Question 1 CONSIDER

Answer CONSIDER does not have anything followed after it. CONSIDER TO BE is incorrect. CONSIDER is correct. Categorize the answer choices into two categories: One category with two choices and the other with three choices based on their grammatical differences. LIKE cannot introduce examples (SUCH AS must be used instead). LIKE is equivalent to "SIMILAR TO, BUT NOT NECESSARILY INCLUDING"

Example I CONSIDER this an excellent solution.

Source

Questio n Type

Topic

2

2-3 SPLIT

X - A) After gradual declension down O - B) Following a gradual declension down X - C) After gradual declining down X - D) After gradually declining O - E) Following gradually declining [Although William Pereira first gained national recognition for his movie set designs, INCLUDING those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind"] …. Is preferred over [Although William Pereira first gained national recognition for his movie set designs, LIKE those for the 1942 film "Reap the Wild Wind" ]

OG11 SC 12, MGMAT SC Ch 1 p14

SC

GMC, Diction, Rhetorical Constructio n GMC

3

INCLUDING versus LIKE

MGMAT SC Ch 1 p15

SC

4

FUTURE [noun] [verb] versus FUTURE [noun] WILL [verb]

5

AND SO [VERB]

Future [noun] [verb] is always preferred over Future [noun] will [verb]. Alternatively, another acceptable preference is [Noun] will [verb] because there is no redundancy. Future and will should not coexist together in the same phrase [VERB] must be agreeable and usable with the noun referred to in the sentence.

"FUTURE generations remember" is preferred over "FUTURE generations WILL remember"

MGMAT SC Ch 1 p15

SC

GMC

"The STUDENTS came to school without their mittens AND SO WERE unable to go to recess" is correct unlike "The STUDENTS came to school without their mittens AND SO WAS unable to go to recess." "DOESEVERYONE HAVE HIS OR HER book?" is correct unlike "DO/DOES EVERYONE HAVE THEIR BOOK?" "EVERYONE HAS HIS book" "EVERYONE, HAVE a good time!" (equivalent to "Joe and Mary, HAVE a good time!") "He has money" "He DOES HAVE money" "He DOES NOT HAVE money"

MGMAT SC Ch 1 p16

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

6

EVERYONE [VERB] [PRONOUN] [object noun]

7

HELPING or AUXILIARY VERBS + [INFINITIVE]

EVERYONE is singular. So a singular [VERB] or [PRONOUN] must be used. However, if a question exists, the [VERB] becomes an infinitive when a helping verb exists (e.g., DO conjugations) For an imperative or exclamation case, the [VERB] must be plural. 28 auxiliary verbs exist BE: is, are, am was, were BE (non-finite forms): be, being, been DO: do, does, did MODALS: will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, must, ought, dare, need ECONOMICAL means thrifty or efficient. ECONOMIC means monetary or having to do with money. AGGRAVATE means "worsen". AGGRAVATING means "irritating".

MGMAT SC Ch2 p19

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

http://www.englishforums.co m/English/DoAndDoesHasAn dHave/bjgd/post.htm
MGMAT SC Ch2 p20

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

8

ECONOMIC versus ECONOMICAL

9

AGGRAVATE versus AGGRAVATING

My decision to drive a hybrid car was motivated by ECONOMIC considerations (monetary) ECONOMICAL considerations motivated my decision to drive a hybrid car (cheap, thrifty, efficient) He AGGRAVATED the delicate situation so that diplomacy became impossible He was very AGGRAVATING so that he did not have any friends RIGHT: His behavior AGGRAVATED the problem (MADE WORSE) WRONG: His behavior WAS AGGRAVATING TO the problem (WAS ANNOYING TO)

SC

Idioms

Page

MGMAT SC Ch2 p20

SC

Idioms

1
10 KNOWN AS versus KNOWN TO BE LOSS OF versus LOSS IN KNOWN AS means "named". KNOWN TO BE means "acknowledged as" LOSS OF means "no longer in possession of". LOSS IN means "decline in value" 11

Saint Nicholas is KNOWN AS Santa Claus. The CEO was KNOWN TO BE one of the founders of the company The Emperor incurred a LOSS OF clothes in the fable. The banker incurred a LOSS IN his portfolio

MGMAT SC Ch2 p20

SC

Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch2 p20

SC

Idioms

12

MANDATE [THAT] [INFINITIVE (without "to" for subjunctive sentences)] OR MANDATE [THAT] [X] be [Y] versus HAVE A MANDATE REQUIRE [THAT] [X] BE [Y] versus REQUIRE / REQUIRING [X] TO [Y] versus REQUIRING [THAT] [X - noun] [Y unconjugated verb] versus REQUIRING THAT X AND Y versus REQUIRING THAT X, Y versus REQUIRING THAT X TO DO Y

MANDATE means "command". HAVE A MANDATE means "have authority from voters" Require also needs [THAT] [INFINITIVE (without "to" for subjunctive sentences AKA the unconjugated verb] as well.

The president MANDATED that the bill be passed The Congress has a mandate to declare war.

MGMAT SC Ch2 p20

SC

Idioms

13

RIGHT: REQUIRE [THAT] [X] BE [Y] REQUIRE / REQUIRING [X] TO [Y] REQUIRING [THAT] [X - noun] [Y - unconjugated verb] REQUIRING THAT X AND Y REQUIRING THAT X, Y WRONG REQUIRING THAT X TO DO Y I. a. require a b b. require b of a c. require of a b II. A. require a to V A2. require S, V ("to be" form) b. require A that S V ("to be" form) (EXAMPLE: she disclose (not she discloses)) c. require of A that S V ("to be" form) NATIVE OF means "person from". NATIVE TO means "species that originated in" RANGE OF means "variety of". RANGING means "varying"

http://www.urch.com/forums/gmatsentence-correction/104784-sc-1000q228.html http://gmatclub.com/forum/railwayroadbed-81675.html http://www.scribd.com/doc/7153330/Senten ce-Corrections-Practice http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ridl ey-turtle-t6594.html http://gmatclub.com/forum/sc-legislation-inthe-canadian-province-of-ontario32996.html#p226241 http://gmatclub.com/forum/sc-require-tovs-require-that-64020.html#p468167 http://www.urch.com/forums/gmatsentence-correction/5169-medicarequestion.html http://www.beatthegmat.com/gorton-toddt31980.html OG 12 SC 53

14 15

NATIVE OF versus NATIVE TO RANGE OF versus RANGING

I am a NATIVE OF India. The kangaroo is NATIVE TO Australia He has a wide range of skills as shown by his ability to type, read, write, and more. The temperature ranging from -40 to 100 degrees Celcius is normal for this region.

MGMAT Ch2 p20 MGMAT Ch2 p20

SC SC

Idioms Idioms

16

RATE OF versus RATES FOR

RATE OF refers to the "speed or frequency of" an object. RATES FOR refers to the "prices for" or "prices charged" a certain commodity.

The car was traveling at a rate of 60 MPH. The rates for the stock price are $40 or $50. WRONG: Officials report that soaring RATES of liability insurance are a problem RIGHT: Officials report that soaring RATES FOR liability insurance are a problem

MGMAT Ch2 p20, OG Verbal SC 76

SC

Idioms

17

RISE versus RAISE

RISE refers to a "general increase". RAISE refers to "a bet or salary increase" or "to introduce a point" TRY TO DO means "seek to accomplish". TRY DOING means "experiment with or examine something" TRY TO REACH is preferred TRY IN REACHING

The temperatures of the region rise every morning. The boss raises the salary of his group every year.

MGMAT Ch2 p21

SC

Idioms

Page

18 19

LAY versus LIE TRY TO DO versus TRY DOING TRY TO REACH versus TRY IN REACHING I will try to do this task so that it will be finished He will try doing the speech, but he does not write nor speak well.At first we tried to push the door open but it was stuck and so in the end we tried using a hammer and it suddenly opened.RIGHT: They TRIED TO REACH the summit and SUCCEED IN DOING SOWRONG: They TRIED IN REACHING the summit and SUCCEEDED TO DO so

MGMAT Ch2 p20 MGMAT Ch2 p21

SC SC

Idioms Idioms

2

20

HELPING or AUXILIARY VERBS + [INFINITIVE] DIFFERENCE 1/3: WILL versus MAY

WILL implies certainty. May implies Uncertainty.

Certain: The drop in the interest rates WILL create better investment opportunities. Uncertain: The drop in the interest rates MAY create better investment opportunities.

MGMAT Ch2 p21

SC

Idioms

21

HELPING or AUXILIARY VERBS + [INFINITIVE] DIFFERENCE 2/3: MUST versus SHOULD

MUST implies absolutely necessary. SHOULD implies morally obliged and NOT Likelihood.

Absolutely Necessary: The court ruled that the plaintiff MUST pay full damages. Morally Obliged: The court ruled that the plaintiff SHOULD pay full damages. Note that the second example is incorrect since the court cannot impose a moral obligation onto a plaintiff. It can only impose a binding resolution, which SHOULD does, like in the first sentence

MGMAT Ch2 p21

SC

Idioms

22

HELPING or AUXILIARY VERBS + [INFINITIVE] DIFFERENCE 3/3: VERB versus WOULD + VERB

23

MODIFIER PLACEMENT 1

VERB only implies a cause and effect event. WOULD DISCUSS implies a hypothetical event may or may not occur. VERB = If this did indeed happen, then that is the consequence. WOULD + VERB = If this were to happen, then that would be the consequence. Changing the placement of the modifier changes the meaning of the sentence.

Actual: If Chris and Jad met, they DISCUSSED mathematics. Hypothetical If Chris and Jad met, they would discuss mathematics.

MGMAT Ch2 p21

SC

Idioms

ALL the children are covered in mud. The children are ALL covered in mud. The first ALL modifies the number of children. The second ALL modifies the extent of the covering of mud.

MGMAT Ch2 p22

SC

Meaning, GMC

24

MODIFIER PLACEMENT 2

Changing the placement of the modifier changes the meaning of the sentence.

ONLY the council votes on Thursdays. The council votes ONLY on Thursdays. The first ONLY states that the council alone votes. The second ONLY states that the council votes on one day only, which is Thursday.

MGMAT Ch2 p22

SC

Meaning, GMC

25

AMBIGUITY

Make sure the verb and phrases are well defined and directly modifying the subject

The council granted the right to make legal petitions to CITY OFFICIALS Did the city officials receive the right to make legal petitions OR did someone else receive the right to make petitions TO THE OFFICIALS? The council granted CITY OFFICIALS the right to make legal petitions THe right to make legal petitions TO CITY OFFICIALS was granted by the council

MGMAT Ch2 p22

SC

Overall Word Order, GMC

26

AMBIGUITY

Make sure the verb and phrases are well defined and directly modifying the subject

Awkward: A referendum is a general public vote through which IS PASSED A LAW OR OTHER PROPOSAL. Better: A referendum is a general public vote through which A LAW OR OTHER PROPOSAL IS PASSED . Avoid unnecessary inversions.

MGMAT Ch2 p22

SC

Overall Word Order, GMC

Page

3

27

DIFFER versus HAVE DIFFERENCES HOW versus THE WAY IN WHICH INVEST versus MAKE INVESTMENTS ROSE by X% INCREASE versus INCREASED by X% versus ROSE by X%

DIFFER is less wordy than HAVE DIFFERENCES and hence preferred. HOW is less wordy than THE WAY IN WHICH and hence preferred. Invest is less wordy than MAKE INVESTMENTS

Wordy: They HAVE DIFFERENCES over THE WAY IN WHICH the company should make INVESTMENTS in new technologies. Wordy: They HAVE DIFFERENCES over THE WAY IN WHICH the company should make INVESTMENTS in new technologies. Wordy: They HAVE DIFFERENCES over THE WAY IN WHICH the company should make INVESTMENTS in new technologies. Wordy: The value of the stock ROSE by a 10% INCREASE. Better: The value of the stock INCREASED by 10% OR Better: The value of the stock ROSE by 10%.

MGMAT Ch2 p22

SC

Concision, GMC Concision, GMC Concision, GMC Redundanc y, GMC

28

MGMAT Ch2 p22

SC

29

MGMAT Ch2 p22

SC

30

ROSE and INCREASE describe an amount of increase. Having them together is redundant. Likewise with the converse with DROP and DECREASE.

MGMAT Ch2 p23

SC

31

SUM TO a TOTAL versus SUM TO versus TOTAL

SUM TO and TOTAL describe an amount that is aggregated. Having them together is redundant

Wordy: The three prices SUM TO a total of $11.56. Better: The three prices SUM TO $11.56. OR Better: The three prices TOTAL $11.56 Wordy: He is seen as being dumb. Better: He is dumb. TIME REFERENCE EXAMPLES Past: Previously, Formerly, In the past, Before now Present: Now, Currently, Presently, At present Yearly: Annual, Each year, A year (e.g., three launches a year) Future: After, subsequently The cost of PS3 for me is $400. The cost to me for the PS3 is $400. I impeled my sister to buy candies for me by making her feel guilt. I impaled the pinata with my stick to win the candies. You better behave as though you were richer than Bill Gates! THE FACT THAT he is smart means that he is capable Because he is smart, he is capable Wordy: The value of the stock DROPPED by a 10% DECREASE. Better: The value of the stock DECREASED by 10%ORBetter: The value of the stock DROPPED by 10%.

MGMAT Ch2 p23

SC

Redundanc y, GMC

32

BEING

33

TIME REDUNDANCIES

BEING does not add to the meaning of the sentence so it is almost always wrong. It can be right if other choices are grammatically wrong. A sentence containing a reference to time should not contain duplicate references to that same period of time.

MGMAT Ch2 p23

SC

Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC

MGMAT Ch2 p23

SC

34 35

COST OF X versus COST TO X IMPEL versus IMPALE

36 37 38

AS THOUGH THE FACT THAT DROPPED by X% DECREASE versus DECREASED by X% versus DECREASE by X % CONSTITUTE A [NOUN] TO versus [VERB form of NOUN] IT IS POSSIBLE THAT versus MAY HAVE CAUSED versus HAVE BEEN CAUSAL TO SUSPECT versus HAVE A SUSPICION X IS TRYING versus OF THERE BEING AN ATTEMPT BY X ARE READY versus ARE IN READINESS WHATEVER MAY HAPPEN versus WHATEVER IT IS THAT MAY HAPPEN IT WAS…THAT HASTILY versus WITH HASTE ADVERB versus with VERB EXPECTED versus HAD THE EXPECTATION ORDER versus BE PLACING AN ORDER FOR

COST TO X is what X has to pay. COST OF X is what somebody has to pay to buy X. To IMPEL is to force someone to do something. To IMPALE something is to pierce that something with a sharp object. AS THOUGH is used to describe things that are untrue or did not happen THE FACT THAT is useless DROP and DECREASE describe an amount of substraction. Having them together is redundant. Likewise with the converse with ROSE and INCREASE.

MGMAT Ch2 p25 MGMAT Ch2 p25

SC SC

Idiom GMC

MGMAT Ch2 p25 MGMAT Ch2 p25 MGMAT Ch2 p25

SC SC SC

GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC

39

VERB of a noun is preferable because it is less wordy than CONSTITUTE A [NOUN] TO IT IS POSSIBLE and MAY both experess uncertainty so only one is needed in a sentence HAVE CAUSED is preferred over HAVE BEEN CAUSAL TO because of wordiness and passive voice. SUSPECT is preferred over HAVE A SUSPICION because of wordiness X IS TRYING is preferred over OF THERE BEING AN ATTEMPT BY X because of wordiness ARE READY is preferred over ARE IN READINESS because of wordiness WHATEVER MAY HAPPEN is preferred over WHATEVER IT IS THAT MAY HAPPEN because of wordiness IT WAS … THAT is wordy and useless. Hastily is preferred over with haste because of wordiness

WORDY: Electronic devices can constitute a distraction to a driver BETTER: Electronic devices can distract a driver WORDY: IT IS POSSIBLE THAT John MAY finish on time. BETTER: IT IS POSSIBLE THAT John can finish on time OR John MAY finish on time WORDY: He may HAVE BEEN CAUSAL to the accident. BETTER: He may HAVE CAUSED the accident WORDY: BETTER: WORDY: BETTER: WORDY: BETTER: WORDY: BETTER: He has a suspicion He suspects. He is suspiciuos OF THERE BEING AN ATTEMPT BY X. X IS TRYING while he suspects. They They They They ARE ARE ARE ARE IN READINESS READY READY FOR WHATEVER IT IS THAT MAY HAPPEN READY FOR WHATEVER MAY HAPPEN

MGMAT Ch2 p25

SC

Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC

40

MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC

41

MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC

42 43

MGMAT Ch2 p26 MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC SC

Page

44 45

MGMAT Ch2 p26 MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC SC

4

46 47

WORDY: It was funny that he jumped. Better: His jump was funny WORDY: He performed with haste BETTER: He performed hastily

MGMAT Ch2 p26 MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC SC

Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC

48 49

EXPECTED is preferred over HAD THE EXPECTATION because of wordiness ORDER is preferred over BE PLACING AN ORDER FOR because of wordiness

WORDY: BETTER: WORDY: BETTER:

He He He He

HAD THE EXPECTATION of success expected to succeed IS PLACING AN ORDER FOR her. ORDERED FOR her.

MGMAT Ch2 p26 MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC SC

Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC

50

51 52

LAST LONG versus LAST FOR A LONG AMOUNT OF TIME HELP versus BE A HELP TO IMPROVE versus IN CAUSING IMPROVEMENT IN SHOWN versus SHOWN THAT NOT ACCOMPANIED versus UNACCOMPANIED WOULD, WILL for EXPECTATIONS

LAST LONG is preferred over LAST FOR A LONG AMOUNT OF TIME because of wordiness HELP is preferred over BE A HELP because of wordiness TO IMPROVE is preferred over IN CAUSING IMPROVEMENT IN because of wordiness SHOWN THAT is preferred over SHOWN because SHOWN is a reporting verb. NOT ACCOMPANIED is preferred over UNACCOMPANIED because NOT ACCOMPANIED more effectively expresses the intended negation. WOULD, WILL introduce the concept of EXPECTATIONS. Without this, the sentence would not make sense by making a logical shift in time.

WORDY: It LASTED FOR A LONG AMOUNT OF TIME BETTER: It LASTED LONG WORDY: BETTER: WORDY: BETTER: He He He He WAS A HELP HELPED was instrumental in CAUSING AN IMPROVEMENT IN the program was instrumental in improving the program

MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC

Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC Redundanc y, GMC GMC, Agreement, Diction GMC, Agreement, Diction

MGMAT Ch2 p26 MGMAT Ch2 p26

SC SC

53 54

INCORRECT: Studies have SHOWN he was smart CORRECT: Studies have SHOWN THAT he was smart UNCLEAR: Unaccomanied by her husband, the wife went shopping CLEARER: Not accompanied by her husband, the wife went shopping

MGMAT Ch2 p26 MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 12

SC SC

55

UNCLEAR: Retail sales rose in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in September more than doubled that of the growth rate for the previous quarter CLEARER: UNCLEAR: Retail sales rose in August, intensifying expectations that personal spending in September WOULD more than double the growth rate for the previous quarter

MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 16

SC

56

OR versus AND

OR implies that any of the items in the list are included in the list's criteria. AND implies that all of the items in the list must be inlucided in the list's criteria.

UNCLEAR: It has restricted items that do not contain "natural" components such as color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, AND anything synthesized CLEAR: It has restricted items that do not contain "natural" components such as color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, OR anything synthesized AND does not make sense since all of the items individually satisfy the lack of naturalness in the ingredients. OR accomplishes the individualism of the items in the list

MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 17

SC

GMC, Logical predication, Idiom

57

NOTHING versus ANYTHING, DOUBLE NEGATIVES

NOTHING implies that none of objects in this world can be used for a given criteria. ANYTHING implies that all of the objects can be used for a given criteria. NOT NOTHING is a double negative and should be avoided

UNCLEAR: It has restricted ingredients that do not contain "natural" components such as color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or NOTHING synthesized CLEAR: It has restricted ingredients that do not contain "natural" components such as color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or ANYTHING synthesized The use of double DO NOT or RESTRICT creates a DOUBLE NEGATIVE and reverses the intended meaning of NOT NOTHING into ANYTHING. Logically, a "natural" food cannot contain any prohibited ingredient so ANYTHING synthesized is correct

MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 17

SC

GMC, Logical predication, Idiom

Page

5

58

DANGLING MODIFIER

The phrase or subject must be close to the modifier for it to make sense. Otherwise a DANGLING MODIFIER exists in which it does not describe the appropriate subject and hence causes logical or grammatical confusion.

UNCLEAR: Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to ADULTHOOD, NOW drawing solid conclusions. CLEARER: NEUROSCIENTISTS, HAVING amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past wenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions ADULTHOOD is being modified by NOW when it should modify KNOWLEDGE instead. HAVING modifies NEUROSCIENTISTS, which is correct.

MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 21

SC

GMC, Logical predication, Grammatic al Constructio n

59

SUCH AS or SUCH X AS A AND B versus LIKE

SUCH AS means "for instance" and introduces examples. LIKE means "similar to, but not including" and not exactly.

Can you buy me some fruit SUCH AS apples or watermelon? I would like you to buy SUCH FRUIT AS apples and watermelon for me.I like to play sports like basketball and tennis.

MGMAT Ch2 p21

SC

Idioms

60

SO <ADJECTIVE/ADVERB> AS TO <VERB> SO <ADJECTIVE/ADVERB> AS <INFINITIVE> SAME TO X AS TO Y

SO X AS TO Y is NOT a correct idiom if <ADJECTIVE> and <ADVERB> is not used in that order. <SO> <AS> <TO> is incorrect as well. Note that so + adj/adv + as to is much more frequent than such + noun + as to

WRONG: Although schistosomiasis is not often fatal, SO debilitating is it AS TO become an economic drain. WRONG: Henry wanted to divorce from Catherine so as to marry Anne. CORRECT: It is SO debilitating AS TO become an economic drain. CORRECT: The features are SO unrealistic AS TO constitute an artificial face CORRECT: He was convinced that the puzzle would appear the SAME TO Sally AS TO Mary.

MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 32, OG 12 37, OG 10 SC 88, OG 12 SC 39 http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiomt2566.html http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/files/2009/0 5/free-gmat-flashcards.pdf

SC

Idiom

61

SO <ADVERB/ADJECTIVE> THAT JUST AS X Y

SO X THAT is only correct if X is an <ADVERB> or <ADJECTIVE>. JUST AS X SO is an idiom.

CORRECT: Among the cossacks, vegetable farming was once so despised that it was forbidden on pain of death. CORRECT: He is so happy that … CORRECT: So foul as to make a lady faint CORRECT: JUST AS gills are to fish, SO lungs are to humans. CORRECT: Xue Mei spoke so that we would stop asking her questions. CORRECT: The sales materials are presented at the end of the meetings so that the participants won't realize the meeting is actually a sales presentation.

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiomt2566.html http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/files/2009/0 5/free-gmat-flashcards.pdf http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiomt2566.html

SC

Idiom

62

SO THAT

SO THAT is equivalent to "in order that : I stopped so that you could catch up". It is used to introduce the RESULT or CONSEQUENCE.

SC

Idiom

63

SUCH <ADJECTIVE> <NOUN> THAT

SUCH <NOUN> is also correct. SUCH <X> THAT is correct only if X is composed of either a NOUN or a noun that is described (<ADJECTIVE> <NOUN>). The base of X has to be a NOUN. NOTE – such + noun + as to is much less common than so + adj/adv + as to

CORRECT: It was such a good new that I couldn’t wait to share it with my parents. CORRECT: Such changing conditions as seasonal and daily cycles or different planetary CORRECT: Such extraodinary fees CORRECT: Xue Mei spoke in such a way as to calm us down. CORRECT: The sales materials are presented in such a way as to encourage attendees to purchase the products on the spot.

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiomt2566.html

SC

Idiom

64

SUCH <NOUN=WAY, MANNER, ETC>> AS TO <VERB>

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma nhattan-sc-guide-has-an-incorrect-idiomt2566.html

SC

Idiom

65 66 67

SUCH X AS Y AND Z X ENOUGH TO NOT SO MUCH AS REASON IS … THAT versus REASON IS … BECAUSE REQUIRED <TO VERB / INFINITIVE> ….. BECAUSE OF …. REASON IS … THAT is preferred over the REASON IS … BECAUSE because REASON and BECAUSE are redundant together INCORRECT: The reason is because the weather is rainy. CORRECT: The reason is that the weather is rainy. MGMAT Ch2 p31, OG 12 SC 57 BECAUSE OF is a form of TO BE. It has to follow a NORMAL verb. Only ONE exception exists when it is preceded by "IT IS BECAUSE OF X THAT Y VERB" in which X and Y are parallel BECAUSE and WHICH are known as SUBORDINATORS. They cannot stand alone otherwise their sentences will become FRAGMENTS Sentences require a WORKING VERB in order for the sentence to be complete. WRONG: Today's delays IS BECAUSE OF the rain RIGHT: The train was delayed BECAUSE OF the rain RIGHT: IT IS ONLY BECAUSE OF LUCK THAT JIM SURVIVED the crash WRONG: BECAUSE the dog was never mine. WRONG: WHICH will be approved tomorrow http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/vie wtopic.php?f=31&t=648&view=previous

SC SC SC SC

Idiom Idiom Idiom Idiom

Page

68

6

69 70

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Idiom Sub/Verb Agreement

71

BECAUSE, WHICH

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p35

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

72

WORKING VERB

WRONG: The electron named in 1894 RIGHT: The electron WAS NAMED in 1894 RIGHT: Stoney NAMED the electron in 1894. The electron cannot name itself.

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p35

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

73

SUBJECT VERB MEANING

The SUBJECT and VERB must make literal MEANING and SENSE.

WRONG: The DEVELOPMENT of the hydrogen car based on expected performance parameters WILL BE ABLE TO TRAVEL hundreds of miles without refueling RIGHT: Once developed, a hydrogen CAR based on expected performance parameters WILL BE ABLE TO TRAVEL hundreds of miles without refueling, DEVELOPMENT cannot TRAVEL. HYDROGEN CAR only can TRAVEL.

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p36

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

74

MIDDLEMEN TO ELIMINATE 1/3: PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

75

MIDDLEMEN TO ELIMINATE 2/3: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

76

MIDDLEMEN TO ELIMINATE 3/3: OTHER MODIFIERS

77

STRUCTURING SENTENCES FOR SVA

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, SUBORDINATE CLAUSES, and OTHER MODIFIES are MIDDLEMEN that must be eliminated to target the SUBJECT so that it can AGREE with the appropriate VERB. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE is a group of words led by a PREPOSITION. Only exception are SANAM indefinite pronouns which precede PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, so their phrases' SUBJECTS determine the plurality. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, SUBORDINATE CLAUSES, and OTHER MODIFIES are MIDDLEMEN that must be eliminated to target the SUBJECT so that it can AGREE with the appropriate VERB. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES begin with connecting vrebs such as WHO or WHICH, words that cannot stand alone in a sentence. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES act as BIG ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, or NOUNS. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, SUBORDINATE CLAUSES, and OTHER MODIFIES are MIDDLEMEN that must be eliminated to target the SUBJECT so that it can AGREE with the appropriate VERB. OTHER MODIFIERS describe other portions of the sentence by acting as PRESENT PARTICIPLES (ING form of VERBS) and PAST PARTICIPLES (-ED and -EN forms of VERBS). COMMAS separate modifiers as well. A NOUN in a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE cannot be the SUBJECT of the sentence. Pick out what is vital and formulate an agreement.

OF mice, IN Zambia, TO the store, FOR milk, WITH her, ON their orders, BY 1800, AT that level, FROM the office NEAR GALWAY, the houses ON THE ROAD TO SPIDDLE are gorgeous the HOUSES ARE gorgeous

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p37

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

WHEN THE AUDITORS LEFT, the executive WHO HAD BEEN INTERVIEWED was glad. The EXECUTIVE WAS glad.

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p37

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

LIMPING, the horse ONCE CONSIDERED ONE OF THE FAVORITES was taken away The HORSE WAS taken away

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p37

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

WRONG: In the waning days of the emperor's life, the CONQUEST of new lands on the borders of the empire WERE CONSIDERED vital. RIGHT: In the wayning days of the emperor's life, the CONQUEST of new lands on the borders of the empire WAS considered vital WRONG: The tidal FORCES to which an OBJECT falling into a black hole ARE subjected IS sufficient to tear the object apart RIGHT: The tidal FORCES to which an OBJECT falling into a black hole IS subjected ARE sufficient to tear the object apart

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p38

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

Page

7

78

AND versus ADDITIVE PHRASES

AND always results in plural subjects. ADDITIVE PHRASES besides AND do NOT form plural subjects.

RIGHT: Joe AND his friends ARE going to the beach RIGHT: Math, Science, and History ARE his favorite subjectsADDITIVE PHRASES:ALONG WITH Polly, IN ADDITION to surgery, AS WELL AS the mayor, ACCOMPANIED BY me, TOGETHER WITH a tie, INCLUDING SALT and pepperRIGHT: Joe, AS WELL AS his friends, IS going to the beachRIGHT: Mathematics, IN ADDITION TO history and science, IS a required subject.

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p39

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

79

OR, EITHER … OR, and NEITHER … NOR

OR, EITHER … OR, and NEITHER … NOR link TWO NOUNS. The VERB should agree with the CLOSEST noun. COLLECTIVE NOUNS is a noun that LOOKS SINGULAR (does not end with s) but refers to a GROUP of people or objects. Only in RARE circumstances are COLLECTIVE NOUNS PLURAL when individual uinits rather than its unity are emphasized. INDEFINITE PRONOUN is not specific about the thing to which it refers.

RIGHT: NEITHER the coach NOR the PLAYERS ARE going to the beach RIGHT: NEITHER the players NOR the COACH is going to the beach

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p39

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

80

COLLECTIVE NOUNS: ALMOST ALWAYS SINGULAR

People: agency, army, audience, class, committee, crowd, orchestra, team Items: baggage, citrus, equipment, fleet, fruit, furniture RIGHT: The CROWD in the stands IS CHEERING loudly RIGHT: Our ARMY of hundred thousand soldiers IS attacking

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p40

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

81

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS: USUALLY SINGULAR

SINGULAR (note that ALL that end in -ONE, -BODY, -THING are included): ANYONE, ANYBODY, ANYTHING EACH, EVERY (as pronouns) EVERYONE, EVERYBODY, EVERYTHING NO ONE, NOBODY, NOTHING SOMEONE, SOMEBODY, SOMETHING WHATEVER, WHOEVER EITHER, NEITHER (may require a plural verb if paired with OR/NOR) FIVE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS can be PLURAL or SINGULAR with acronym SANAM: S - SOME A - ANY N - NONE A - ALL M - MORE / MOST / MANY

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p40

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

Page

82

SANAM INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS that can either be PLURAL or SINGULAR

FIVE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS can be PLURAL or SINGULAR with acronym SANAM: S - SOME A - ANY N - NONE A - ALL M - MORE / MOST Their PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES (e.g, -OF phrases) SUBJECTS determine the plurality. SOME OF the MONEY WAS stolen (MONEY = singular) SOME OF the DOCUMENTS WERE stolen.

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p40

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

8
83

EACH and EVERY

EACH and EVERY are INDEFINITE PRONOUNS that are ALWAYS SINGULAR. But note that EACH AFTER A SUBJECT is IRRELEVANT and only THAT SUBJECT is RELEVANT.

RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT:

EVERY dog HAS paws EVERY dog and cat HAS paws EACH of these shirts is pretty THEY EACH ARE great players.

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

84

85

THE NUMBER OF versus A NUMBER OF versus ITS NUMBERS / NUMBER THE MAJORITY versus A MAJORITY versus THE/A MAJORITY OF versus NONE versus NONE OF QUANTITY WORDS

THE NUMBER OF is always SINGULAR. A NUMBER OF IS ALWAYS PLURAL. ITS NUMBERS IS PLURAL and ARE acceptable. ITS NUMBER is SINGULAR and is also acceptable. THE MAJORITY is always SINGULAR. A MAJORITY is always PLURAL. THE/A MAJORITY OF … could be PLURAL or SINGULAR depending on the subject of the PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. NONE alone is SINGULAR. NONE OF … is SINGULAR or PLURAL depending on the prepositional SUBJECT These expressions also are exceptions like the SANAM to the ignore-preopositional-subjects rule. If you want to indicate that the many individual parts of the totality, use a plural verb. If you want to indicate the totality itself, then use a singular verb form.

RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT:

THE NUMBER OF students is quite large. A NUMBER OF students ARE hard workers. ITS NUMBERS ARE now close to zero. ITS NUMBER says the number 5 and not 6. THE MAJORITY students is quite large. A MAJORITY students ARE hard workers. THE MAJORITY OF students ARE hard workers. A MAJORITY OF students ARE hard workers. NONE IS smart NONE of them ARE smart HALF of the pie IS blueberry HALF of the SLICES are gone. The MAJORITY of the STUDENTS in this class ARE hard workers The MINORITY HAS coalesced into a unified voting block

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41 http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/the -gyrfalcon-an-arctic-bird-of-prey-hassurvived-a-close-t1926.html MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41 http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/sin gular-or-plural-t5837.html http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/us age-of-none-as-singular-or-pluralt4375.html MGMAT Ch3 SVA p41

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

86

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

Others: A NUMBER (NOT THE NUMBER), FRACTIONS, PERCENTS, PARTS, MAJORITY, MINORITY, PLURALITY

87

SUBJECT PHRASES AND CLAUSES

88

FLIP IT!

All -ING phrases or clauses are always SINGULAR. Also words like WHATEVER is always SINGULAR. SUBJECT PHRASES AND CLAUSES ARE ALWAYS SINGULAR. Flip confusing sentences to avoid the GMAT trap of picking the wrong subject.

RIGHT: HAVING good friends IS a good thing RIGHT: WHATEVER they want to do IS fine with me

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p42

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

WRONG: Near those buildings SIT a lonely HOUSE, inhabited by squatters. FLIP IT: A lonely HOUSE, inhabited by squatters, SITS near those buildingsRIGHT: Near those buildings SITS a lonely HOUSE, inhabited by squatters.WRONG: There IS a young man and an older woman at the bus stopFLIP IT: A YOUNG MAN AND AN OLDER WOMAN ARE there at the bus stopRIGHT: There ARE A YOUNG MAN AND AN OLDER WOMAN at the bus stop.UNCERTAIN: Pong is a classic game from which HAVE/HAS descended many current computer pastimes.FLIP IT: Pong is a classic game from which many current computer PASTIMES HAVE descended.Right: Pong is a classic game from which HAVE descended many current computer PASTTIMES.

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p42

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

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9

89

SUMMARY OF SVA

When in doubt, go with SINGULAR rather than PLURAL since most have SINGULAR forms.

SINGULAR: A SINGULAR subject linked to other nouns by an ADDITIVE PHRASE Collective nouns Most INDEFINITE PRONOUNS Subjects preceded by EACH or EVERY Subjects preceded by THE NUMBER OF SUBJECT PHRASES or CLAUSES PLURAL: SUBJECTS joined by AND SUBJECTS joined by A NUMBER OF THEY preceding EACH SINGULAR OR PLURAL: SUBJECTS joined by OR or NOR (closed subject to verb) SANAM indefinite pronouns Other NUMERICAL or QUANTITY words and phrases

MGMAT Ch3 SVA p43

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

90

ONE OF THE <PLURAL SUBJECTS> <SINGULAR VERB> ONE OF THE <PLURAL SUBJECTS> THAT <PLURAL VERB> THOSE / THAT in COMPARISONS If the descriptive phrase was placed in an adjective phrase, THOSE / THAT is required in parallel construction If the descriptive phrase was placed in an adverb phrase, THOSE / THAT is NOT required for paralellism EXCEPT FOR is correctly followed by a noun. EXCEPTING [NOUN] is ONLY used in negative constructions.

