode interpolator can

counter very effectively the time-shift form of errors when

the step length is not an integer submultiple of the transit

time in this mode. Included in this deviation from an integer

relationship is the dependence of the earth-mode transit

time on frequency.

Fig. 6 Solution with interpolation

Switching transient for 160 km, 400 kV single-circuit transmission

line

frequency domain

z-transform with earth-mode interpolator and 110 MS step

length

In Fig. 6, solutions are shown for the same conditions

and step length as those of the solution of Fig. 4; but now

with a quadratic interpolator embedded in the earth-mode

sequences. The effectiveness of the interpolator in countering

the solution errors of Fig. 4 is clear from Fig. 6. The step

length is 110/is, leading to a computing-time requirement of

120ms for a 10 ms solution period. The accuracy in solution

is characteristic of z-plane electromagnetic transient analysis

and is achieved for all variables of which only one is shown in

Fig. 6.

7 Conclusions

The paper reports further developments in z-transform electro-

magnetic transient-analysis methods in power systems. A

direct derivation of transmission-line forward impulse

responses and surge-impedance functions in the z-plane

coincides with that of most function synthesis in digital

filter analysis and design, and represents the preferred ap-

proach. In the present developments it has led to z-plane

functions of lower order than those of the initial work, and to

longer step-length settings. Both measures have a direct bearing

on computing-time requirements in analysis. By them, further

and substantial reductions in computing time have been

achieved, while at the same time preserving the high accuracy

and stability inherent in z-transform analysis. The detailed

formulation, the recursive solution sequences that follow

from it and the principal properties of the analysis method

are those of the original work [5]. Direct z-plane synthesis

procedures relate specifically to the derivation of coefficients

which first define transmission-line functions in the z-plane,

and then the time-domain recursive sequences for solution to

109

which these lead. As such, the procedures are those of the

preparatory phase of analysis which follows transmission-line

parameter calculations and precedes electromagnetic transient

analysis itself.

While progressively increasing step-interval settings in the

time domain is not usually consistent with the requirement

for values to be integer submultiples of modal wave transit

times, interpolation can counter the time-shift form of error

which appears in solution when integer ratios are not achieved.

The paper has shown how an interpolator may be embedded

in the z-transform analysis formulation for this purpose.

It modifies certain coefficients in the recursive sequences

in solution, but it does not change their essential structure.

It also avoids superimposing an additional stage of numerical

processing on the basic z-transform algorithm, which proposals

for using interpolation might initially suggest. Once developed

for a single transmission-line model, as in this paper, interp-

olation is of considerable benefit in multinode analysis [10]

where a very wide range of transit times can be encountered.

8 Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Australian Research Grants

Committee for financial support, and to the West Australian

Regional Computing Centre for running their programs. The

generous support of power systems research in the Department

of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University

of Western Australian by Prof. A.R. Billings, together with

his professional co-operation at all times, is gratefully

acknowledged. T.T. Nguyen gratefully acknowledges the

award of a University Research Scholarship.

9 References

1 BICKFORD, J.P., and DOEPEL, P.S.: 'Calculation of switching

transients with particular reference to line energisation', Proc. IEE,

1967,114, (4), pp. 465-477

2 BATTISSON, M.J., DAY, S.J., MULLINEUX, N., PARTON, K.C.,

and REED, J.R.: 'Calculation of switching phenomena in power

systems', ibid., 1967,114, (4), pp. 478-486

3 DOMMEL, H.W.: 'Digital computer solution of electromagnetic

transients in single- and multi-phase networks', IEEE Trans., 1969,

PAS-88, pp. 388-396

4 SEMLYEN, A.,and DABULEANU, A.: 'Fast and accurate switching-

transient calculations on transmission lines with ground return

using recursive convolutions', ibid., 1975, PAS-94, pp. 561-569

5 HUMPAGE, W.D., WONG, K.P., NGUYEN, T.T., and SUTANTO,

D.: 'Z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis in power sys-

tems', IEE Proc. C, Gen., Trans. & Distrib., 1980, 127, (6), pp.

370-378

6 HUMPAGE, W.D., WONG, K.P., and NGUYEN, T.T.: 'Time convol-

ution and z-transform methods of electromagnetic transient analysis

in power systems', ibid., 1980, 127, (6), pp. 386-394

7 DECZKY, A.G.: 'Synthesis of recursive digital filters using the

minimum p-error criterion', IEEE Trans., 1972, AU-20, pp. 257-

263

8 FLETCHER, R.: 'A new approach to the variable metric algorithm',

Computer J., 1970, 13, pp. 317-322

9 SC1IAFER, R.W., and RABINER, L.R.: 'A digital signal processing

approach to interpolation', Proc. IEEE, 1973,61, pp. 692-702

10 HUMPAGE, W.D., WONG, K.P., and NGUYEN, T.T.: 'Development

of z-transform electromagnetic transient analysis methods for

multinode power networks', IEE Proc. C, Gen., Trans. & Distrib.,

1980,127, (6), pp. 379-385

Abstracts of papers published in other Parts of the IEE PROCEEDINGS

The following papers of interest to readers of IEE Proceedings Part C: Generation, Transmission & Distribution have appeared in

other Parts of the IEE Proceedings:

Eddy-current distribution in cylindrical structures caused

by rotating magnetic fields

P.P. YANNOPOULOS-LASCARATOS and PROF. J.A.

TEGOPOULOS

IEE Proc. B, Electr. Power Appl., 1982, 129, (2), pp. 64-74

Analytical solutions are given for the eddy currents (magni-

tude and phase) induced in a cylindrical shell of infinite

length and. thickness by a. 3-phase winding of finite length

placed coaxially inside the shell. The flux densities and

issociated loss are also determined. Solutions are obtained

in integral form by solving Maxwell's equations and applying

appropriate boundary conditions. Use is made of the magnetic

/ector potential. The loss is calculated by applying Poynting's

theorem on the internal surface of the shell. Numerical results

are obtained on a digital computer for different radii of the

shell by using the Gauss-Laguerre method. The limitations

of the method are discussed. The conducting material is

nonmagnetic and the solutions are valid for all frequencies

smaller than those of the optical spectrum. Tests were made

on an aluminium shell and measurements of field values in

the air were compared with the corresponding theoretical

results.

Dynamic response of a power-transformer winding under

axial short-circuit conditions

D.A. QU1NNEY

IEE Proc. B, Electr. Power Appl., 1982, 129, (2), p. 87

In a previous paper, a mathematical model was developed to

consider the dynamic response of a power-transformer winding

after it had been subjected to an axial short-circuit. In this

paper, an analytic solution, which is valid for small times t,

is produced which justifies the basic assumptions made in the

original paper.

110

IEE PROC, Vol. 129, Pt. C, No. 3, MAY 1982

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