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PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Psychological Factors Socio-cultural Factors
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-Inability to cope with problems -She is a mother of 5 children who now
-Have low self-esteem and negative have their respective families
coping mechanisms -She is living with her daughter and her
grandchildren

PRECIPITATING FACTORS

Health Factors Psychological Factors
---------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------
-Undergoing the degeneration -Had a son who was been arrested and
process was in the jail
-Diminished cognitive functioning
-Diminished judgment ability
Health Factors Psychological Factors
---------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------
-Undergoing the degeneration -Had a son who was been arrested and
process was in the jail
-Diminished cognitive functioning
-Diminished judgment ability

TRIGGERING FACTORS

- lack of sleep
-poor nutrition
- lack of access to health care system
- sudden shift of environment and irritable sur
- changes in life events: imprisonment of
- lack of social support that increases feelings of self isola
akong mga anak, naa ra na sila kay ila man kong
- Unexpected events, verbalzed, "ila gipriso akong anak
- Increasing poor self-concept, hopelessness
- Lack of control over situation

Experiences and develops crisis
Appraisal of Stressors:
---------------------------------------------------
-main stressor is the imprisonment of her youn
-believed that his son is suffering and that he
- viewed herdelf as the only help to her

Tries to cope with crisis using habitual
problem solving response and coping
mechanisms

COPING MECHANISMS

Denial Projection
-failure to acknowledge an unbearable condition; -unconscious blaming of unacceptable inclina
failure to admit the reality of a situation or thoughts on an external object
------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------
-son is imprisoned due to pushing drugs as stated -she does not want Perdices and always ta
by her daughter about him
-have different version of the story and refused -viewed him as a bad person who opresses p
to believe that her son is dealing drugs in their place
- he thinks him as someone who has to do wi
imprisonment of her son
-viewed him as a bad person who opresses p
in their place
- he thinks him as someone who has to do wi
imprisonment of her son

Failure to be relieved from crisis cause
increase in tension

Prolonged use of coping mechanisms

Impaired ego formation

Progressive deterioration of personalit
POSING FACTORS

-cultural Factors Environmental Factors
---------------------------- ---------------------------------------------
her of 5 children who now -Living in Cadawinonan
r respective families -Living together with her daughter, along
with her daughter and her with her daughter’s family
randchildren

TATING FACTORS

Environmental Factors Financial Factors
--------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------
-The Housing Project is under construction -Have no income and source of budget is
- Place is crowded with new residents and taken from children
construction workers
-Noises in the place from the buildings under
construction
Environmental Factors Financial Factors
--------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------
-The Housing Project is under construction -Have no income and source of budget is
- Place is crowded with new residents and taken from children
construction workers
-Noises in the place from the buildings under
construction

GERING FACTORS

- lack of sleep
-poor nutrition
cess to health care system
vironment and irritable surrounding
e events: imprisonment of son
ases feelings of self isolation, verbalized, “kana
ra na sila kay ila man kong mama.”
ed, "ila gipriso akong anak bisag walay sala.”
lf-concept, hopelessness and guilt
f control over situation

ces and develops crisis
aisal of Stressors:
--------------------------------------
e imprisonment of her youngest son
n is suffering and that he needs her
lf as the only help to her son

e with crisis using habitual-
lving response and coping
mechanisms

NG MECHANISMS

Projection Withdrawal
ing of unacceptable inclinations -a pathological retreat of objective reality
ts on an external object ------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------- -dismiss the real reason why her son is in jail
ant Perdices and always talks -only talks about what she wanted to talk
about him -does not want to entertain the thought of her
bad person who opresses people son as a drug dealer
in their place
someone who has to do with the
sonment of her son
bad person who opresses people
in their place
someone who has to do with the
sonment of her son

relieved from crisis causes
crease in tension

use of coping mechanisms

aired ego formation

deterioration of personality
PREDISPOSING FACTORS

Socio-cultural and Environmental Factors
-------------------------------------------
Psychological Factors Some theorists proposed that poverty, society, and cultural disharmony could cause
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schizophrenia or that people chose to become schizophrenic to cope with insanity of the
Psychodynamic theorists believe that schizophrenia involves regression to a pre-ego
state of primary narcissism and restitutive efforts to reestablish ego control. Behaviorists modern world. Others proposed that schizophrenia was caused by living in the city or
theorize that schizophrenic people fail to attend to relevant social cues and as a result living in isolation in the country. An enduring and consistent finding has been the strong
develop bizarre responses to the environment. The family explanation for schizophrenia association between schizophrenia and lower socio economic status. This unenviable
holds that family environment contains such confusing elements as a schizophrenic status enhances their vulnerability by exposing them to constant stressors.
mother, double-bind communications, marital schism and marital skew. R. D. Laing’s
theory states that schizophrenia is actually a constructive process by which people try to
---According to our client, he grew up on his parents' small farm in Bayawan. He used to
cure themselves of the confusion and unhappiness caused by their social and family help them out n taking care of the crops . His father was a farmer and the sole source of
environment. Cognitive theorists contend that when schizophrenic people try to explain income. The income was invested mostly on his and his brother's education. He used to
their biologically induced hallucinations or other strange sensations, they develop study civil engineering at Silliman University but didn't graduate. He stopped schooling for
delusional thinking. Their logical processes lead them to delusional conclusions. Most
awhile and helped out at the farm. He went back to school and took up Bachelor in
clinical theorists now agree that schizophrenia, in whatever form, .can probably be traced
to a combination of factors such as these. Agriculture. He claimed to have never worked aside from his parents' farm.
-our client has claimed that he used to be cared for by his mother when he was still
young. he grew up very protected and cared for.