RIGHT: ONE of the STUDENTS IS cheating RIGHT: ONE of the STUDENTS THAT ARE cheating is dumb

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/po st28929.html#p28929

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

91

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/the -gyrfalcon-an-arctic-bird-of-prey-hassurvived-a-close-t1926-15.html

SC

Parallelism

92

EXCEPT FOR [NOUN] versus EXCEPTING [NOUN]

RIGHT: EXCEPT FOR A CONCERT PERFORMANCE that the composer himself staged in 1911 WRONG: EXCEPTING A CONCERT PERFORMANCE that the composer himself staged

OG Verbal SC 13

SC

93

SOME OTHER [X] versus ANOTHER [X]

ANOTHER [X] is preferred over SOME OTHER [x] due to its conciseness and idiomatic construction.

WRONG: You will require SOME OTHER DOCTOR's prescription. RIGHT: You will require ANOTHER DOCTOR's prescription

OG Verbal SC 57

SC

94

LACK OF [X] versus WITHOUT [X]

WITHOUT [X] is preferred over LACK OF [X]

WRONG: WITH A LACK OF FOOD, the birds starved RIGHT: WITHOUT FOOD, the birds starved

OG Verbal SC 57

SC

95

Y WILL HAPPEN UNLESS X HAPPENS

FUTURE TENSE occurs before UNLESS. PRESENT TENSE occurs after UNLESS AND NOT ANY OTHER TENSE

WRONG: A patient WILL find it difficult to prove damage UNLESS there WILL BE another doctor's testimony. RIGHT: A patient WILL find it difficult to prove damage UNLESS there is another doctor's testimony. RIGHT: The fossil was ESTIMATED TO BE millions years old RIGHT: The mountain is estimated at Kathmandu, Nepal.

OG Verbal SC 57

SC

96

ESTIMATED TO BE versus ESTIMATED AT

97

GROW TO BE versus AS BIG AS

ESTIMATED TO BE <X> implies that the object being described is estimated to have a characteristic of X. ESTIMATED AT pertains to location and is used to describe its nearness to location X. GROW TO BE is preferred over AS BIG AS because of an idiomatic preference

OG 12 SC 27

SC

GMC, Idiom, Rhetorical Constructio n GMC, Idiom, Rhetorical Constructio n GMC, Idiom, Rhetorical Constructio n GMC, Idiom, Rhetorical Constructio n GMC; Idiom

Page

10

WRONG: It can be AS BIG AS 30 feet. RIGHT: It can GROW TO BE 30 feet.

OG 12 SC 66

SC

GMC; Idiom

98

WHICH X USE AS COLLATERAL TO BORROW AGAINST versus COLLATERAL AGAINST WHICH X BORROW PARALLELISM

COLLATERAL AGAINST WHICH X BORROW is preferred over WHICH X USE AS COLLATERAL TO BORROW AGAINST because WHICH X USE AS COLLATERAL TO BORROW AGAINST is redundant and its word choice is awkward Comparable sentence parts must be structurally and logically similar. NOUN, PHRASES and CLAUSES must be parallel

WRONG: Declining values for equipment and land, WHICH FARMERS USE AS COLLATERAL TO BORROW AGAINST TO GET THROUGH THE SEASON, … RIGHT: Declining values for equipment and land, THE COLLATERAL AGAINST WHICH FARMERS BORROW TO GET THROUGH THE SEASON, …

OG Verbal SC 16

SC

SVA

99

WRONG: The employees were upset by the company's low PAY, poor working CONDITIONS, and they did not have enough outlets for their cretivity RIGHT: The employees were upset by the company's low PAY, poor working CONDITIONS, and SHORTAGE of outlets for employees' creativity.

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p53

SC

Parallelism

100

NINE POPULAR PARALLEL MARKERS

AND, BOTH/AND, OR, EITHER/OR, NOT/BUT, NOT ONLY/BUT ALSO, RATHER THAN, FROM/TO. AND, BUT, and OR are most common

X AND Y APPLES AND PEARSX, Y, AND ZAPPLES, PEARS, and BANANASBOTH X AND YBOTH APPLES AND PEARSORAPPLES OR PEARSEITHER X OR YEITHER APPLES OR PEARSNOT ONLY X BUT ALSO YNOT ONLY APPLES BUT ALSO PEARSX RATHER THAN YAPPLES RATHER THAN PEARSFROM X TO YFROM APPLES TO PEARS

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p53

SC

Parallelism

101

PARALLEL ELEMENTS

NOUNS, ADJETIVES, VERBS, INFINITIVES, PARTICIPLES, PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES, SUBORDINATE CLAUSES must all be parallel. NOTE that PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES can contain different prepositions.

NOUNS = Her expression reflected BOTH ANGER AND RELIEF ADJECTIVES = The park was NEITHER ACCESSIBLE NOR AFFORDABLE. We collected BOTH SECOND- AND THIRD-grade books VERBS The custodian CLEANED the basement and WASHED the windows INFINITIVES We would like NOT ONLY TO HEAR your side of the story BUT ALSO TO PROVIDE a response PARTICIPLES The actor left quickly, SHUNNING fans and DUCKING into a car Prepositional Phrases It was important to leave the money IN THE DRAWER RATHER THAN ON THE TABLE NOTE: the prepositions DO NOT have to be the same. SUBORDINATE CLAUSES They contended THAT THE COMMITTEE WAS BIASED and THAT IT SHOULD BE DISBANDED

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54

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Parallelism

Page

11

102

PARALLEL HELPING VERBS

Phrases contain helping verbs that can often be split apart from parallel verbs.

RIGHT: The division WAS OPENING offices, HIRING staff, and INVESTING in equipment RIGHT: The railroad CAN EITHER LOSE more money OR SOLVE its problems RIGHT: They wanted TO INCREASE, SPARK interst, AND MOTIVATE purchases

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54

SC

Parallelism

103

PARALLEL CLAUSES

PARALLEL CLAUSES should start with the same word unlike PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES

104

PARALLEL CLAUSES WITH CONCISION

Depending on the start of the PARALLEL CLAUSES, repetition may be required to maintain parallelism, which is a higher priority in grammar. If the starting word is repeated before and after the parallel marker, repetition is required.

WRONG: I want to retire to a place WHERE I CAN RELAX AND THAT HAS LOW TAXES RIGHT: I want to retire to a place WHERE I CAN RELAX AND WHERE the taxes are low WRONG: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO ARE POPULAR AND WHO ARE NOT RIGHT: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO ARE POPULAR AND THOSE WHO ARE NOT (Popular does not have to be repeated again) RIGHT: Ralph likes BOTH THOSE WHO ARE POPULAR AND NOT POPULAR (but this changes meaning)

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54

SC

Parallelism

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p54

SC

Parallelism

105

LISTS WITH AND

X and Y X, Y, and Z X, Y, Z, and W

X and Y APPLES AND PEARS X, Y, and Z APPLES, PEARS, AND BANANAS X, Y, Z, and W APPLES, PEARS, BANANAS, AND PEACHES X, AND Y (combines long, independent, or both types of clauses) I really like candy apples, AND I eat them often LONG LISTS WRONG: She argues that the agency acts with disregard for HUMAN LIFE AND PROPERTY AND RECKLESS ABANDON AND IT SHOULD THEREFORE BE SHUT DOWN RIGHT: SHE argues THAT the agency acts WITH reckless ABANDON AND WITH DISREGARD for HUMAN LIFE AND PROPERTY, AND THAT that it should therefore be shut down. Structure 1: THAT the agency acts AND THAT it should therefore be abandoned Structure 2: WITH reckless abandon AND WITH DISREGARD FOR Structure 3: human life AND property

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p55

SC

Parallelism

Page

12

106

IDIOMS WITH BUILTIN PARALLEL STRUCTURE 1/25

These idioms are fully explored in the MGMAT SC Ch9 IDIOMS chapter.

X ACTS AS Y AS X, SO YBETWEEN X AND YCOMPARED TO X, Y CONSIDER X YIN CONTRAST TO X, YDECLARE X YX DEVELOPS INTO YX DIFFERS FROM YDISTINGUISH X FROM YESTIMATE X TO BE YX INSTEAD OF YX IS KNOWN TO BE YX INSTEAD OF YX IS KNOWN TO BE YX IS LESS THAN YMAKE X YMISTAKE X FOR YNOT ONLY X(,) BUT ALSO Y (comma is OPTIONAL)REGARD X AS YX IS THE SAME AS YX IS GOOD, AND SO TOO IS YX, SUCH AS Y (example)THINK OF X AS YX IS THOUGHT TO BE YVIEW X AS YWHETHER X OR Y (if Y is NOT, NOT is OPTIONAL. If Y is NOT [VERB], then [VERB] is OPTIONAL)

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p56

SC

Parallelism

107

SUPERFICIAL PARALLELISM verus LOGICAL PARALLELISM

LOGICAL PARALLELISM takes precedence over STRUCTURAL or SUPERFICIAL PARALLELISM. The sentence must make sense first. Do NOT assume that ALL verbs and verbal forms in a sentence must be parallel

WRONG: Sal APPLIED himself in his new job, ARRIVED early every day, SKIPPED lunch regularly, AND LEFT late every night RIGHT: Sal APPLIED himself in his new job, ARRIVING early every day, SKIPPING lunch regularly, AND LEAVING late every night APPLIED himself is the primary clause ,and ARRIVING, SKIPPING, and LEAVING is the secondary clause Do not assume that ALL verbs and verbal forms in a sentence must be parallel

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p56

SC

Parallelism

Page

13

108

LINKING VERBS AND PARALLELISM

Action verbs are like WALK, DANCE, and JUMP. But another class of verbs exist that are more subtle. Instead of describing what the subject DOES, these verbs describe what the subject IS or what CONDITION it is in. This is often by using "TO BE" or other similar verbs. LINKING VERBS require the OBJECTS AND SUBJECTS to be PARALLEL. Hence LINKING VERBS are PARALLEL MARKERS.

LINKING VERB PARALLEL MARKERS TO BE: is, are, was, were, am been, be, being OTHER LINKING VERBS: appear, become, feel grow, look, remain, represent, resemble, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn WRONG: THE BOUQUET of flowers was A GIVING of love RIGHT: THE BOQUET of flowers was a GIFT of love. Noun and gerund versus Noun versus Noun WRONG: Upon being nominated, THIS POLITICIAN REPRESENTS A STEP FORWARD in urban-rural relations in this country RIGHT: THE NOMINATION of this politicans REPRESENTS A STEP FORWARD in urban rural relations in this country Politician represents step forward versus Nomination represents step forward (the event should be parallel) TO BE DOES NOT always have to be a LINKING VERB when it is used in a progressive or passive format. So NO PARALLELISM is required. PROGRESSIVE: I AM water the plants PASSIVE: The plants WERE watered last night

MGMAT SC Ch4 Parallelism p57

SC

Parallelism

109

PRONOUNS

Pronoun is a word that takes place of a noun so that we do not have to repeat that noun elsewhere in the sentence. The ANTECEDENT is derived from the NOUN. The pronoun must AGREE with the identified ANTECEDENT THE ANTECEDENT must exist. Otherwise the sentence with a pronoun is flawed.

GASOLINE has become so expensive that IT now consumes as much as 16% of personal income in some rural areas FEW EXAMPLES IT, ITS, THEY, THEM, THEIR WRONG: The PARK RANGERS discussed measures to prevent severe WILDFIRES, which would be devastating to IT. RIGHT: The rangers discussed measures to prevent severe wildfires, which would be devastating to THE PARK. IT has NO antecedent since the nouns are plural and IT is singular Park acts as an adjective and not as a noun.

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p67

SC

Pronouns

110

PRONOUN Rule 1

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p67

SC

Pronouns

Page

111

PRONOUN Rule 2

The ANTECEDENT and PRONOUN must make sense together LOGICALLY. DEFINITIONS and TERMS can be PITFALLS for PRONOUNS since PRONOUNS cannot be the TERMS OR DEFINITIONS but only REFERENCES to them.

WRONG: Although the term supercomputer may sound fanciful or exaggerated, IT is simply an extremely fast mainframe that can execute trillions of calculations every second RIGHT: Although the term supercomputer may sound fanciful or exaggerated, IT REFERS TO simply an extremely fast mainframe that can execute trillions of calculations every second The TERM is NOT a MAINFRAME. The TERM REFERS TO a MAINFRAME.

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p68

SC

Pronouns

14

112

PRONOUN Rule 3

The ANTECEDENT must be UNAMBIGUOUS.

Researchers claim to have developed new nano-papers incorporating tiny cellulose fibers, which THEY allege to give THEM the strength of cast iron RIGHT: Researchers claim to have developed NEW NANO-PAPERS incorporating tiny cellulose fibers, which allegedly give THESE MATERIALS the strength of cast ironTHEY AND THEM refer to either RESEARCHERS or NANO-PAPERS. Hence AMBIGUOUSNESS exists and must be eliminated by removing the pronouns and adding specific reference markers

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p68

SC

Pronouns

113

PRONOUN Rule 4

The ANTECEDENT must AGREE in NUMBER. Watch out for ADDITIVE PHRASE TRAPS like ALONG WITH since those PHRASES should NOT change the ANTECEDENT's NUMBER.

WRONG: Confronted by radical changes in production and distribution, modern Hollywood studios are attempting various experiments in an effort to retain ITS status as the primary arbiter of movie consumption. Studios does NOT agree with ITS RIGHT: Confronted by radical changes in production and distribution, modern Hollywood studios are attempting various experiments in an effort to retain THEIR status as the primary arbiter of movie consumption. Confronted by radical changes in production and distribution, modern Hollywood studio are attempting various experiments in an effort to retain ITS status as the primary arbiter of movie consumption.

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p69

SC

Pronouns

114

PRONOUN CASES

THREE CASES of PRONOUNS exist: SUBJECT, OBJECT, and POSSESSIVE

SUBJECT = prounouns can be SUBJECTS of sentences I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT, WE, THEY, WHO THEY arrived late OBJECT pronouns can be the OBJECTS of VERBS or PREPOSITIONS ME, YOU, HIM, HER, IT, US, THEM, WHOM No one saw THEM or talked to THEM POSSESSIVE pronouns indicate ownership or a similar election MY/MINE, YOUR/YOURS, HIS, HER/HERS, ITS, OUR/OURS, THEIR/THEIRS, WHOSE THEIR presence went unnnoticed

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p69

SC

Pronouns

115

PRONOUN CASE Example 1

Sometimes pronouns can refer to nouns in the same case, especially in parallell structures. A pronoun in a SUBJECT POSITION in ONE CLAUSE may often be presumed to REFER to the SUBJECT of a PARALLEL clause.

RIGHT: SUPERNOVAS destroy their immediate environments in vast explosions, BUT by synthesizing heaving chemical ements, THEY provide the univers with the possibility of biochemistry-based life as we known it.

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p70

SC

Pronouns

Page

15

116

PRONOUN CASE Example 2

NOUNS IN POSSESSIVE CASES (with 's or s') are OFTEN POOR antecedents.

WRONG: The board is investigating several executives' compensation packages in order to determine how much may have been improperly awarded to THEM. THEM refers better to PACKAGES than to EXECUTIVES incorrectly. THEM cannot REFERS to EXECUTIVES' in this format. BETTER: The board is investigating the compensation packages of SEVERAL EXECUTIVES in order to determine how much THEY may have been improperly awarded. SEVERAL EXECUTIVES or PACKAGES could refer to THEY and most likely it refers to PACKAGES since it's the main subject of a prepositional phrase BEST: The board is investigating the compensation packages of SEVERAL EXECUTIVES in order to determine how much THESE EXECUTIVES may have improperly awarded. Replace THEY with THESE EXEUCTIVES to remove ambiguity

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p70

SC

Pronouns

117

THE DEADLY FIVE PRONOUNS

119

WHO veruss WHOM verus WHOSE

IT, ITS, THEY, THEM, THEIR are the most common pronoun errors since they involved the THIRD PERSON. Check these prounouns viability by finding the antecedent. Colloquialism DOES NOT apply like when THEIR refers to singular subjects WHOM is the DIRECT OBJECT of the verb in the sentence

WRONG: Whenever A STUDENT calls, take down THEIR info RIGHT: Whenever A STUDENT calls, take down HIS or HER info RIGHT: Whenever STUDENTS call, take down THEIR info.

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p71

SC

Pronouns

WRONG: She receives emails from friends WHO she knowes well RIGHT: She receives emails from friends WHOM she knowes well WHOM is the direct object of the verb KNOWS. She KNOWS THEM WRONG: She receives emails from friends about WHO she KNOWS nothing at all RIGHT: She receives emails from friends about WHOM she KNOWS nothing at all WHO is incorrect because an OBJECTIVE pronoun is needed. WHOM is the object of the preposition ABOUT

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p69, MGMAT SC Ch5 PS 6 p75

SC

Pronouns

Page

16

120

THIS, THAT, THESE, and THOSE

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS refer to THIS, THAT< THESE, and THOSE. They can be used as ADJECTIVES in front of NOUNS.

NEW NANOPAPERS incorporate fibers that give THESE MATERIALS strength THESE refers to specific materials mentioned in the sentence. A "NEW COPY" or COPIES of the antecedent are created with THAT AND THOSE.The MONEY spent by her parents is less than THAT SPENT by her childrenThe MONEY spent by her parents is more than IT was expected to be.THAT refers to MONEY spent by her children. Two pots of money are not the same. A NEW COPY is made. They are different: one for parents and one for children. ITS would imply only ONE pot of money. A NEW COPY is NOT made.The MONEY spent by her parents is less than THAT SPENT by her childrenHer COMPANY is outperforming THAT OF her competitorTHAT or THOSE must be modified. You have to indicate how "NEW COPIES" differ from their previous versionsWRONG: Her COMPANY is outperforming THOSE of her competitors.RIGHT: Her COMPANY is outperforming THESE COMPANIES of her competitors.NEW COPIES with THOSE or THESE must AGREE with their respective antecedents only if ANTECEDENT IS PLURAL. NOTE that THAT refers to COMPANY and not COMPETITORS. If you MUST CHANGE THE NUMBER, REPEAT THE NOUN.

MGMAT SC Ch5 Pronouns p71

SC

Pronouns

121

DUE TO versus BECAUSE OF

DUE TO functions as an adjectival phrase and is used to modify a noun. BECAUSE OF functions as an adverbial phrase and is used to modify a verb or verb phrase (e.g., He failed because of his laziness). BECAUSE OF cannot follow a "TO BE" verb except in the case of "IT IS BECAUSE OF X THAT Y VERB" . BECAUSE OF = answers WHY questions and EXPRESSES REASONS DUE TO = equivalent to CAUSED BY. USE THE SUBSTITUTE WITH "CAUSED BY" test to see if sentence makes sense DUE TO [NOUN=cause] that led to [NOUN=effect] and NOT DUE TO [NOUN=effect] that led to [NOUN=cause] BECAUSE precedes a CLAUSE and serves as a CONJUNCTION. BECAUSE OF and ON ACCOUNT OF precedes A PHRASE and serves as a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE. BECAUSE OF / BECAUSE is preferred over ON ACCOUNT OF because of its conciseness This is because ‘because’ can introduce an entire subordinate clause in the sentence (Golden crab is not fished, on account of living… - is not correct). Golden crab is not fished, because it lives… - is correct

RIGHT: His failure was DUE TO his laziness. RIGHT: The fire was DUE TO drought RIGHT: He failed BECAUSE OF his laziness. RIGHT: The heavy snowfall was DUE TO El Nino. RIGHT: The snowfall came BECAUSE OF the effects of El Nino. RIGHT: BECAUSE OF the effects of El Nino, the snowfall was heavy. RIGHT: The crash was DUE TO to the erratic nature of the other driver. RIGHT: The crash occurred BECAUSE OF the erratic nature of the other driver. RIGHT: Due to arrive at 7:30, the bus was 45 minutes late. It didn't arrive until 8:15 (REFERENCE TO TIME)

OG 12 SC 6, http://www.urch.com/forums/gmatverbal/63829-due-vs-because.html

SC

Sub/Verb Agreement

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17

122

BECAUSE versus ON ACCOUNT OF versus BECAUSE OF

http://www.urch.com/forums/gmatsentence-correction/56329-account-vsbecause-problem.html

123

BECAUSE versus AS versus SINCE

BECAUSE > SINCE > BEING Because is used in sentences where the "reason" is the most important thing. Ex: I played cricket because there was nothing else to do. Please understand that playing cricket was an outcome of doing nothing.. so the most important thing in this sentence is the reason that "there was nothing else to do". In such scenarios you use because. Since is used in sentences where the reason is already well known or less important. Ex: Since its your b'day, we'll go out for dinner tonight. Please understand that we both know its your b'day and that's the reason we use since here. Since is also used when alluding to time period. Ex: Since time immemorial, religion and politics have never worked together. SINCE loses the important CAUSATION part of the sentence, which BECAUSE does well IN ORDER TO can be simplified into TO and can be used to eliminate "TO VERB FOR GERUNDS" choices and choose "TO VERB TO [IN ORDER TO] VERB". RESTRICTIONS ON is preferred over RESTRICTIONS FOR depending on the object. RESTRICTIONS ON implies a limit is placed on the object itself. RESTRICTIONS FOR implies that the limits were placed for a specific purpose. AS A MEANS TO means a method for achieving a result. [X] AS A MEANS FOR [Y] implies that X is a kind of Y. AS A MEANS FOR is unidiomatic

http://gmattoughies.blogspot.com/2009/07/ because-vs-as-vs-since.html, http://www.beatthegmat.com/sincebecause-t40558.html, OG 12 SC 1

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IN ORDER TO versus TO versus FOR

125

RESTRICTIONS ON versus RESTRICTIONS FOR

WRONG: The academy urged the nation to revamp and create an organization for taking charge RIGHT: The academy urged the nation to revamp and create an organization to take charge WRONG: Politicians will try to establish tighter RESTRICTIONS FOR the amount of grain. RIGHT: Politicians will try to establish tighter RESTRICTIONS ON the amount of grain. WRONG: Cities are [STRESSING THE ARTS] AS A MEANS FOR [GREATER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT] RIGHT: Cities are [STRESSING THE ARTS] AS A MEANS TO [GREATER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT] RIGHT: Basketball is a MEANS OF exercise WRONG: The only way for growers to salvage the frozen CITRUS is to process THEM quickly RIGHT: The only way for growers to salvage the frozen CITRUS is to have it quickly processed WRONG: The premiums are higher NOT ONLY/JUST BECAUSE OF expensive drugs, BUT BECAUSE OF doctors ALSO prescribing more drugs RIGHT: The premiums are higher NOT JUST/ONLY BECAUSE OF expensive drugs, BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF doctors prescribing more drugs RIGHT: Premiums are higher, a phenomenon that is explained NOT JUST/ONLY BY THE FACT THAT drugs are becoming more expensive BUT ALSO BY THE FACT THAT doctors are prescribing more drugs

OG 12 SC 15

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Parallelism

OG 12 SC 62

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Idiom

126

AS A MEANS TO versus AS A MEANS OF versus AS A MEANS FOR

OG 12 SC 72

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Idiom

127

CITRUS versus CITRUSES

128

NOT JUST/ONLY BECAUSE OF X BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF Y, NOT ONLY/JUST BY THE FACT THAT X BUT ALSO BY THE FACT THAT Y

Citrus is SINGULAR. Citruses are PLURAL. Citrus can be PLURAL but only in non-count form, and most of the time Citrus is referred as an aggregate rather than individuals NOT ONLY/JUST BECAUSE OF X … BUT ALSO BECAUSE OF Y is proper idiomatic syntax. Likewise, NOT ONLY/JUST BY THE FACT THAT X BUT ALSO BY THE FACT THAT Y is idiomatic syntax

OG 12 SC 77

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Idiom

OG 12 SC 83

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Idiom

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129

PROBABLY NOT X, BUT MORE THAN LIKELY Y / MORE LIKELY THAN Y

PROBABLY NOT X is balanced by BUT MORE THAN LIKELY Y. When MORE is used in comparative forms of an adjective (MORE difficult) or adverb (MORE LIKELY), it is followed by THAN to have MORE DIFFICULT THAN or MORE LIKELY THAN / MORE THAN LIKELY. The words that compare X and Y, BUT MORE THAN LIKELY must introduce parallel verb forms and tenses to be grammatically correct.

WRONG: The writing WAS PROBABLY NOT a direct rendering of a speech, BUT MORE THAN LIKELY TO BEGIN AS language. RIGHT: The writing WAS PROBABLY NOT a direct rendering of a speech, BUT MORE THAN LIKELY BEGAN AS language.WAS … BEGAN are parallel and has the proper PROBABLY NOT X / MORE THAN LIKELY WHY idioms

OG 12 D 39

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Idiom; Verb form

130

131

THE ONLY ONE OF [NOUN(S)] versus ONLY ONE OF [NOUN(S)] RATHER THAN versus INSTEAD OF

THE ONLY ONE OF [NOUN(S)] is SINGULAR ONLY ONE OF THE STATES IS PLURAL

RIGHT: THE ONLY ONE OF THE STATES THAT HAS WOLVES IS MINNESOTA RIGHT: ONLY ONE OF THE STATES HAVE WOLVES.

OG Verbal SC 27 http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mi nnesota-is-the-only-one-of-the-t4285.html http://gmatgrammar.blogspot.com/2006/06/ratherthan-vs-instead-of.html http://www.urch.com/forums/gmatsentence-correction/80770-insted-ratherthan.html

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SVA

132

INDEPENDENT OF versus INDEPENDENT FROM

RATHER THAN shows preference and CHOICE. (LOOSE (not always strictly followed) TEST: George is a dog RATHER THAN a cat DOES NOT MAKE sense, so INSTEAD OF is needed) INSTEAD OF suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another. RATHER THAN is ALMOST ALWAYS PREFERRED over INSTEAD OF. [NOUN] INSTEAD OF [NOUN is CORRECT. X,Y CAN NOT be VERBS. RATHER THAN can act as a PREPOSITION and INTRODUCE a PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE or act as an CONJUNCTION and INTRODUCE a CLAUSE X INDEPENDENT OF Y implies that X has nothing to do at all with Y and is irrelevant with respect to Y (SEPARATE FROM) X INDEPENDENT FROM Y means that X and Y are two different entities such as people and nations (SHOOT OFF)

RIGHT 1). We ought to invest in machinery rather than buildings. 2). I prefer starting early rather than leaving things to the last minute. 1). I'll have tea instead of coffee, please. 2). I stayed in bed all day instead of going to work.

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Idiom

RIGHT: His reasoning was flawed, and appeared to be INDEPENDENT OF any logic. INDEPENDENT FROM The children have been INDEPENDENT FROM their parents

OG Verbal SC 56

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Idiom

133

AS versus LIKE

134

PRESENT PARTICIPLE AND TENSES

LIKE compares NOUNS. AS compares ACTIONS. AS is PREFERRED over LIKE. AS focuses on TWO NOUNS doing TWO ACTOINS. LIKE focuses on TWO NOUNS or more (LIKE X and Y, Z …) Present participle or -ing gerund clause describes an action that happens at the same time as the action in the main clause

LIKE Cats and Dogs, pets are fun AS SWIMMING AND DIVING are fun, he does them daily

http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/files/2009/0 5/free-gmat-flashcards.pdf

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Idiom

WRONG: Five eagles left their nests this summer, AND BROUGHT to 34 the number of wild birds RIGHT: Five eagles left their nests this summer, BRINGING to 34 the number of wild birds BRINGING correctly links the two sentences. BRINGING indicates that the number of wild birds became 34 when the five eagles left the nests. BROUGHT is not logical because it was not the eagles themselves but rather the action of their leaving their nests that brought the number to 34

OG 12 SC 47

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SVA

135

OWED RESTITUTION TO X FOR Y versus OWED RESTITUTION TO X BECAUSE OF Y

OWED RESTITUTION TO X FOR Y and not OWED RESTITUTION TO X BECAUSE OF Y is an IDIOM

WRONG: The court ruled that the two states OWED RESTITUTION TO THE INDIANS BECAUSE OF THE UNLAWFUL SEIZE OF THEIR LANDS RIGHT: The court ruled that the two states OWED RESTITUTION TO THE INDIANS FOR THE UNLAWFUL SEIZE OF THEIR LANDS

OG 12 SC 53

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136

THAT and REPORTING VERBS

THAT is necessary after REPORTING VERBS except when SAID /SAY is used

REPORTING VERBS, which need THAT: AGREE: The criminals AGREED THAT CLAIM: They CLAIMED THAT CONTEND: They CONTENDED THAT DECLARE: They DECLARED THAT FIND: Investors FOUND THAT INDICATE: An article INDICATED THAT REVEAL: An investigation REVEALED THAT RULE: The court RULED THAT SHOW: This story SHOWS THAT EXCEPTION: SAID: The water was so cold that PEOPLE SAID polar bears would shiver

MGMAT Ch11 GMC, SVA, Parallelism p213 http://web.ku.edu/~edit/that.html

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GMC, SVA, Parallelism

137

SO versus PRONOUNS

PRONOUNS refer to NOUNS or SUBJECTS. SO refers back to the VERB that describes the subject's action

WRONG: The court did not accord full refugee benefits to recent immigrants because it believed that to do IT rewards them for entering the country RIGHT: The court did not ACCORD full refugee benefits to recent immigrants because it believed that DOING SO would reward recent immigrants for entering the country. The SMART student works QUICKLY SMART = adjective QUICKLY = adverb Amy is a GOOD PERSON (good = adjective) AMY is feeling GOOD (good = adjective) AMY is feeling WELL (well = adjective) Amy WRITES WELL (well = adverb) WRONG: Joyce is Max's SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor RIGHT: Joyce is Max's SUPPOSED Irish ancestor Adverb + adjective + noun = adverb modifies the adjective that modifies the noun adjective + adjective + noun = both adjectives modify the noun WRONG: Max's grandma is his SUPPOSED Irish ancestor RIGHT: Max's grandmother is his SUPPOSEDLY Irish ancestor What is in question is whether the ancestor is Irish and not whether the grandmother is an ancestor, since grandmothers are implied ancestors

OG 12 SC 65

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Idiom; Prounouns

138

ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS

ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS are one word MODIFIERS. ADJECTIVE modifies a NOUN or PRONOUN. ADVERB modifies ALMOST ANYTHING BUT a noun or pronoun. ADVERB often modifies a VERB, but it can modify ADJECTIVES, ADVERBS, PREPOSITION, a PHRASE, or CLAUSE

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p83

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Modifiers

139

INTERCHANGEABLE ADVERBS and ADJECTIVES

Adjectives that have observed alternating with their corresponding adverbs are TRAPS as choices may neglect or add on an unnecessary -LY

CORRESPONDING FREQUENTINDEPENDENTRARERECENTSEEMINGSEPARATESIGNIFICANTSUPPOSED USUAL

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p84

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Modifiers

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140

NOUN MODIFIERS

PHRASES or CLAUSES that MODIFY NOUNS are NOUN MODIFIERS, which act like LONG ADJECTIVES. The first words determines its type.

Type/First Words, Position, Example ADJECTIVE, BEFORE NOUN, The LAZY CAT took a nap ADJECTIVE, AFTER NOUN, The CAT, LAZY from overeating, took a nap. PREPOSITION, BEFORE NOUN, ON the couch, the CAT took a nap PREPOSITION, AFTER NOUN, The CAT ON the couch took a nap PAST PARTICIPLE, BEFORE NOUN, the TIRED CAT took a nap. TIRED from chasing mice, the CAT took a nap PAST PARTICIPLE, AFTER NOUN, the CAT, TIRED from chasing mice, took a nap PRESENT PARTICIPLE without commas, BEFORE NOUN, the SLEEPING CAT took a nap PRESENT PARTICIPLE, AFTER NOUN, the CAT SLEEPING on the rug is named "Sue" RELATIVE PRONOUN, AFTER NOUN, The grey CAT, WHICH loves tuna, took a nap. The CAT THAT lives next door is noisy. The PERSON WHO lives next door is noisy. The city WHERE I live is noisy. ANOTHER NOUN / APPOSITIVE, BEFORE NOUN, A LOVER of mice, my CAT hunts night and day. ANOTHER NOUN / APPOSITIVE, AFTER NOUN, The CAT, a TABBY raised on a farm, took a nap

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p84

SC

Modifiers

141

NOUN MODIFIER TOUCH RULE

A NOUN and its MODIFIER should TOUCH each other. Otherwise a MISPLACED MODIFIER exists. If the noun being modified is not in the sentence, a DANGLING MODIFIER exists.

MISPLACED MODIFIER WRONG: Jim biked along an old dirt ROAD to get to his house, WHICH CUT THROUGH THE WOODS. RIGHT: To get to his house, Jim biked along an old dirt ROAD, WHICH cut through the woods. DANGLING MODIFIER WRONG: RESIGNED TO THE BAD NEWS, there was no commotion in the office. WRONG: There was no commotion in the office, RESIGNED to bad news. RIGHT: RESIGNED to the bad news, the OFFICE WORKERS made no commotion.

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p85

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Modifiers

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142

VERB MODIFIER

VERB MODIFIERs are often DANGLING MODIFIER TRAPS and the TOUCH RULE DOES NOT APPLY, but the sentence must MAKE SENSE.

WRONG: USING the latest technology, the PROBLEM was identified WRONG: The PROBLEM was identified, USING the latest technology RIGHT: USING the latest technology, the ENGINEER identified the problem. RIGHT: The ENGINEER identified the problem, USING the latest technology WRONG: GEORGE CARLIN, BOTH SHOCKING AND ENTERTAINING audiences across the nation, WHO ALSO STRUGGLED PUBLICLY with drug abuse, influenced and inspired a generation of comedians WHO ALSO STRUGGLED PUBLICLY... should be next to CARLIN and NOT nation BETTER, but WRONG: BOTH SHOCKING AND ENTERTAINING audiences across the nation, GEORGE CARLIN, WHO ALSO STRUGGLED publicly with drug abue, influenced and inspired a generation of comedians The sentence is AWKWARD if the main verb is DELAYED or if ideas are NOT CONNECTED BEST: BOTH SHOCKING AND ENTERTAINING audiences across the nation, GEORGE CARLIN influenced and inspired a generation of comedians, even as he struggled publicly with drug abuse. REMOVE UNNECESSARY MODIFIERS to LINK IDEAS CLEARLY. CONTRAST is stressed with EVEN AS

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p86

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Modifiers

143

MODIFIER POSSESSIVES

MISPLACED MODIFIERS and POSSESSIVES are often TRAPS since MODIFIER does NOT MODIFY the noun, but the NOUN's possessively modified object.

WRONG: UNSKILLED IN COMPLEX MATH, Bill's SCORE on the exam was poor RIGHT: UNSKILLED IN COMPLEX MATH, BILL did not score well on the exam WRONG: Only in the past century has orgami's DEVELOPMENT, a CERMONIAL ACTIVITY invented millenia ago, into a true art form taken place RIGHT: ORIGAMI - a CEREMONIAL ACTIVITY invesnted millenia ago - has develolped into a true art form only in the past century.

