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Survey on Scheduling with Learning Technique

E. Grace Mary Kanaga 1, Juliet A Murali 2
1
Karunya University/Computer Science and Engineering, Coimbatore, India
grace@karunya.edu
2
Karunya University/Computer Science and Engineering, Coimbatore, India
julietamurali@gmail.com

Abstract— This paper describes about scheduling of jobs include those based on processing times (such as shortest
using learning techniques. It also describes about different processing time (SPT)), due dates (such as earliest due
learning effect. The evaluation on different learning effect date (EDD)), and arrival times (such as first-in first out
shows that the experience based learning (EBL) gives better (FIFO)).
solution for calculating processing time. The EBL can be Class 2 consists of combinations of rules from class
incorporated with scheduling problems such as job shop
scheduling, meeting scheduling patient scheduling etc. As
one. A typical example of a rule in this class is, for
the experience increases the time required to process a job is example, SPT until the queue length exceeds some limit,
reduced. Hence it reduces the make span of the schedule. then switch to FIFO.
This EBL can be applied to solve scheduling problem of Class 3 contains rules that are commonly referred to as
single as well as multiple machine. Weight Priority Indexes. Usually, an objective function
f(x) is defined. For example, f(x) = weight * Processing
Index Terms—Scheduling, Learning, Multi agent systems Time of Job(x). Then, any time new sequence is needed,
the function f(x) is evaluated for each job x in the queue.
I. INTRODUCTION The jobs are ranked based on this evaluation [23].
Conway and Maxwell showed that SPT was the best
Industrial scheduling techniques are studied in the field of
choice for optimizing waiting time and system utilization
operations research (OR). OR techniques are very
[19].
effective for solving well-defined centralized
optimization problems, where the algorithm can B. Multi Agent Systems for Scheduling
determine the optimal schedule for all parties involved Multi agent systems can be used to solve scheduling
[24]. problems. The participants in this system are considered
Scheduling is the process of allocating tasks in order to as software entities called agents. Two types of entities
achieve optimal solution. The time required to perform a are included in this agent based systems, task agents and
task decreases as the experience related to it increases, resource agents. The agents have proactive and reactive
even then each task takes some time for its processing. nature because of that it allows the communication
When it has maximum experience then it takes only between agents and also allows taking coordinated
minimum processing time. decisions.
Section 2 briefly explains the different scheduling Each task agent might be responsible for scheduling a
algorithms. Section 3 presents the scheduling problem certain class of tasks. The resources are capable of
with learning effect and section 4 explains about performing those tasks. Task agents must send their
variations in machine in the context of scheduling. resource requests to the appropriate resource agent, along
with the set of operations to be performed by that
II. SCHEDULING TECHNIQUES resource. After receiving the request, the resource agent
A scheduling problem can be characterized by a set of must generate a new schedule [20].
jobs, each with one or more operations. The operations of
a job are to be performed in a specified sequence on
specific machines. Most of the scheduling problems are II. CATEGORIES OF LEARNING EFFECT
considered to be NP-hard [21]. The performance Scheduling is the process of allocating tasks inorder to
measures that are related to scheduling include machine achieve optimal solution. The time required to perform a
utilization, cycle time, throughput rate and inventory task(job) decreases as the experience related to it
level [19]. increases ,even then each task takes some time for its
A. Scheduling Rules processing. When it have maximum experience then it
takes only minimum processing time [1].
The procedures are designed to provide good solutions
For the first time the relation between learning
to complex problems in real time when scheduling
parameters was formulated in a quantitative form
problems are considered. These procedures are called
described by an exponential non increasing function
scheduling rules. The scheduling rules have been
called learning curve. The learning model used for
classified into class 1, class 2, class 3 etc, according to
scheduling are based on learning curve introduced by
performance criteria [22].
Wright. A scheduling problem with experience based
Class 1 contains simple priority rules, which are based
on information related to the jobs. Example classes
learning model ,the job processing time are described by aj is the normal (sequence-independent) processing time
“S” shaped function [3]. of task j
αj anb bj are the exponential and linear learning ratios of
A. Scheduling Problem with Position Based Learning
task j
In position based learning model the processing time of gj is the learning threshold.
job is depends on the position of the job in the sequence. For the above model, the parameters aj > 0, bj > 0, aj >
The actual processing time is a function of jobs position 0, gj > 0 and βj=[0, 1] are assumed to be rational and since
in the schedule [2]. The normal processing time and the job processing time is some positive value [1],[7].
learning effect are also considered during the calculation The learning factor is represented in terms of experience
of actual processing time. The processing time of a job j and is given as,
if scheduled in position r is given by Eβ(v)= [l]+βv e[v] (3)
Pjr=Pjra j,r =1…n (1) Where,

Where, [l] is the experience already possessed by the
a is the constant learning index,a≤0. processor.
Pjr is the actual processing time. e[l] is the experience provided to the processor by a job
r is the position of job in the schedule. scheduled in the lth position e[l]≥ 1
B. Sum of Processing Time Based Learning Effect β[v] is the amount of experience (percentage of e[v])
provided to the processor by job [v],
The sum of processing time based learning effect model
β[v] [0,1]
the actual processing time of a job as a function of total
normal processing time of jobs that are already processed
and of the job’s scheduled position.[5,12] .The sum-of-
processing-time –based learning effect model takes into
account the effects that the human gains from the
experience of operating similar tasks.
c. The Time Dependent Learning Effect
The Time dependent learning effect of a job is to be a
function of the total normal processing time of the jobs
scheduled in front of the jobs. For example firms and
employee will learn more from performing job with
longer processing time ie, the more time they have to
practicing a skill, the better performance one will produce
as a result of learning.[6] Consider a single machine and
n independent and non preemptive jobs that are available
for processing. Let pjr be the processing time of job j if it
is scheduled in position r in a sequence. Then
Pjr=pj(1+ P[1]+ P[2]+…+ P[r-1)a (2)
Where,
pj is the normal processing time of job j.
p[k] is the normal processing time of a job if it is
scheduled in the kth position in a sequence.
a is the constant learning index, a≤0.
D. Experience Based Learning Effect
According to A. Janiak and R. Rudek the learning effect
is modeled by the job processing time pj(E) formulated
as a non-increasing positive function of the experience E
possessed by the is equal to its normal processing time a j
processor. If the processor does not possess experience (E
=0), the processing time of a task (say j), i.e., Pj(0)= aj.
Before calculating the processing time the learning factor
is calculated.
The processing time of job j is scheduled in the vth slot
in a sequence is given as follows,
Pj(Eβ(v))=aj-bj(min{ Eβ(v),gj})αj (4)
Where,