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By Syed Ali, DeWitt Clinton High School I. Review of Concepts The best way to figure out how much you know in Math B material is to take a regents exam. Teachers recommend working from the most recent exam to the oldest. Don’t do any actual studying for your first practice test. Note the ones you have even a little trouble with. Then, use sheets like this and the Barron’s Let’s Review Math B book. MBV14/MBV23 I. Basic Algebra Review A. The Rules of Exponents 1. (xm)(xn) = xm + n 2. 3. (xm)n = xmn 4. (xm)(ym)=(xy)m 5. B. Factoring 1. FOIL (multiplying “First, Outer, Inner, Last” monomials in each

binomial respectively):

(a + b)(c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd 2. Difference of Squares: a2 – b2 = (a – b)(a + b) 3. Square of Binomial: a2 + 2ab + b2 = (a + b)2 C. Quadratic Formula Where ax2 + bx + c D. Inequalities 1. means OR; means AND. 2. Inequalities whose answers will be conjunctions have < or ≤ Conjunction Ex: -1 < x < 1 3. Inequalities whose answers will be disjunctions have > or ≥ Disjunction Ex: x < -n or x > n II. Rational Expressions, Algebra, etc. A. Absolute Value 1. Rule: If |x|=k where k is positive, then: x = k or x = −k 2. a. Rule#1: If |x|<k (where k is positive), then the solution set is –k<x<k (conjunction) {x| (x>-k) (x<k)}

b. Rule#2: If |x|>k (where k is positive), then the solution set is the disjunction {x| (x>-k) (x<k)} 3. Word Problems Ex: At Jennifer’s sweet 16 party, all of her friends were within 6 months of her age, a. |a – 16| ≤ 0.5 On the regents, if a graph is given and you are asked to determine which equation is correct, it is okay to plug each in and see which matches. This is the graph of y=|x| B. Radicals

1. 2. Don’t take square roots of exponents! Ex: 3. Divide the exponents of the radicand by the index. 4. To divide radicals Take the square root of numerator and denominator if possible. Divide radicand in numerator by radicand in denominator if possible. Change the radicand in denominator into a perfect square (or cube), if possible.—Remember to multiply numerator & denominator by the same number. 5. Rule: MULTIPLY FIRST then simplify. 6. In order to rationalize a denominator, multiply by both numerator and denominator by its conjugate (in a binomial, the same terms with the opposite sign between them). Ex: 7. *NOTE*: Unless the directions ask for positive answer, it is ±!! C. Rational Expressions 1. When adding/subtracting rational expressions with the same monomial denominators, keep the denominator the same and add/subtract the numerator. Afterwards try to simply the entire expression. 2. Quadratic Formula Where ax2 + bx + c 4. Rational Exponents where n is a counting number. D. Imaginary Numbers

1. i = 2. A pure imaginary number is any number that can be expressed in the form bi where b is any real number such that b≠0 and i is the imaginary unit. 3. In general, for any real Remainde 0 1 2 3 number b, where b > 0: rs Answers 1 i −1 − 4. i0=1 i1 = i i i2 = 1 i3 = −i

5. A complex number is any number that can be expressed in the form of a + bi where a and b are any real numbers and i is the imaginary unit. (i.e. 3+5i) 6. Vector: a directed line segment

7.

8. The conjugate of a+bi is a-bi. When you multiply two conjugates, the answer is a real number. 9. The multiplicative inverse (reciprocal) of a +bi is E. Quadratics 1. Discriminant b2-4ac Value of Discriminant Nature of Roots ax2 +bx +c=0 2 b -4ac > 0, real, rational, unequal and b2-4ac is a perfect square. b2-4ac > 0, and b2-4ac is real, irrational, unequal NOT a perfect square. b2-4ac = 0 real, rational, equal .

b2-4ac < 0 imaginary 1) The roots are real when the discriminant ≥ 0. 2) The roots of a quadratic equation are equal when the discriminant equals zero. 3) Roots are the same as x-intercepts!!! 2. a. The sum of the roots b. The product of the roots 3. To write a quadratic equation given its roots, use the sum of the roots formula and the product of the roots formula above. F. Functions 1. relation: set of ordered pairs. Use “R” or “r” to abbreviate relation. 2. domain: set of x-values; range: set of y-values 3. A function is a special relation in which each element of the domain corresponds to 1 and only 1 element in the range. In a function, there is only 1 y value for every x value. 3. Vertical line test to determine if it is a function. 4. Restricted domain & range

Example: f(x) = 7≥0

What are possible values?