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p87

SC

Modifiers

144

NOUN MODIFIERS with RELATIVE PRONOUNS

NOUN MODIFIERS are often introduced by RELATIVE PRONOUNS such as the following: WHICH, THAT, WHO, WHOSE, WHOM, WHERE, WHEN. Such modifiers are called RELATIVE CLAUSES. WHO and WHOM must modifiy ONLY PEOPLEWHICH must modify THINGSTHAT or WHICH can NOT modify PEOPLEWHOSE can modify BOTH PEOPLE OR THINGSWHICH or WHOM can follow PREPOSITIONSWHO is the SUBJECT of the verb in the RELATIVE CLAUSEWHOM is the OBJECT of the verb or of a prepositionTHAT or WHOM can be DROPPED when MODIFIED NOUN is the OBJECT of the MODIFYING CLAUSEWHERE must modify a NOUN PLACE and NOT A METAPHORICAL PLACE such as CONDITION, SITUATION, CASE, CIRCUMSTANCES, or ARRANGEMENTIN WHICH modifies METAPHORICAL PLACESWHEN OR IN WHICH modifies NOUN EVENTS or TIME such as PERIOD, AGE, 1987, or DECADE.

WRONG: The scientists THAT made the discovery were rewarded WRONG: The scientists WHO made the discovery were rewardedRIGHT: The TOWN WHOSE water supply was contaminatedRIGHT: The canal THROUGH WHICH water flowsRIGHT: The senator FOR WHOM we workedWRONG: The security guard WHO WE MET was niceRIGHT: The security guard WHOM WE MET was niceRIGHT: The movie THAT we watched last Friday was scaryRIGHT: The movie WE WATCHED last Friday was scaryWRONG: We had an arrangement WHERE he cooked and I cleanedRIGHT: We had an arrangement IN WHICH he cooked and I cleaned.

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p88

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Modifiers

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22

145

ESSENTIAL versus NON-ESSENTIAL NOUN MODIFIERS

146

WHICH versus THAT

ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS provide NECESSARY info to IDENTIFY the NOUN out of many possibilities or to ATTACH the modifier to the NOUN from that point onward. NON-ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS provide EXTRA info for a NOUN that has already been identified. NON-ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS can be EXCLUDED and any later reference to the noun does NOT INLCLUDE EXTRA info ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS HAVE NO COMMAS. NON-ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS HAVE COMMAS. Use WHICH AND COMMAS if modifier is NONESSENTIAL Use THAT AND NO COMMAS if modifier is ESSENTIAL However a simple choice between THAT and WHICH may not exist when WHICH and a PREPOSITION are USED TOGETHER, but the COMMA RULE applies. Use COMMA with NON-ESSENTIAL WHICH's, and DO NOT USE COMMAS with ESSENTIAL WHICH's Other relative pronouns, such as WHO, can be used in essential or non-essential modifiers. USE COMMAS ONLY FOR NON-ESSENTIAL MODIFIERS VERB MODIFIERS modify VERBS and answer questions such as HOW, WHEN, WHERE, WHY, etc. Most basic verb modifier is AN ADVERB.

ESSENTIAL: The MANSION PAINTED RED is owned by the LEES Lees owned which house? THE MANSION PAINTED RED NON-ESSENTIAL: THIS MANSION, RECENTLY PAINTED RED, is owned by the Lees. Lees owned which house? THIS MANSION

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89

SC

Modifiers

NON-ESSENTIAL: THIS MANSION, WHICH HAS BEEN RECENTLY PAINTED RED, is owned by the Lees. ESSENTIAL: The MANSION THAT HAS BEEN AINED RED is owned by the Lees.

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89

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Modifiers

147

COMMA RULE

NON-ESSENTIAL: THIS MANSION, FOR WHICH I yearn, is owned by the Lees ESSENTIAL: The MANSION FOR WHICH I YEARN is owned by the Lees

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89

SC

Modifiers

148

VERB MODIFIERS

Type/First Words, Position, Example ADVERB, BEFORE VERB, FREQUENTLY, I WALK to the store. I FREQUENTLY WALK to the store. ADVERB, AFTER VERB, I WALK to the store FREQUENTLY PREPOSITION, BEFORE VERB, ON MONDAYS, I WALK to the store. PREPOSITION, AFTER VERB, I WALK to the store ON MONDAYS SUBORDINATOR, BEFORE VERB, WHEN my car is broken, I WALK to the store SUBORDINATOR, AFTER VERB, I WALK to the store WHEN my car is broken

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89

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Modifiers

149

SUBORDINATORS

SUBORDINATORS begin SUBORDINATE CLAUSES which CANNOT stand alone as sentences, but rather are ATTACHED to MAIN CLAUSES

SUBORDINATORS include words such as BECAUSE ALTHOUGH IF UNLESS WHILE SO THAT WHILE

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p89

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Modifiers

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23

150

ADDITIONAL VERB MODIFIERS

Some VERB MODIFIERS may apply to BOTH VERB AND VERB'S SUBJECT. In these cases, the SUBJECT MUST MAKE SENSE with the MODIFIER

Type/First Words, Position, Example PRESENT PARTICIPLE with COMMAS, BEFORE VERB, WHISTLING "Beat It", I LIFTED the weight PREPOSITION with SIMPLE GERUND, BEFORE VERB, BY CONCENTRATING, I LIFTED the weight PREPOSITION with SIMPLE GERUND, AFTER VERB, I LIFTED the weight BY CONCENTRATING INFINITIVE of PURPOSE, BEFORE VERB, TO FREE my leg, I LIFTED the weight INFINITIVE of PURPOSE, AFTER VERB, I LIFTED the weight TO FREE my leg WRONG: The weight was lifted BY CONCENTRATING WRONG: The weight was lifted TO FREE my leg

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p90

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Modifiers

151

NOUN MODIFIERS versus VERB MODIFIERS

VERB MODIFIERS can be placed MORE FREELY than NOUN MODIFIERS, WHICH MUST TOUCH THE NOUN. HOWEVER, VERB MODIFIERS must be PLACED to MODIFY a VERB so that NO AMBIGUITY exists Use WHICH ONLY to REFER to the NOUN IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING IT. WHICH NEVER REFERS to an ENTIRE CLAUSE

WRONG: The nameless symphony was at last performed, decades after it was composed, YESTERDAY RIGHT: The nameless symphony WAS at last PERFORMED YESTERDAY, decades after it was composed WRONG: Crime has recently decreased in OUR NEIGHBORHOOD, WHICH has led to a rise in property values RIGHT: The recent DECREASE in crime in our neighborhood HAS LED to a rise in property values RIGHT: CRIME HAS RECENTLY DECREASED IN OUR NEIGHBORHOOD, LEADING to a rise in property values MODIFY NOUNS: the CHANGING seasons MODIFY VERB: I LIFTED the weights, WHISTLING MODIFY ENTIRE CLAUSES: CRIME HAS RECENTLY DECREASED IN OUR NEIGHBORHOOD, LEADING to a rise in property values

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p90

SC

Modifiers

152

WHICH versus PRESENT PARTICIPLE -ING

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p91

SC

Modifiers

153

PRESENT PARTICIPLE -ING

154

BASED ON [X] versus BECAUSE OF [X}

The -ING form is very FLEXIBLE. It can modify NOUNS DIRECTLY It can modify VERBS and THEIR SUBJECTS It can modify ENTIRE CLAUSES, as long as the entire clause CONVERTED INTO A NOUN PHRASE, could function as the SUBJECT of the verb that is in -ING FORM. This works ONLY when you want to EXPRESS THE RESULT of the main clause BASED ON [X} modifies the NOUN subject of the main clause and NOT the verb. BECAUSE OF is a prepositional phrase that describes a cause-effect situation and describes the VERB.

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p91

SC

Modifiers

WRONG: BASED ON the recent decline in enrollment, he admissions office DECIDED to evaluate its recruitment strategies RIGHT: BECAUSE OF the recent decline in enrollment, he admissions office DECIDED to evaluate its recruitment strategies

MGMAT SC Ch6 Modifiers p98

SC

Modifiers

155

156

157 158 159

BASED ON … modifies a VERB. BASED ON .. Is equivalent to ON ACCOUNT OF. Note that the noun is modified not by the event but by the BASIS of that event. An ING- introductory clause MODIFIES a NOUN and must make LOGICAL SENSE. http://www.beatthegmat.com/scconfusing-modifiers-t15768.html ARGUING FOR is the proper idiom over ARGUING IN. ADVOCATING does not require any succeeding preoposition similar to CONSIDER. TARGETED … AT is the proper idiom over TARGETED … TO IDIOM: X IS/ARE TO Y WHAT A ARE/IS TO B Idiom: Active voice - ATTRIBUTES X (an effect) TO Y (a cause). Passive voice - X (The effect) IS ATTRIBUTED TO Y (the cause) THE FINDING OF is unidiomatic. THE FINDING THAT is idiomatic unless you are literally FINDING or locating something. [ONE] REASON THAT is

OG 12 SC 25

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Modifiers

Page

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OG 12 SC 38

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Modifiers

OG 12 SC 40 OG 12 SC 58 OG 12 SC 79

SC SC SC

Modifiers Modifiers Modifiers

160

OG Verbal SC 63

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Modifiers

161 162 EXPONENT RULE for NUMBERS THAT HAVE UNIT DIGITS OF 3

SUBSTITUTES X FOR Y is the correct idiom (NOT SUBSTITUTE X IN PLACE OF Y, etc.) Any number ending in a units digit of 3 will have the units digit pattern: 3, 9, 7, 1, repeating.

OG Verbal SC 91 What is the remainder when 43^43+ 33^33 is divided by 10? The pattern repeats every 4th term. So 3^4, 3^8, 3^12, etc, will all have the units digit 1. What is the largest multiple of 4 that is still less than the exponent, 43, in our starting number? 40 is the largest multiple of 4 that is still smaller than 43. So, 3^40 will have a units digit of 1, 3^41 will have a units digit of 3, 3^42 will have a units digit of 9, and 3^43 will have a units digit of 7. Same pattern as above. 3^32 will have a units digit of 1, 3^33 will have a units digit of 3. So the units digit of 43^43 = 7 and the units digit of 33^33 = 3. 7 + 3 = 10, which is a units digit of 0. Anything that ends in 0 will also have a remainder of 0 when divided by 10! http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/18 /breaking-down-an-exponent-question

SC NP

Modifiers Exponents

163

VERB TENSE versus VERB MOOD versus VERB VOICE

VERB TENSE indicate when the action of the verb takes place. VERB MOOD indicates what the writer believes about, or wants to do with, the action. TWO MOODS are tested: SUBJUNCTIVE and INDICATIVE, INDICATATIVE is used to describe KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF. SUBJUNCTIVE is used to express SUGGESTIONS, DESIRES, or HYPOTHETICAL events. VERB VOICE indicates who or what is doing the action. Two VOICES are tested: ACTIVE and PASSIVE. ACTIVE VOICE - the subject of sentence performs the action PASSIVE VOICE - the subject of the sentence has an action performed on it by someone or something else SIMPLE PRESENT, SIMPLE PAST, and SIMPLE FUTURES are the three SIMPLE TENSES. SIMPLE PRESENT express three basic times and are often to express "ETERNAL" states or FREQUENT events. SIMPLE TENSES are preferred over the more complex tenses

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p105

SC

Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

164

SIMPLE TENSES

SIMPLE PRESENT: Sandy PLAYS well with her friends SIMPLE PAST: Sandy PLAYED well with her friends yesterday SIMPLE FUTURE: Sandy WILL PLAY well with her friends tomorrow. In SIMPLE PRESENT, Sandy is NOT playing right now, but rather that as a general rule, Sandy plays well with her friends.

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p105

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Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

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165

PROGRESSIVE TENSES

To emphasize the ongoing nature of an action, PROGRESSIVE tenses are used by combining TO BE with the VERB in the -ING form.

PRESENT PROGRESSIVE: Sandy IS PLAYING well with her friends PAST PROGRESSIVE: Sandy WAS PLAYING well with her friends yesterday FUTURE PROGRESSIVE: Sandy WILL BE PLAYING well with her friends tomorrow. In PRESENT PROGRESSIVE, Sandy is playing RIGHT NOW. In SIMPLE PRESENT, Sandy plays soccer, she plays FREQUENTLY or she KNOWS how to play.

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p105

SC

Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

166

PROGRESSIVE versus SIMPLE TENSE RULE 1: GENERAL DEFINITIONS

DO NOT use PRESENT PROGRESSIVE for general tenses. SIMPLE PRESENT must be USED.

WRONG: Cherenkov radiation is light that particles ARE EMITTING when they ARE TRAVELING faster than the effective speed of light in any medium RIGHT: Cherenkov radiation is light that particles EMIT when they TRAVEL faster than the effective speed of light in any medium

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p106

SC

Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

167

PROGRESSIVE versus SIMPLE TENSE RULE 2: FUTURE ACTIONS PROGRESSIVE versus SIMPLE TENSE RULE 3: STATE VERBS VERB CONSISTENCY

DO NOT use PRESENT PROGRESSIVE for general tenses. SIMPLE FUTURE must be USED.

WRONG: Bob IS MEETING Harvey for lunch tomorrow RIGHT: Bob WILL MEET Harvey for lunch tomorrow.

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p106

SC

168

DO NOT use PROGRESSIVE in general to express GENERAL STATES. STATE VERBS like KNOW or SIGNIFY usually are written in simple form. In a sentence, unless a logical predication exists, keep VERBS CONSISTENT in the SAME TENSE.

WRONG: This inscription IS SIGNIFYING the emperor's birth RIGHT: This inscription SIGNIFIES the emperor's birth

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p106

SC

169

She WALKED to school in the morning and RAN home in the afternoon She WALKS to school in the morning and RUNS home in the afternoon She WILL WALK to school in the morning and RUN home in the afternoon Note that the WILL applies to both verbs because of parallelism RIGHT: He IS THINNER now because he SPENT the last 6 months on a strict diet RIGHT: She WAS PLAYING with her friends when the babysitter ARRIVED. WAS PLAYING takes place in the background, and ARRIVE is the interrupting foreground event RIGHT: She PLAYED with her friends when the babysitter ARRIVED PLAYED took place AFTER the babysitter ARRIVED

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p107

SC

Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

170

PERFECT TENSES

TENSE that is used to describe COMPLEX time sequences that can not be expressed with SIMPLE or PROGRESSIVE tenses.

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p108

SC

Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

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26

171 PRESENT PERFECT

PRESENT PERFECT means STILL IN EFFECT. PRESENT PERFECT tense for actions that STARTED IN THE PAST BUT CONTINUE INTO THE PRESENT, OR REMAIN TRUE IN THE PRESENT. It has one FOOT in the PAST and one FOOT in the PRESENT. PRESENT PERFECT is defined by [HAVE/HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE]. PRESENT PERFECT indicates either CONTINUED ACTION or CONTINUED EFFECT of a COMPLETED ACTION.

ACTION OCCURING FROM A MOMENT in the PAST <= CONTINUING THROUGH NOW RIGHT: We HAVE LIVED in a hut for 3 daysSTARTED living in hut 3 days ago and STILL living in hutRIGHT: We LIVED in the hut for 3 daysNO LONGER living in the hut and 3 days are overRIGHT: This country HAS ENFORCED strict immigration laws FOR 30 YEARSRIGHT: They HAVE KNOWN SINCE 1987Sentence had an action that BEGAN in the PAST and CONTINUING INTO the PRESENT. The CONTINUATION is described by FOR 30 YEARS and SINCE 1987Right: The child HAS DRAWN a square in the sandThe child is NO LONGER drawing a square, but the square still REMAINS. If the square is GONE, then SIMPLE PAST is neededRIGHT: The child DREW a square in the sand, but the ocean ERASED it.RIGHT: The child DREW a square in the sand, but the ocean HAS ERASED it.Awkward: The child HAS DRAWN a square in the sand, but the ocean HAS ERASED it.The first RIGHT with SIMPLE PAST says the current state of the sand IS NOT KNOWN. The second RIGHT with PRESENT PERFECT says the sand is SQUARE-FREE.

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WITHIN or SINCE and PRESENT PERFECT versus SIMPLE PAST

If you use SINCE or WITHIN, you MUST use PRESENT PERFECT and NOT SIMPLE PAST to indicate CONTINUED ACTION or EFFECT of a COMPLETED ACTION. If you use IN to discuss a COMPLETED time period, use SIMPLE PAST and NOT PRESENT PERFECT

WRONG: SINCE 1986, no one broke that world record RIGHT: Since 1986, no one HAS BROKEN that world record RIGHT: WITHIN the past 10 days, no one HAS BROKEN the world record

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p108

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IN and PRESENT PERFECT versus SIMPLE PAST

WRONG: Veronic HAS TRAVELED all over the world IN 2007 RIGHT: Veronica TRAVELED all over the world IN 2007 If this sentence was used "Veronica HAS TRAVELED all over the world", you are talking about Veronic TODAY. The examples above talk about 2007 time period so SIMPLE PAST is needed

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174

PRESENT PERFECT with -ING forms, INFINITIVES, or SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

PRESENT PERFECT can be placed earlier than another action in -ING forms, INFINITIVES, or SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

RIGHT: She WILL PAY you when you ASK her time of WILL PAY = time of [WILL] ASK. Note [WILL] is OPTIONAL since WILL is used in SUBORDINATE CLAUSE RIGHT: She WILL PAY you when you HAVE TAKEN out the garbage. Time of WILL PAY is LATER than FUTURE time of HAVE TAKEN

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p109

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PAST PERFECT

PAST PERFECT (earlier past moment) < SIMPLE PAST (later past monent) < NOW PAST PERFECT means EARLIER ACTION. If TWO ACTIONS occurred at RIGHT: The film HAD STARTED by the time we ARRIVED at the theater different times in the PAST, PAST PERFECT is the PAST of the PAST or RIGHT: The teacher THOUGHT that Jimmy HAD CHEATED on the exam PAST TWICE REMOVED. PAST PERFECT is defined with [HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE] USE PAST PERFECT ONLY IF NECESSARY RIGHT: An asteroid STRUCK the earth millions of years AGO STRUCK = SIMPLE PAST. NO MULTIPLE PAST events occurred so PAST PERFECT is NOT needed.

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p109

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AND, BEFORE, AFTER, and BUT with PAST PERFECT versus SIMPLE PAST

In a GENERAL rule (not exact), clauses linked with AND, BEFORE, AFTER, or BUT do NOT NEED past perfect.

Also if OBVIOUS statements occur because of VERB SEQUENCE, no PAST PERFECT is needed RIGHT: Antonio DROVE to the store and BOUGHT some ice cream RIGHT: Antonio DROVE to the store, and Cristina BOUGHT some ice cream RIGHT: Laura LOCKED the DEADBOLT BEFORE she LEFT for work LOCKED happens before LEFT because of BEFORE. BEFORE and AFTER indicate sequence of events to make PAST PERFECT unnecessary

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p110

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PAST EVENT and LATER PAST EVENT with SIMPLE PAST and PAST PERFECT

PAST EVENT should have SIMPLE PAST tense. LATER PAST EVENT should have PAST PERFECT tense.

LATER PAST events DO NOT need SIMPLE PAST. A DATE or TIME REFERENCE can be USED RIGHT: BY 1945, The United STates HAD BEEN at war for several years FIRST CLAUSE can be in EARLY action in SIMPLE PAST, and SECOND CLAUSE as LATER ACTION in PAST PERFECT to indicate CONTINUED EFFECT (by still a later past time) RIGHT: The band U2 WAS just one of the many new groups on the rock music scene in the early 1980's, but less than ten years later, U2 HAD fully ECLIPSED its early rivals in the pantheon of popular music

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p110

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PERFECT TENSES NEED RULE

PERFECT TENSES should only be used WHEN NECESSARY. GMAT prefers SIMPLE TENSES over PERFECT TENSES. PERFECT TENSES should ONLY be used to STRESS SEQUENCE of time or events

WRONG: Joe LEARNED about an epoch in which dinosaurs HAD WALKED the earth RIGHT: Joe LEARNED about an epoch in which dinosaurs WALKED the earthHAD WALKED is unnecessary. HAD WALKED did take place earlier than LEARNED did, but EARLIER ACTION does NOT have a direct bearing on the CONTEXT of the later action. SEQUENCE of time or events does not need to be CLARIFIED.

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TENSE SEQUENCE

The REPORTING VERB tense must serve as the BASE of the other VERB tenses. The other verb TENSES will SHIFT RELATIVE to the REPORTING VERB TENSE. With a PAST TENSE reporting verb, move PRESENT to PAST, PAST to PAST PERFECT, and FUTURE to CONDITIONAL in which WILL is changed To WOULD

RIGHT: The supercollider IS ready, it DID not COST too much, and it WILL PROVIDE new insights. RIGHT: The scientist ANNOUNCED that the supercollider WAS ready, it HAD not COST too much, and it WOULD PROVIDE new insights. IS (Simple PRESENT) => WAS (Simple PAST) DID NOT COST (Simple PAST) => HAD NOT COST (PAST PERFECT) WILL PROVIDE (Simple FUTURE) => WOULD PROVIDE (CONDITIONAL TENSE) The helping verb WOULD expresses FUTURE from PAST's point of view

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p111

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CONDITIONAL TENSE

181

REPORTING SENTENCES and TENSES

With a PAST TENSE reporting verb, move PRESENT to PAST, PAST to PAST PERFECT, and FUTURE to CONDITIONAL in which WILL is changed To WOULD. The helping verb WOULD expresses FUTURE from PAST's point of view In REPORTING SENTENCES, AVOID mixing PRESENT TENSE with CONDITIONAL TENSES. AVOID mixing PAST TENSE with FUTURE TENSE. Usual sequences are EITHER PRESENT+FUTURE, or PAST+CONDITIONAL

RIGHT: I WILL PROVIDE money RIGHT: I WOULD PROVIDE money

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p111

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Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

RIGHT: The scientist BELIEVES that the machine WILL BE wonderful BELIEVES = Simple PRESENT WILL BE = Simple FUTURE RIGHT: The scientist BELIEVED that the machine WOULD BE wonderful BELIEVED = Simple PAST WOULD BE = CONDITIONAL WRONG: The scientist BELIEVES that the machine WOULD BE wonderful BELIEVES = Simple PRESENT WOULD BE = CONDITIONAL (SHOULD BE SIMPLE FUTURE) WRONG: The scientist BELIEVED that the machine WILL BE wonderful BELIEVED = Simple PAST WILL BE = SIMPLE FUTURE (SHOULD BE CONDITIONAL)

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p111

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SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

INDICATIVE MOOD, IMPERATIVE MOOD, and SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD are 3 different TYPES of MOODS. INDICATE expresses KNOWLEDGE or BELIEF. IMPERATIVE expresses EXCLAMATION or EMOTION. SUBJUNCTIVE expresses two types 1) HYPOTHETICAL Subjunctive: UNLIKELY or UNREAL situation (Usually after IF or similar word) 2) COMMAND Subjunctive: PROPOSALS, DESIRES, and REQUESTS with certain verbs and THAT Basic form of SUBJUNCTIVE is to use TO BE in SIMPLE PAST format with ONE EXCEPTION: WERE is ALWAYS used and NOT WAS.

RIGHT: If I WERE a rich man, … WRONG: If I WAS a rich man, … RIGHT implies hypothetical situation or subjunctive mood WRONG implies that you ARE a rich man with certainty.

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HYPOTHETICAL SUBJUNCTIVE

HYPOTHETICAL SUBJUNCTIVE indicates UNLIKELY or UNREAL conditions introduces by words such as IF, AS IF, or AS THOUGH.

RIGHT: To overcome my fear of germs, I will think about disease AS THOUGH it WERE harmless The speaker does not believe that disease IS harmless, but with the word WERE, she reveals a hypothetical situation that she THINKS that the disease is NOT harmless. WRONG: Water freezes if it were cooled to zero degrees Celsius. RIGHT: Water freezes if it IS cooled to zero degrees Celsius. RIGHT: Water freezes if cooled to zero degrees Celsius. INDICATIVE tense is PRESENT, and implies NO UNCERTAINTY so HYPOTHETICAL SUBJUNCTIVE does NOT EXIST and follows the first IF-THEN construction rule

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p112

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IF … THEN CONSTRUCTIONS

IF do NOT ALWAYS use Hypothetical Subjunctive. Sentences with IF condition and THEN outcome can follow any of these patterns. THEN CAN be OMITTED. Five PATTERNS exist 1) GENERAL with NO UNCERTAINTY 2) GENERAL with SOME UNCERTAINTY3) PARTICULAR (in FUTURE) with NO UNCERTAINTY4) UNLIKELY (in FUTURE)5) CASE that NEVER HAPPENED (in PAST)

RIGHT: IF you study diligently, [THEN] you will score highly RIGHT: You will socre highly IF you study diligently1) GENERAL RULE WITH NO UNCERTAINTY (EQUIVALENT to WHENEVER)IF X HAPPENS, THEN Y HAPPENSWHENEVER X HAPPENS, THEN Y HAPPENSIF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she BECOMES ill.WHENEVER Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she BECOMES ill.IF Present, THEN Present2) GENERAL RULE with SOME UNCERTAINTYIF X HAPPENS, THEN Y MAY HAPPENIF Sophie EATS pizza, THEN she MAY BECOME ill.IF Present, THEN CAN or MAYCAN or MAY allows for UNCERTAIN outcomes3) PARTICULAR CASE (in the future) with NO UNCERTAINTYIF X HAPPENS, THEN Y WILL HAPPENY WILL HAPPEN ONLY IF X HAPPENS FIRSTIF Sophie EATS pizza tomorrow, THEN she WILL BECOME illIf Present, THEN FutureIf Sophie HAS EATEN pizza, then She WILL BECOME illIF Present Perfect, THEN FUTURE4) UNLIKELY CASE (IN THE FUTURE)IF X HAPPENED, THEN Y WOULD/COULD HAPPENIF Sophie ATE pizza tomorrow, then she WOULD / COULD become illIF HYPOTHETICAL SUBJUNCTIVE, THEN CONDITIONAL5) CASE that NEVER HAPPENED (IN THE PAST)IF X HAD HAPPENED, THEN Y WOULD HAVE HAPPENEDIF Sophie HAD EATEN pizza yesterday, THEN she WOULD HAVE BECOME ill.If Past Perfect, THEN CONDITIONAL PERFECTWOULD and SHOULD NEVER go in IF part of sentence!ONCE X HAD HAPPENED, THEN Y HAPPENED.

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185

COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE

COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE is used with BOSSY VERBS such as REQUIRE or PROPOSE. BOSSY VERBS tell people to do things and make verbs become BARE FORMS (infinitives WITHOUT "TO") with TWO exceptions: 1) NO -S ending in the verb (DISBAND, not DISBANDS) 2) TO BE becomes BE and not IS, ARE, or AM.

BOSSY VERB + THAT + subject + COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE The agency REQUIRED that he BE ready before noon We PROPOSE that the school board DISBAND BE and DISBAND are in SUBJUNCTIVE Mood in BARE FORM: COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE: BE ready before noon, Gary! DISBAND, school board!

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p113-114

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INCORRECT COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVES

Note the following INCORRECT COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVES. Do NOT use SHOULD in COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVES

RIGHT: BOSSY VERB + THAT + subject + COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: We We We We We PROPOSE PROPOSE PROPOSE PROPOSE PROPOSE the school board DISBAND (THAT is MANDATORY) THAT the school board DISBANDS THAT the school board IS TO DISBAND THAT the school board WILL DISBAND THAT the school board SHOULD DISBAND

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p114

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INFINITIVE versus SUBJUNCTIVe for BOSSY VERBS COMMON BOSSY VERBS that take SUBJUNCTIVE COMMON BOSSY VERBS that take INFINITIVE COMMON BOSSY VERBS that take BOTH SUBJUNCTIVE and INFINITIVE REQUIRE THAT subj cmdSubj versus REQUIRE subj verb BOSSY VERBS that have SPECIAL construction BOSSY NOUNS derived from BOSSY VERBS

Some BOSSY VERBS take infinitives and not subjunctives. It is an IDIOMATIC preference.

RIGHT: The vice president WANTS her TO GO to the retreat WRONG: The vice president WANTS THAT she GO to the retreat

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p114

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DEMAND, DICTATE, INSIST, MANDATE, PROPOSE, RECOMMEND, REQUEST, STIPULATE, SUGGEST ADVISE, ALLOW, FORBID, PERSUADE, WANT. NOTE that these verbs do NOT NEED THAT

RIGHT: We DEMAND that he BE here

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p114

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RIGHT: We ALLOW him to be here THAT is NOT needed

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p114

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190

ASK, BEG, INTEND, ORDER, PREFER, URGE, REQUIRE (SPECIAL)

We REQUIRE THAT he be here We REQUIRE HIM TO BE here

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p114

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191

ASK, BEG, INTEND, ORDER, PREFER, URGE, REQUIRE (SPECIAL)

We REQUIRE THAT he be here We REQUIRE HIM TO BE here

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p114

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PROHIBIT

RIGHT: The agency PROHIBITED him FROM WORKING on weekends

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p115

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194

IT IS X with SUBJUNCTIVE or INFINITIVE

195

WHETHER with SUBJUNCTIVE

DEMAND or REQUEST can use SUBJUNCTIVE verbs. If sentence has DEMAND, Look for either for an INFINITIVE or THAT followed by COMMAND SUBJUNCTIVE IT IS X can be illustrated by having X as an ADJECTIVE that conveys URGENCY. X can be ESSENTIAL, ADVISABLE, CRUCIAL, DESIRABLE, FITTING, IMPERATIVE, IMPORTANT, NECESSARY, MANDATORY, PREFERABLE, URGENT, and VITAL AVOID WHETHER with SUBJUNCTIVE. IT should use IS, ARE, or similar TO BE forms

RIGHT: His DEMAND THAT he BE paid full severance was not met

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p115

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RIGHT: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT he BE ready before noon RIGHT: IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT he TO BE ready before noon

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p115

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Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

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WRONG: I like ice cream, WHETHER it BE chocolate, vanilla, or any other flavor RIGHT: I like ice cream, WHETHER it IS chocolate, vanilla, or any other flavor.

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p115

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ACTIVE versus PASSIVE voice

197

BY versus THROUGH versus BECAUSE OF

198

TRANSITIVE VERBS

ACTIVE voice - the subject of the sentence performs the action PASSIVE voice - the subject of the sentence has an action performed on it by someone or something else. It is normally formed by using TO BE verbs with a past participle. GET verb should NOT be used. PASSIVE voices are USUALLY NOT correct because they are wordy or the identity of main subject is uncertain, but PASSIVE CAN BE correct because it is NOT UNGRAMMATICAL when no other answer choice is correct Whoever actually performs the ACTION in the sentence may follow the verb in the phrase headed by the preposition BY (BY THE HUNGRY STUDENTS). Use BY only for the ACTUAL DOERS of the action (SUBJECT). Use THROUGH or BECAUSE OF when you want to DESCRIBE INSTRUMENT or MEANS, which might be awkward in ACTIVE voice but clear in PASSIVE voice Verbs that take DIRECT OBJECTS can be written in PASSIVE VOICE. Verbs that do NOT TAKE DIRECT OBJECTS should NEVER be written in PASSIVE form

ACTIVE: The hungry students ATE the pizza PASSIVE: The pizza WAS EATEN by the hungry studentsWRONG: The pizza GOT EATEN by the hungry students.WRONG: The pizza must GET EATEN todayPASSIVE: It HAS BEEN DECIDED by Jason that he will not attend collegeACTIVE: Jason HAS DECIDED not to attend college

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WRONG: The pizza WAS accidentally EATEN BY a quirk of fate WRONG: A quirk of fate accidentally ate the pizza RIGHT: THROUGH a quirk of fate, the pizza WAS accidentally EATEN

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p116

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Verb Tense, Mood, & Voice Strategy

WRONG: The aliens WERE ARRIVED on Nepture in the 20th century RIGHT: The aliens ARRIVED on Neptune in the 20th century j WRONG: TV shows PLAYED on Friday. RIGHT: TV shows WERE PLAYED on Friday. WRONG: The shuttle launch SEEN AROUND THE WORLD by people of all ages, all races, and all religions RIGHT: The shuttle launch WAS SEEN AROUND THE WORLD by people of all ages, all races, and all religions

MGMAT SC Ch7 Verb Tense, Mood & Voice Strategy p116

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COMPARISONS

Comparisons are a form of PARALLELISM that deserves SPECIAL attention. COMPARISONS compare TWO PARTS of the sentence or MORE than TWO PARTS. Spot SIGNAL words or phrases and IDENTIFY the COMPARISON so that they make sense LOGICALLY and STRUCTURALLY.

IMPORTANT COMPARISON SIGNALS LIKE UNLIKE MORE THAN LESS THAN FASTER THAN DIFFERENT FROM IN CONTRAST TO/WITH AS AS adjective AS AS MUCH AS AS LITTLE AS AS FAST AS THE SAME AS RIGHT: LIKE HER BROTHER, AVA aced the test RIGHT: LIKE SWIMMING, SKIING is a great exercise HER BROTHER and AVA are compared as NOUNS SWIMMING and SKIING are compared as NOUNS WRONG: LIKE HER BROTHER DID, AVA ACED the test RIGHT: AS HER BROTHER DID, AVA ACED the test HER BROTHER DID is compared with AVA ACED because of the usage of AS

MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p127

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200

LIKE versus AS

LIKE is a PREPOSITION. LIKE must be followed by NOUNS, PRONOUNS, or NOUN PHRASES. Never put a clause or prepositional phrase after LIKE. CLAUSE contains WORKING VERB (one that can be the MAIN VERB in sentence). LIKE compares TWO NOUNS. AS is either PREPOSITION (with a NOUN) or CONJUNCTION (with a CLAUSE). AS can compare TWO CLAUSES and LIKE CANNOT compare TWO CLAUSES.

MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p127

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COMPARISONS and LOGICAL PARALLELISM

The TWO items being COMPARED must be PARALLEL and contain SIMILAR things. THAT and THOSE can be used to make NEW COPIES of the NOUN being compared.

WRONG: Frank's BUILD, LIKE his BROTHER, is broad and muscular RIGHT: Frank's build, LIKE his BROTHER'S, is broad and muscular (Note that BUILD does not have to be repeated as it is IMPLIED) RIGHT: Frank's BUILD, LIKE THAT OF HIS BROTHER, is broad and muscular RIGHT: Frank's TOES, LIKE THOSE of his brother, are short and hairy

MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p128

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COMPARISONS and STRUCTURAL PARALLELISM OMITTED WORDS

The compared items must have SIMILAR grammatical STRUCTURE

WRONG: I llike TO RUN through forests MORE THAN I ENJOY WALKING through crowds RIGHT: I like RUNNING through forests MORE THAN WALKING through crowds RIGHT: Frank's build, LIKE his BROTHER'S, is broad and muscular (Note that BUILD does not have to be repeated as it is IMPLIED) RIGHT: My car is bigger than Brian's [car] RIGHT; My toes are longer than Brian's [toes] RIGHT: My car is bigger than the Smiths' [car] RIGHT: My toes are longer than the Smiths' [toes] RIGHT: Whereas I drink 2 quarts of milk a day, my friend drinks 3 [quarts]. RIGHT: I walk faster than Brian [walks] RIGHT: I walk as fast now as [I walked] when I was younger RIGHT: Vishal eats more carrots than donuts (DONUTS must be the object) WORDY: Vishal eats more carrots than HE DOES donuts This is NOT ambiguous because DONUTS cannot EAT CARROTS so concise version is preferred AMBIGUOUS: I like cheese more than Yvette (Yvette could be subject or object) RIGHT: I like cheese more than Yvette DOES (= than Yvette LIKES CHEESE) RIGHT: I like cheese more than I DO Yvette (= than I LIKE Yvette) UNNECESSARY HELPING VERBS RIGHT: Apples are more healthy to eat than Caramels RIGHT: Apples are more healthy to eat than Caramels ARE

MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p129

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POSSESSIVE NOUNS provide one opportunity in which the noun being compared is omitted in the second instance. OMITTED words are OK because they are IMPLIED. OMISSION of NOUNS as well as UNITS, VERBS, and WHOLE CLAUSES are OK as long as NO AMBIGUITY exists. PUT in OMITTED words or HELPING VERBS like BE, DO, or HAVE to REMOVE Ambiguity. UNNECESSARY HELPING VERBS are OK since NO AMBIGUITY still EXISTS.

