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DEEP SEA and AIR PHYSIOLOGY

Hyperbarism
- Exposure of the bood n the ungs to
extremey hgh aveoar gas pressure.
Ideal Gas Law
- descrbes how changes n barometrc
pressure and absoute temperature
ahect gas voume and the human
body.
BOYLES LAW
- states that pressure and voume for an
dea gas vary nversey
- the voume to whch a gven quantty
of gas s compressed s nversey
proportona to the pressure
attude
(as sea depth ncreases)
Decrease voume
Increase Barometrc Pressure
CHARLES LAW
- states that ncreasng temperature
ncreases veocty of gas moecues
ncreasng the pressure forcng the
compant contaner to ncrease n
sze.
DALTOS LAW
- states that barometrc pressure s the
sum of the parta pressure of the
ndvdua gases n the ar mxture.
- Can be expressed by the h:
Parta pressure = tota pressure x fractona
gas conc.
!IC"S LAW
- States that the ow of the gas across
the membrane s proportona to the
pressure gradent of the dhusng gas.
GRAHA#S LAW
- States that dhuson s nversey
proportona to the square root of
moecuar weght.
HERYS LAW
- States that the concentraton gas
dssoved n water s proportona to
the parta pressure of the gas n the
gas phase.
**Gases that can cause sgncant
physoogc ehects at hgh pressures.
NITROGEN
CARBON DIOXIDE - routney removed
OXYGEN - reduced to about 20% or ess
RELATIOSHIP O! THE SEA DEPTH TO
BARO#ETRIC PRESS$RE
Depth (ft) Pressure
(atm)
Depth
(m)
Pressure
(atm)
Sea Leve 1 Sea eve 1
33 2 10 (10.4) 2
66 3 20 3
100 4 30 4
133 5 40 5
166 6 50 6
200 7 60 7
300 10 90 10
400 13 120 13
500 16 150 16
Devces used underwater
- Dvng be
- Cassons
- SCUBA
SCUBA
(Sef Contaned Underwater Breathng
Apparatus)
Fve ma|or eements:
1. Tank of gas
2. Reducng vave
3. Demand breathng vave
4. Exhaust vave
5. Face mask of mouthpece
Potenta probems assocated wth exposure
to ncreased barometrc pressure
a. Ntrogen narcoss
b. Hgh- Pressure nervous Syndrome
c. Oxygen Toxcty
d. Carbon Doxde Posonng
e. Decompresson Sckness
f. Pumonary Embosm
ITROGE ARCOSIS
- Caused by breathng ncreased PN2
when exposed at a pressure of about
4-5 atmospheres for an hour or more.
- 30-40m or 100-133 f depth
Manfestatons:
- Euphora (80%) N2
- Symptoms of acoho ntoxcaton
(greater pressure)
- Impared performance
o Inteectua functon - mpared
o Manua dexterty - norma
- 120ft - rst symptoms of md narcoss
appear (exhbt |ovaty and oss of
psychosoca nhbtons)
- 150-200ft - drowsness
- 200- 250ft weakness (too cumsy)
- Above 250ft - dver becomes amost
useess
Pathophysoogy:
- Reduces neurona exctabty
Management:
- Breathng mxtures of O2, heum,
xenon
HIGH%PRESS$RE ER&O$S SYDRO#E
- Deveops durng deep dves wth
mxtures of gases
Manfestatons:
- Tremors
- Drowsness
- Depresson of apha waves (EEG) -
somnoence
- Inteectua functon - norma
- Manua Dexterty - norma
Pathophysoogy:
- Anesthetc ehect of nert gases at hgh
pressure whch reduces neurona
exctabty (N2, xenon, krypton, argo,
neon and heum.)
O'YGE TO'ICITY (A)*+e O,y-en
P.is.nin-/
- Occurs when oxygen s breathed at a
very hgh pressure
Manfestatons:
- Sezures and coma (4 atm w/n 30-60
mns)
- Nausea
- Musce twtchng
- Dzzness
- Dsturbances of vson
- Irrtabty
- Dsorentaton
Pathophysoogy
- Excessve ntraceuar oxdaton whch
eads to the formaton of free radcas
(oxdzng poyunsaturated ftty acd
component of ce membranes)
- Oxygen Free Radcas (actve form of
oxygen)
o Superoxde (O2)
o Hydrogen Peroxde (H2O2)
O'YGE TO'ICITY
- Exposure to ony 1atm pressure of
oxygen after 12hrs or more
Manfestatons:
- Pumonary arway congeston
- Pumonary edema
- Ateectass
- Pumonary brn formaton
- Lung consodaton
Pathophysoogy:
- Exposure of ar spaces of the ungs to
the hgh O2 exposure.
