You are on page 1of 2


Code No: 52208/MT
M.Tech. II-Semester Examinations, August/September-2007.
(Common to Power Electronics & Electric Drives and Electrical Power
Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 60
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks
(1 − α ) 1 − Z −1
1.a) The transfer function of a tunable low pass filter is H Lp ( Z ) = .
Z 1 − α Z −1
⎛ ω ⎞ (1 − α )
Show that the cut-off frequency ωc is given by tan ⎜⎜ c ⎟⎟ = . Next show
⎝ 2 ⎠ (1 + α )
⎛ω ⎞
1 − tan ⎜ c ⎟
that the above filter is stable for a value of α given by α= ⎝2 ⎠ .
⎛ω ⎞
1 + tan ⎜ c ⎟
⎝2 ⎠
b) What is a Bounded Real (BR) function? Consider the transfer function
M −1
H(z) given by H ( z) =
M ∑ A ( z)
i =0
i where Ai(z) are stable real-coefficient all-pass

functions. Show that H(z) is a BR function.

2.a) Realize the following FIR transfer function in lattice form
H(z) = 1+1.1 z-1+1.22 z-2+.12z-3–0.08 z-4.
b) Realize the following transfer function in the form of a parallel connection
5 − z −1
of two all-pass filters H ( z) = .
6 − 4 z −1

3.a) Show that the frequency response of an Nth order low-pass Butterworth
filter is maximally flat at Ω=0 in the sense that the first 2N-1 derivatives
of |H(jΩ)|2 are equal to zero at Ω=0.
b) If Ha(s) is a third order type I chebyshev low pass filter with a cut-off
frequency Ωp=1 and ε=0.1, find Ha(s).

4.a) Find the least-squares FIR inverse filter of length 3 for the system that
⎧2 n = 0

has a unit sample response g (n) = ⎨1 n = 1 . Also find the least square
⎪0 elsewhere

error for the inverse filter.
b) Let H(z) be the transfer function of a low pass digital filter with a pass-
band edge at wp, stop-band edge at ws, passband ripple δp and stop band
ripple δ5. Consider a cascade of two identical filters with transfer
function H(z). What are the pass band and stop band ripples of the
cascade at wp and ws, respectively. Generalize the results for a cascade
of M identical sections.
Code No: 52208/MT -2-

5.a) Develop the flow-graph for the computation of an 8-point DFT based on
spilt-radix algorithm. What is the total number of real multiplications
needed to implement this algorithm? How does this number compare
with that required in a radix-2 DITFFT algorithm? Ignore the
multiplications with ±1 and ±j.
b) Show that the range of 32-bit floating point number in the IEEE
standard is from 1.18 × 10-38 to 3.4 × 1038.

6.a) Develop the noise model for the product round-off noise analysis of the
structure given in figure. Determine the normalized output round-off
noise variance of the structure due to product round-off before
summation and after summation.

b) Show that the coupled form structure given in figure will not support
zero input limit cycles under magnitude quantization.

7.a) Give the definition of periodogram for spectral estimation. Derive an
expression for the variance of periodogram.
b) An MA(2) process is described by the difference equation x(n) = w(n)
+0.81 w(n-2) where w(n) is a white noise process with variance σ w2 .
Determine the parameters of AR (2) model that provide a minimum
mean-square error fit to the data x(n).

8. Write notes on the following:
(a) Low passband sensitivity FIR digital filter.
(b) Round-off errors in FFT algorithm.
(c) Welch method of spectral estimation.