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204

COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE FORMS

When comparing TWO things, COMPARATIVE form of adjective or adverb is used. When comparing THREE things, SUPERLATIVE form of adjective or adverb is used. Do NOT compare ADVERB that ends in LY by changing ENDING to ER. ADD MORE INSTEADLikewise, Do NOT compare ADJECTIVES with ADVERBS ending in LY. ADD -ER ending instead

REGULAR FORMS COMPARATIVE: She is SHORTER than her sister (ADD -ER)SUPERLATIVE: She is the SHORTEST of her five siblings (ADD -EST)COMPARATIVE: You are MORE INTERESTING than he (ADD MORE)SUPERLATIVE: You are the MOST INTERSTING person here (ADD MOST)COMPARATIVE: You are LESS INTERESTING than she (ADD LESS)SUPERLATIVE: You are the LEAST INTERESTING person here (Add LEAST)IRREGULAR FORMSGOOD versus BETTER versus BESTWRONG: Adrians runs QUICKLY. He runs QUICKER than JACOBRIGHT: Adrians runs QUICKLY. He runs MORE QUICKLY than JACOBWRONG: This car goes SLOWER than yours.RIGHT: This car goes MORE SLOWLY than yoursRIGHT: Adrians runs FAST. He runs FASTER than Jacob

MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p130

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THAN with COMPARATIVE form

206

INSECURE versus NOT SECURE

ALWAYS use THAN with COMPARATIVE FORMS and NOT OVER. Do NOT use COMPARATIVE adjective unless you have THAN in the sentence. The sentence without THAN implies THAN NOW, but it must EXPLICITLY be said so THAN MUST be included NOT SECURE versus INSECURE: NOT SECURE means not firmly held and INSECURE means not confident

WRONG: With winter coming, I will have HIGHER energy bills. WRONG: I will have HIGHER bills OVER last year RIGHT: I will have HIGHER bills THAN last year

MGMAT SC Ch8 Comparisons p130

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Comparison s

WRONG: His grip on the ball was INSECURE RIGHT: His grip on the ball was NOT SECURE WRONG: He had low self esteem so he was NOT SECURE WRONG: He had low self esteem so he was INSECURE WRONG: They did NOT DOUBT WHETHER … WRONG: They had NO DOUBT WHETHER... RIGHT: They did NOT DOUBT THAT… RIGHT: They had NO DOUBT THAT... RIGHT: Beaded wedding gowns are so expensive because seamstress still PURSUES her art as they HAVE [PURSUED] for centuries. RIGHT: Their wines are priced to SELL, and they DO [SELL] WRONG: Their wines are priced to SELL, and they HAVE [SOLD] SOLD <> SELL WRONG: Their wines are priced to SELL, and they ARE [SELLING] SELLING <> SELL

OG 12 SC 67

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DOUBT in NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTION

DOUBT used in NEGATIVE construction must have THAT followed "there is no DOUBT THAT" or "He does not DOUBT THAT". If you omit a word in a sentence, that word must have already appeared in the sentence

OG 12 SC 69

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ELLIPSIS

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209 ABOUT versus THAT ABOUT cannot introduce a clause. Only THAT can introduce a clause.

RIGHT: Smokers frequently expressed anxiety THAT their prospects for being hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit. WRONG: Smokers frequently expressed anxiety ABOUT their prospects for being hired and promoted are being stunted by their habit.

OG Verbal SC 28

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AS MUCH BECAUSE X AS BECAUSE Y

Parallel structures that uses because with clauses with active verbs, thereby eliminating wordiness.

WRONG: Retailers reporting gains, AS MUCH BECAUSE OF THEIR SALES A YEAR EARLIER BEING AS BAD AS BECAUSE shoppers were getting headstarts in shopping MISSING 2nd OF RIGHT: Retailers reporting gains, AS MUCH BECAUSE THEIR SALES A YEAR EARLIER HAD BEEN SO BAD AS BECAUSE shoppers were getting headstarts in shopping WRONG: The contents of one beaker is as many as the that of the other beaker: they both contain 10 ml of water RIGHT: The contents of the beakers are equivalent: they both contain 10 ml of water WRONG: The people in my class are equivalent to yours. RIGHT: The people in my class are as many as yours. WRONG: Men has EQUAL genes AS women do. RIGHT: Men have AS MANY genes AS women do. RIGHT: Men have AS MANY rights as women do RIGHT: Men and women have EQUAL rights RIGHTS are not countable GENES are countable

OG 12 SC 76

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Comparison s

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EQUIVALENT versus AS MANY AS:

Equivalent means SAME IN NUMBER and CONTENT. AS MANY AS means SAME IN NUMBER but NOT NECESSARILY CONTENT.

OG Verbal SC 92

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Rhetorical constructio n; Verb form

212

EQUAL versus AS MANY AS

EQUAL is used for UNCOUNTABLE quantities. AS MANY AS is used for COUNTABLE quantities

OG Verbal SC 92

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Rhetorical constructio n; Verb form

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HOW TO FIND IDIOMS

USE YOUR EAR. SPOT the suspect idiomatic expression, EXTRACT various forms of the idiom, REPLACE the corrected idiom in the snetence SUCCEED IN DOING is preferred over SUCCEED TO DO RIGHT: They TRIED TO REACH the summit and SUCCEED IN DOING SO WRONG: They TRIED IN REACHING the summit and SUCCEEDED TO DO so

MGMAT SC Ch9 p141

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SUCCEED IN DOING versus SUCCEED TO DO

MGMAT SC Ch9 p141

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215

** ABILITY TO versus ABILITY X [VERB]

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT.

BEST (preferred over RIGHT): I CAN SING RIGHT: I value my ABILITY TO SING WRONG: I value my ABILITY OF SINGING WRONG: I value my ABILITY FOR SINGING WRONG: I value the ABILITY FOR me TO SING

MGMAT SC Ch9 p142

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Idioms

216

ACT AS versus ACT LIKE

217

AFFECT versus EFFECT

ACT AS means FUNCTION AS. AS means ACTUAL FUNCTION. ACT LIKE means BEHAVED IN SIMILAR MANNER. LIKE is used for METAPHORICAL COMPARISON AFFECT means HAVE AN EFFECT UPON EFFECT means CONSEQUENCE or RESULT

RIGHT: The bay ACTED AS a funnel for the ride RIGHT: My friend ACTED LIKE a fool SUSPECT: The bay ACTED LIKE a funnel for the tide RIGHT: The new rules will AFFECT our performance SUSPECT: The new rules will HAVE AN EFFECT ON our performance (WORDY) WRONG: The new rules will CAUSE AN EFFECT ON our performance

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AFTER versus FOLLOWING

AFTER is preferred over FOLLOWING because it does not cause AMBIGUITY

RIGHT: AFTER the gold rush, the mining town collapsed SUSPECT: FOLLOWING the gold rush, the mining town collapsed (AMBIGUOUS)

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AGREE versus AGREEMENT

AGREE THAT is preferred over AGREEMENT AMONG X THAT or AGREE NOUN THAT VERB

RIGHT: They AGREE THAT electrons EXIST RIGHT: Electrons are particles THAT physicists AGREE EXIST (TO is NOT between AGREE and EXIST because if it were the case, then physicists are willing to let electrons exist. Instead. Physicists AGREE THAT electrons EXISTS => Shortened would be Physicists AGREE EXIST. SUSPECT: There is AGREEMENT AMONG them that electrons exist SUSPECT: They AGREE electrons EXIST (AGREE THAT is preferred over AGREE X THAT) SUSPECT: Electrons are particles THAT physicist AGREE ON AS EXISTING. WRONG: There is AGREEMENT AMONG them TO THE FACT THAT electrons exist WRONG: Electrons are particles physicists AGREE THAT EXIST WRONG: Electrons are particles physicists AGREE TO EXIST

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AID versus AID TO versus AID FOR versus AID IN

All of the following are acceptable in the following syntax: [NOUN] AID(S) [NOUN] [NOUN] [HELPING VERB] AID TO [NOUN] AID FOR [NOUN] [VERB] [NOUN] AID IN [GERUND] [VERB] AIM AT [NOUN] AIM OF [GERUND] are idiomatic

RIGHT: She AIDS her neighbor RIGHT: She provides AID TO victims. RIGHT: AID FOR victims is available Her AID IN WALKING the dog was appreciated WRONG: Her AID TO WALK the dog was appreciated RIGHT: We adopted new procedures AIMED AT REDUCING theft RIGHT: We adopted new procedures WITH THE AIM OF REDUCING theft. SUSPECT: We adopted new policies, THE AIM OF WHICH was TO REDUCE theft. WRONG: We adopted new policies WITH THE AIM TO REDUCE theft.

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AIM AT versus WITH THE AIM OF [GERUND] versus THE AIM OF WHICH [VERB] TO [VERB] versus WITH THE AIM TO [VERB]

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ALLOW **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT. ALLOWS TO [VERB], ALLOWS [NOUN] TO [VERB] means TO PERMIT ALLOWED FOR [NOUN] means TO PERMIT THE EXISTENCE OF

RIGHT: The holiday ALLOWS her TO WATCH the movie today ALLOWS = PERMITS RIGHT: Maria WAS ALLOWED TO WATCH the movie RIGHT: The demolition of the old building ALLOWS FOR new construction ALLOWS FOR = PERMITS THE EXISTENCE OF WRONG: The holiday ALLOWED FOR her TO WATCH the movie WRONG: The holiday ALLOWED her the WATCHING OF the movie The holiday ALLOWS THAT homework BE/CAN BE done Homework is ALLOWED FOR DOING BY her. The ALLOWING OF shopping (TO DO) / (TO BE DONE)

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223 224 ALTHOUGH AMONG See BUT See BETWEEN

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AND **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT. AND serves as a CONJUNCTION and makes subjects PLURAL

RIGHT: We are concerned about the forests AND the oceans RIGHT: We are concerned about the forests, the oceans, AND the mountains RIGHT: We work all night, AND we sleep all day (NOTE the comma before AND and ADDITIONAL we) SUSPECT: We are concerned about the forests AND ALSO the oceans SUSPECT: We work all night AND we sleep all day (LINK 2 CLAUSES with COMMA + AND, No Comma present in this statement) WRONG: We are concerned about the forests, ALSO the oceans

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ANXIETY ABOUT versus ANXIETY THAT

ANXIETY ABOUT [NOUN] [VERB] ANXIETY THAT [NOUN] [RESTRICTIVE VERB] [MAIN VERB]

RIGHT: His ANXIETY ABOUT his company's future is ill-founded RIGHT: His ANXIETY THAT his company MAY BE SOLD is ill-founded WRONG: His ANXIETY ABOUT his company MAY BE SOLD is ill-founded

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APPEAR versus APPEAR AS versus APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN versus APPEARS THAT

APPEAR AS means SHOW UP AS APPEARS means SEEMS APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN means SEEM TO HAVE BEEN APPEARS THAT means SEEMS THAT

RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: BEEN) RIGHT:

Imperfections APPEAR AS tiny cracks (SHOW UP AS) He APPEARS confused (SEEMS) The dinosaurs APPEAR TO HAVE BEEN relatively smart (SEEM TO HAVE IT APPEARS THAT the dinosaurs WERE smart (IT SEEMS THAT…WERE)

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WRONG: He APPEARS AS confused WRONG: The dinosaurs APPEARED AS smart

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APPLY TO versus APPLICABILITY OF

APPLY TO is preferred over APPLICABILITY OF

RIGHT: The ruels APPLY TO all of us WRONG: All of us ARE SUBJECT TO THE APPLICABILITY OF the rules

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AS **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT AS NOUN ACTION, ... = DURINGAS CLAUSE, … = BECAUSE, SINCEAS NOUN ACTION, SAME_NOUN SAME_ACTION = IN THE SAME WAYJUST AS NOUN ACTION, SAME_NOUN SAME_ACTION = IN THE SAME WAYAS NOUN, NOUN VERB = IN THE ROLE OF (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)AS NOUN, NOUN = IN THE STAGE OF BEING (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)NOUN VERB AS NOUN = IN THE STAGE OF BEING (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)AS PART OF NOUN, NOUN VERB = IN THE STAGE OF BEING (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)

RIGHT: AS I walked, I became more nervous = DURING RIGHT: AS I had already paid, I was unconcerned = BECAUSE, SINCERIGHT: AS We did last year, we will win this year (= IN THE SAME WAY)RIGHT: JUST AS We did last year, we will win this year (= IN THE SAME WAY)RIGHT: AS a child, I delivered newspaper (= IN THE STAGE OF BEING) (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)RIGHT: My first job as an apprenticeship AS a sketch artist (= IN THE STAGE OF BEING) (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)RIGHT: AS PART OF the arrangement, he received severance (= IN THE STAGE OF BEING, NO "A" needed in front of PART) (MUST AGREE IN NUMBER)SUSPECT: AS A PART OF the arrangement, he received severanceWRONG: My first job was an apprenticeship OF a sketch artistWRONG: THey worked AS a sketch artist (AGREE IN NUMBER)WRONG: WHILE BEING a child, I delievered newspapersWRONG: WHILE IN childhood, I delievered newspapers

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230

AS … AS **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE on GMAT Use for Comparisons (NOT) AS [ADJECTIVE] AS AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] / [ELLIPTICAL VERB] NUMBER (three) TIMES AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] (VERB) AT LEAST AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] (VERB) ABOUT AS MANY AS [NOUN] [VERB] AS MUCH [NOUN] AS [NOUN] NOT SO MUCH [NOUN] AS [NOUN] AS MUCH (because) [NOUN] SO [VERB] AS (because) [NOUN VERB] NOTE that the SECOND AS may NOT APPEAR if the SECOND NOUN is MENTIONED in a PRECEDING PHRASE ALTHOUGH Y=NOUN VERB, X=NOUN [VERB] AS [ADJECTIVE] [NOUN] (AS Y=NOUN) X and Y have to be PARALLEL

RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: cheats

Cheese is AS GREAT AS people say Cheese is NOT AS great AS people say We have AS MANY apples AS need to be cooked We have THREE TIMES AS MANY pears AS you. We have AT LEAST AS MANY apples AS you We have ten apples, ABOUT AS MANY AS we picked yesterday His knowledge springs AS MUCH from experience AS from schooling His knowledge srings NOT SO MUCH from experience AS from schooling He wins frequently, AS MUCH because he plays SO hard AS because he CHeese is NOT SO great AS people say We have AS MANY apples AS OR MORE apples THAN you We have AS MANY apples AS THERE need to be cooked He wins frequently, AS MUCH because he plays AS hard AS because he

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SUSPECT: SUSPECT: SUSPECT: SUSPECT: cheats WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG:

Cheese is SO great AS people say Cheese is SO great THAT people say Cheese is AS great THAT people say We have AS MANY apples THAN you We have SO MANY apples AS you We have AS MANY OR MORE apples THAN you We have ten apples, ABOUT EQUIVALENT TO what we picked yesterday His knowledge springs NOT from experince AS from schooling

RIGHT: (1) Although chocolate is a popular ice cream flavor, vanilla has as great a following. RIGHT: (2) Vanilla has as great a following as chocolate, a popular ice cream flavor. WRONG: (1) Although chocolate is a popular ice cream flavor, the most popular flavor of ice cream that has as great a following is vanilla

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AS LONG AS versus SO LONG AS versus PROVIDED THAT versus BUT (it) HAS TO BE versus BUT (it) BE

AS LONG AS [NOUN] [VERB]

RIGHT: I will leave, AS LONG AS it IS safe RIGHT: I will leave SO LONG AS it IS safe RIGHT: I will leave, PROVIDED THAT it IS safe SUSPECT: I will leave, BUT it HAS TO BE safe WRONG: I will leave, BUT it BE safe

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Incribed Triangle In Circle Property

Incribed triangle has an angle of 90 degrees only if its opposite side is on the diameter of the circle. Given triangle ABD with circle D, For the rule to hold true: (1) C must be the center of the circle (2) AB must be a diameter of the center

The reason that angle ADB is a right angle is because central angle ACB is 180° and ADB is an inscribed angle whose endpoints are the same as ACB. Consequently: ADB = 1/2(ACB) ADB = 1/2(180) = 90 For a central angle and an inscribed angle with the same endpoints: 1. All inscribed angles with the same endpoints are equal ADB = AEB 2. Inscribed Angle = (1/2)(Central Angle) ADB = (1/2)ACB

http://www.platinumgmat.com/gmat_study_ guide/circles

Geometry

Triangle & Diagonals, Lines & Angles, Circles & Cylinders Triangle & Diagonals, Lines & Angles, Circles & Cylinders

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Inscribed Angle & Central Angle

A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle and whose endpoints are the edge of the circle. Angle ACB is a central angle. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex lies on the edge of the circle and whose endpoints lie on another part of the edge of the circle. Angle ADB and angle AEB are both examples of inscribed circles. AS … SO = in the same way or manner JUST AS … SO = in the same way or manner JUST AS … = in the same way; the situations are analogous

http://www.platinumgmat.com/gmat_study_ guide/circles

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AS … SO versus JUST AS … SO versus JUST AS

RIGHT: AS you practice, SO shall you play (= in the same way or manner) RIGHT: JUST AS you practice, SO shall you play. (=in the same way or manner) RIGHT: JUST AS you practice piano regularly, you should study regularly. (=in the same way, situations are ANALOGOUS) WRONG: You practice, SO shall you play WRONG: Just LIKE you practice, SO shall you play

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235 SIMILAR TRIANGLES IN SEMICIRCLE

Given RIGHT ANGLE that is SPLIT INTO TWO inside a SEMICIRCLE< the TWO TRIANGLES are SIMILAR

If arc PQR above is a semicircle, what is the length of diameter PR? (1) a = 4(2) b = 1METHOD 1: PYTHAGORAS THEOREMPQ = Sqrt(20)QR = Sqrt(b^2+4)PQR is right angle triangle as arc PQR is semi circlePR^2 = PQ^2 + QR^2(4+b)^2 = 20 + b^2 +416+b^2+8b = b^2+248b = 8b = 1Diameter = 5.....Sufficient2. b=1a can be determined as way as above ......Sufficientanswer: DMETHOD 2: SIMILAR TRIANGLESQMP vs. QMR: QMP=QMR...(1) (because each angle is 90 degree)Angle QPM=Angle RQM...(2) (because each angle is complementary to angle PQM)Angle PQM=Angle QRM...(3) (because each angle is complementary to angle RQM)Once you have identified the equal angles, you now apply the side ratio relationship. You must choose side opposite to corresponding angles.(1) gives you PQ/RQ(2) gives you QR/RM(3) gives you PM/QR.So, PQ/RQ=QR/RM=PM/QR. Here you do not need to first ratio.So, QR/RM=PM/QR => PM*RM=QR^2. This relationship in split right triangles is so favorite among GMAT, GRE, SAT, CAT, MBA tentmakers that you can memorize it.

MGMAT CAT #1

Geometry

Triangle & Diagonals, Circles & Cylinders

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ASK FOR versus ASK TO versus ASK THAT NOUN [BARE VERB]

ASKED FOR [NOUN] ASK [NOUN] TO [VERB} ASK THAT [NOUN] [BARE VERB] (SUBJUNCTIVE)

RIGHT: I ASKED FOR his AID RIGHT: He ASKED her TO GO to the store RIGHT: He ASKED THAT she GO to the store (SUBJUNCTIVE) WRONG: He ASKED THAT she SHOULD GO to the store (SHOULD + SUBJUNCTIVE = WRONG)

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ATTRIBUTE TO versus ATTRIBUTE AS

RIGHT: ATTRIBUTE [NOUN] TO [NOUN]. WRONG: ATTRIBUTE [NOUN] AS [NOUN]

RIGHT: We ATTRIBUTE the uprising TO popular discontent WRONG: We ATTRIBUTE the uprsiing AS popular discontent

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AVERAGE

AVERAGE is an ADJECTIVE and ITS DESCRIBED NOUN must be compared with appropriate NOUNS. AWARE OF and AWARE THAT are correct WITH AN AWARENESS OF/THAT is not

RIGHT: Tech COMPANIES are as likely as the AVERAGE COMPANY to fail WRONG: Tech COMPANIES are as likely as the INDUSTRY AVERAGE to fail

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AWARE OF versus AWARE THAT versus WITH AN AWARENESS OF versus WITH AN AWARENESS THAT BAN PROHIBITING versus BAN THAT

RIGHT: AWARE OF the danger, he fled RIGHT: AWARE THAT danger was near, he fled WRONG: WITH AN AWARENESS THAT danger was near, he fled WRONG: WITH AN AWARENESS OF the danger, he fled

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BAN PROHIBITING is correct. BAN THAT is not

RIGHT: They passed a BAN PROHIBITING us FROM CARRYING bottles WRONG: They passed a BAN that we CANNOT CARRY bottles

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BASED ON

BASED ON is equivlanet to ON ACCOUNT OF and be next or near the modifying object

RIGHT: The verdict was BASED ON the evidence RIGHT: The jury reached a verdict BASED ON the evidence WRONG: BASED ON the evidence, the jury reached a verdict (The jury itself is not BASED on the evidence)

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BEING **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON THE GMAT BEING is OFTEN wordy or awkward. BEING can sometimes be right as a GERUND or PARTICIPLE and only if other choices are WRONG

RIGHT: BEING infected does not make you sick RIGHT: The judges saw the horses BEING led to the stables SUSPECT: BEING an advocate of reform, I would like to make a different proposal

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BECAUSE **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON THE GMAT BECAUSE illustrates an EXPALANATION or RATIONALE. BY describes NOUNS and NOT REASONSFOR can SUBSTITUTE for BECAUSEWRONG SUBSTITUTESBECAUSE OF [GERUNDS]ON ACCOUNT OFITSTHE ABILITY OF … TO … IS BECAUSEAS A RESULT OF

RIGHT: BECAUSE the sun SHINES, plants grow RIGHT: PLANTS grow BECAUSE the sun SHINESRIGHT: BECAUSE OF the sun, plants growRIGHT: BY SHINING, the sun makes plants growRIGHT: Plants grow, FOR the sun shinesSUSPECT: Plants grow BECAUSE OF the sun, WHICH SHINESSUSPECT: Plants are amazing IN THAT they grow in the sun(Grammatically correct, but WORDY)SUSPECT: The growth of plants IS EXPLAINED BY THE FACT THAT the sun shines(Grammatically correct, but WORDY)WRONG: Plants grow BECAUSE OF the sun SHININGWRONG: Plants grow AS A RESULT OF the sun SHININGWRONG: BECAUSE OF SHINING, the sun makes plants growWRONG: ON ACCOUNT OF SHINING or ITS SHINING, the sun makes plants growWRONG: BECAUSE the sun SHINES IS the REASON that plants growWRONG: The ABILITY OF plants TO grow IS BECAUSE the sun shines

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244 BEGAN BEGAN BEGAN BEGUN AS versus WITH versus versus WAS FROM WAS BEGUN FROM is WRONG BEGAN AS = was born as BEGIN WITH = starts with BEGAN = caused RIGHT: The movement BEGAN AS a protect (= was born as) RIGHT: The movement BEGAN WITH a protest (= protest was the first part) RIGHT: The protest BEGAN a movement (= caused) WRONG: The movement WAS BEGUN FROM a protest MGMAT SC Ch9 p147 SC Idioms

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BELIEVE ** BELIEVE THAT versus BELIEVE TO BE versus IT IS BELIEVED versus IS BELIEVED TO BE versus BELIEVED BY [NOUN] TO BE BETWEEN versus AMONG

BELIEVED BY [NOUN] TO BE is WRONG

RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT:

She BELIEVES THAT Gary IS right She BELIEVES Gary TO BE right IT IS BELIEVED THAT Gary IS right Gary IS BELIEVED TO BE right

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SUSPECT: Gary IS BELIEVED BY her TO BE right BETWEEN involves TWO parties. AMONG involves THREE OR MORE parties. BETWEEN … WITH is WRONG AMONG … WITH/AND is WRONG RIGHT: A battle ensued BETWEEN the reactionaries AND the radicals (2 PARTIES) RIGHT: A sirmish ensued AMONG the combatants (MORE THAN 2 PARTIES) WRONG: A battle ensued BETWEEN the reactionaries WITH the radicals WRONG: A battle ensued AMONG the reactionaries AND the radicals WRONG: A battle ensued AMONG the reactionaries WITH the radicals MGMAT SC Ch9 p147 SC Idioms

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WITHIN BORDERS versus IN THE BORDERS versus INSIDE THE BORDERS BOTH … AND **

WITHIN BORDERS is corect over IN THE BORDERS and INSIDE THE BORDERS

RIGHT: WITHIN the BORDERS of a country WRONG: IN the BORDERS of a country WRONG: INSIDE the BORDERS of a country RIGHT: She was interested BOTH IN plants and IN animals RIGHT: She was interested IN BOTH plants and animals WRONG: She was intersted BOTH IN plants and ANIMALS. (Missing IN) WRONG: She was interested BOTH in plants AS WELL AS in animals WRONG: She was interested BOTH in plants BUT ALSO in animals

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** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT BOTH … AND is correct BOTH … AS WELL AS, BOTH … BUT ALSO are WRONG

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BUT ** BUT versus DESPITE versus ALTHOUGH versus YET versus DESPITE THE FACT THAT

BUT can be SUBSTITUTED BY [VERB/NOUN] BUT [PARALLEL VERB/NOUN] [CLAUSE] , BUT [CLAUSE] DESPITE [GERUND] ALTHOUGH [CLAUSE] , YET [CONJUNCTION with COMMA] SUSPECT: DESPITE THE FACT THAT ALTHOUGH non-clause…. WRONG: CLAUSE, ALTHOUGH [CLAUSE] ALTHOUGH, … YET ALTHOUGH, … AND DESPITE, … YET

RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT:

I STUDY hard BUT TAKE tests I STUDY hard, BUT I TAKE breaks ALTHOUGH I TAKE frequent naps, I STUDY effectively DESPITE TAKING frequent naps, I study effectively I TAKE frequent naps, YET I STUDY effectively

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SUSPECT: DESPITE THE FACT THAT I TAKE frequent naps, I STUDY effectively SUSPECT: ALTHOUGH a frequent napper, I STUDY effectively (ALTHOUGH [CLAUSE] is needed) WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: I STUDY effectively ALTHOUGH TAKING frequent naps ALTHOUGH I TAKE frequent naps, YET I STUDY effectively ALTHOUGH I TAKE frequent naps, AND I STUDY effectively DESPITE TAKING frquent naps, YET I STUDY effectively

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CAN ** CHANCE CHANCE CHANCE CHANCE

… OF versus TO versus OF versus THAT

CAN [VERB] CAN CAUSEWRONG:IS ABLE TO [VERB]IS CAPABLE OF [GERUND]HAS THE ABILITY TO [VERB}HAS THE CAPABILITY OF [GERUND]… POSSIBLE FOR … TO CAUSE …POSSIBLY CAUSESHAS THE POSSIBILITY OF CAUSING CHANCE … OF is CORRECT WRONG: CHANCE … FOR, CHANCE … TO, CHANCE … THAT

RIGHT: The manager CAN RUN the plant RIGHT: The plant CAN CAUSE damageSUSPECT: The manager IS ABLE TO RUN the plantSUSPECT: The manager IS CAPABLE OF RUNNING the plantSUSPECT: The manager HAS THE ABILITY TO RUN the plantSUSPECT: The manager HAS THE CAPABILITY OF RUNNING the plantSUSPECT: It is POSSIBLE FOR the plant TO CAUSE damageSUSPECT: The plant POSSIBLY CAUSES damageSUSPECT: The plant HAS THE POSSIBILITY OF CAUSING damage(NOTE, SUSPECT is WORDY but could be RIGHT if no other choice is correct) RIGHT: I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND OF WINNING tonight WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND FOR WINNING tonight I have ONE IN A THOUSAND CHANCES TO WIN tonight I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND THAT I WILL WIN tonight I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND FOR ME TO WIN tonight

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CLAIM TO BE [VERB] versus CLAIM THAT versus CLAIM [GERUND] versus CLAIM BEING

CLAIM TO BE [VERB] and CLAIM THAT are RIGHT CLAIM [GERUND], CLAIM BEING, CLAIM … are WRONG CLAIM TO BE ABLE TO Y FROM X is preferred over CLAIM FROM X THAT Y CAN ASSESS

RIGHT: They CLAIM THAT they CAN read minds RIGHT: They CLAIM TO BE ABLE to read mines SUSPECT: They CLAIM the ABILITY to read minds SUSPECT: They CLAIM they CAN read minds WRONG: They CLAIM BEING ABLE to read minds RIGHT: Costs are rising, but incomes have not increased COMPARABLY SUSPECT: Costs are rising, but incomes have not increased TO A COMPARABLE EXTENT RIGHT: IN COMPARISON WITH / TO horses, zebras are vicious RIGHT: A zebra can be COMPARED TO a horse in many ways RIGHT: COMPARED WITH a horse, however, a zebra is very hard to tame SUSPECT: AS COMPARED WITH / TO horses, zebras are vicious WRONG: WHEN COMPARED TO horses, zebras are vicious

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COMPARABLE versus COMPARABLY versus TO A COMPARABLE EXTENT IN COMPARISON WITH versus IN COMPARISON TO versus COMPARED TO versus COMPARED WITH versus AS COMPARED WITH versus AS COMPARED TO versus WHEN COMPARED TO CONFIDENCE THAT versus CONFIDENCE IN

COMPARABLE, COMPARABLY are preferred over TO A COMPARABLE EXTENT

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IN COMPARISON WITH / TO COMPARED TO / WITH TO and WITH are the SAME on GMAT although TO (emphasizes similarities) and WITH (emphasizes differences) WRONG: AS COMPARED WITH / TO WHEN COMPARED TO

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CONFIDENCE THAT is preferred over CONFIDENT IN RIGHT: CONFIDENCE THAT NOUN VERB SUSPECT: CONFIDENCE IN NOUN's ABILITY TO VERB WRONG: CONFIDENCE IN NOUN VERB

RIGHT: We have CONFIDENCE THAT the market WILL RECOVER SUSPECT: We have CONFIDENCE IN the market's ABILITY TO RECOVER WRONG: We have CONFIDENCE IN the market TO RECOVER

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CONCEIVE OF [NOUN] AS versus CONCEPTION OF [NOUN] IS AS versus CONCEIVES OF [NOUN] TO BE CONNECTION BETWEEN .. AND versus CONNECTION OF … AND CONSIDER **

CONCEIVE OF … AS is RIGHT SUSPECT: CONCEPTION OF … IS AS WRONG: CONCEIVES OF … TO BE

RIGHT: He CONCEIVES OF architecture AS a dialogue SUSPECT: His CONCEPTION OF architecture IS AS a dialogue WRONG: He CONCEIVES of architecture TO BE a dialogue

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CONNECTION BETWEEN .. AND is RIGHT CONNECTION OF … AND is WRONG ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT CONSIDER does not have anything followed after it. CONSIDER TO BE is incorrect. CONSIDER is correct. RIGHT: CONSIDER … TO BE CONSIDERED WRONG: CONSIDER CONSIDER CONSIDER CONSIDER TO BE AS ... THAT … SHOULD

RIGHT: There is a strong CONNECTION BETWEEN his grades AND his effort WRONG: There is a strong CONNECTION OF his grades AND his effort

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RIGHT: RIGHT: (NOTE: RIGHT:

I CONSIDER her a friend. I CONSIDER her intelligent I CONSIDER illegal the law passed last week by the new regime You can switch the order of the two objects, if ONE is LONG) The law IS CONSIDERED illegal

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SUSPECT: The judge CONSIDERS the law TO BE illegal WRONG: The judge CONSIDERS the law AS illegal (or AS BEING illegal) WRONG: The judge CONSIDERS the law SHOULD BE illegal WRONG: The jude CONSIDERS the law AS IF IT WERE illegal

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CONTEND THATis RIGHT WRONG: CONTEND … CONTEND … TO BE CONTEND the ABILITY RIGHT: CONTINUE TO VERB SUSPECT: CONTINUE GERUND WRONG: CONTINUE ITS NOUN CONTINUE NOUN CONTINUE ITS GERUND IN CONSTRAST WITH [NOUN] IN CONTRAST TO [NOUN]UNLIKE [NOUN]are RIGHTWRONG:AS CONTRASTED WITH [NOUN]IN CONSTRAST TO [NOUN] [PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ING verb)] WRONG: The danger will CONTINUE ITS GROWTH WRONG: The danger will CONTINUE GROWTH WRONG: The danger will CONTINUE ITS GROWING RIGHT: They CONTEND THAT they can decipher the code WRONG: They CONTEND they can decipher the code WRONG: They CONTEND the code TO BE decipherable WRONG: They CONTEND the ABILITY to decipher the code RIGHT: The danger will CONTINUE TO GROW SUSPECT: The danger will CONTINUE GROWING (correct but not apparently used)

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CONTEND CONTINUE TO versus CONTINUE [GERUND] versus CONTINUE ITS NOUN versus CONTINUE NOUN versus CONTINUE ITS GERUND IN CONTRAST WITH versus IN CONTRAST TO versus UNLIKE versus AS CONTRAST TO versus IN CONTRAST TO [GERUND]

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RIGHT: IN CONTRAST WITH the zoo, the park charges no admission RIGHT: IN CONTRAST TO the zoo, the park charges no admissionRIGHT: UNLIKE the zoo, the park charges no admission.WRONG: AS CONSTRASTED WITH the zoo the park charges no admissionWRONG: IN CONSTRAST TO the zoo CHARGING admission, the park does not

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262 263

MGMAT SC Ch9 p150 CONVINCED THAT versus OF THE CONVICTION THAT COSTS IN versus COST OF versus COST … BECAUSE OF CONVINCED THAT is preferred over OF THE CONVICTION THAT COSTS … IN is preferred SUSPECT: COST OF [NOUN] TO WRONG: COST us [NOUN] BECAUSE OF [NOUN] RIGHT: She was CONVINCED THAT she had been robbed SUSPECT: She was OF THE CONVICTION THAT she had been robbed RIGHT: Pollution COSTS us billions IN increased medical bills RIGHT: The COST OF pollution TO us is billions IN increased medical bills WRONG: Increased medical bills COST us billions BECAUSE OF pollution

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COULD DO versus COULD POSSIBLY DO versus (MAY) HAVE THE POSSIBILITY OF DOING CREATE TO VERB versus CREATE FOR GERUND CREDIT (NOUN) WITH versus CREDIT FOR versus FOR HAVING versus AS HAVING versus CREDITED AS versis CREDITED TO BE

