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Code No: 52208/MT

M.Tech. II-Semester Examinations, August/September-2007.

ADVANCED DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

(Common to Power Electronics & Electric Drives and Electrical Power

Systems)

Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 60

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

(1 − α ) 1 − Z −1

1.a) The transfer function of a tunable low pass filter is H Lp ( Z ) = .

Z 1 − α Z −1

⎛ ω ⎞ (1 − α )

Show that the cut-off frequency ωc is given by tan ⎜⎜ c ⎟⎟ = . Next show

⎝ 2 ⎠ (1 + α )

⎛ω ⎞

1 − tan ⎜ c ⎟

that the above filter is stable for a value of α given by α= ⎝2 ⎠ .

⎛ω ⎞

1 + tan ⎜ c ⎟

⎝2 ⎠

b) What is a Bounded Real (BR) function? Consider the transfer function

M −1

H(z) given by H ( z) =

1

M ∑ A ( z)

i =0

i where Ai(z) are stable real-coefficient all-pass

functions. Show that H(z) is a BR function.

**2.a) Realize the following FIR transfer function in lattice form
**

H(z) = 1+1.1 z-1+1.22 z-2+.12z-3–0.08 z-4.

b) Realize the following transfer function in the form of a parallel connection

5 − z −1

of two all-pass filters H ( z) = .

6 − 4 z −1

**3.a) Show that the frequency response of an Nth order low-pass Butterworth
**

filter is maximally flat at Ω=0 in the sense that the first 2N-1 derivatives

of |H(jΩ)|2 are equal to zero at Ω=0.

b) If Ha(s) is a third order type I chebyshev low pass filter with a cut-off

frequency Ωp=1 and ε=0.1, find Ha(s).

**4.a) Find the least-squares FIR inverse filter of length 3 for the system that
**

⎧2 n = 0

⎪

has a unit sample response g (n) = ⎨1 n = 1 . Also find the least square

⎪0 elsewhere

⎩

error for the inverse filter.

b) Let H(z) be the transfer function of a low pass digital filter with a pass-

band edge at wp, stop-band edge at ws, passband ripple δp and stop band

ripple δ5. Consider a cascade of two identical filters with transfer

function H(z). What are the pass band and stop band ripples of the

cascade at wp and ws, respectively. Generalize the results for a cascade

of M identical sections.

Contd….2

Code No: 52208/MT -2-

**5.a) Develop the flow-graph for the computation of an 8-point DFT based on
**

spilt-radix algorithm. What is the total number of real multiplications

needed to implement this algorithm? How does this number compare

with that required in a radix-2 DITFFT algorithm? Ignore the

multiplications with ±1 and ±j.

b) Show that the range of 32-bit floating point number in the IEEE

standard is from 1.18 × 10-38 to 3.4 × 1038.

**6.a) Develop the noise model for the product round-off noise analysis of the
**

structure given in figure. Determine the normalized output round-off

noise variance of the structure due to product round-off before

summation and after summation.

**b) Show that the coupled form structure given in figure will not support
**

zero input limit cycles under magnitude quantization.

**7.a) Give the definition of periodogram for spectral estimation. Derive an
**

expression for the variance of periodogram.

b) An MA(2) process is described by the difference equation x(n) = w(n)

+0.81 w(n-2) where w(n) is a white noise process with variance σ w2 .

Determine the parameters of AR (2) model that provide a minimum

mean-square error fit to the data x(n).

**8. Write notes on the following:
**

(a) Low passband sensitivity FIR digital filter.

(b) Round-off errors in FFT algorithm.

(c) Welch method of spectral estimation.

---

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