Management:
- Lowerng the fractona O2 n nspred
ar
CARBO DIO'IDE POISOIG
- Depth aone does not ncrease the CO2
parta pressure n the aveo
- Depth does not ncrease rate of CO2
producton n the body
- Caused by the bud up of CO2 n the
dead space ar of the rebreathng
apparatus (dvdng hemet) and be
rebreathed by the dver. (PCO2 of
>80mmHg)
- Depresson f the respratory center
- Respratory Acdoss
Manfestatons:
- Lethargy
- Narcoss
- Anesthesa
De).mpressi.n Si)0ness (Bends1
Caiss.ns Dse1 C.mpressed Airness1
Di2ers Paralysis1 Dysbarism/
- Increased dssoved N2 n the body
- Rapd decreased of eevated PN2 (rapd
ascent)
- Rapd dhuson of N2 from the tssue
and the bood (ncreased parta
pressure gradent)
- Formaton of bubbes
- Occuson of bood vesses
- Tssue schema
Manfestatons:
- Appear 10-30mn
- Severe pans (around the |onts and
musces)
o 85-90%
o Bends
- Dzzness - 5%
- Paresthesa and tchng
- Bran and Spna Cord Damage - 5-
10%
- Parayss - 3%
- Dyspnea - 2%
o Chokes
Management:
- Prompt recompresson foowed by
sow decompresson (usng tank
decompresson)
Decompresson Tabe:
- Ntrogen emnaton from the body
Safe Decompresson
- 2/3 berated wthn 1hr, 90% n 6hrs
60mns at a depth of 190ft
10mns at 50ft depth
17mns at 40ft depth
19mns at 30ft depth
50mns at 20ft depth
84mns at 10ft depth
AIR E#BOLIS#
- Caused by ar that goes to the bood
after rupture of the pumonary vens
- Can cause sudden death
- Fata embosm has occurred durng
rapd ascent from as shaow as depth
as 5m
- Caused by exposve decompresson
(wa of pressurzed cabn of an
arpane or rocket at hgh attude s
breached.)
HYPERBARIC O'YGE THERAPY
- Usuay admnstered at PO2 of 2-3 atm
of pressure through a mask or
ntratrachea tube whe the gas
around the body s norma ar
compressed to the same hgh pressure
eve.
- Uses: treatment of
o gas gangrene
o eprosy
o decompresson sckness
o artera gas embosm
o carbon monoxde posonng
o osteomyets
o myocarda nfarcton
- ncrease attude, decreases
barometrc pressure --- decreases PO2
--- decrease aveoar O2 --- hypoxa
PROBLEMS:
- ow oxygen pressure
- acceeratory forces
- weghtessness
Barometrc Pressure (Sea Leve) - 760mmHg
Parta Pressures of Dh. Gases
Oxygen - 21% - 159mmHg
CO2 - 0.04% - 0.3 mmHg
Ntrogen - 78% - 593 mmHg
Others - 0.92%- 7 mmHg
Norma Aveoar Oxygen = 104 mmHg
Water Vapor Pressure (37
o
C) = 47mmHg
PCO2 = 40mmHg (unaccmatzed)
= 7mmHg (accmatzed)
AC$TE E!!ECTS O! HYPO'IA
12,000 ft
- drowsness
- asstude
- menta and musce fatgue
- headache, nausea and euphora
(occasona)
18,000ft (above)
- twtchng
- sezures
23,000ft (above)
- coma (unaccmatzed)
- other mportant ehects of hypoxa
(decreased menta procency)
- decreased |udgment
- decreased memory
- decreased motor movements
(decrease work capacty)
ACCLIMATIZATION to LOW PO2 (ncrease
attude toerance)
- ncrease n pumonary ventaton
- ncrease n RBC and hemogobn
- ncrease dhusng capacty of the
ungs
- ncrease caparty
- ceuarty accmatzaton
ICREASE I P$L#OARY &ETILATIO
- hypoxc stmuaton of perphera
chemoreceptors
- ncreasng respratory stmuatory
actvty of respratory center
- ncrease n aveoar ventaton (65%)
- reducton of PCO2 and ncreasng pH
Ehects of Decreased Barometrc Pressure
Attude
Barometrc PO2
pressure
hypoxc stmuaton of the chemoreceptor