COULD DO is preferred. SUSPECT: (MAY) HAVE THE POSSIBILITY OF DOING WRONG: COULD POSSIBLY DO CREATE TO is RIGHT CREATE FOR GERUND is WRONG CREDIT (NOUN) WITH is CORRECT IS CREDITED WITH is CORRECT WRONG: CREDIT FOR FOR HAVING CREDITED AS CREDITED TO BE HAS HAVING IN DANGER OF GERUND is CORRECT SUSPECT: ARE ENDANGERED BY GERUND WRONG: IN DANGER TO VERB HAVE A DANGER OF GERUND HAVE A DANGER TO VERB DATED AT and WAS DATED AT are RIGHT WRONG: WAS DATED TO BE, WAS DATED AS BEING DECIDE TO is preferred SUSPECT: DECISION WAS TO START DECLARED (SUBJUNCTIVE without THAT) is RIGHT DECLARED THAT [CLAUSE] is RIGHT SUSPECT: DECLARED [CLAUSE] DECLARED [NOUN] TO BE WRONG: DECLARED [NOUN] AS DECLARE X Y , DECLARE THAT X IS Y are preferred over DECLARED X as Y. DECLARE [Y=adj] [X=noun] via inversion is OK for long phrases and preferable over passive voice DECLARED Y BY X

RIGHT: You COULD DO anything you want SUSPECT: You HAVE or MAY HAVE THE POSSIBILITY OF DOING anything you want WRONG: You COULD POSSIBLY DO anything you want

MGMAT SC Ch9 p150

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RIGHT: We WILL CREATE a team TO LEAD the discussion WRONG: We WILL CREATE a team FOR LEADING the discussion

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RIGHT: Hugo CREDITS Sally WITH good taste RIGHT: Sally IS CREDITED WITH good taste WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: WRONG: Sally Sally Sally Sally Sally IS IS IS IS IS CREDITED CREDITED CREDITED CREDITED CREDITED FOR good taste FOR HAVING good taste AS a person with good taste AS HAVING good taste TO BE a person with good taste

MGMAT SC Ch9 p150

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IN DANGER OF GERUND versus ARE ENDANGERED BY GERUND versus IN DANGER TO VERB versus HAVE A DANGER OF GERUND versus HAVE A DANGER TO VERB DATED AT versus WAS DATED AT versus WAS DATED TO BE versus WAS DATED AS BEING DECIDE TO versus DECISION WAS TO DECLARED (SUBJUNCTIVE without THAT) versus DECLARED THAT [CLAUSE] versus DECLARED [CLAUSE] versus DECLARED [NOUN] TO BE versus DECLARED [NOUN] AS

RIGHT: We ARE IN DANGER OF FORGETTING the past SUSPECT: We ARE ENDANGERED BY FORGETTING the past WRONG: We ARE IN DANGER TO FORGET the past WRONG: We HAVE A DANGER OF FORGETTING (or TO FORGET) the past

MGMAT SC Ch9 p150

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RIGHT: They DATED the artificat AT 300 years old RIGHT: The artifact WAS DATED AT 300 years old WRONG: The artifact WAS DATED TO BE 300 years old WRONG: The artifact WAS DATED AS BEING 300 years old RIGHT: She DECIDED TO START a company SUSPECT: Her DECISION WAS TO START a company RIGHT: I DECLARED the election a fraud. I DECLARED the referendum invalid RIGHT: I DECLARED invalid the referendum that the new regime imposed (NOTE: you can switch the order if one is TOO LONG) SUSPECT: They DECLARED the election was a fraud (DECLARE THAT is better) The judge DECLARE the election TO BE fraud WRONG: The judge DECLARED the election AS a fraud

MGMAT SC Ch9 p150

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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270

MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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DECLINE IN versus DECLINE versus DECLENSION IN

DECLINE and DECLINE IN are correct but DECLINE must refer to appropriate subject that is DECLINING WRONG: DECLENSION

RIGHT: The price of oil DECLINED Oil DECLINED in price The DECLINE IN the price of oil was unexpected My friend's reputation DECLINED WRONG: My friend DECLINED in reputation (NOTE: reputation not friend) The DECLENSION IN the price of oil was unexpected (OBSOLETE)

MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND DEMAND SHOULD

THAT versus versus TO BE versus THAT …

DEMAND THAT … BE (SUBJUNCTIVE) is correct WRONG: DEMAND TO BE, DEMAND THAT … SHOULD BE

RIGHT: They DEMANDED THAT the store BE closed RIGHT: Their DEMAND THAT the store BE closed was not met WRONG: They DEMANDED the store TO BE closed WRONG: They DEMANDED THAT the store SHOULD BE closed

MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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274

275

DEPENDS ON WHETHER versus DEPENDS ON the ABILITY TO IS DESIGNED TO versus IS DESIGNED SO THAT versus IS DESIGNED SO AS TO DETERMINED BY [NOUN] versus DETERMINED THROUGH [NOUN] versus DETERMINED FROM [NOUN] versus AS A RESULT OF [NOUN] versus BECAUSE OF [NOUN] DEVELOPED [NOUN] INTO versus DEVELOPED INTO [NOUN] versus DEVELOPED [PRONOUN] INTO DIFFER FROM versus DIFFERENT FROM versus DIFFERENT THAN versus IS DIFFERENT FROM versus IS DIFFERENT IN COMPARISON TO DIFFERENCE IN [NOUN] BETWEEN versus DIFFERENCE BETWEEN X AND Y VERB versus DIFFERENCES IN … AND versus DIFFERENCES BETWEEN X VERB AND Y VERB DIFFICULT TO versus DIFFICULT FOR

DEPENDS ON WHETHER is preferred

RIGHT: The outcome DEPENDS ON WHETHER he CAN make friends SUSPECT: The outcome DEPENDS ON his ABILITY TO make friends

MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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IS DESIGNED TO is correct DESIGNED SO THAT and IS DESIGNED SO AS TO are WRONG DETERMINED BY [NOUN] WRONG:DETERMINED THROUGH [NOUN]DETERMINED FROM [NOUN]AS A RESULT OF [NOUN]BECAUSE OF [NOUN]

RIGHT: This window is DESIGNED TO open WRONG: This window IS DESIGNED SO THAT IT OPENS WRONG: This window IS DESIGNED SO AS TO OPEN RIGHT: The winner was DETERMINED BY a coin toss WRONG: The winner was DETERMINED THROUGH (or BECAUSE OF) a coin tossWRONG: The winner was DETERMINED FROM (or AS A RESULT OF) a coin toss

MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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DEVELOPED [NOUN] and DEVELOPED INTO [NOUN] are RIGHT WRONG: DEVELOPED [PRONOUN]

RIGHT: The executive DEVELOPED her idea INTO a project RIGHT: The idea DEVELOPED INTO a project WRONG: An idea DEVELOPED ITSELF INTO a project

MGMAT SC Ch9 p151

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DIFFER FROM, DIFFERENT FROM, IS DIFFERENT FROM are CORRECT DIFFERENT THAN is SUSPECT IS DIFFERENT IN COMPARISON TO is WRONG DIFFERENCE IN [NOUN] BETWEEN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN X AND Y VERB DIFFERENCES IN X VERB and Y VERB (BOTH X and Y MUST have VERBS) WRONG: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN X VERB AND Y VERB

RIGHT: My opinion DIFFERS FROM yours RIGHT: My opinion IS DIFFERENT FROM yours WRONG: My opinion IS DIFFERENT IN COMPARISON TO yours DIFFERENT FROM > DIFFERENT THAN when comparing NOUNS

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278 279

RIGHT: There is a DIFFERENCE IN ability BETWEEN us RIGHT: There is a DIFFERENCE BETWEEN what you can do AND what I can do RIGHT: There are DIFFERENCES IN what you and I can do WRONG: There are DIFFERENCES BETWEEN what you AND I can do

MGMAT SC Ch9 p152

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DIFFICULT TO is CORRECT

RIGHT: Quantum mechanics is DIFFICULT TO STUDY WRONG: Quantum mechanics is DIFFICULT FOR STUDY

MGMAT SC Ch9 p152

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DISCOVERY THAT versus DISCOVERY OF noun's ABILITY TO versus DISCOVERY OF noun BEING ABLE TO DISINCLINED TO versus HAS A DISINCLINATION versus IS A DISINCLINATION ON HER PART TO WRITE versus BRINGS OUT A DISINCLINATION IN HER TO WRITE DISTINGUISH BETWEEN X AND Y versus DISTINCTION BETWEEN X AND Y versus DISTINGUISHED X FROM Y versus DISTINGUISHED X AND Y versus DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN X FROM Y versus DISTINCTION BETWEEN X WITH Y veruss DISTINCTION OF X TO Y versus Y HAVE a DISTINCTION FROM Y DO or DO SO versus DID IT versus DID THIS DOUBLE DO NOT DOUBT THAT versus HAVE NO DOUBT THAT versus DOUBTS WHETHER versus DOUBTS THAT versus DO NOT DOUBT WHETHER versus HAVE NO DOUBT WHETHER

DISCOVERY THAT is CORRECT SUSPECT: DISCOVERY OF noun's ABILITY TO WRONG: DISCOVERY OF noun BEING ABLE TO DISINCLINED TO is CORRECT WRONG: HAS A DISINCLINATION IS A DISINCLINATION ON HER PART TO WRITE BRINGS OUT A DISINCLINATION IN HER TO WRITE

RIGHT: I love the DISCOVERY THAT carbon CAN form soccer-ball molecules SUSPECT: I love the DISCOVERY OF carbon's ABILITY TO form soccer-ball molecules WRONG: I love the DISCOVERY OF carbon BEING ABLE TO TO form soccer-ball molecules RIGHT: She IS DISINCLINED TO WRITE to her parents WRONG: She HAS A DISINCLINATION TO WRITE to her parents There IS A DISINCLINATION ON HER PART TO WRITE Her busy schedule BRINGS OUT A DISINCLINATION IN HER TO WRITE

MGMAT SC Ch9 p152

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p152

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RIGHT: DISTINGUISH BETWEEN X AND Y DISTINCTION BETWEEN X AND Y SUSPECT: DISTINGUISHED X FROM Y WRONG: DISTINGUISHED X AND Y DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN X FROM Y DISTINCTION BETWEEN X WITH Y DISTINCTION OF X TO Y Y HAVE a DISTINCTION FROM Y

RIGHT: The investor DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN trends AND fads RIGHT: There is a DISTINCTION BETWEEN trends and fads SUSPECT: The investor DISTINGUISHED trends FROM fads WRONG: The investor DISTINGUISHED trends AND fads The investor DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN trends FROM fads There is a DISTINCTION BETWEEN trends WITH fads There is a DISTINCTION OF trends TO fads Trends HAVE A DISTINCTION FROM fads

MGMAT SC Ch9 p152

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DO, DO SO, DID, DID SO are RIGHT DID IT, DID THIS are WRONG SEE TWICE NEGATIVE CONSTRUCTIONS have THAT POSITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS have WHETHER or IF RIGHT: DO NOT DOUBT THAT HAVE NO DOUBT THAT DOUBTS WHETHER SUSPECT: DOUBTS THAT WRONG: DO NOT DOUBT WHETHER HAVE NO DOUBT WHETHER

RIGHT: I did not eat the cheese, but my mother DID or DID SO WRONG: I did not eat the cheese, but my mother DID IT or DID THIS

MGMAT SC Ch9 p153

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 RIGHT: We DO NOT DOUBT THAT the apples are ripe RIGHT: We HAVE NO DOUBT THAT the apples are ripe RIGHT: She DOUBTS WHETHER Jan will arrive on time SUSPECT: She DOUBTS THAT Jan will arrive on time WRONG: We DO NOT DOUBT WHETHER the apples are ripe WRONG: We HAVE NO DOUBT WHETHER the apples are ripe MGMAT SC Ch9 p153

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IS DUE TO [GERUND] versus DUE TO [NOUN] verus BECAUSE [NOUN] [VERB] versus DUE TO [NOUN] [GERUND] versus DUE TO THE FACT THAT [NOUN] [VERB]

RIGHT: IS DUE TO [GERUND] = results from DUE TO [NOUN] = resulting from BECAUSE [NOUN] [VERB] WRONG: DUE TO [NOUN] [GERUND] DUE TO THE FACT THAT [NOUN] [VERB] DUE TO [NOUN=cause] that led to [NOUN=effect] and NOT DUE TO [NOUN=effect] that led to [NOUN=cause] ECONOMIC = dealing with money ECONOMICAL = efficient

RIGHT: The deficit IS DUE TO overspending Our policy will not cover damage DUE TO fire BECAUSE politicians SPEND money, we have a deficit WRONG: DUE TO politicians SPENDING money, we have a deficit DUE TO THE FACT THAT politicians SPEND money, we have a deficit

MGMAT SC Ch9 p153

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ECONOMIC versus ECONOMICAL

RIGHT: The rise in gasoline prices has an ECONOMIC impact on consumers RIGHT: Our new car is more ECONOMICAL than our last WRONG: The rise in gasoline prices has an ECONOMICAL impact on consumers

MGMAT SC Ch9 p153

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288 289 290

EFFECT EITHER … OR ELECT TO VERB versus ELECTED NOUN OF versus ELECTED GERUND

SEE AFFECT EITHER must be paired with OR ELECTED TO VERB is RIGHT SUSPECT: ELECTED NOUN OF WRONG: ELECTED GERUND RIGHT: I will take EITHER the subway OR the bus WRONG: I will take EITHER the subway AND the bus RIGHT: She ELECTED TO WITHDRAW the money early SUSPECT: She ELECTED early WITHDRAWAL of her money WRONG: She ELECTED WITHDRAWING her money early RIGHT: The book was SHORT ENOUGH TO READ RIGHT: The book was SHORT ENOUGH FOR me TO READ SUSPECT: The power plan has found a way to generate energy at an unprecedented scale, ENOUGH FOR powering an entire city WRONG: The book The book The book The book was was was was SHORT SHORT SHORT SHORT ENOUGH ENOUGH ENOUGH ENOUGH THAT I could read it FOR IT TO BE read in a night SO THAT I could read it. AS TO BE read in a night

MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 MGMAT SC Ch9 p153 MGMAT SC Ch9 p153

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ENOUGH ** [ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH TO [VERB] versus [ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO [NON TO BE VERB] versus ENOUGH FOR [GERUND] versus SHORT ENOUGH THAT [NOUN] versus SHORT ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO BE versus SHORT ENOUGH SO THAT [NOUN] versus SHORT ENOUGH AS TO BE

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT ENOUGH and THAT do NOT MIX SEE SO / THAT RIGHT: [ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH TO [VERB] [ADJECTIVE] ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] SUSPECT: ENOUGH FOR [GERUND] WRONG: SHORT ENOUGH SHORT ENOUGH SHORT ENOUGH SHORT ENOUGH THAT [NOUN] versus FOR [NOUN] TO BE versus SO THAT [NOUN] versus AS TO BE

MGMAT SC Ch9 p153-4

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ENSURE THAT [NOUN] ARE versus ENSURES THAT [NOUN] WILL BE versus ENSURES THAT [NOUN] MUST BE versus ENSURES THAT [NOUN] SHOULD BE EQUIPPED TO versus EQUIPPED FOR ESTIMATE TO BE versus ESTIMATE AT

RIGHT: ENSURE THAT [NOUN] ARE ENSURES THAT [NOUN] WILL BE WRONG: ENSURES THAT [NOUN] MUST BE ENSURES THAT [NOUN] SHOULD BE EQUIPPED TO is preferred

RIGHT: He ENSURES THAT deadlines ARE met (or WILL BE met) WRONG: He ENSURES THAT deadlines MUST BE met (or SHOULD BE met)

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RIGHT: They are EQUIPPED TO FIGHT on any terrain WRONG: They are EQIPPED FOR FIGHTING on any terrain RIGHT: She ESTIMATES the cost TO BE $10 RIGHT: The cost IS ESTIMATED TO BE $10 WRONG: She ESTIMATES the cost AT $10

MGMAT SC Ch9 p154

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ESTIMATED TO BE <X> implies that the object being described is estimated to have a characteristic of X. ESTIMATED AT pertains to location and is used to describe its nearness to location X.

MGMAT SC Ch9 p154

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EVEN [COMPARATIVE ADJ] THAN versus AS MUCH [NOUN] AS EVEN [NOUN] versus [COMPARATIVE ADJ] EVEN THAN versus EVEN AS MUCH [NOUN] AS MORE [ADJECTIVE] THAN EVER (BEFORE) versus MORE [ADJECTIVE] THAN NEVER (BEFORE) versus MORE [ADJECTIVE] AS NEVER (BEFORE) versus MORE THAN EVER (BEFORE) [ADJECTIVE] EXCEPT FOR [NOUN] versus BESIDES versus EXCEPTING [NOUN] versus WITH THE EXCEPTION OF [NOUN]

RIGHT: EVEN [COMPARATIVE ADJ] THAN AS MUCH [NOUN] AS EVEN [NOUN] WRONG: [COMPARATIVE ADJ] EVEN THAN versus EVEN AS MUCH [NOUN] AS RIGHT: MORE [ADJECTIVE] THAN EVER (BEFORE) WRONG: MORE [ADJECTIVE] THAN NEVER (BEFORE) MORE [ADJECTIVE] AS NEVER (BEFORE) MORE THAN EVER (BEFORE) [ADJECTIVE]

RIGHT: I am EVEN RICHER THAN A PRINCE RIGHT: I earn AS MUCH money AS EVEN the wealthiest king WRONG: I am RICHER EVEN THAN a prince WRONG: I earn EVEN as MUCH money AS the wealthiest king

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RIGHT: The economy is MORE fragile THAN EVER (BEFORE) WRONG: The economy is MORE fragile THAN NEVER (BEFORE) The economy is MORE fragile AS NEVER (BEFORE) The economy is MORE THAN EVER (BEFORE) fragile

MGMAT SC Ch9 p154

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EXCEPT FOR is correctly followed by a noun. EXCEPTING [NOUN] is ONLY used in negative constructions. RIGHT: EXCEPT FOR SUSPECT: BESIDES [NOUN] WITH THE EXCEPTION OF [NOUN] EXCEPTING [NOUN]

RIGHT: EXCEPT FOR a skirmish, the war was over. SUSPECT: BESIDES a skirmish, the war was over. WITH THE EXCEPTION OF a skirmish, the war was over. EXCEPTING a skirmish, the war was over.

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EXPECT ** EXPECT [NOUN] TO [VERB} versusIS EXPECTED TO [VERB] versusEXPECT THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] versusIT IS EXPECTED THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] versus[NOUN] [VERB] MORE THAN EXPECTED versusThere IS an EXPECTATION THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] versusThere IS an EXPECTATION [NOUN] WILL [VERB] versus There IS an EXPECTATION OF [NOUN] [PRESENT PARTICIPLE] versus[NOUN] [VERB] MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT TO versus[NOUN] [VERB] MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT WOULDversus[NOUN] [TO BE] EXPECTED FOR IT TO [VERB]IT IS EXPECTED THAT [NOUN] SHOULD [VERB]

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: EXPECT [NOUN] TO [VERB]IS EXPECTED TO [VERB] EXPECT THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] IT IS EXPECTED THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] [NOUN] [VERB] MORE THAN EXPECTED There IS an EXPECTATION THAT [NOUN] WILL [VERB] SUSPECT:There IS an EXPECTATION [NOUN] WILL [VERB] There IS an EXPECTATION OF [NOUN] [PRESENT PARTICIPLE] [NOUN] [VERB] MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT TO [NOUN] [VERB] MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT WOULDWRONG: [NOUN] [TO BE] EXPECTED FOR IT TO [VERB]IT IS EXPECTED THAT [NOUN] SHOULD [VERB]

RIGHT: We EXPECT the price TO FALLThe price IS EXPECTED TO FALL We EXPECT THAT the price WILL FALL IT IS EXPECTED THAT the price WILL FALL The price FALL MORE THAN EXPECTED There IS an EXPECTATION THAT the price WILL FALL SUSPECT:There IS an EXPECTATION the price WILL FALL There IS an EXPECTATION OF the price FALLINGthe price FALL MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT TO the price FALL MORE THAN we EXPECTED IT WOULDWRONG:the price IS EXPECTED FOR IT TO FALLIT IS EXPECTED THAT the price SHOULD FALL

MGMAT SC Ch9 p154-5

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EXPEND ON versus EXPEND FOR

EXPEND ON is preferred

RIGHT: We EXPEND energy ON neighborhood development WRONG: We EXPEND energy FOR neighborhood development

MGMAT SC Ch9 p155

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300

TO (SOME) EXTENT versus EXTENT TO WHICH versus EXTENT THAT

RIGHT: TO (SOME) EXTENT versus EXTENT TO WHICH versus WRONG: EXTENT THAT RIGHT: [CLAUSE] THAT [CLAUSE] versus [CLAUSE] BECAUSE [CLAUSE] versus SUSPECT: [CLAUSE] THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] versus THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] IS [CLAUSE] versus WRONG: [CLAUSE] DUE TO THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE]

RIGHT: We enjoyed the film TO (SOME) EXTENT Thumbs part up is the EXTENT TO WHICH we enjoyed the film WRONG: Thumbs part up is the EXTENT THAT we enjoyed the film RIGHT: It is important to recognize THAT our strateg is working We have succeeded because we work hard SUSPECT: It is important to recognize THE FACT THAT our strategy is working THE FACT THAT our strategy is working IS important to recognize WRONG: We have succeeded DUE TO THE FACT THAT we work hard

MGMAT SC Ch9 p155

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FACT THAT [CLAUSE] THAT [CLAUSE] versus [CLAUSE] BECAUSE [CLAUSE] versus [CLAUSE] THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] versus THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE] IS [CLAUSE] versus [CLAUSE] DUE TO THE FACT THAT [CLAUSE]

MGMAT SC Ch9 p155

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303

[NOUN] [TO BE] AT FAULT FOR [VERB] versus [GERUND] [TO BE] THE FAULT OF [NOUN] versus THAT [NOUN] [VERB] [T BE] AT FAULT versus IT IS THE FAULT OF [NOUN] [VERB] FIND THAT versus FIND

RIGHT: [NOUN] [TO BE] AT FAULT FOR [VERB] SUSPECT: [GERUND] [TO BE] THE FAULT OF [NOUN] WRONG: THAT [NOUN] [VERB] [T BE] AT FAULT IT IS THE FAULT OF [NOUN] [VERB]

RIGHT: The criminals ARE AT FAULT FOR BREAKING the law SUSPECT: BREAKING the law IS THE FAULT OF criminals WRONG: THAT the criminals BROKE the law IS AT FAULT IT IS THE FAULT OF criminals WHO BROKE the law

MGMAT SC Ch9 p155

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FOUND THAT is preferred

RIGHT: The scientist FOUND THAT the reaction was unusual SUSPECT: The scientist FOUND the reaction TO BE unusual WRONG: The scientist FOUND the reaction WAS unusual

MGMAT SC Ch9 p155

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FOR (CONJUNCTION FORBID TO [VERB] versus FORBID FROM [GERUND] FROM … TO versus TO … FROM

SEE BECAUSE FORBID TO [VERB] is CORRECT. WRONG: FORBID FROM [GERUND] RIGHT: FROM … TO is correct and TO … FROM is correct too WRONG: FROM … DOWN TO, FROM … UP TO RIGHT: The law FORBIDS any citizen TO VOTE twice WRONG: The law FORBIDS any citizen FROM VOTING twice RIGHT: The price fell FROM 10 euros TO 3 euros The price fell TO 3 euros FROM 10 euros The price fell FROM 10 euros DOWN TO 3 euros The price rose FROM 3 euros UP to 10 euros RIGHT: The GOAL IS TO EXPAND the company WRONG: The GOAL IS EXPANSION OF the company WRONG: The GOAL IS EXPANDING the company RIGHT: She HEARD THAT her investment HAD PAID off WRONG: She HEARD OF her investment PAYING OFF RIGHT: He HELPS RAKE the leavesHe HELPS TO RAKE the leavesHe HELPS me RAKE the leavesHe HELPS me TO RAKE the leavesHis HELP IN RAKING the leaves has been welcomeWRONG: He HELPS me IN RAKING the leavesI need him AS HELP TO RAKE the leaves

MGMAT SC Ch9 p155 MGMAT SC Ch9 p155

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p156

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307

GOAL

308 309

HEARD THAT versus HEARD OF HELP

RIGHT: GOAL IS TO EXPAND WRONG: GOAL IS EXPANSION OF, GOAL IS EXPANDING RIGHT: HEARD THAT WRONG: HEARD OF RIGHT: HELPS RAKEHELPS TO RAKEHELPS [NOUN] RAKEHELPS [NOUN] TO RAKEHELP IN RAKINGWRONG: HELPS [NOUN] IN RAKING, AS HELP TO RAKE

MGMAT SC Ch9 p156

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p156 MGMAT SC Ch9 p156

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HOLDS THAT versus HOLDS TO BE versus HOLDS IF

RIGHT: HOLDS THAT WRONG: HOLDS TO BE, HOLD SEE WHETHER RIGHT: IF = condition RIGHT: PROVIDED THAT = ONLY IF SUSPECT: WHEN (= time period) WRONG: PROVIDED (requires THAT)

RIGHT: He HOLDS THAT jaywalking is illegal WRONG: He HOLDS jaywalking TO BE illegal He HOLDS jaywalking is illegal SEE WHETHER RIGHT: Inflation can hurt profits IF costs increae (IF = condition) RIGHT: I can eat ice cream, PROVIDED THAT my doctor approves SUSPECT: Inflation can hurt profits WHEN costs increase (= time period) WRONG: I can eat ice cream, PROVIDED THAT my doctor approves (requires THAT)

MGMAT SC Ch9 p156

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p156

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312

IN ORDER TO **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: IN ORDER TO STAY, TO STAY SUSPECT: IN ORDER THAT, SO THAT [NOUN] [VERB], SO AS TO STAY [VERB] WRONG: FOR STAYING, IN ORDER TO (not next to its SUBJECT)

RIGHT: She drank coffee IN ORDER TO STAY awake. She drank coffee TO STAY awake (TO STAY indicates PURPOSE) SUSPECT: She drank coffee IN ORDER THAT or SO THAT she MIGHT stay awake. She drank coffee SO AS TO STAY awake. WRONG: She drank coffee FOR STAYING awake. Coffee was drunk by HER IN ORDER TO stay awake (COFFEE is NOT the subject. HER is. IN ORDER TO is not next to its SUBJECT)

MGMAT SC Ch9 p156

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INDICATE **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: INDICATE THAT

RIGHT: A report INDICATES THAT unique bacteria LIVE on our skin SUSPECT: A report INDICATES the presence of unique bacteria on our skin SUSPECT: A report IS INDICATIVE OF the presence of unique bacteria on our skin WRONG: A report INDICATES unique bacteria LIVE on our skin (THAT is needed) A report IS INDICATIVE THAT unique bacteria LIVE on our skin A report INDICATES unique bacteria AS present on our skin A report INDICATES unique bacteria TO LIVE on our skin

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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INFLUENCE

RIGHT: INFLUENCED is preferred over WAS INFLUENNTIAL TO, AN INFLUENCE ON WRONG: WAS INFLUENTIAL ON RIGHT: INSPIRED is preferred over WAS INSPIRATIONAL TO or AN INSPIRATION TO

RIGHT: His example INFLUENCED me SUSPECT: His example WAS INFLUENTIAL TO me (or AN INFLUENCE ON me) WRONG: His example WAS INFLUENTIAL ON me RIGHT: His example INSPIRED me SUSPECT: His example WAS INSPIRATIONAL TO OR AN INSPIRATION TO me

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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INSPIRE

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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INSTANCE

RIGHT: FOR INSTANCE is right

RIGHT: We eat out often; FOR INSTANCE, last week we ate out every night WRONG: We eat out often, AS AN INSTANCE, last week we ate out every night

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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INSTEAD

RIGHT: INSTEAD is correct and RATHER is INCORRECT

RIGHT: They avoided the arcade and INSTEAD went to a movie WRONG: They avoided the arcade and RATHER went to a movie They avoided the arcade, RATHER going to a movie

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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318 319

INSTEAD OF INTENT OF versus INTENTION OF versus INTENT TO versus INTENT THAT

SEE RATHER THAN RIGHT:: INTENT OF, INTENTION OF, INTENT TO are preferred over INTENT THAT RIGHT: I went with the INTENT or INTENTION OF leaving soon I went with the INTENT TO LEAVE soon SUSPECT: I went with the INTENT THAT I WOULD LEAVE soon

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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INTERACT WITH 1 person versus INTERACT AMONG versus INTERACT WITH 2 or more

INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER or EACH OTHER is correct WRONG: INTERACT AMONG ONE ANOTHER WRONG: INTERACT WITH THEMSELVES

RIGHT: These groups often INTERACT WITH ONE AOTHER or EACH OTHER WRONG: These groups often INTERACT AMONG ONE ANOTHER These groups often INTERACT WITH THEMSELVES

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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INTERACTION OF versus INTERACTION BETWEEN versus INTERACTION WHERE

INTERACTION OF is preferred over INTERACTION BETWEEN INTERACTION WHERE is WRONG

RIGHT: The INTERACTION OF two nuclei COLLIDING releases energy SUSPECT: The INTERACTION BETWEEN two nuclei COLLIDING releases energy WRONG: The INTERACTION WHERE two nuclei COLLIDE releases energy

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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INVEST IN X TO [VERB] versus INVEST INTO X TO [VERB] versus INVEST INTO X FOR [VERB] INVEST FOR [GERUND] ISOLATED FROM versus IN ISOLATION versus IN ISOLATION FROM JUST AS … SO KNOWN AS versus KNOWN TO BE

INVESTED IN X TO [VERB] is correct WRONG: INVESTED INTO X TO [VERB], INVEST FOR X TO [VERB], INVEST FOR [GERUND]

RIGHT: She INVESTED funds IN research TO STUDY cancer WRONG: She INVESTED funds INTO or FOR research TO STUDY cancer She INVESTED funds IN research FOR STUDYING cancer

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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ISOLATE FROM is preferred over IN ISOLATION WRONG: IN ISOLATION FROM

RIGHT: The culture was ISOLATED FROM outside CONTACT SUSPECT: The culture was IN ISOLATIONWRONG: The culture was IN ISOLATION FROM outside CONTACT

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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324 325

SEE AS / SO KNOW AS = NAMED KNOW TO BE = leads to adjective RIGHT: We KNOW her TO BE brilliant. She is KNOWN TO BE brilliant RIGHT: We KNOW him AS "Reggie". He is KNOWN AS "Reggie" WRONG: We KNOW her AS brilliant (KNOW AS = NAMED)

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157 MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

SC SC

Idioms Idioms

326

[TO BE] LACKING IN [NOUN] versus LACK [NOUN] versus LACK OF [NOUN] versus LACKING IN [NOUN CLAUSE]

RIGHT: [BE (bare form)] LACKING IN [NOUN] as an adjective LACK [NOUN] as a verb LACK OF [NOUN] as a noun WRONG: A LACK OF [NOUN] TO [VERB] LACKING [NOUN] (as a clause without a comma and no bare form

RIGHT: Old gadgets ARE LACKING in features Old gadgets LACK features The LACK OF features is upsetting SUSPECT: There is A LACK OF engineers TO BUILD new gadgets WRONG: Old gadgets LACK OF features WRONG: It is hard to build bridges LACKING engineers RIGHT: Our utilities add up to LESS THAN 10% of our income WRONG: Our utilities add up to LOWER THAN 10% of our income

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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327

LESS THAN

SEE THAN LESS THAN is preferred over LOWER THAN

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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328

LET versus LEAVE

LET is right. LEAVE is wrong

RIGHT: My doctor LETS me SWIM in the ocean WRONG: My doctor LEAVES me SWIM in the ocean The surgery WILL LEAVE me TO SWIM in the ocean

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157

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53

329

LIE versus LAY

LIES IN = resides in LAY in = resided in lie: lie, lying, lay, (have) lain lay: lay, laying, laid, (have) laid LAY always HAS AN OBJECT AFTER IT because it is a TRANSITIVE verb SUBJECT doing action = use LIE OBJECT has action acted upon it = use LAY Again, lie can be a verb and a noun. Lay can only be a verb. The past tense of lay is laid. The present participle is laying. The past tense of lie (the verb) is lied.The present participle is lying.

RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: RIGHT: verb)

Our strength LIES IN numbers (= resides in) Yesterday, our strength LAY IN numbers (= resided in) Tomorrow, our strength WILL LIE IN numbers I lose my books whenever I LAY them down (present tense of different

MGMAT SC Ch9 p157-8

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Idioms

WRONG: Tomorrow, our strength WILL LAY IN numbers lie/lay I lie [not lay] on the floor when I watch television. I lay my keys on the table when I arrive home from work. lying/laying I am lying [not laying] on the floor watching television. I am laying my briefcase on my desk to remind me that I have work to finish. lay/laid Yesterday I lay [not laid] in bed all day with a fever. Yesterday I laid my briefcase on my desk and forgot about it when I left for work. (have) lain/(have) laid I have lain [not have laid] in bed all day with a fever. I have laid my briefcase on my desk to remind me that I have work to finish.