3x + 3x = - 7 x= − 7/3

Domain = x ≥ − 7/3 5. Function Notation In Symbols 1. f: x x + 3

In Words 1. Under function f, x maps to x + 3 OR Function f pairs x with x + 3 OR The image of x under function f is x + 3. 2. Same as #1. 2. 3. f(x) = x + 3 3. f of x equals x + 3. 4. f = {(x,y)|y = x + 3} 4. Function f is the set of ordered pairs (x,y) such that y equals x+3. 5. y = x + 3 5. y equals x + 3. 6. Composition of functions is an expression where 1 function follows another. First function is applied to the result of the second. (not commutative!!!)

Ex: (F ∙ G)(x) or F(G(x)) G. Exponential Functions and Logarithms (MBV24 starts here) 1. Graphs of Exponential Functions Form: y = bx where b is positive and does not equal 1. Memorize this compared to logarithmic, trigonometric, and other graphs. (

2. A logarithm is just another way for writing an exponent. y = bx is the same as logby= x Add the log on to the first (result) side, and bring the base down to the lower part of the log and keep the result as the upper part of the log. The exponent becomes a regular number. 3. Common Logs are exponents to the base 10. If no base is written for the log, you must presume it to be 10. Note that logs of decimals are negative. 4. Product of Logarithms Log ab = Log a + Log b 5. Quotient of Logarithms 6. Power Rule of Logarithms II. Coordinate Geometry (MBV23 & 24 Con.) A. Transformations Reflections rx-axis A(x,y) = A’(x, −y) ry-axis A(x,y) = A’(−x, y) rorigin A(x,y) = A’(−x, −y) ry = x A(x,y) = A’(y, x) ry = -x A(x,y) = A’(−y, −x) Translations Tg,h (x,y) = (x+g, y+h) Rotations R90° (x,y) = (−y, x) R180° (x,y) = (−x, −y) R270° (x,y) = (y, −x) Dilations Df (x,y) = (x × f, y × f) B. Isometry 1. An isometry is a transformation which preserves length. LogbAc= c LogbA

Line reflections, rotations and translations NOT dilations. 2. A direct isometry preserves orientation as well as length. Rotations, Translations 3. An opposite isometry reverses orientation. Line Reflections III. Trigonometry A. The Six Trigonometric Functions Cosecant, Secant, and Cotangent are reciprocal trigonometric functions!!! Easy way to rmbr: c is opposite of s! B. Pos/Neg. of Trig. Functions With Regards to Angle Measure 1. The first figure shows the quadrants of the coordinate plane. 2. Certain trigonometric functions are positive in certain quadrants. The second figure () shows which are where. The burgundy shows a popular acronym used to memorize them. C. Degrees & Radians 1. where θ= central angle measure r = radius s = length of intercepted arc 2. 3. When converting radians to degrees, multiply by When converting degrees to radians, multiply the angle by D. Angle Measures to Know 0° 30° 45° 60 ° Sin θ 0 ½ Cos θ Tan θ 1 0 1 ½

90° 1 0 Unde f.

1 80° 0 -1 0

270° -1 1 Unde f.

3 60° 0 1 0

F. How to Find the Reference Angle 1. Use the For θ is the ref. angle! Note: Always use axis with these! G. Trigonometric 1.

chart: quadrant I,

the x-

Graphs

2. Amplitude and Period a. for sin and cosine curves, the equations are y = a sin bx or y = a sin bx b. frequency = b (number of whole curves in 2 π) c. amplitude is –|a| ≤ y ≤ |a| (range) d. period (length of the interval needed for 1 full curve)

Sorry, I got lazy here and refused to go on to do the Geometry unit. All you have to do for the geometry section staple together a bunch of Mr. Barry’s handouts and formula sheets.

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