pumonary ventaton
PCO2 and pH
(-) respratory center (2-5 days)
HCO2 and pH
Pumonary ventaton
Increased RBC and Hemogobn
Concentraton
- average ncrease n Hb concentraton
- 15 to 20 g/d
- Increase n hematocrt 40 to 60
- Increase n bood voume by 20-30% (
Hgb)
Hypoxa
Erythropoetn reease
(+) BM
RBC (Hgb and Hct)
Increase n Dhusng Capacty
- Increase pumonary capary bood
voume and ung voume
- Increase surface area for oxygen
dhuson
- Increase pumonary artera pressure
- NORMAL: 21 m/mmHg/mn
Capary bood vo. ----expands capary ---
surf. Area
3 DI!!$SIO
Lung voume --- surface area of the
aveo
= DIFFUSION
Pumonary pressure --- CHP --- DIFFUSION
Increase n Capary
- Increase n CO by 30% but ths
decreases back to norma as Hct
ncreases
- Increased caparty = ncrease n the
number of systemc crcuatory
capares n the nonpumonary tssue
(R ventrce)
Cell*lar A))lima+i4a+i.n
- Increase n the number of
mtochondra
- Increase n the myogobn that
factates the movement of O2 n
tssues
- Increase n the tssue of cytochrome
oxdase
Other changes:
- Increase n chest sze
- Rght ventrcuar hypertrophy
AC$TE #O$TAI SIC"ESS AD HIGH
ALTIT$DE P$L#OARY EDE#A
- Deveops 8-24 hrs after rapd ascent
to hgh attude and asts 4-8 days.
- Characterzed by:
o Headache
o Nausea and vomtng
o Irrtabty
o Insomna
o Breathessness
Two events
- Acute pumonary edema
o Hypoxa - oca vasodaton -
ncrease CHP
- Acute Cerebra Edema
o Hypoxa - vasoconstrcton
(pumonary arteroes) -
ncrease bood ow to
unconstrcted vesses - ncrease
CHP --- EDEMA
CHROIC #O$TAI SIC"ESS
!ea+*res5
- Red ce mass and hematocrt
becomes exceptonay hgh
o Increases bood vscosty
o Decrease bood ow
- Eevaton of pumonary artera
pressure
o Hypoxc pumonary
vasoconstrcton
- Rght sde of the heart greaty
vasoconstrcton
o Increased pumonary artera
pressure
- Perphera artera pressure begns to
fa
- Congestve heart faure
- Death
EFFECTS OF ACCELERATORY FORCES ON
THE BODY
- Acceeratory forces
- Due to rapd changes n veocty and
drecton of moton n arpane and
spacecraft.
- Types:
o Lnear acceeraton
o Deceeraton
o Centrfuga acceeraton
mv
2
R
- measured n G
o + 1G = weght = -1G
o + 2G = 2x = -2G
o + 3G = 3x = -3G
EFFECTS OF CENTRIFUGAL FORCE ON THE
BODY
Postve G
Crcuatory System
- Transocaton of bood (ower part) -
ncrease HP ((ower part) -
Vasodaton - decrease VR - decrease
CO
- > than 4 to 6G - backout of vson -
unconscous
Vertebrae
- Fracture (> 20 G)
Negatve G
- Ehects are ess dramatc but more
damagng permanenty
Hyperema of the head (-4 to -6 G)
- Transocaton of bood (upper part) -
ncrease HP - transudaton of ud -
edema
- Rupture of bood vesse (rare -> -6G)
- Temporary bndness of the eye red-
out
PROTECTION
- Tghtenng of the abdomna musce
(+G)
- Use ant-G suts (+G)
Ehects of Lnear Acceeratory Forces
- Deeterous ehects are prevented by
sem recnng poston
WEIGHTLESSESS
- Experenced when a person s n
orbtng satete or a non propeed
spacecraft
- Person s not drawn to the bottom
sdes or top of the spacecraft but
smpy oat nsde the chamber
- Cause s not due to faure of gravty to
pu on the body
Probems:
- Moton sckness
- Transocaton of ud n the body
- Decrease physca actvty
- Decrease bood voume
- Decrease cardac output
- Decrease Ca
++
and PO4
-
- Decrease ABP