330

DISINTERESTED versus UNINTERESTED HANGED versus HUNG

UNINTERESTED = bored DISINTERESTED = neutral HANGED refers to people. HUNG refers to everything else like pictures, curtains, etc. HEALTHY refers to people. HEALTHFUL refers to foods that make the person eating it healthy. LOOK is the action performed by eyes = act of seeing APPEAR means SEEM or have an outward appearnce ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT SEE ALSO SUCH AS LIKE refers to NOUNS AS refers to VERBS

331

332

HEALTHY versus HEALTHFUL LOOK versus APPEAR

333

My mom is DISINTERESTED in video games as she neither likes nor hates to play them Akka is UNINTERESTED with the book as it is very dry RIGHT The criminal was HANGEd The mirror was HUNG RIGHT The apple is very healthful as it keeps the doctor away The athlete is very healthy as he is fit How do I LOOK? => Well, you use your eyes, don't you? How do I APPEAR? => Very nice

http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ type1.htm http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ type1.htm http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ type1.htm http://richardbowles.tripod.com/gmat/sc/sc_ type1.htm

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334

LIKE **

RIGHT: LIKE his sister, Matt drives fast cars (= both drive fast cars) RIGHT: Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister (= both drive fast cars, or both drive fast cars in the same way) Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister's (= both drive SIMILAR cars; he does NOT drive his sister's car) WRONG: Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister does LIKE his sister, SO Matt drives fast cars

MGMAT SC Ch9 p158-9

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335

LIKELY **

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: [BE] LIKELY TO [VERB] [BE] LIKELY THAT … WILL [VERB] MORE LIKELY THAN … TO [VERB] TWICE AS LIKELY AS … TO EAT MORE THAN LIKELY … WILL [VERB] WRONG: IS LIKELY THAT … WILL [VERB] RATHER THAN …. THE MORE LIKELY TO [VERB]

RIGHT: My friend IS LIKELY TO EAT worms IT IS LIKELY THAT my friend WILL EAT worms My friend is MORE LIKELY THAN my enemy [is] TO EAT worms. My friend is TWICE AS LIKELY AS my enemy [is] TO EAT worms MORE THAN LIKELY, my friend WILL eat worms WRONG: My friend is LIKELY THAT he WILL EAT worms RATHER THAN my enemy, my friend is THE MORE LIKELY to EAT worms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p159

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Idioms

336

LOSS OF versus LOSS IN

337

MANDATE [THAT] [INFINITIVE (without "to" for subjunctive sentences)] OR MANDATE [THAT] [X] be [Y] versus HAVE A MANDATE versus HAVE A MANDATE TO [VERB] versus HAVE A MANDATE FOR [NOUN]

LOSS OF means "no longer in possession of" or "decline in quality". LOSS IN means "decline in value of an investment" MANDATE means "command". HAVE A MANDATE means "have authority from voters" Require also needs [THAT] [INFINITIVE (without "to" for subjunctive sentences AKA the unconjugated verb] as well MANDATE THAT ... BE > MANDATE THAT ... TO BE MANDATED THAT ... BE = SUBJUNCTIVE HAVE A MANDATE TO [VERB] > HAVE A MANDATE FOR [NOUN] HAVE A MANDATE TO [VERB] = HAVE AUTHORITY RIGHT: MADE [NOUN] POSSIBLE MADE IT POSSIBLE TO [VERB] MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] (IT = refers to [VERB]) ARE MADE [ADJECTIVE] SUSPECT: MADE POSSIBLE [NOUN], ARE MADE TO BE [ADJECTIVE] WRONG: MADE POSSIBLE TO [VERB]

RIGHT: I have suffered a LOSS OF strength RIGHT: They have suffered a LOSS IN the euro WRONG: I have suffered a LOSS IN strength The president MANDATED that the bill be passed The Congress has a mandate to declare war. RIGHT: The general MANDATED THAT a trench be dug (SUBJUNCTIVE) RIGHT: We HAVE A MANDATE TO CALL an election soon (AUTHORITY) WRONG: The genreal MANDATED a trench TO BE dug WRONG: The genreal MANDATES THAT a trench WILL BE dug WRONG: We HAVE A MANDATE FOR an election in the near future

MGMAT SC Ch9 p159

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Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p159

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Idioms

338

339

MADE [NOUN] POSSIBLE versus MADE IT POSSIBLE TO [VERB] versus MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] versus ARE MADE [ADJECTIVE] versus MADE POSSIBLE [NOUN] versus ARE MADE TO BE [ADJECTIVE] versus MADE POSSIBLE TO [VERB] IS MASS versus HAS MASS

RIGHT: The leader MADE the resistance POSSIBLE The leader MADE IT POSSIBLE TO RESIST oppression The leader MADE IT POSSIBLE FOR the resistance TO RESIST oppression. (IT = refers to [VERB]) Windshields ARE MADE resistant to impact SUSPECT: The leader MADE POSSIBLE the resistance Windshields ARE MADE TO BE resistant to impact WRONG: The leader MADE POSSIBLE TO RESIST oppression

MGMAT SC Ch9 p159

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55

HAS MASS is correct

RIGHT: The truck HAS ten TIMES THE MASS of a small car WRONG: The truck IS ten TIMES THE MASS of a small car

MGMAT SC Ch9 p160

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340 341

MAYBE A MEANS TO versus A MEANS FOR versus A MEANS OF

SEE PROBABLY A MEANS TO is correct RIGHT: Music education is a MEANS TO improved cognition WRONG: Music education is a MEANS FOR improved cognition WRONG: Music education is a MEANS OF improved cognition

MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 MGMAT SC Ch9 p160

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342

MISTAKEEN FOR versus MISTAKEN AS versus MISTAKEN TO

MISTAKEN FOR is correct

RIGHT: My spouse HAS MISTAKEN me FOR a wealthier person WRONG: My spouse HAS MISTAKEN me AS a wealthier person WRONG: My spouse HAS MISTAKEN me TO a wealthier person

MGMAT SC Ch9 p160

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343

MGMAT SC Ch9 p160

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MORE 344

SEE THAN MORE without THAN should NOT refer to numbers. INCREASE or INCREASINGLY should be used MORE AND MORE is correct

RIGHT: We observed A 10% INCREASE IN robberies last month RIGHT: MORE AND MORE we have observed violent robberies on weekends RIGHT: INCREASINGLY we have observed violent robberies on weekends SUSPECT: We observed 10% MORE robberies last month MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 RIGHT: The kangaroo is NATIVE TO Australia (said of animals, plants) RIGHT: My friend is a NATIVE OF Australia (said of people) SC Idioms

NATIVE OF versus NATIVE TO 345

NATIVE TO = said of animals and plants A NATIVE OF = said of people

WRONG: The kangaroo is NATIVE IN Australia MGMAT SC Ch9 p160 RIGHT She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT ATE other kinds of fruits She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT LIKED other kinds of fruit AND AND later BEGAN to like kiwis, too A tomato is NOT a vegetable BUT a fruit A tomato is NOT a vegetable BUT RATHER a fruit The agency IS NOT a fully independent entity BUT INSTEAD DERIVES its authority from Congress She DID NOT EAT mangoes; INSTEAD, she ate other kinds of fruit WRONG: She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT other kinds of fruit She DID NOT EAT mangoes; RATHER other kinds of fruit MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 RIGHT: We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT ALSO sandals We wore NOT ONLY boots , BUT ALSO sandals (COMMA is OPTIONAL) We wore NOT JUST boots BUT ALSO sandals SUSPECT: We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT [NOUN] (COULD be correct) We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT sandals AS WELL We wore boots AND ALSO sandals WRONG: We wore NOT ONLY boots AND ALSO sandals We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT, AS WELL, sandals SC Idioms SC Idioms

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT DID NOT EAT … BUT ATE DID NOT EAT … BUT LIKED … AND BEGAN… NOT [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] NOT [NOUN] BUT RATHER [NOUN] [VERB] NOT [NOUN] BUT INSTEAD [PARALLEL VERB] [NOUN] DID NOT EAT [NOUN]; INSTEAD, [sentence] WRONG: DID NOT EAT [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] DID NOT EAT [NOUN]; RATHER [clause] ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT ALSO [NOUN] NOT ONLY [NOUN], BUT ALSO [NOUN] (COMMA is OPTIONAL) NOT JUST [NOUN] BUT ALSO [NOUN] SUSPECT: NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] (COULD be correct) NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT [NOUN] AS WELL [NOUN] AND ALSO [NOUN ** NOT ONLY … BUT ALSO WRONG: NOT ONLY [NOUN] AND ALSO [NOUN] NOT ONLY [NOUN] BUT, AS WELL, [NOUN]

** NOT … BUT 346

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347

MGMAT SC Ch9 p161

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Idioms

RIGHT: A NUMBER OF dogs ARE barking THE NUMBER OF dogs IS large THE NUMBER OF dogs HAS FALLEN, but THE NUMBER OF cats HAS RISEN THE NUMBER OF versus A NUMBER OF versus ITS NUMBERS / NUMBER OBJECT TO versus HAVE AN OBJECTION TO ONCE versus AT ONE TIME SUSPECT: There HAS BEEN A DECLINE IN THE NUMBER OF dogs A NUMBER = PLURAL THE NUMBER = SINGULAR ITS NUMBERS / NUMBER = SINGULAR WRONG: THE NUMBER OF dogs HAVE fallen Dogs HAVE FALLEN IN NUMBER, but cats HAVE RISEN IN NUMBER MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 OBJECT TO is preferred ONCE is correct over AT ONE TIME RIGHT: We OBJECT TO these proceedings WRONG: We HAVE AN OBJECTION TO these proceedings RIGHT: We might ONCE have seen that band WRONG: We might AT ONE TIME have seen that band RIGHT: Her performance is exceeded ONLY by theirs (modifies BY THEIRS) WRONG: Her performance is ONLY exceeded by theirs (modifies EXCEEDED and changes meaning) MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 OR versus AND 352 OR means separate entities. AND implies combination RIGHT: I do NOT want water OR milk SUSPECT: I do NOT want water AND milk (implies the combination) MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms SC Idioms SC Idioms

348

349 350

MGMAT SC Ch9 p161 MGMAT SC Ch9 p161

SC SC

Idioms Idioms

** ONLY 351

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT Place ONLY next to APPROPRIATE MODIFIER

ORDERS THAT … [VERB without BE] (SUBJUNCTIVE) ORDERS X TO [VERB] WRONG: ORDERS THAT …SHOULD COLLECT ORDERS X SHOULD / WOULD [VERB] ORDERS X [GERUND] ORDERS X the [NOUN] ORDERS X [NOUN] BY X ORDERS [NOUN] [PAST PARTICIPLE]

RIGHT: The state ORDERS THAT the agency COLLECT taxes (SUBJUNCTIVE) The state ORDERS the agency TO COLLECT taxes WRONG: The state The state The state The state The state The state ORDERS ORDERS ORDERS ORDERS ORDERS ORDERS THAT the agency SHOULD COLLECT taxes the agency SHOULD / WOULD COLLECT taxes the agency COLLECTING taxes the agency the COLLECTION of taxes the COLLECTION OF taxes BY the agency taxes collected MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms

** ORDER 353 OWE X TO Y FOR versus OWES X TO Y BECAUSE OF 354 PAYS X FOR Y versus PAYS X IN Y 355 356 PERHAPS PERSUADE [NOUN] TO [VERB] versus PERSUADE THAT [NOUN] [VERB without TO] versus PERSUADED [NOUN] IN [GERUND] IS POTENTIALLY versus CAN POTENTIALLY BE

Page

OWES X TO Y FOR is Correct

RIGHT: He OWES money TO the government FOR back taxes SUSPECT: He OWES money TO the government BECAUSE OF back taxes MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 RIGHT: The employers PAYS the same FOR this JOB as for that one WRONG: The employer PAYS the same IN this JOB as in that one MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC SC Idioms Idioms SC Idioms

57

PAYS X FOR Y is Correct SEE PROBABLY

PERSUADED [NOUN] TO [VERB] is correct

RIGHT: He PERSUADED her TO GO with him WRONG: He PERSUADED her IN GOING with him WRONG: He PERSUADED THAT she GO (or SHOULD GO) with him MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms RIGHT: A tornado is POTENTIALLY overwhelming WRONG: He PERSUADED her IN GOING with him WRONG: He PERSUADED THAT she GO (SHOULD GO) with him

357 IS POTENTIALLY is correct. CAN POTENTIALLY BE is redundant

358 [GERUND] PRIVILEGE versus THE PRIVILEGE OF [GERUND] versus THE PRIVILEGE TO [VERB] 359 [NOUN] IS PROBABLY versus [NOUN] MAY BE versus PERHAPS [NOUN] … IS versus MAYBE [NOUN] … IS versus IT MAY BE THAT [NOUN] IS versus [NOUN] IS MAYBE … 360 RIGHT: The law PROHIBITS any citizen FROM VOTING twice WRONG: The law PROHIBITS any citizen TO VOTE twice WRONG: The law PROHIBITS THAT any person VOTE (or VOTES) twice RIGHT [NOUN] IS PROBABLY [NOUN] MAY BE (Less certain than PROBABLY) PERHAPS [NOUN] … IS MAYBE [NOUN] … IS WRONG IT MAY BE THAT [NOUN] IS [NOUN] IS MAYBE … RIGHT This situation IS PROBABLY as bad as it can get This situation MAY BE as bad as it can get (Less certain than PROBABLY) PERHAPS This situation IS as bad as it can get MAYBE This situation IS as bad as it can get WRONG IT MAY BE THAT this situation IS as bad as it can get This situation IS MAYBE as bad as it can get

MGMAT SC Ch9 p162

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Idioms

[GERUND] PRIVILEGE is correct and preferred over THE PRIVILEGE OF [GERUND]

RIGHT: The academy gave senior cadets DANCING PRIVILEGES SUSPECT: The academy gave senior cadets THE PRIVILEGE OF DANCING WRONG: The academy gave senior cadets THE PRIVILEGE TO DANCE MGMAT SC Ch9 p162 SC Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p163

SC

Idioms

361

PROHIBIT FROM verus PROHIBIT TO PRONOUNCE [NOUN] [NOUN] versus PRONOUNCE [NOUN] AS [NOUN]

PROHIBIT FROM is correct. FORBID TO is correct.

MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 RIGHT: She PRONOUNCED the book a triumph WRONG: She PRONOUNCED the book AS a triumph MGMAT SC Ch9 p163

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Idioms

PRONOUNCE [NOUN] [NOUN] is correct RIGHT: PROPOSED THAT X BE Y (SUBJUNCTIVE PROPOSED X PROPOSED TO X for Y WRONG: PROPOSED THAT X IS Y PROPOSED X BE Y PROPOSED X IS TO BE Y SEE IF Equivalent to ONLY IF SEE RISE

362 PROPOSED THAT X BE Y versus PROPOSED X PROPOSED TO X for Y versus PROPOSED THAT X IS Y versus PROPOSED X BE Y versus PROPOSED X IS TO BE Y 363 PROVIDED THAT 364 365 RAISE The attorneys PROPOSED THAT a settlement BE reached (SUBJUNCTIVE) The attorneys PROPOSED a new venue The attorneys PROPOSED TO MEET for lunch WRONG: The attorneys PROPOSED THAT a settlement IS reached The attorneys PROPOSED a settlement BE reached The attorneys PROPOSED a settlement IS TO BE reached

SC

Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 RIGHT: His emitions RANGED FROM anger TO joy His WIDELY RANGING emoions are hard to deal with = changing over time His WIDE RANGE of accomplishments is impressive = a variety WRONG: His emotions RANGED FROM anger AND joy FROM anger AND TO joy FROM anger WITH joy FROM anger IN ADDITION TO joy HIs WIDELY RANGING accomplishments are impressive MGMAT SC Ch9 p163

SC SC SC

Idioms Idioms Idioms

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RANGED FROM X TO Y versus WIDELY RANGING versus WIDE RANGE versus RANGED FROM X AND Y versus FROM X AND TO Y versus FROM X WITH Y versus FROM X IN ADDITION TO Y 366 RANK AS versus HAS THE RANK OF

RIGHT: RANGED FROM X TO Y WIDELY RANGING = changing over time WIDE RANGE = a variety WRONG: RANGED FROM X AND Y FROM X AND TO Y FROM X WITH Y FROM X IN ADDITION TO Y

58

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RANK AS is correct

RIGHT: This problem RANKS AS one of the worst we have seen WRONG: This problem HAS THE RANK OF one of the worst we have seen

367 RIGHT: The RATES for bus tickets are good for commuters RIGHT: The RATE OF theft has fallen RATE FOR versus RATE OF 368 RATE FOR = prices RATE OF = frequency or speed RATHER THAN shows preference and CHOICE. (LOOSE (not always strictly followed) TEST: George is a dog RATHER THAN a cat DOES NOT MAKE sense, so INSTEAD OF is needed) INSTEAD OF suggests that one person, thing or action replaces another. RATHER THAN is ALMOST ALWAYS PREFERRED RIGHT REASON TO [VERB] REASON FOR [NOUN] REASON THAT [clause] SUSPECT REASON WHY [clause] WRONG REASON [clause] the REASON … IS BECAUSE [clause] WRONG: The RATES OF bus tickts are good for commuters WRONG: The RATE FOR theft has fallen

MGMAT SC Ch9 p163

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Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p163 RIGHT: He wrote with pencils RATHER THAN with pens SUSPECT: He wrote with pencils INSTEAD OF pens SUSPECT: He wrote with pencils, BUT NOT pens WRONG: He worte with pencils INSTEAD OF with pens RIGHT I have a REASON TO DO work today She has REASON FOR the lawsuit This observation indicates a REASON THAT he is here SUSPECT This observation indicates a REASON WHY he is here WRONG This observation indicates a REASON he is here The REASON he is here IS BECAUSE he wants to be MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 MGMAT SC Ch9 p164

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Idioms

RATHER THAN versus INSTEAD OF 369 REASON TO [VERB] versus REASON FOR [NOUN] versus REASON THAT [clause] versus REASON WHY [clause] versus REASON [clause] versus the REASON … IS BECAUSE [clause] REBEL AGAINST versus REBELLION WAS AGAINST RECOGNIZED THAT X WAS Y versus RECOGNIZED X TO BE Y versus RECOGNIZED X AS Y versus RECOGNIZED X AS BEING Y RECOMMEND THAT … BE versus RECOMMEND THAT … SHOULD BE REDUCE [NOUN] versus REDUCTION IN [NOUN] versus MADE A REDUCTION IN [NOUN] versus CAUSED A REDUCTION in [NOUN] versus MADE A REDUCTION OF [NOUN]

SC

Idioms

370

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REBELLED AGAINST is preferred RIGHT RECOGNIZED THAT X WAS Y RECOGNIZED X TO BE Y RECOGNIZED X AS Y WRONG RECOGNIZED X AS BEING Y

RIGHT: The colonists REBELLED AGAINST tyranny WRONG: The colonists' REBELLION WAS AGAINST tyranny MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 RIGHT They RECOGNIZED THAT the entrance fee WAS a bargain They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee TO BE a bargain They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee AS a bargain WRONG: They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee AS BEING a bargain MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms SC Idioms

371

372

RECOMMEND THAT … BE is correct because the phrase is SUBJUNCTIVE RIGHT REDUCE [NOUN] REDUCTION IN [NOUN] SUSPECT MADE A REDUCTION IN [NOUN] CAUSED A REDUCTION in [NOUN] WRONG: MADE A REDUCTION OF [NOUN]

RIGHT: We RECOMMENDED THAT the shelter BE opened WRONG: We RECOMMENDED THAT the shelter SHOULD BE opened RIGHT The coalition REDUCE prices The coalition REDUCTION IN prices SUSPECT The coalition MADE A REDUCTION IN prices The coalition CAUSED A REDUCTION in prices WRONG: The coalition MADE A REDUCTION OF prices MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 SC Idioms

373

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374 RIGHT REFER TO REFERRING TO REFER TO versus REFERRING TO versus IS USED TO REFER TO versus IS IN REFERENCE TO versus IN REFERENCE TO 375 REGARDS [NOUN] AS [ADJECTIVE] versus [NOUN] IS REGARDED AS [ADJECTIVE] versus [NOUN] IS REGARDED AS HAVING [NOUN] versus [NOUN] IS REGARDED THAT IT IS [ADJECTIVE] SUSPECT IS USED TO REFER TO WRONG: IS IN REFERENCE TO IN REFERENCE TO RIGHT This term REFERS TO a kind of disease. REFERRING TO the controversy, the politican asked for calm SUSPECT This term IS USED TO REFER TO a kind of disease WRONG: This term IS IN REFERENCE TO a kind of disease IN REFERENCE TO the controversy, the politician asked for calm

MGMAT SC Ch9 p164

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Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p164 RIGHT REGARDS [NOUN] AS [ADJECTIVE] [NOUN] IS REGARDED AS [ADJECTIVE] [NOUN] IS REGARDED AS HAVING [NOUN] WRONG [NOUN] IS REGARDED THAT IT IS [ADJECTIVE] RIGHT RELUCTANT TO [VERB] RIGHT He REGARDS the gold ring AS costly the gold ring IS REGARDED AS costly He IS REGARDED AS HAVING good taste WRONG the gold ring IS REGARDED THAT IT IS costly RIGHT They were RELUCTANT TO SAY anything WRONG They were RELUCTANT ABOUT SAYING anything MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 MGMAT SC Ch9 p165

SC

Idioms

376 RELUCTANT TO [VERB] versus RELUCTANT ABOUT [GERUND] 377 HAS REPORTED THAT versus HAS REPORTED REQUEST THAT … BE versus REQUEST … TO BE

SC

Idioms

WRONG RELUCTANT ABOUT [GERUND]

SC

Idioms

HAS REPORTED THAT is correct because it is a reporting verb REQUEST THAT … BE (SUBJUNCTIVE) is correct because request is a reporting verb

RIGHT: A study HAS REPORTED THAT bees ARE DISAPPEARING WRONG: A study HAS REPORTED bees AS DISAPPEARING rapidly MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 RIGHT: I REQUEST THAT he BE removed (SUBJUNCTIVE) WRONG: I REQUEST him TO BE removed SC Idioms

378

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379

REQUIRE ** REQUIRES X TO [VERB] REQUIRES X IN ORDER TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS REQUIRED TO DO [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X [VERB (no TO)] (SUBJUNCTIVE) REQUIRES OF X THAT Y BE done REQUIREMENT OF [NOUN] REQUIREMENT THAT [NOUN] BE done REQUIRES X DO [NOUN] REQUIRES X MUST DO [NOUN] REQUIRES X TO HAVE TO [VERB] [NOUN] REQUIRES OF X TO DO [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X DOES [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X SHOULD DO [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X IS TO DO [NOUN] REQUIRES DOING [NOUN] (or THE DOING of [NOUN]) REQUIRES her friend DOING [NOUN] REQUIREMENT OF [NOUN] BY [NOUN] [NOUN] RESEMBLES [NOUN] versus [NOUN] HAS A RESEMBLANCE TO [NOUN]

MGMAT SC Ch9 p165

SC

Idioms

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT REQUIRES X TO [VERB] REQUIRES X IN ORDER TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS REQUIRED TO DO [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X [VERB (no TO)] (SUBJUNCTIVE) REQUIRES OF X THAT Y BE done SUSPECT REQUIREMENT OF [NOUN] REQUIREMENT THAT [NOUN] BE done WRONG: REQUIRES X DO [NOUN] REQUIRES X MUST DO [NOUN] REQUIRES X TO HAVE TO [VERB] [NOUN] REQUIRES OF X TO DO [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X DOES [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X SHOULD DO [NOUN] REQUIRES THAT X IS TO DO [NOUN] REQUIRES DOING [NOUN] (or THE DOING of [NOUN]) REQUIRES her friend DOING [NOUN] REQUIREMENT OF [NOUN] BY [NOUN]

She REQUIRES time TO WRITE She REQUIRES time IN ORDER TO WRITE Her friend IS REQUIRED TO DO work She REQUIRES THAT her friend DO work (SUBJUNCTIVE) She REQUIRES OF her friend THAT work BE done SUSPECT In this hostel, there is a REQUIREMENT OF work She requires REQUIREMENT THAT work BE done WRONG: She REQUIRES X DO work She REQUIRES her MUST DO work She REQUIRES her friend TO HAVE TO DO work She REQUIRES OF her friend TO DO work She REQUIRES THAT her friend DOES work She REQUIRES THAT her friend SHOULD DO work She REQUIRES THAT her firned IS TO DO work She REQUIRES DOING work (or THE DOING of work) She REQUIRES her friend DOING work In this hostel, there is a REQUIREMENT OF work BY guests RIGHT A coffee mug RESEMBLES my father MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms

380

[NOUN] RESEMBLES [NOUN] is preferred

SUSPECT A coffee mug HAS A RESEMBLANCE TO my father MGMAT SC Ch9 p165 SC Idioms

381 RESTRICTION ON versus RESTRICTIONS FOR RIGHT: The government imposed RESTRICTIONS ON the price of gasoline WRONG: The government imposed RESTRICTIONS FOR the price of gasoline

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RESTRICTIONS ON is correct

61

382

RESULT ** [NOUN] RESULTS FROM [NOUN] [NOUN] RESULTS IN [NOUN] [NOUN] IS A RESULT OF [NOUN] [NOUN] [VERB] AS A RESULT OF [NOUN] AS A RESULT OF [NOUN], [NOUN] [VERB] The RESULT OF [NOUN] WAS THAT [NOUN] [VERB] [NOUN] [VERB] WITH THE RESULT OF [NOUN] [NOUN] [VERB] WITH A RESULTING [NOUN] RESULTING FROM [NOUN], [NOUN] [VERB] BECAUSE OF THE RESULT OF [NOUN] , [NOUN] [VERB] The RESULT OF [NOUN] WAS [NOUN] [NOUN] RESULTS

MGMAT SC Ch9 p165-6

SC

Idioms

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT [NOUN=effect] RESULTS FROM [NOUN=cause] [NOUN=cause] RESULTS IN [NOUN=effect] [NOUN=effect] IS A RESULT OF [NOUN=cause] [NOUN=effect] [VERB] AS A RESULT OF [NOUN=cause] AS A RESULT OF [NOUN=cause], [NOUN=effect] [VERB] The RESULT OF [NOUN==cause] WAS THAT [NOUN=effect] [VERB] WRONG [NOUN] [VERB] WITH THE RESULT OF [NOUN] [NOUN] [VERB] WITH A RESULTING [NOUN] RESULTING FROM [NOUN], [NOUN] [VERB] BECAUSE OF THE RESULT OF [NOUN] , [NOUN] [VERB] The RESULT OF [NOUN] WAS [NOUN] [NOUN] RESULTS

RIGHT Wealth RESULTS FROM Work Work RESULTS IN Wealth Wealth IS A RESULT OF Work Wealth grows AS A RESULT OF work AS A RESULT OF work, wealth grew The RESULT OF work WAS THAT wealth grew WRONG We worked WITH THE RESULT OF wealth We worked WITH A RESULTING growth of wealth RESULTING FROM work, wealth grew BECAUSE OF THE RESULT OF work , wealth grew The RESULT OF work WAS wealth grew (MISSING THAT) Growth of wealth RESULTS MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 RIGHT The analysis REVEALED THAT the comet WAS mostly ice SUSPECT The analysis REVEALED the comet WAS mostly ice SC Idioms

383

REVEAL THAT versus REVEAL versus REVEAL X TO HAVE BEEN 384

REVEAL THAT is preferred over REVEALED … RISING = object going higher RISE = increase in object's characteristic WERE RAISED = subject is increasing the object's characteristics height-wise or similar RAISE = bet or pay increase RIGHT: [NOUN] ROSE A RISE IN [NOUN] [VERB] RISING [NOUN] [VERB] The RISING OF the [NOUN] [VERB] SUSPECT [NOUN] WERE RAISED (= implies INTENT and CONTROL) WRONG A RAISE IN [NOUN] [VERB] (= BET or PAY INCREASE) A RISING OF [NOUN] [VERB]

RIGHT The analysis REVEALED the comet TO HAVE BEEN mostly ice MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 SC Idioms

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RISE versus RAISE [NOUN] ROSE A RISE IN [NOUN] [VERB] RISING [NOUN] [VERB] The RISING OF the [NOUN] [VERB] [NOUN] WERE RAISED A RAISE IN [NOUN] [VERB] A RISING OF [NOUN] [VERB]

RIGHT: Oil prices ROSE sharply last year. A RISE IN oil prices has led to inflation RISING prices at the gas pump are hurting consumers The RISING OF the sun always lifts my spirits SUSPECT Oil prices WERE RAISED sharply last year WRONG A RAISE IN oil prices has led to inflation A RISING OF prices at the gas pump is hurting consumers

385

MGMAT SC Ch9 p166

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Idioms

RIGHT: The judge RULED THAT the plaintiff was in contempt RULED THAT versus RULED versus RULED ON versus RULED TO BE 386 SAME THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS TO [NOUN] AT THE SAME TIME AS [NOUN] (VERB) THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS [YOU] AT THE SAME TIME [NOUN] [VERB] X IS SECURE versus Y ARE SECURE ABOUT X SEEM ** [NOUN] SEEMS TO DEMONSTRATE [NOUN] IT SEEMS THAT [NOUN] DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] IT SEEMS AS IF [NOUN] DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS TO BE A DEMONSTRATION OF [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS DEMONSTRATIVE OF [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS LIKE A DEMONSTRATION OF [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS AS IF IT DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS LIKE IT DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] SUSPECT: The judge RULED the plaintiff WAS in contempt RULED THAT is correct. RULED THAT is preferred over RULED. RIGHT THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS TO [NOUN] AT THE SAME TIME AS [NOUN] (VERB) WRONG THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS [YOU] (AMBIGUITY) AT THE SAME TIME [NOUN] [VERB] (MISSING AS) X IS SECURE is correct WRONG: The judge RULED the plaintiff TO BE in contempt WRONG: The judge RULED ON the plaintiff WHO WAS in contempt MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 RIGHT The car looks THE SAME TO me AS TO you I drove to the store AT THE SAME TIME AS you [did] WRONG The car looks THE SAME TO [NOUN] AS [YOU] (AMBIGUITY) I drove to the store AT THE SAME TIME you did (MISSING AS) RIGHT: Our authority IS SECURE WRONG: We ARE SECURE ABOUT our authority SC Idioms

387 388

MGMAT SC Ch9 p166 MGMAT SC Ch9 p166-7

SC SC

Idioms Idioms

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON THE GMAT RIGHT [NOUN] SEEMS TO DEMONSTRATE [NOUN] IT SEEMS THAT [NOUN] DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] IT SEEMS AS IF [NOUN] DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] SUSPECT: [NOUN] SEEMS TO BE A DEMONSTRATION OF [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS DEMONSTRATIVE OF [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS LIKE A DEMONSTRATION OF [NOUN] WRONG: [NOUN] SEEMS AS IF IT DEMONSTRATES [NOUN] [NOUN] SEEMS LIKE IT DEMONSTRATES [NOUN]

RIGHT This result SEEMS TO DEMONSTRATE the new theory IT SEEMS THAT This result DEMONSTRATES the new theory IT SEEMS AS IF This result DEMONSTRATES the new theory SUSPECT: This result SEEMS TO BE A DEMONSTRATION OF the new theory This result SEEMS DEMONSTRATIVE OF the new theory This result SEEMS LIKE A DEMONSTRATION OF the new theory WRONG This result SEEMS AS IF IT DEMONSTRATES the new theory This result SEEMS LIKE IT DEMONSTRATES the new theory MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms

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389 SHOULD SHOULD BE TAKEN versus SHOULD PASS versus REQUESTED THAT [NOUN] SHOULD BE TAKEN

RIGHT: SHOULD BE TAKEN (=obligation) WRONG: SHOULD PASS (=probability) REQUESTED THAT [NOUN] SHOULD BE TAKEN (=subjunctive should NOT use SHOULD)

RIGHT: A car SHOULD BE TAKEN to the mechanic frequently (=obligation) WRONG: A car SHOULD PASS every two hours (=probability) The owner REQUESTED THAT the car SHOULD BE TAKEN to the mechanic (=subjunctive should NOT use SHOULD)

390 SHOW SHOW IS SHOW SHOW SHOW BEING 391

RIGHT: SHOW THAT [NOUN] IS SHOW [NOUN] TO BE THAT [NOUN] [NOUN] TO BE [NOUN] IS [NOUN] AS/AS SUSPECT: SHOW [NOUN] IS WRONG: SHOW [NOUN] AS/AS BEING

RIGHT: A discovery SHOWS THAT an object IS strange A discovery SHOWS an object TO BE strange SUSPECT: A discovery SHOWS an object IS strange WRONG: A discovery SHOWS an object AS/AS BEING strange

MGMAT SC Ch9 p167

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Idioms

SIGNIFICANT HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED versus HAVE MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN versus HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN IMPROVING versus HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN AN IMPROVEMENT OF SIMILAR ALL X HAVE SIMILAR Y EACH X HAS SIMILAR Y EVERY X HAS SIMILAR Y

MGMAT SC Ch9 p167

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RIGHT: HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED SUSPECT HAVE MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN WRONG HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN IMPROVING HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN AN IMPROVEMENT OF RIGHT ALL X HAVE SIMILAR Y (X and Y have to be SINGULAR or PLURAL together) WRONG EACH X HAS SIMILAR Y EVERY X HAS SIMILAR Y RIGHT THE MOST [NOUN] SINCE [TIME] (=up to now) [NOUN] SINCE [NOUN] WRONG THE MOST [NOUN[] AFTER [TIME] RIGHT: SO [ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB] WRONG: SUCH [{ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB] SO MUCH [ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB]

RIGHT: Your edits HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED the book SUSPECT Your edits HAVE MADE A SIGNIFICANT IMPROVEMENT IN the book WRONG Your edits HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN IMPROVING the book Your edits HAVE BEEN SIGNIFICANT IN AN IMPROVEMENT OF the book RIGHT ALL companies HAVE SIMILAR issues (X and Y have to be SINGULAR or PLURAL together) WRONG EACH company HAS SIMILAR issues EVERY company HAS SIMILAR issues MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms RIGHT Xingo is THE MOST successful new product SINCE 1997 (=up to now) It is the best new beverage SINCE Prune Cola WRONG Xngo is THE MOST successful new product AFTER 1997 MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 RIGHT: The sauce was SO hot AS TO burn my mouth WRONG: The sauce HAD SUCH heat AS TO burn my mouth The sauce had SO MUCH heat AS TO burn my mouth SC Idioms MGMAT SC Ch9 p167 SC Idioms

392

393 SINCE THE MOST [NOUN] SINCE [TIME] [NOUN] SINCE [NOUN] THE MOST [NOUN[] AFTER [TIME] 394 SO … AS TO SO [ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB] versus SUCH [{ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB] versus SO MUCH [ADJECTIVE] AS TO [VERB]

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395 SO … THAT ** SO SHORT THAT versus SHORT ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] versus SO SHORT [NOUN] versus OF SUCH SHORTNESS THAT I versus SO MUCH SHORTNESS THAT I versus SUCH was the versus SHORTNESS of [NOUN] THAT I versus OF SUCH SHORTNESS versus SHORT TO SUCH A DEGREE AS TO ALLOW 396 397 ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: SO THAT (=purpose) SO THAT ** SO THAT versus SO SO 398 SO TOO [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … SO TOO [IS/ARE] [NOUN] versus [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … ALSO [NOUN] versus [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , and SO TOO [NOUN] 399 SUBSTITUTE SUBSTITUTED X FOR Y versus SUBSTITUTED X IN PLACE OF Y 400 SUCCEED IN DOING versus SUCCEED TO DO RIGHT: SUBSTITUTED X FOR Y WRONG: SUBSTITUTED X IN PLACE OF Y RIGHT: SUCCEED IN DOING / REACHING WRONG: She SUCCEEDED TO DO / REACH RIGHT: We SUBSTITUTED parmesan cheese FOR mozarella WRONG: We SUBSTITUTED parmaesan cheese IN PLACE OF mozarella RIGHT: She SUCCEEDED IN REACHING the summit WRONG: She SUCCEEDED TO REACH the summit RIGHT: [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … SO TOO [IS/ARE] [NOUN] versus SUSPECT: [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , … ALSO [NOUN] versus WRONG: [NOUN] [IS/ARE] , and SO TOO [NOUN] RIGHT: Bellbottoms ARE coming back in style, and SO TOO ARE vests. SUSPECT: Bellbottoms ARE coming back in style, and ALSO vests. WRONG: Bellbottoms ARE coming back in style, and SO TOO vests SUSPECT: SO (=result) WRONG: SO (=purpose) ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: She gave money SO THAT the school could offer scholarships (=purpose) SUSPECT: She gave money, SO the school was grateful (=result) WRONG: She gave money SO the school could offer scholarships SO LONG AS

MGMAT SC Ch9 p168

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Idioms

** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT RIGHT: SO SHORT THAT SHORT ENOUGH FOR [NOUN] TO [VERB] SUSPECT: SO SHORT [NOUN] (THAT is preferred) OF SUCH SHORTNESS THAT I SO MUCH SHORTNESS THAT I SUCH was the SHORTNESS of [NOUN] THAT I WRONG: OF SUCH SHORTNESS SHORT TO SUCH A DEGREE AS TO ALLOW SEE AS LONG AS

RIGHT: The book was SO SHORT THAT I could read it in one night The book was SHORT ENOUGH FOR me TO read in one night SUSPECT: The book was SO SHORT I could read in one night The book was OF SUCH SHORTNESS THAT I could read it The book had SO MUCH SHORTNESS THAT I could read it SUCH was the SHORTNESS of the book THAT I could read it WRONG: The book was OF SUCH SHORTNESS, I could read it The book was SHORT TO SUCH A DEGREE AS TO ALLOW me to read it MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 MGMAT SC Ch9 p168 SC SC Idioms Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p168

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Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p168