PRECIPITATING FACTORS

HealthFactors Psychological Factors
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-Information-processing overload: too much information is sent at the same time to be - our client has recently suffered the loss of his parents within the -C
filtered by the frontal lobe. In schizophrenia, the frontal lobe loses its ability to slow down the last two years. He has been mentioning the death anniversary of his
transmission and reception of stimuli, causing an overload. mother and has expressed his desire to visit his mother's grave.
-Abnormal gating mechanism: this is manifested by the inability to - according to our client, he is usually left alone in the house -
selectively attend to stimuli. because his older brother works, and the helper went home.
-Undergoing the degeneration process; Diminished cognitive functioning; - he usually spends his time alone, tending to the farm. he has
Diminished judgment ability all caused by the pathologic course of expressed difficulty in speaking and interacting with others - hi
schizophrenia. especially with the opposite sex.

TRIGGERING FACTORS
Health: Poor nutrition; Fatigue; Lack of exercise
Environment: Social isolation; death of parents; poverty; Stigmatization;
disruption in interpersonal relationships; lack of social support; inability to mingle
with other people
Attitudes: Low self-concept; lack of self-confidence; poor social skills; history of
violent behavior; feeling overwhelmed by symptoms; difficulty in expressing
-fai
emotions cond

Stressors: inadequate food; social
isolation; poor support system; lack b
of friends; inability to express
emotions and control anger

Experiences and develops crisis

Tries to cope with crisis using habitual-problem solving response
and adaptive coping mechanisms.
- Client verbalized, that he would concentrate on his plants and
farm to keep his mind occupied. He used to go out on weekends
and sing videoke by himself and drink a bottle of beer then he
would take a swim. He never mentioned friends. Drinking for our
client was a way for him to relax. Client mentioned that he
smoked sometimes, but not always because it makes him cough.

Failure to be relieved from crisis causes
increase in tension

Impaired ego integrity
Biological Factors
---------------------------------------------
Genetics:Based on the principle that some people inherit a biological predisposition to schizophrenia, is
supported by studies of several kinds, including twin studies, adoption studies, and chromosomal mapping
studies. -- according to our client, his older brother has schizophrenia. He also has a cousin on his father's side that has
schizophrenia.
Biological Views: This attempts to identify the biological abnormalities that are inherited or developed by
persons with schizophrenia. The two most likely candidates are biochemical abnormalities and abnormal
brain structures. The predominant biochemical explanation of schizophrenia focuses on an unusually high
level of activity in neurons that used the neurotransmitter dopamine. There is evidence that the brains of
schizophrenic people contain an unusually large number of dopamine receptors. In addition, modern brain
imaging techniques have detected abnormal brain structures in schizophrenic people. The most typical
abnormality is the presence of enlarged ventricles. --unfortunately, the tests needed are very expensive
and our client and his family cannot afford them.

Environmental Factors Financial Factors
--------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------
Client is usually left alone in the house or is - he is given a small amountof money
left with the helper. for his needs, around P100/week, as
- relatives avoid him because they fear that claimed.
he
might hurt them.
his house is located far from the town, and he doesn't
have that many neighbors.
- his brother lives with him, but they don't get along
well.
DEFENSE MECHANISMS

Denial Projection Reaction Formation
ailure to acknowledge an unbearable -unconscious blaming of unacceptable -Development of conscious attitudes
ndition; failure to admit the reality of inclinations or thoughts on an external and behavior patterns that are opposite
a situation object. Projection relates to the to what one really feels or would like to
-------------------------------------- development of paranoid delusions and do.
- when asked about stabbing his auditory hallucinations. -----------------------------------------------------
brother he says, "Ok raman to. wala ----------------------------------------------------our -Inappropriately smiles while talking
man ni dugo." client suffered from auditory hallucinations about
prior to admision. verbalized, "naa'y stabbing his brother.
niingon nako nga dungabon nako ako - when asked if his brother, the one he
brother. mura kog na devilan ato." stabbed, has visited him he smiles and
says "Wala."

Prolonged use of defense mechanisms

Ego weakens and eventually breaks

Negative Symptoms Positive Symptoms
-lapses of incoherence - Violent behavior: stabbed his
- inappropriate affect: smiles while talking about brother at the leg
stabbing his brother - had auditory hallucinations before
- poor rapport with others admission
- inadequate social and occupational skills - has more than one pair of slipperrs.
- "gimingaw nako sa amo. ganahan nako mo uli," as verbalized. verbalized, "mabasa man gud nang usa.
- Short attention span, and brings up the same maong mag-ilis kog laing tsinelas para
topic again and again mamala."
- has trouble sequencing events prior to stabbing his brother, but - Mannerism
can clearly remember events after that -destroys his t-shirts and things when
- has difficulty in expressing his feelings and dealing with them overwhelmed with emotions, as claimed
appropriately,as claimed

Residual Schizophrenia