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Idioms

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p168

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401

MGMAT SC Ch9 p168

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Idioms

402

403

404

SUCH SUCH [NOUN] versus THESE [NOUN] versus [NOUN] OF THIS KIND versus [NOUN] LIKE THESE SUCH AS or SUCH X AS A AND B versus LIKE ** SUCH AS [NOUN] versus SUCH [NOUN] AS [NOUN] versus SUCH AS [GERUND] versus LIKE [NOUN] versus AND THE LIKE versus AND OTHER [NOUN] SUCH AS THESE versus SUCH AS BY [GERUND] versus SUCH AS TO [VERB] versus SUGGEST SUGGEST THAT versus SUGGEST THAT [NOUN] BE [BARE VERB] versus SUGGEST [NOUN] versus IS SUGGESTIVE OF [NOUN] SURFACE ON THE SURFACE versus AT THE SURFACE TARGETED TARGETED AS versus TARGETED TO

RIGHT: SUCH [NOUN] (=in general) THESE [NOUN] (=specifically) WRONG: [NOUN] OF THIS KIND [NOUN] LIKE THESE

RIGHT: You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate SUCH subjects (=in general) You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate THESE subjects (=specifically) WRONG: You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate subjects OF THIS KIND You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate subjects LIKE THESE MGMAT SC Ch9 p168-9 SC Idioms

RIGHT: SUCH AS [NOUN] (=EXAMPLE) SUCH [NOUN] AS [NOUN] SUCH AS [GERUND] WRONG: LIKE [NOUN] (=SIMILAR TO, but EXAMPLE is implied AND THE LIKE AND OTHER [NOUN] SUCH AS THESE SUCH AS BY [GERUND] SUCH AS TO [VERB] RIGHT: SUGGEST THAT [NOUN] [VERB] SUGGEST THAT [NOUN] BE [BARE VERB] (SUBJUNCTIVE) SUGGEST [NOUN] SUSPECT: IS SUGGESTIVE OF [NOUN]

RIGHT: Matt drives fast cars, SUCH AS Ferraris (=EXAMPLE) Matt enjoys driving SUCH cars AS Ferraris Matt enjoys intense activities, SUCH AS DRIVING fast cars WRONG: Matt drives fast cars LIKE Ferraris (=SIMILAR TO, but EXAMPLE is implied Matth drives Ferraris AND THE LIKE Matt drives Ferraris AND OTHER cars SUCH AS THESE Matt trains in many ways SUCH AS BY DRIVING on racetracks Matt enjoys intense activities SUCH AS TO DRIVE fast cars MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 RIGHT: A study SUGGEST THAT more work IS/WILL BE needed We SUGGEST THAT he BE promoted (SUBJUNCTIVE) This artwork SUGGESTS great talent SUSPECT: This artwork IS SUGGESTIVE OF great talent RIGHT: Craters have been seen ON THE SURFACE OF the moon SUSPECT Craters have been seen AT THE SURFACE OF the moon SC Idioms

MGMAT SC Ch9 p169

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Idioms

ON THE SURFACE is usually preferred

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405 RIGHT: This intervention is TARGETED AT a specific misbehavior WRONG: This intervention is TARGETED TO a specific misbehavior

MGMAT SC Ch9 p169

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66

TARGETED AT Is correct

406

THAN ** [NOUN] MORE [adjective] THAN [NOUN] versus [NOUN] LESS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] versus [NOUN] NO [adjective] THAN [NOUN] versus [NOUN] MORE THAN [NOUN] versus MORE THAN [NOUN] versus HIGHER [NOUN] THAN [NOUN] versus MORE [adjective] AS [NOUN] versus MORE [adjective] RATHER THAN [NOUN] versus MORE [adjective] INSTEAD OF [NOUN] versus NO LESS [adjective] AS [NOUN] versus NONE THE LESS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] versus [NOUN] AS MUCH AS [NOUN] versus AS MANY AS OR MORE THAN [NOUN] versus HIGHER [NOUN] OVER [NOUN] versus THINK THINK OF … AS versus IS THOUGHT TO BE versus ARE THOUGHT OF BY … AS versus THINKS OF … TO BE versus THINKS OF … BEING TO [VERB] **

MGMAT SC Ch9 p169

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Idioms

RIGHT: [NOUN] MORE [adjective] THAN [NOUN] [NOUN] LESS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] [NOUN] NO [adjective] THAN [NOUN] [NOUN] MORE THAN [NOUN] MORE THAN [NOUN] HIGHER [NOUN] THAN [NOUN] WRONG MORE [adjective] AS [NOUN] MORE [adjective] RATHER THAN [NOUN] MORE [adjective] INSTEAD OF [NOUN] NO LESS [adjective] AS [NOUN] NONE THE LESS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] [NOUN] AS MUCH AS [NOUN] AS MANY AS OR MORE THAN [NOUN] HIGHER [NOUN] OVER [NOUN] RIGHT: THINK OF … AS IS THOUGHT TO BE WRONG: ARE THOUGHT OF BY … AS THINKS OF … TO BE THINKS OF … BEING ** FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT SEE IN ORDER TO

RIGHT: His books are MORE impressive THAN those of other writers Thsi paper is LESS impressive THAN that one This paper is NO LESS impressive THAN that one This newspaper cost 50 cents MORE THAN that one MORE THAN 250 newspapers are published here Sales are HIGHER this year THAN last year WRONG: His books are MORE impressive AS those of other writers This paper is MORE impressive RATHER THAN that one This paper is MORE impressive INSTEAD OF that one This paper is NO LESS Iimpressive AS that one This paper is NONE THE LESS mpressive THAN that one This newspapers cost 50 cents AS MUCH AS that one AS MANY AS OR MORE THAN 250 newspapers are published here Sales are HIGHER this year OVER last years MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 RIGHT: She THINK OF them AS heroes She IS THOUGHT TO BE secretly wealthy WRONG: They ARE THOUGHT OF BY her AS heroes She THINKS OF them TO BE heroes She THINKS OF them BEING heroes MGMAT SC Ch9 p169 MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC SC Idioms Idioms SC Idioms

407

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408 409 TOOL TOOL FOR [GERUND] TOOL TO [VERB] 410 TRAIN WAS TRAINED TO [VERB] versus WAS TRAINED FOR [GERUND] versus WAS TRAINED IN [GERUND]

67

RIGHT TOOL FOR [GERUND] TOOL TO [VERB]

RIGHT We have a TOOL FOR MAKING progress We have a TOOL TO make progress GMAT does not seem to require WITH, although one makes progress WITH a tool MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms

RIGHT: WAS TRAINED TO [VERB] WRONG: WAS TRAINED FOR [GERUND] WAS TRAINED IN [GERUND]

RIGHT: She WAS TRAINED TO run a division WRONG: She WAS TRAINED FOR RUNNING a division She WAS TRAINED IN RUNNING run a division

411 TRY TRY TO [VERB] versus TRY TO [GERUND] versus TRY AND [VERB] versus TRY THAT [NOUN] [VERB] 412 TWICE TWICE AS [adjective] AS [NOUN] (verb) versus TWICE AS [adverb] AS [NOUN] [VERB] versus TWICE AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] (verb) versus DOUBLE THE NUMBER THAT [NOUN] [VERB] versus [NOUN] DOUBLED versus [NOUN] DOUBLED [NOUN] versus TWICE AS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] (verb) versus TWICE AS [adverb] AS [NOUN] versus [NOUN] DOUBLE THE [NOUNS] THAT [NOUN] [VERB] versus [NOUN] INCREASED BY TWICE RIGHT: TRY TO [VERB] (=intent or purpose) SUSPECT TRY TO [GERUND] (=experiment) WRONG: TRY AND [VERB] TRY THAT [NOUN] [VERB] RIGHT: They WILL TRY TO BUILD a company (=intent or purpose) SUSPECT We TRIED BREAKING the door down (=experiment) WRONG: They WILL TRY AND BUILD a company They WILL TRY THAT they BUILD a company

MGMAT SC Ch9 p170

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MGMAT SC Ch9 p170

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RIGHT: TWICE AS [adjective] AS [NOUN] (verb) TWICE AS [adverb] AS [NOUN] [VERB] TWICE AS MANY [NOUN] AS [NOUN] (verb) DOUBLE THE NUMBER THAT [NOUN] [VERB] [NOUN] DOUBLED [NOUN] DOUBLED [NOUN] WRONG TWICE AS [adjective] THAN [NOUN] (verb) TWICE AS [adverb] AS [NOUN] [NOUN] DOUBLE THE [NOUNS] THAT [NOUN] [VERB] [NOUN] INCREASED BY TWICE ** DENOTES FREQUENT USAGE ON GMAT See ALSO CONTRAST

RIGHT: He is TWICE AS tall AS Alex (is) Leaves fall TWICE AS quickly AS they grow Naomi wrote TWICE AS MANY letters AS Sara (did) Naomi wrote ten letters, DOUBLE THE NUMBER THAT Sara wrote Naomi's income DOUBLED in three years Naomi DOUBLED her income in three years WRONG He is TWICE AS tall THAN Alex (is) Leaves fall TWICE AS quickly AS their rate of growth Naomi wrote DOUBLE THE letters THAT Sara did Naomi's income INCREASED BY TWICE in three years MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms

413 UNLIKE ** UNLIKE [NOUN] versus UNLIKE WITH [NOUN] 414

RIGHT: UNLIKE [NOUN] WRONG: UNLIKE WITH [NOUN]

RIGHT: UNLIKE the spiny aneater, the aardvark is docile WRONG: UNLIKE WITH the spiny anteater, the aardvark is docile MGMAT SC Ch9 p170 SC Idioms

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USE USES [NOUN] TO [VERB] versus [VERB] [NOUN] WITH [NOUN] versus [VERB] [NOUN] versus USES [NOUN] AS [NOUN] versus USES [NOUN] FOR [GERUND] versus USES [NOUN] LIKE [NOUN] versus USES [NOUN] TO BE [NOUN]

68

RIGHT: USES [NOUN] TO [VERB] [VERB] [NOUN] WITH [NOUN] [VERB] [NOUN] USES [NOUN] AS [NOUN] WRONG USES [NOUN] FOR [GERUND] USES [NOUN] LIKE [NOUN] USES [NOUN] TO BE [NOUN]

RIGHT: He USES the hammer TO BREAK a board He BREAKS a board WITH the hammer His hammer BREAKS a board He USES the hammer AS a weapon WRONG He USES a hammer FOR BREAKING a board He USES the hammer LIKE a weapon He USES the hammer TO BE a weapon

415

MGMAT SC Ch9 p171

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RIGHT: There are VARIATIONS IN sunspot frquency and strength over time. VARIATION VARIATIONS IN versus VARIATIONS OF versus VARIATIONS AMONG 416 VIEW VIEWED [NOUN] AS versus VIEWED [NOUN] TO BE versus VIEWED [NOUN] LIKE WAY [NOUN] [VERB} a WAY OF [GERUND] versus WAY IN WHICH [NOUN] [VERB] versus WAY TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS TO [VERB] versus TO [VERB] versus AS A WAY OF [GERUND] versus WAY FOR [GERUND] versus WAY TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS [GERUND] WEIGH WEIGH LESS THAN IS LIGHTER THAN WEIGHS LIGHTER THAN 419 RIGHT: [PLACE] WHERE [PLACE] IN WHICH [NOUN] IN WHICH WRONG [NOUN] WHERE RIGHT: WHETHER [CHOICE] WHETHER WHETHER [CHOICE] WHETHER OR NOT [CHOICE] IF [CHOICE SUSPECT: WHETHER OR NOT [CHOICE] WRONG: IF [CHOICE] (=IF requires a CONSEQUENCE) RIGHT: Sussex is the only county WHERE fruits grow Sussex is the only country IN WHICH fruits grow This incident represents a case IN WHICH I would call the police WRONG This incident represents a case WHERE I would call the police RIGHT: I do not know WHETHER I will go SUSPECT: I do not know WHETHER OR NOT I will go WRONG: I do not know IF I will go (=IF requires a CONSEQUENCE) MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms WRONG: There are VARIATIONS OF sunspot frquency and strength over time. There are VARIATIONS AMONG sunspot frquency and strength over time. RIGHT: I VIEWED this process AS a mistake WRONG: I VIEWED this process TO BE a mistake I VIEWED this process LIKE a mistake MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

VARIATIONS IN is correct RIGHT: VIEWED [NOUN] AS WRONG: VIEWED [NOUN] TO BE VIEWED [NOUN] LIKE

417

RIGHT: [NOUN] [VERB} a WAY OF [GERUND] WAY IN WHICH [NOUN] [VERB] WAY TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS TO [VERB] TO [VERB] SUSPECT: AS A WAY OF [GERUND] WRONG: WAY FOR [GERUND] WAY TO [VERB] [NOUN] IS [GERUND] RIGHT: WEIGH LESS THAN IS LIGHTER THAN WRONG WEIGHS LIGHTER THAN

RIGHT: We proposed a WAY OF REACHING the goal The WAY IN WHICH we discussed the idea was positive The best WAY TO REACH the goal IS TO FOCUS one's energy This process was developed TO ACHIEVE the target SUSPECT: This processed was develoepd AS A WAY OF ACHIEVING the target WRONG: We proposed a WAY FOR REACHING the goal The best WAY TO REACH the goal IS FOCUSING one's energy RIGHT: My laptop WEIGHS LESS THAN a suitcase My laptop IS LIGHTER THAN a suitcase WRONG My laptop WEIGHS LIGHTER THAN a suitcase MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

418

WHERE [PLACE] WHERE [PLACE] IN WHICH [NOUN] IN WHICH [NOUN] WHERE 420

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421

WHETHER … OR WHETHER [CHOICE] OR [CHOICE] WHETHER [CHOICE] OR NOT WHETHER [CHOICE] OR ALSO [CHOICE] WHETHER THEY BE [CHOICE] OR [CHOICE]

MGMAT SC Ch9 p171

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RIGHT: WHETHER [CHOICE] OR [CHOICE] WHETHER [CHOICE] OR NOT WRONG: WHETHER [CHOICE] OR ALSO [CHOICE] WHETHER THEY BE [CHOICE] OR [CHOICE]

RIGHT: I decided to eat the food, WHETHER it was tasty OR NOT WHETHER trash OR treasure, the recyclables must be picked up. WRONG: WHETHER trash OR ALSO treasure, the recycables must be picked up WHETHER THEY BE trash OR treasure, the recyclables must be picked up MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

422

RIGHT: The officer WHOSE task was to be here did not show up The company WHOSE growth leads the industry is XYZ SUSPECT: The officer ,THE task OF WHOM was to be here, did not show up He doesn't know WHO the boss of the company is. subject of the indirect question I don't care WHOM you invite. object of the indirect question She isn't sure WHOSE car that is. "Whose" shows possession of car. We knew the actress WHO starred in the movie. subject of adjective clause They hired the man WHOM we interviewed last week. object of adjective clause She knew the family WHOSE house we bought. "Whose" shows possession of house. TRICK: (Replace WHOM with HIM to see if it makes sense, Replace WHO with WHO HE SAYS to see if it makes sense) WHO/WHOM do you love? I love HIM so WHOM do you love should be used. WHO/WHOM stepped on the bug? HE stepped on the bug. WHO Stepped on the bug should be used WHOSE for SUBJECT (people OR things) WHO for SUBJECTS (people) WHOM for OBJECTS (people) WHO is SUBJECT pronoun (I, You, He, She, It, They, etc.) WHOM is OBJECT pronoun (Me, You, Him, Her, It, Them, etc.) WHOSE is POSSESSIVE pronoun (my, your, his, her, their, our, etc) TRICK APPLICATOIN: We never did meet his teammate WHOM/WHO he said works the room in his absence. - who he said works the room in his absence. - he said works the room in his absence. SO: We never did meet his teammate WHO he said works the room in his absence. WHO = BELIEVED IS He is the man who they believe is Sir Fragalot. (Who is the subject of is. The answer to the question, "Who do they believe is Sir Fragalot?" is "He is Sir Fragalot." He equals who; they're both subject pronouns.) WHOM = BELIEVED TO BE He is the man whom they believe to be Sir Fragalot. (Whom is the subject of the infinitive to be, and therefore it has to be in the objective case (2). The answer to the question "Whom do they believe Sir Fragalot to be?" is "They believe him to be Sir Fragalot." Him equals whom; they're both object pronouns. You can't remove they believe to be, it's not parenthetical.)

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WHOSE versus WHOM versus WHO

423

MGMAT SC Ch9 p171

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Idioms

Give it to WHOEVER/WHOMEVER asks for it first. Give it to him. He asks for it first. Therefore, Give it to WHOEVER asks for it first. We will hire WHOEVER/WHOMEVER you recommend. We will hire him. You recommend him. him + him = WHOMEVER We will hire WHOEVER/WHOMEVER is most qualified. We will hire him. He is most qualified. him + he = WHOEVER When the entire whoever/whomever clause is the subject of the verb that follows the clause, look inside the clause to determine whether to use whoever or whomever. WHOEVER/WHOMEVER is elected will serve a four-year term. WHOEVER/HE is elected is the subject of will serve. WHOEVER is the subject of is. WHOMEVER versus WHOEVER 424 HIM + HE = WHOEVER HIM + HIM = WHOMEVER WHOMEVER you elect will serve a four-year term. WHOMEVER/HIM you elect is the subject of will serve. WHOMEVER is the object of you elect. MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms

Example of Construction using With: with teary eyes, lindsey told her mother about the broken vase. --> 'with teary eyes' is an ADVERB modifier, describing the action of telling her mother with 34 million inhabitants, california is by far the most populous state --> 'with 34m inhabitants' is an ADJECTIVE modifier, modifying 'CA' The last construction is slightly different rhetorically, but the 'with' construction can still serve as either an adverb modifier or an adjective modifier: i draw designs with a permanent marker --> 'with a permanent marker' is an ADVERB phrase, modifying the action of drawing the designs i adore the girl with the big blue eyes --> 'with the big blue eyes' is an ADJECTIVE phrase, modifying 'the girl' RIGHT: The lions growled, WITH their fur STANDING on end WRONG: WITH only 25% of the student body, seniors get 50% of the resources. MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 RIGHT: WORRY ABOUT WORRY WORRY ABOUT versus WORRY CONCERNING versus WORRIED OVER 426 YET SUSPECT: WORRY CONCERNING WRONG: WORRIED OVER See BUT RIGHT: The committee was WORRIED ABOUT increased prices SUSPECT: The committee's WORRY CONCERNING increased prices was well-founded WRONG: The committed was WORRIED OVER increased prices MGMAT SC Ch9 p171 SC Idioms SC Idioms

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WITH 425

Serves as an ADJECTIVIAL or ADVERBIAL modifier Transpose the sentence so that WITH appears to be adjacent to the NOUN that it modifies to ensure that it makes sense

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427

Connecting Verbs 428

AND, BUT, and OR are common connecting words FOR, NOR, YET, and SO are called COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS (with a comma, link two main clauses). IN THAT is NO LONGER used ALTHOUGH, BECAUSE, BEFORE, AFTER, SINCE, WHEN, IF, UNLESS< THAT, THOUGH, WHILE = SUBORDINATORS (makes one clause subordinate to the main clause) Words that link two phrases and clauses for the sentence to make sense. The sentence must contain AT LEAST ONE main clause, a group of words that can stand on its own as a complete sentence (subject and verb without because or if). If the sentence has two clauses without connecting verbs, it will become a RUN ON sentence

MGMAT SC Ch10 p188

SC

Odds & Ends Strategy

WRONG: I need to relax, I have so many things to do! RIGHT: I need to relax, BUT I have so many things to do WRONG: She is not interested in sports, AND she likes watching them on TV RIGHT: She is not interested in sports, BUT she likes watching them on TV RIGHT: ALTHOUGH she is not interested in sports, she likes watching them on TV http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24 /seven-short-words-with-score-implicationsfanboys-1-of-7 1. These words can join single words (Would you like a cup of coffee or tea?); 2. whole phrases (He plans to clean his closet today and keep his kitchen clean for the rest of the week); 3. or entire independent clauses -- things that would stand alone as complete sentences without the conjunction (I would love to try the peaches, but the fuzz gives me the chills). The things these conjunctions connect must be the same type of thing -- an adverb and another adverb, a noun and a noun, an independent clause with another independent clause. Just as you can only add fractions when they have the same denominator, you can only use parallel parts with coordinating conjunctions. All of these coordinating conjunctions also have at least one other job in English. http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24 /seven-short-words-with-score-implicationsfanboys-1-of-7 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24 /seven-short-words-with-score-implicationsfanboys-2-of-7 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24 /seven-short-words-with-score-implicationsfanboys-3-of-7 http://www.beatthegmat.com/a/2009/08/24 /seven-short-words-with-score-implicationsfanboys-47 SC Odds & Ends Strategy

Coordinating Conjunctions 429 Coordinating Conjunctions 1/7: FOR 430 Coordinating Conjunctions 2/7: AND 431 Coordinating Conjunctions 3/7: NOR 432 Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions 4/7: BUT 5/7: OR 6/7: YET 7/7: SO

Denoted by acronym FANBOYS 7 short words themselves that show up very frequently in the GMAT Sentence Correction questions. Learning them can save you time, allowing you to eliminate wrong answer choices quickly and confidently; understanding them will of course also help add style and clarity to your AWA and admissions applications. These coordinating conjunctions are often remembered by the acronym FANBOYS (For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So); their job in a sentence is joining two or more parallel . . . well, things in a sentence.

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433 434 435 436

Comma Connecting Punctuation

COMMA is the most common. GMAT will never differ from incorrect answer SOLELY on comma placement. Commas are important signals and separators, modifiers, items in a list, and other sentence elements. NON-essential modifiers are set off by commas but essential modifiers are not.

MGMAT SC Ch10 p190 WRONG: Earl walked to school, AND later ate his lunch RIGHT: Earl walked to school AND later ate his lunch RIGHT: Earl walked to school, AND he later ate his lunch WRONG: Earl walked to school, he later ate his lunch

SC

Odds & Ends Strategy

437

MGMAT SC Ch10 p191

SC

Odds & Ends Strategy

Semicolon Connecting Punctuation 438

Semicolon connects closely related statements, but each statement must be able to stand alone as an independent sentence It should not be used when subordinating clauses are used The semi colon is often followed by a CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB or other transition express such as HOWEVER, THEREFORE, or IN ADDITION. It can modify the equal relationship that a bare semicolon implies and these transitional elements are not true conjunctions like AND. Hence, semicolons are required It can also delimit a list of items that contain commas The colon provides further explanation for what comes before it Equate a list with its components by inserting the word NAMELY or the phrase THAT IS after the colon The words preceding the colon should be able to form its own sentence without the words succeeding the oclon The object of the sentence that equates to the words after the colon must be close to each other. This may require the use of passive voice Semicolon connects two relaed independent clauses, but the second DOES NOT necessarily explain the first Colon ALWAYS connects a sentence WITH further explanation

RIGHT: Earl walked to school; he later ate his lunch WRONG: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together RIGHT: Andrew and Lisa are in separable; they do everything together RIGHT: The dam has created dead zones, WHERE fish have disappeared WRONG: The dam has created dead zones; fish have disappeared WRONG: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable, THEREFORE, we never see them apart RIGHT: Anadrew and Lisa are inseparable; THEREFORE, we never see them apart WRONG: I listen to Earth, Wind & Fire, Wow, Owls, and Blood, Sweat & Tears RIGHT: I listen to Earth, Wind & Fire, Wow, Owls; and Blood, Sweat & Tears MGMAT SC Ch10 p192 SC Odds & Ends Strategy

WRONG: I love listening to: classical, rock, rap, and pop music RIGHT: I love listening to many kinds of music: classical, rock, and pop RIGHT: I love listening to many kinds of music: namely, classical, rock, rap, and pop Worse: THREE FACTORS affect the rate of a reaction: concentration, surface area, and temperature Better: The rate of a reaction is affected by THREE FACTORS: concentration, surface area, and temperature RIGHT: On January 1, 2000, the national mood was completely different from what it would become just a few years later: at the turn of the century, given a seemingly unstoppable stock market and a seemingly peaceful world, the country was content MGMAT SC Ch10 p193 SC Odds & Ends Strategy

Colon Connecting Punctuation 439

Right with COMMA or DASH RIGHT: By January 2, 2000, the so-called "Y2K problem" was already widely considered a joke - although the reason for the non-event was the huge corporate and governmental investment in prior countermeasures The dash (-) is a flexible punctuation mark. It is an EMPHATIC comma, semicolon, or colon Dashes are ALMOST ALWAYS correct DASHES can RESTATE or EXPLAIN an earlier part of the sentence. UNLIKE COLONS, dashes do not need to be immediately preceded by the part needing explanation RIGHT: My three best friends - Danny, Jimmy, and Joey - and I went skiing If COMMA was used, SEVEN people were skiing. DASH implies only FOUR people went. RIGHT: Post-MBA compensation for investment bankers tends to surge far ahead of that for management consultants - by tens, if not hundreds, of thousands of dollars a year COLONS will NOT WORK above, unlike DASHES

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Dash Connecting Punctuation

440

MGMAT SC Ch10 p194

SC

Odds & Ends Strategy

QUANTITY RULE 1/4: Words used for COUNTABLE things versus words used for UNCOUNTABLE things 441

Perform COUNTING TEST when unsure: For hat: ONE hat, TWO hats, THREE hats. This works. Hat is COUNTABLE For patience: ONE patience, TWO patiences (?), THREE patiences (?). STOP. This does not work. Patience is UNCOUNTABLE Words used for COUNTABLE things versus words used for UNCOUNTABLE things COUNTABLE: hats, feelings, person/people UNCOUNTABLE: patience, water, and furniture MORE, MOST, ENOUGH and ALL work with BOTH COUNTABLE (plural) and UNCOUNTABLE (singular) nouns: MORE hats, MORE patience, MOST people, Most furniture; Enough hats, Enough patience, All people, All furniture Do NOT use LESS with COUNTABLE items. 10 ITEMS or FEWER is correct and NOT 10 ITEMS or LESS. DOLLARS or GALLONS are UNIT NOUNs, which you must be CAREFUL WITH. UNIT NOUNS are COUNTABLE (ONE dollar, TWO dollar, THREE dollars) so they work with countable modifiers. However, UNIT NOUNS are ALSO UNCOUNTABLE quantities: MONEY, VOLUME (ONE money, TWO money?, THREE Moneys ?). Use LESS when wanting to specify UNDERLYING QUANTITY Use GREATER THAN for NUMBERS and NOT MORE THAN (which might imply that the quantity of numbers is greater, not the numbers themselves) COUNTABLE MODIFIERS UNCOUNTABLE MODIFIERS MANY hats MUCH patience NOT MANY hats NOT MUCH patience RIGHT: DIOXINS is PLURAL AND (hence) COUNTABLE so MANY should be used and NOT MUCH. MUCH OF THE DIOXIN (SINGULAR) is correct, and NOT MUCH OF THE DIOXINS (PLURAL) MGMAT SC Ch10 p194 SC Odds & Ends Strategy

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FEW hats LITTLE patience FEWER hats LESS patience FEWEST hats LEAST patience NUMBER of hats AMOUNT of patience FEWER THAN 10 hats LESS THAN a certain AMOUNT of patience NUMEROUS hats GREAT patience UNCOUNTABLE versus COUNTABLE modifiers MORE NUMEROUS hats GREATER patience

WRONG: There were LESS Numidian kings than Roman emperors RIGHT: There were FEWER Numidian kings than Roman emperors KINGS, EMPERORS are COUNTABLE RIGHT: We have LESS THAN twenty dollars This means that the amount of money we have, in whatever form, totals LESS than $20. If we write We have FEWER THAN twenty dollars, we mean the actual pieces of paper (You wouldprobably say FEWER THAN TWENTY DOLLAR BILLS to illustrate the point clearly) WRONG: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now suspected to be much MORE than before RIGHT: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now suspected to be much GREATER than before RIGHT: DIOXINS is PLURAL AND (hence) COUNTABLE so MANY should be used and NOT MUCH. MUCH OF THE DIOXIN (SINGULAR) is correct, and NOT MUCH OF THE DIOXINS (PLURAL)

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442

QUANTITY RULE 2/4: Relate TWO things versus RELATE THREE OR MORE things 443

Use COMPARATIVE forms of adjectives or verbs to compare TWO things (better, worse, more, less) for 2 Use SUPERLATIVE forms of adjectives or verbs to compare THREE things (best, worst, most, least) for 3 or more BETWEEN = two people AMONG = three or more people WRONG: I mediated a dispute BETWEEN Maya, Logan, and Kalen WRONG: I mediated a dispute AMONG Maya, Logan, and Kalen

MGMAT SC Ch10 p194-5

SC

Odds & Ends Strategy

MGMAT SC Ch10 p195

SC

Odds & Ends Strategy

NUMBER is tricky THE NUMBER = SINGULAR A NUMBER = PLURAL THE NUMBERS OF = ALMOST ALWAYS incorrect. Use THE NUMBER OF QUANTITY RULE 3/4: THE NUMBER or NUMBER OF versus A NUMBER or THE NUMBERS OF 444 NUMBERS is possible. When making comparisons, use GREATER THAN and NOT MORE THAN (which implies quantity of numbers is larger, and NOT the number themselves). See IDIOM LIST for details

RIGHT: The NUMBER OF dogs IS greater than the number of cats RIGHT: A NUMBER OF dogs ARE chasing away the cats WRONG: THE NUMBERS OF DOGS in Montana ARE steadily increasing RIGHT: THE NUMBER OF DOGS in Montana IS steadily increasing WRONG: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now suspected to be much MORE than before RIGHT: The rare Montauk beaked griffin is not extinct; its NUMBERS are now suspected to be much GREATER than before MGMAT SC Ch10 p195 SC Odds & Ends Strategy

RIGHT: The price of silver INCREASED by 10 dollars RIGHT: The price of silver is five dollars GREATER than the price of copper QUANTITY RULE 4/4: INCREASE and DECREASE versus GREATER and LESS TO THINK OF X AS Y versus TO THINK OF X TO BE Y BETTER SERVED BY X THAN BY Y vesus BETTER SERVED BY X RATHER THAN BY Y INCREASE and DECREASE are not the same as the words GREATER and LESS. INCREASE and DECREASE = change of one thing OVER TIME GREATER and LESS = signal comparison BETWEEN two things TO THINK OF X AS Y is correct. NOT TO THINK OF X TO BE Y BETTER SERVED BY X THAN BY Y is an IDIOM. BETTER SREVED BY X RATHER THAN Y is NOT preferred 1) Find the DIFFERENCE between EACH TERM AND the MEAN of set 2) Average the SQUARED DIFFERENCES 3) SQUARE ROOT the AVERAGE 0^0 = 1, 0^n=1 where n>1 For any consecutive integers with an ODD NUMBER OF TERMS, the sum of the integers is ALWAYS a multiple of the number of terms. (1+2+3 = 6, which is a multiple of 3=length of series). In other words, THE AVERAGE OF ODD CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS is ALWAYS an integer. For any consecutive integers with an EVEN NUMBER OF TERMS, the sum of the integers is NEVER a multiple of the number of terms. For example, 1+2+3+4 = 10, which is NOT a multiple of 4 (length of series). Watch out for REDUNDANCIES WRONG: The price of silver FELL by more than 35% DECREASE RIGHT: The price of silver DECREASED by more than 35%. RIGHT: The price of silver FELL by more than 35%. RISE or GROWTH with INCREASE is REDUNDANT SC RIGHT: He thought of her AS his crush RIGHT: He though of her TO BE his crush OG Verbal SC 20 SC RIGHT: He was BETTER SERVED BY his work ethic THAN BY his luck RIGHT: He was BETTER SERVED BY his work ethic RATHER THAN BY his luck Idioms Idioms

445

446

Page

OG Verbal SC 89

447 STANDARD DEVIATION 0^0 versus 0^n where n>0 MULTIPLES and SUMS of CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS

75

SQRT(SUM(xm - xi)/n) By convention 1+2+3=6 Length = 3 6 is a multiple of 3. Average is an INTEGER since average of ODD lenth is an INTEGER 1+2+3+4=10 Length = 4 10 is NOT a multiple of 4. Average is NOT an INTEGER since average of ODD lenth is NEVER an INTEGER

MGMAT CAT #1 MGMAT CAT #1 MGMAT CAT #1

WT EIV NP

448 449

Statistics Exponential Equations Consecutive Integer

450

In other words, THE AVERAGE OF EVEN CONSECUTIVE INTEGERS is ALWAYS NOT an integer. Calculate W / T where W = Number of ways to choose teams that have A women and T = Total number of teams that can be made given P people Let X+Y = total number of people = N T = N! / (P! * (N-P)!) Given N people, choose P members who WILL be on the team and choose (N-P) members who WILL NOT be on the team W = Number of ways F women chosen * Number of ways (P-F) men chosen Number of ways F women chosen = Y! / (F! * (YF)!) Given Y women, choose F women who WILL be on the team and choose (Y-F) women who WILL NOT be on the team Number of ways P-F men chosen = X! / ((X-F)! * (X-(X-F))!) Given X men, choose X-F men who WILL be on the team to fill in the remaining spots and choose the remaining men who WILL NOT be on the team W = Number of ways F women chosen * Number of ways (P-F) men chosen W = [Y! / (F! * (Y-F)!) ] * [X! / ((X-F)! * (X-(XF))!) ] W/T = [[Y! / (F! * (Y-F)!) ] * [X! / ((X-F)! * (X(X-F))!) ]] / [N! / (P! * (N-P)!)]

A small com[pany employs 3 men and 5 women. If a team of 4 employees is to be randomly selected to organize the company retreat, what is the probability that the team will have ONLY 2 WOMEN? T = 8! / (4! * (8-4)!) = 70 4 people chosen and 4 people NOT chosen from a total of 8 people W = number of 2 women chosen * number of remaining (2) men chosen W(women) = 5! / (2! * (5-2)! = 10 2 women CHOSEN and 3 women NOT CHOSEN from a team of 5 women W(men) = 3! / (2! * (3-2)! = 3 3 men CHOSEN and 3 men NOT CHOSEN from a team of 3 men W = 10*3 = number of ways to choose 2 women and 2 men W/T = 30/70 = 3/7 = probability MGMAT CAT #1 WT Combinator ics

COMBINATIONS: How many ways to make teams of P people with F women from X men and Y women ?

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451

Ignoring Frankie's requirement for a moment, observe that the six mobsters can be arranged 6! or 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 720 different ways in the concession stand line. In each of those 720 arrangements, Frankie must be either ahead of or behind Joey. Logically, since the combinations favor neither Frankie nor Joey, each would be behind the other in precisely half of the arrangements. Therefore, in order to satisfy Frankie's requirement, the six mobsters could be arranged in 720/2 = 360 different ways. st Case: J _ _ _ _ _ 2nd Case: _ J _ _ _ _ 3rd Case: _ _ J _ _ _ 4th Case: _ _ _ J _ _ 5th Case: _ _ _ _ J _ 6th Case: _ _ _ _ _ J In all the above cases Frankie can take all the positions of '-'. In the grid above,I calculated the cases that satisifies the criteria Frankie behind Joe in all the possible cases: 1st column 5! = 120 ways 2nd column, Frankie can't be ahead of Joe, so possible cases, 5! - 4! = 120 -24 = 96 3rd column, Frankie can't take be at the first two positions, so 5! - 2X4! = 120 -48 = 72 4th column, Frankie can't take the at the first three, so 5! - 3X4! = 120 - 72 = 48 5th column, Frankie can't take be at first 4, so 5! - 4X4! = 120-96 = 24 6th column, won't satisfy the criteria. Hence total possible ways = 120+96+72+48+24 = 360 MGMAT CAT #1 WT Combinator ics

COMBINATORICS with ORDER or PRECEDENCES 452

Six mobsters have arrived at the theater for the premiere of the film “Goodbuddies.” One of the mobsters, Frankie, is an informer, and he's afraid that another member of his crew, Joey, is on to him. Frankie, wanting to keep Joey in his sights, insists upon standing behind Joey in line at the concession stand. How many ways can the six arrange themselves in line such that Frankie’s requirement is satisfied?

An investment of d dollars at k percent simple annual interest yields $600 interest over a 2 yr period. In terms of d, what dollar amount invested at the same rate will yield $2,400 interest over a 3 yr period? a. 2d/3 b. 3d/4 c. 4d/3 d. 3d/2 e. 8d/3 SI = 600 = d*2*k/100 => 300 = dk/100 => 300/d = k/100 We need to solve for X: New_SI = 2400 = 3*X*k/100 800 = X*k/100 Substitute: 800 = X*(300/d) 8d/3 = X

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SIMPLE INTEREST

SI = P*N*R /100 where P=Principal N = Number of Years N = Rate or % SI = SIMPLE INTEREST total for N

GPREP http://www.beatthegmat.com/gmatprep-interest-problem-t9813.html

WT

Algebraic Translation s

453

Pumps A, operating operating operating pumps A, Given multiple workers and a job, their combined rate of completing a job is as follows: 1/A + 1/B + 1/C = 1/T where 1/T = 1 job / (T units of time), A = (a units of time), B = (b units of time), C = c units of time Combining yields: AB / (A+B) = T T = (combined T units of time), A = (a units of time), B = (b units of time) ABC / (AB + BC + AC) = T T = (combined T units of time), A = (a units of time), B = (b units of time), C = c units of time MATH TIME, QUESTION TO BE ON 1 hour 15 min, 1 60 min, 7-8 45 min, 14-15 30 min, 21-22 15 min, 28-29 MATH TIMING AND PACING 455 Total = 69.375 min / 37 Questions Metric = 7.5 mins / 4 Questions VERBAL TIME, QUESTION TO BE ON 1 hour 15 min, 1 60 min, 8-10 45 min, 16-18 30 min, 24-26 15 min, 32-34 Total = 68.347 min / 41 Questions Metric = 5 mins / 3 Questions RECOMMENDED SC: 1 minute * 14 Q = 14 minutes RC = 2:15 min * 14 Q = 31.5 minutes CR = 2:15 min * 13 Q = 29.25 minutes Note: 13-15 Questions per type Make Progress Create PROGRESS GRID on paper to keep count of each type to expect what kind of questilons might appear SC: CR RC A. 1/3 B. 1/2 C. 2/3 D. 5/6 E. 1

B, and C operate at their respective constant rates. Pumps A and B, simultaneously, can fill a certain tank in 6/5 hours; pumps A and C, simultaneously, can fill the tank in 3/2 hours; and pumps B and C, simultaneously, can fill the tank in 2 hours. How many hours does it take B, and C, operating simultaneously, to fill the tank?

1/A = 1/B = 1/(6/5) = 5/6 1/B + 1/C = 1/2 1/A + 1/C = 1/(3/2) = 2/3 Sum all equations: 2(1/A + 1/B + 1/C) = 2 1/A + 1/B = 1/C = 1 So combined 3 yields 1 job / 1 hour

JOBS and RATES 454

GPREP http://www.beatthegmat.com/gmatprep-interest-problem-t9813.html

WT

Rates & Work

WRITE DOWN ON SCRAP: CHOICE GRID TIME GRID Every 4 questions, make sure you finish questions sooner than 7.5 minutes. This is equivalent to less than 2 minutes (1.875 mins per question0 MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab MGMAT Strategy

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VERBAL TIMING AND PACING

WRITE DOWN ON SCRAP: VERBAL TIME GRID PROGRESS GRID CHOICE GRID Every 3 questions, make sure you finish questions sooner than 5 minutes. This is equivalent to about 1.5 minutes (1.67 mins per question0 SC: 1 minute CR: 2:15 min RC: 2:15 each on average(3 questions DOUBLES to 6 minutes total for Questions AND Reading), each question should take MAX 1:30 minutes

MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab

MGMAT

Strategy

456

1) 2) 3) 4) AWA TIMING AND PACING

Brainstorm = 3 minutes (3-4 ideas) Outline = 2 minutes (examples, points) Write = 20 minutes Review = 5 minutes OUTLINE on paper ALWAYS REVISE MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab MGMAT Strategy

457

ALWAYS Revise SHORT PASSAGES Make HEADLINE LIST by doing the following for each paragraph: 1) Make TOPIC SENTENCE from para 2) LIST keywords, ideas, examples LONG PASSAGES Make SKELETAL STRUCTURE by doing the following: 1) SUMMARIZE EVERY sentence in FIRST para 2) LIMBS: one sentence summarizes each para and do NOT list details Time spent on RC follows the DOUBLING RULE 3 questions = 6 minutes 4 questions = 8 minutes 2-3 minutes to read, 60-90 seconds per question READ QUESTION FIRST MAKE T STRUCTURE 1) IDENTIFY CONCLUSION and PREMISES 2) WRITE down SUSPICIONS and QUESTIONS for possible ASSUMPTIONS UNDER the T structure 3) DETERMINE which SIDE (PRO or CON of conclusion) ANSWER APPEARS ON 4) NOTE important KEYWORDS, NUMBERS, PERCENTAGES, and EXTREME words

READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGY 458

SHORT = HEADLINES LONG = SKELETAL DOUBLING RULE

MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab

MGMAT

Strategy

CRITICAL REASONING STRATEGY 459

2:15 PER QUESTION

2:15 MAX per question

MGMAT Lab #4 Timing Lab

MGMAT

Strategy

BY X AND ALSO BY Y is CORRECT WRONG: BOTH BY X AND ALSO BY Y BY X AND ALSO BY Y 460 EVEN THOUGH versus THOUGH 461 CRITICAL REASONING PROCESS 462 THOUGH is preferred over EVEN THOUGH because of its conciseness 1) READ THE STIMULUS PART FIRST 2) Read QUESTION AFTER STIMULUS 3) ANSWER STIMULUS are either: ARGUMENTS: contains PREMISES=reasons and CONCLUSION=final point = 75% or FACT SETS=contains facts and NEUTRAL = 25%

RIGHT: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale structure of the universe evolved from the theoretical to the practical; the field of physical cosmology was made possible BY Einstein's theory of relavitiy AND BY ALSO better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects. WRONG: During the twentieth century, the study of the large-scale structure of the universe evolved from the theoretical to the practical; the field of physical cosmology was made possible BY Einstein's theory of relavitiy AND ALSO better ability to observe extremely distant astronomical objects. because of both Einstein's theory of relativity and RIGHT: THOUGH he had had success, Howard Stern opted out of broadcasting WRONG: EVEN THOUGH he had had success, Howard Stern opted out of broadcasting

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MGMAT CAT #1

SC

Idioms

MGMAT CAT #1

SC

Idioms

MIX UP of ORDER will confuse people

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 p15

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Strategy

CR STIMULUS

FACT SET lacks arguments

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 p18

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463 BECAUSE SINCE FOR FOR EXAMPLE FOR THE REASON THAT IN THAT GIVEN THAT AS INDICATED BY DUE TO OWING TO THIS CAN BE SEEN FROM WE KNOW THIS BY Additional Indicators FURTHERMORE MOREOVER BESIDES IN ADDITION WHAT'S MORE THUS THEREFORE HENCE CONSEQUENTLY AS A RESULT SO ACCORDINGLY CLEARLY MUST BE THAT SHOWS THAT CONCLUDE THAT FOLLOWS THAT FOR THIS REASON OBJECTIVE #1: Identify whether STIMULUS is a FACT or ARGUMENT OBJECTIVE #2: If ARGUMENT is present, IDENTIFY CONCLUSION. If STIMULUS is present, EXAMINE each FACT OBJECTIVE #3: If Stimulus has Arguments, determine whether CONCLUSION IS WEAK OR STRONG OBJECTIVE #4: Do NOT GENERALIZE. Know what the author EXACTLY SAID OBJECTIVE #5: IDENTIFY the question stem and do NOT ASSUME certain words are associated with certain types OBJECTIVE #6: PREPHRASE after reading QUESTION to MENTALLY FORMULATE answer OBJECTIVE #7: ALWAYS READ EACH of the FIVE ANSWER CHOICES OBJECTIVE #8: SEPARATE ANSWER CHOICES into CONTENDERS and LOSERS. After separating, DECIDE ON ONE. (15-20 seconds per choice) OBJECTIVE #9: IF ALL FIVE ANSWERS are LOSERS, then RETURN to STIMULUS and REEVALUATE ARGUMENT

PREMISE INDICATORS 464

MEMORIZE

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 p19

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CONCLUSION INDICATORS 465

MEMORIZE

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CR OBJECTIVES 466 CONCLUSION / PREMISE INDICATOR FORM

MEMORIZE Therefore, since higher debt has forced consumers to lower their savings, banks now have less money to loan

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

CR

Strategy

THEREFORE, SINCE THUS, BECAUSE HENCE, DUE TO

CONC = banks now have less money to loan PREMISE = other stuff

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

CR

Strategy

467

COUNTER-PREMISES or ADVERSATIVES INDICATORS 468

BUT YET HOWEVER ON THE OTHER HAND ADMITTEDLY IN CONTRAST ALTHOUGH EVEN THOUGH STILL WHEREAS IN SPITE OF DESPITE AFTER ALL SIMPLE: PREMISE => CONCLUSION where hidden are ASSUMPTIONS COMPLEX: PREMISE =>SUBSIDIARY/SUBCONCLUSIONS / PREMISE 1 => SUBSIDIARY/SUB-CONCLUSIONS / PREMISE 2 => … => CONCLUSION A NUMBER (SOME, MANY, etc.) of PEOPLE (critics, students, teachers, etc.) BELIEVE (CLAIM, PROPOSE, ARGUE, etc.) THAT EXCEPTIONS: ALTHOUGH SOME PEOPLE CLAIM, (ALTHOUGH present) IT has been CLAIMED THAT (No Number and People) CIGARETTE COMPANIES CLAIM THAT (no NUMBER) INFERENCES MUST BE TRUE (not LIKELY TO BE TRUE) ASSUMPTION = UNSTATED premise INFERECE = FOLLOWS conclusion ASSUMPTION = BEFORE argument ALL EVERY MOST MANY SOME SEVERAL FEW SOLE ONLY NOT ALL NONE MUST WILL ALWAYS NOT ALWAYS PROBABLY LIKELY WOULD NOT NECESSARILY COULD RARELY NEVER

MEMORIZE

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

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Strategy

CR STIMULUS STRUCTURE 469

MEMORIZE. Typically 3-4 LEVELS AT MOST on GMAT

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

CR

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COMMON CR CONSTRUCTION 470 CR INFERENCES versus CR ASSUMPTION 471

MEMORIZE. Typically 3-4 LEVELS AT MOST on GMAT

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

CR

Strategy

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

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472

QUANTITY INDICATORS

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

CR

Strategy

PROBABILITY INDICATORS

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2

CR

Strategy

473

CR QUESTION TYPES 474

1) MUST BE TRUE / MOST SUPPORTED = identify answer choice best proven given by info ("If above are true, what must be true OR which one can be properly INFERRED from the info?) 2) MAIN POINT = find PRIMARY CONCLUSION (the main point of argument is that) 3) ASSUMPTION = identify assumptions (Which one is an assumption required by above argument) 4) STRENGTHEN / SUPPORT = support argument or strengthens ins ome way (Which one of the following if true most strengthens, Which one most strongly supports the statement above?) 5) RESOLVE THE PARADOX = contains a discrepancy or contradiction and find choice that resolves it (Which one would resolve paradox said above?) 6) WEAKEN = attack or undermine argument (Which one weakens argument?) 7) METHOD OF REASONING = describes abstractly how author made argument (Which one describes technique of above reasoning?) 8) FLAW IN THE REASONING = describe abstractly the error of reeasoning (The reasoning in author's argument is flawed because this argument ...) 9) PARALLEL REASONING = identify choice that contains reasoning most similar to that of the stimulus (Which is most similar in its pattern of reasoning) 10) EVALUATE THE ARGUMENT = decide which choice determines logical validity of argument (The answer to which one of the following questions would contribute most to an evaluation of the argument) 11) OTHERS = variants, argument part questions MUST BE TRUE FAMILY or PROVE FAMILY STIMULUS => ANSWER CHOICES OUTSIDE INFO is NOT ALLOWED 1) MUST BE TRUE / MOST SUPPORTED 2) MAIN POINT 7) METHOD OF REASONING 8) FLAW IN THE REASONING 9) PARALLEL REASONING HELP FAMILY ANSWER CHOICES => STIMULUS OUTISDE INFO is ALLOWED 3) ASSUMPTION 4) STRENGTHEN / SUPPORT 5) RESOLVE THE PARADOX HURT FAMILY ANSWER CHOICES (NOT =>) STIMULUS OUTISDE INFO is ALLOWED 6) WEAKEN EXCEPT = stem is turned around and LOGICALLY NEGATE the question stemm LEAST is EQUIVALENT to EXCEPT LOGICAL NEGATION is often used with ASSUMPTIONS MANY can include SOME, MORE THAN ONE, ALL or MOST

MOST COMMON are Weaken, Must be True, Assumption, Strengthen, and Resolve LEAST COMMON are Main Point, Method of Reasoning, Flaw in the Reasoning, Parallel reasoning, and Evaluate the argument PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch2 CR Strategy

CR QUESTION FAMILY 1 475

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PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3

CR

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82
476 477 478

CR QUESTION FAMILY 2

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3

CR

Strategy

CR QUESTION FAMILY 2

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3

CR

Strategy

CR LEAST = EXCEPT CR MANY

WEAKEN EXCEPT = STRENGTHEN or NEITHER = DOES NOT WEAKEN

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3 PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3

CR CR

Strategy Strategy

479

CR INCORRECT ANSWERS in (1) MUST BE TRUE Questions 480

SOME, MOST does not INCLUDE ALL so it cannot be MANY 1) COULD BE TRUE or LIKELY TO BE TRUE (Sometimes or Neutral) 2) EXAGGERATIONS (ALL or extreme) 3) NEW INFO answers (no outisde info is allowed 4) SHELL game (similar but slightly different answer) 5) OPPOSITE answer (punishes carelessness, appears in WEAKENS and STRENGTHENS) 6) REVERSE answer (If A=>B, the following is NOT always true If B => A. But If NOT B => NOT A is ALWAYS true) OFTEN <> MOST OFTEN = FREQUENTLY

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch3

CR

Strategy

CR OFTEN versus MOST 481 CR INCORRECT ANSWERS in (2) MAIN POINT Questions 482

(OFTEN = FREQUENTLY) <> MOST MOST = MORE OFTEN THAN NOT 1) Answers that are TRUE BUT DO NOT ESCAPSULATE THE AUTHOR'S POINT 2) Answers that REPEAT PREMISES of the argument WEAKEN ATTACK UNDERMIND REFUTE ARGUE AGAINST CALL INTO QUESTION CAST DOUBT CHALLENGE DAMAGE COUNTER 1) Incomplete info 2) Improper comparison 3) Qualified conclusion (limits the conclusion to leave it open to attack) 1) OPPOSITE ANSWERS 2) SHELL Game 3) OUT OF SCOPE 1) CAUSED BY 2) BECAUSE OF 3) RESPONSIBLE FOR 3) REASON FOR 4) LEADS TO 5) INDUCED BY 6) PROMOTED BY 7) DETERMINED BY 8) PRODUCED BY 9) PRODUCT OF 10) PLAYED A ROLE IN 11) WAS A FACTOR IN 12) IS AN EFFECT OF 1) One event occurs before the other doesn't imply causation (rooster crowing before sun doesn't imply rooster making the sun rise) 2) Two (or more) events occur at the same time: Doesn't have t imply causation or it could be correlation

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch4

CR

Strategy

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch5

CR

Strategy

CR WEAKEN Question KEYWORDS 483 CR INCORRECT ANSWERS AND TRAPS IN (6) WEAKEN AND STRENGTHEN Questions 484

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch6

CR

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PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch6

CR

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83
CR CAUSE & EFFECT KEYWORDS 485 CR CAUSE & EFFECT COMMON ERRORS

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch7

CR

Strategy

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch7

CR

Strategy

486

CR ATTACKING CAUSAL CONCLUSIONS 487 CR DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRENGTHEN & ASSUMPTION 488

1) Find an ALTERNATE CAUSE for the stated effect (identifying another weakens conclusion) 2) Show that the EFFECT DOES NOT OCCUR when the CAUSE occurs 3) Show ALTHOUGH EFFECT OCCURS, CAUSE DID NOT OCCUR 4) Show relationship is REVERSED (A=>B is really B=>A) 5) Reveal a STATISTICAL PROBLEM with the DATA USED to make causal conclusion Strengthen asks you to support the argument from 1% to 100% Assumption asks you to identify a statement that the argument supposes or assumes (unstated premise) for it to be true. WITHOUT the assumption, the argument would fall apart 1) Identify CONCLUSION 2) PERSONALIZE the argument 3) Look for WEAKNESSES to look for choices that will eliminate them 4) Arguments that contain analogies or use surveys rely upon the their VALIDITIES. Choices that CONFIRM VALIDITIY STRENGTHENS 5) STRENGTHENING CAN BE SLIGHT OR LITTLE 1) ELIMINATE ALTERNATIVE CAUSES 2) When CAUSE OCCURS, EFFECT MUST OCCUR 3) When CAUSE DOES NOT OCCUR, EFFECT DOES NOT OCCUR 4) REVERSE RELATIONSHIP is FALSE 5) DATA for CAUSALITY is ACCURATE ASSUM PTIONS ARE NECESSARY BUT UNSTATED BECAUSE OF ITS NECESSITY, NEGATION TEST WORKS ON CHOICES (BUT ELIMINATE CHOICES FIRST THEN NEGATE due to its time consuming nature) 1) NEGATE by creating LOGICAL OPPOSITE (NOT POLAR OPPOSITE) 2) IF NEGATED STATEMENT WEAKENS OR ATTACKS ARGUMENT, then IT IS AN ASSUMPTION LOGICAL OPPOSITES NEGATION for QUANTITY ALL=100 <=> NOT ALL (0 to 99) SOME (1 to 100= everything but nothing) <=> NONE = 0 NOT ALL is equivalent to SOME ARE NOT LOGICAL OPPOSITE NEGATION for TIME / SPACE ALWAYS <=> NOT ALWAYS SOMETIMES <=> NEVER EVERYWHERE <=> NOT EVERYWHERE SOMEWHERE <=> NOWHERE

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch7

CR

Strategy

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch8

CR

Strategy

CR HOW TO STRENGTHEN 489 CR STRENGTHEN AND ASSUMPTOIN CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS 490

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9

CR

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PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9

CR

Strategy

CR NEGATION TEST FOR ASSUMPTIONS 491

I went to the beach everyday last week LOGICAL OPPOSITE: I DID NOT go to the beach every day last week POLAR OPPOSITE: I DID NOT go to the beach ANY day last week

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9

CR

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84
CR NEGATION TEST: LOGICAL OPPOSITE

COULD <=> CANNOT EITHER .. OR <=> NEITHER ... NOR WILL <=> MIGHT NOT

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9

CR

Strategy

492

CR ASSUMPTION QUIRKS 493 CR ASSUMPTIONS TYPES 494 CR FILL IN THE BLANKS 495

1) AT LEAST ONE and AT LEAST SOME are USUALLY RIGHT. Confirm with Negation Test with NONE 2) AVOID answers that CLAIM IDEA was MOST IMPORTANT 3) Watch for NOT or NEGATIVES in ANSWERS 1) SUPPORTER = link new or rogue elements in stimulus with premises 2) DEFENDER: eliminate ideas or assertions that would undermine conclusion USUALLY FILL IN THE BLANKS ARE: 1) ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS 2) MUST BE TRUE/MAIN POINT (rare) WHEN STUCK between TWO ANSWER CHOICES: 1) ALWAYS, ONLY, ALL Negate with NOT NECESSARILY Negate with SOMETIMES …. NOT 2) NEVER, NONE, NOT ONE, NOT ONCE Negate with AT LEAST ONE or AT LEAST ONCE 3) SOME, A FEW, SEVERAL Negate with NO or NONE 4) SOMETIMES, ON OCCASION, OFTEN Negate with NEVER 5) AT LEAST, MOST, MORE THAN, LESS THAN Negate by changing to the MATHEMATICALLY OPPOSITE item

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9

CR

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PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9

CR

Strategy

PowerScore GMAT CR Bible Ch9

CR

Strategy

1) Tomatoes are ALWAYS red LEN1: Tomatoes are NOT NECESSARILY red LEN2: Tomatoes are SOMETIMES NOT red 2) NOT ONE player was late for practice LEN: AT LEAST ONE player was late for practice 3) SOME cats purr when you pet them LEN: NO cats purr when you pet them 4) Cats SOMETIMES purr when you pet them LEN: Cats NEVER purr when you pet them 5) She has AT LEAST THREE different job offers LEN: She has LESS THAN THREE different job offers 6) Beth is the BEST tennis player in the world LEN: Beth is NOT NECESSARILY the best tennis player in the world MGMAT CR Ch4 CR Strategy

CR LEAST NEGATION TECHNIQUE

6) BEST, WORST, GREATEST, SMALLEST, HIGHEST Negate with NOT NECESSARILY

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496

SEE EXAMPLES What is the value of x? (1) root(x^4)= 9 (2) root(x^2)= -x How is the ans C HARD AND FAST RULE: Whenever an absolute value equation has variables on both sides, you have to check your answer(s). Even if you do all the math perfectly, your answer(s) may not work. EXAMPLE 3: Absolute Value Equation with Variables on Both Sides ∣2x+3∣=−11x+42 Problem One 2x+3=-11x+42(6) 13x+3=42(7) 13x=39(8) x=3(9) Problem Two 2x+3=−(−11x+42)(10) 2x+3=11x−42(11) -9x+3=-42(12) -9x=-45(13) x=5(14) So we have two solutions: x=3 and x=5. Do they both work? Let’s try them both. Problem One ∣2(3)+3∣=−11(3)+42. ∣9∣=9. ✓ Problem Two ∣2(5)+3∣=−11(5)+42. ∣13∣=−13. ✗ 1) If |x-k|<=n, then -n<=x-k<=n 2) If |x-k|>=n, then x-k>=n and -(x-k)>=n 3) |x|>=0 4) If x<>0, then |x|>0 5) If x=0, then |x|=0 6) If |x|=-x, then x<=0 7) |x*y|=|x||y| 8) -|x|<=x and x<=|x| 9) -y<=x<=y IFF |x|<=y 10) |x+y| <= |x| + |y| 11) Given x<>0, then |x|/|1/x| = 1 12) |1/x| = 1/|x| 13) |x/y|=|x|/|y| 14) |x|=|-x| 15) |x|-|y| <= |x-y| 16) |x-y| <= |x| + |y| 17) If a<=x<=b, then |x-((a+b)/2)|<=b-((a+b)/2) 18) If |x|<=z, |y|<=t, then |x+y| <= z+t 19) If |(|x|-|y|)| <= |x-y| 20) xy>=0 IFF |x+y|=|x|+|y| 21) If |x+y| = |x| + |y| 22) |x+y|/(1+|x+y|) <= |x|/(1+|x|) + |y|/(1+|y|) 23) SQRT(x^2) = |x| 1) sgn(x) = -1 if x<0; 0 if x=0; 1 if x>0 2) x = |x|*sgn(x) 3) sgn(xy) = sgn(x) * sgn(y) 4) sgn(sgn(x)) = sgn(x) 5) sgn(x+y) <= sgn(x) + sgn(y) + 1 6) If x<>0, then sgn(x)*sgn(1/x) = 1 7) 1/(sgn x) = sgn(1/x) 8) sgn(x) + sgn(y) - 1 <= sgn(x+y) 9) sgn(x) = sgn(1/x) 10) sgn(x/y) = sgn(x)/sgn(y)

ABSOLUTE VALUE EQUATIONS 497

MGMAT EIV

EIV

Strategy

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86

SIGN EQUATIONS

SEE EXAMPLES

MGMAT EIV

EIV

Strategy

SIMULTANEOUS RATE EQUATIONS

EQUALIZE the TWO RATES by HAVING THEM START AT THE SAME POINT (DISTANCE). THEN USE THE RELATIVE RATES TO COMPUTE THE REMAINING TIME OR DISTANCE

Bob starts reading War and Peace, a 1000 page book, at 9:00 a.m., at a rate of 50 pages per hour. Fred starts reading an identical copy of War and Peace at 11:00 a.m., at a rate of 70 pages per hour. At what time will Bob and Fred be starting to read the same page of the book? First, we need to figure out where Bob is when Fred starts reading. Bob has a 2 hour head start and is reading 50 pages per hour, so after 2 hours Bob will be 100 pages into the book. Therefore, Fred is 100 pages behind. Fred reads at 70 pages per hour and Bob reads at 50 pages per hour. To find the relative page/hour rate, we SUBTRACT the individual rates. 70-50=20. Therefore, each hour Fred reads an additional 20 pages. The distance that Fred needs to catch up is 100 pages and each hour Fred reads an extra 20 pages. Time = distance/rate = 100/20 = 5 hours. So, Bob and Fred will be on the same page 5 hours after Fred starts reading. 11:00 a.m. + 5 hours = 4:00 p.m. =================== In general, we're faced with 2 different situations in these mulitple body rate problems. (1) 2 objects moving in opposite directions (either directly toward or directly away from each other). To find the total rate, we ADD the rates. (2) 2 objects moving in the same direction. To find the relative rate, we SUBTRACT the rates. The question above falls into category (1). To find the total distance covered in one hour by the two trains, we need to add their rates together. The question has an additional twist - the trains start moving at different times. Therefore, the first thing we need to do is equalize the times. We do so by figuring out where the earlier train will be when the latter train leaves the station. Since train #2 leaves at 3:20, we move train #1 ahead 20 minutes in time. We basically rewrite the question as: Quote: If two trains, 80 miles apart and traveling directly toward each other at a combined rate of 40mph, leave their stations at 3:20, at what time do they meet?

MGMAT WT

WT

Strategy

Page

Now we just apply the distance formula: d=r*t 80 = 40t t=2 So, 3:20 plus 2 hours = 5:20 meeting time. ================== Car B begins moving at 2 mph around a circular track with a radius of 10 miles. Ten hours later, Car A leaves from the same point in the opposite direction, traveling at 3 mph. For how many hours will Car B have been traveling when car A has passed and moved 12 miles beyond Car B? (Pie = p) 4P - 1.6 4P + 8.4 4P + 10.4 2P - 1.6 2P - 0.8 in 10 hrs car B will cover 20 miles at a speed of 2mph tot dis is 20pi miles when A will start dis left for passing each other is 20pi-20 miles

87

relative speed is 3+2=5 time taken to cross is (20pi-20)/5=4pi-4 time taken for another 12 miles is 12/5=2.4 tot time= 4pi-4+2.4=4pi-1.6 now we need to add 10 hrs for tot time of B 4pi-1.6+10=4pi+8.4 AREA of EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE A = s^2 *SQRT(3) / 4 SPLIT TRIANGLE INTO 30-60-90 of side S and derive MGMAT Geometry Geometry Strategy

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88

If m and n are positive integers such that m/n = 13.24, which of the following could NOT be the remainder when m is divided by n? 12 16 30 48 120 This question is about remainders. Whenever we have a remainder problem, it might be useful to think in terms of the following framework. Assume that x and y are integers, I is the quotient, and R is the remainder: X / Y = I + R/Y It should be noted that R and I will always be integers, and R will always be greater than or equal to zero, and always less than y. For example: 13/5 = 2 + 3/5 When we divide 13 by 5, we get a quotient of 2 and a remainder of 3. Note that in this case, the remainder is indeed larger than (or equal to) zero, and less than 5. Also note that if R = 0, then x is divisible by y, and vice versa. Let’s apply this formula to the problem at hand. We know that M/N = 13 + 24/100 = 13.24 where R/N = 24/100 so 6N = 25R What does that tell us about n and R? Well, we know that 6, n, 25, and R are all integers. Thus both sides of the equation will be integers (the same integer). For that to be true, both sides of the equation must have IDENTICAL prime factorizations. We know that the left side of the equation has a 2 and a 3 in its prime factorization (6 = 2 × 3). Therefore, R must have at least a 2 and a 3 in its prime factorization. So R is divisible by 6. Furthermore, we know that the right side of the equation has two 5’s in its prime factorization (25 = 5 × 5). Therefore, n must have at least a 5 and a 5 in its prime factorization. So n is divisible by 25. The question asks about R. We know that R must be divisible by 6. Only answer choice B, 16, is not divisible by 6. The correct answer is B ================ Given p = 2^a*3^b and q = 2^c*3^d^5^e, is P/Q a terminating decimal? Note that 1,2,4,5,8 are non-terminating decimals. But 3,6,7,9 are NOT. So we have to ensure that the degree of 3 is HIGHER on top than on bottom, which means b>d 1) a>c 2) b>d REMAINDER Problems X/Y=I+R/Y 0. Y > R >= 0 where I, R, X, Y are integers > 1 is insufficient since we don't care about 2 or 5 2 is sufficient since 3 will always be on top after cancellations so answer is B MGMAT CAT #2

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A family consisting of one mother, one father, two daughters and a son is taking a road trip in a sedan. The sedan has two front seats and three back seats. If one of the parents must drive and the two daughters refuse to sit next to each other, how many possible seating arrangements are there? A) 28 B) 32 C) 48 D) 60 E) 120 The driver seat can be filled in 2 ways (Mother or Father). The remaining 4 seats can be filled in 4! ways. Total arrangement is 2 * 4! = 48 ways. We are not done yet. We need to eliminate the number of arrangements in which the two daughters sit next to each other in the back seat. After we filled the driver seat, we have the navigator seat, and the remaining 3 back seats vacant. The navigator seat can be filled by either one of the parent and by the son, i.e., 2 * 1 = 2 ways. The front seat arrangement comes to 2 * 2 = 4 ways. Assuming the daughters sit next to each other, can be considered as "1" instead of 2, we have 2 consolidated elements to jumble. That leads to 2! ways, and the two daughters collapsed to one can be arranged in 2! ways - D1D2 or D2D1. So, there are 2! * 2! ways to arrange the back seat with two daughters sitting next to each other. Overall, there 4 * 4 = 16 ways in which the two daughters sit next to each other. Remove this from the actual 48 ways. So the answer is (B) 32. =============== In a room filled with 7 people, 4 people have exactly 1 sibling in the room and 3 people have exactly 2 siblings in the room. If two individuals are selected from the room at random, what is the probability that those two individuals are NOT siblings? 5/21 3/7 4/7 5/7 16/21 I divide 7 people into 2 groups: Group 1 including 4 people have exactly 1 sibling and Group 2 including 3 people have exactly 2 siblings First person: If he is from G1 (probability: 4/7), the probability that the second one is not his sibling: 5/6 so 4/7*5/6=10/21 If he is from G2 (probability: 3/7), the probability that the second one is not his sibling: 4/6 so 3/7*4/6=6/21 10/21+6/21=16/21

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TRICKY COMBINATORICS Problem

Use the basics of Combinatorics and combine different cases togeterh

http://www.beatthegmat.co m/family-seatingt25413.html http://gmatclub.com/forum/p robability-siblings-in-theroom-80722.html

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Wes works at a science lab that conducts experiments on bacteria. The population of the bacteria multiplies at a constant rate, and his job is to notate the population of a certain group of bacteria each hour. At 1 p.m. on a certain day, he noted that the population was 2,000 and then he left the lab. He returned in time to take a reading at 4 p.m., by which point the population had grown to 250,000. Now he has to fill in the missing data for 2 p.m. and 3 p.m. What was the population at 3 p.m.? 50,000 62,500 65,000 86,666 125,000 Assume : r as multiplication factor for that constant period (who knows the bacteria may be double, triple etc.) Let the constant period be t hrs (could be 1/2 hr , one hour etc.) Then in 1 hour the bacteria population will be: 2000 x r^(1/t) Similarly in 3 hrs: 2000 x r^(3/t) = 250000 r^(3/t) = 125 Since r should be an integer, the only way you could represent the equation is by writing: r^(3/t) = 5^3 Hence r is 5 and consequently t is 1. ========== A scientist is studying bacteria whose cell population doubles at constant intervals, at which times each cell in the population divides simultaneously. Four hours from now, immediately after the population doubles, the scientist will destroy the entire sample. How many cells will the population contain when the bacteria is destroyed? (1) Since the population divided two hours ago, the population has quadrupled, increasing by 3,750 cells. (2) The population will double to 40,000 cells with one hour remaining until the scientist destroys the sample. The reason statement #1 is insufficient is that we are not told that another division has JUST occurred. So there is a range of possibilities: * One possibility: The population JUST divided again NOW, meaning that the population divides every two hours. Therefore there will be 2 more divisions before the sample is destroyed. * Another possibility: The population divided again a half-hour ago (every 1.5 hours). Therefore, there will be three more divisions before the sample is destroyed. * Another possibility: The population divided again 48 minutes ago (every 1.2 hours). Therefore, there will be four more divisions before the sample is destroyed.

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EXPONENTIAL or GEOMETRIC Growth

Formula is: Pn = P0 * (growth rate) ^ (Time of Growth / Rate of growth) Pn = P0 * (G)^(T / r)

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ascientist-is-studying-bacteria-t1561.html http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/ma nhattan-cat-population-chart-t3705.html

#33, CAT #3 GCF: http://www.manhattangmat.com/OnlineExams/CAT_rev_Qview.cfm? ssQID=14106038 The greatest common factor of 16 and the positive integer n is 4, and the greatest common factor of nand 45 is 3. Which of the following could be the greatest common factor of n and 210? 16= 2*2*2*2 n=2*2 GCD = 4 45=3*3*5 n=3 GCD = 3 therefore n definitely consists of following n=2*2*3 = 12 210 = 2*5*3*7 GCD = 2*3 = 6 In the answer options there are only 2 multiples of 6 i.e. 30 and 42 30 cannot be the GCD because n does not consists of 5 otherwise GCD of n and 45 should have one 5 as GCD. 42 can be GCD because n may consist of 7 as prime number. Hence D.

DIVISIBILITY and PRIME Problem

Draw GRIDS to keep track of PRIMES

MGMAT CAT #3, #33

Bob bikes to school every day at a steady rate of x miles per hour. On a particular day, Bob had a flat tire exactly halfway to school. He immediately started walking to school at a steady pace of y miles per hour. He arrived at school exactly t hours after leaving his home. How many miles is it from the school to Bob's home? A. (x + y) / t B. 2(x + t) / xy C. 2xyt / (x + y) D. 2(x + y + t) / xy E. x(y + t) + y(x + t) d/2 covered wiht speed x miles/hr d/2 covered with speed y miles per hour distance/speed = time So t = d/2 /x + d/2 / y t = d/2x + d/2y t = dy+dx / 2xy t = d(x+y) / 2xy d = 2xyt/(x+y)

RATES Problem

Keep track of rates and variables. When a person/object travels the same distance at two different speeds say a and b then the average speed is 2ab/(a+b)

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