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Mat 1322D, Calculus 2 November 3rd, 2004

Professor. Arian Novruzi Lastname, Firstname:


Department of Mathematics Student number:
email: novruzi@uottawa.ca
tel: (613) 562 5800 x 3530
MIDTERM 2 (time 80 min)
Notes
1) No books or any other document are allowed
2) A simple calculator with no programming and graphical capabilities can be used
3) Solve each problem using the space following it; if more space is needed use the back of any page or
additional white pages after Problem 7 and indicate when doing so
4) Students may not enter after or leave before 20 minutes from beginning of the midterm
5) Students must present their student cards if asked
6) Any question concerning marks or marking must be submitted to the professor within one week after
the midterms have been returned
Problem Points You
1 5
2 4
3 6
4 5
5 5
6 5
Total 30
Problem 1 (7.2/11 14)
a) Fill the following table with y

(x) = x + y + 1 for x = 3, 1, 0, 1, 2, and y = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3.


b) Sketch the direction eld of the dierential equation y

= x + y + 1.
c) Using the initial condition y(0) = 0 sketch the solution y = y(x) for x [3, 2].
Solution
a)
y\x -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
3 1 2 3 4 5 6
2 0 1 2 3 4 5
1 -1 0 1 2 3 4
0 -2 -1 0 1 2 3
-1 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2
-2 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1
Figure 1: The values of y

(x) = x + y + 1
b), c)
2
Problem 2 (7.2/19)
a) Write the Eulers method formula for y

= f(x, y), y(0) = y


0
.
b) Use two steps of Eulers method with h = 0.2 to nd an approximation of y(0.4), where y(x) is solution of
y

= 2xy, y(0) = 1.
c) Find the exact solution y(x) (using the method of separation of variables) and compare y(0.4) with its
approximation found in b)
Solution
a) x
0
, y
0
given; h > 0 given
For n = 0, 1, . . . compute
y
n+1
= y
n
+ hf(x
n
, y
n
),
x
n+1
= x
n
+ h.
b) x
0
= 0, y
0
= 1; h = 0.2, f(x, y) = 2xy.
y
1
= 1 + 0.2 2 0 1 = 1
x
1
= 0 + 0.2 = 0.2
y
2
= 1 + 0.2 2 0.2 1 = 1 + 0.08 = 1.08
x
2
= 0.2 + 0.2 = 0.4.
y(0.4) 1.08.
c) Separable equation:
dy
dx
= 2xy,
dy
y
= 2xdx,
ln|y| = C + x
2
, y(t) = Ae
x
2
, A = e
C
,
y(0) = 1 gives A = 1 and so y(x) = e
x
2
.
y(0.4) = e
0.16
= 1.17 . . ., |y(0.4) y
2
| = 0.09.
3
Problem 3 (7.3/10)
Solve with the method of separation of variables the dierential equation
dy
dx
=
xy cos x
1 + 2y
2
, y(0) = 1.
Solution
Separable equation:
1+2y
2
y
dy = xcos xdx. So
_
1 + 2y
2
y
dy =
_
xcos xdx.
But
_
1+2y
2
y
dy =
_
dy
y
+
_
2ydy
= ln|y| + y
2
+ C,
_
xcos xdx = xsinx
_
sinxdx = xsinx + cos x + D.
u = x, v

= cos x
u

= 1, v = sinx
Thus the solution is given implicitly by
ln|y| + y
2
= xsin x + cos x + A, A = D C.
As y(0) = 1 it follows
ln1 + 1 = 0 + 1 + A, A = 0
and so y is given by
ln|y| + y
2
= xsin x + cos x.
4
Problem 4 (7.3/35)
A tank contains 1 000 l of brine with 15 kg of dissolved salt. Pure water enters the tank at a rate of 10
l/min. The solution is kept thoroughly mixed (so the salt concentration is uniform) and drains the tank
at the same rate of 10 l/min.
a) How much salt is in the tank after t minutes ?
b) How long it takes to have in the tank 10 kg of salt ?
Solution
a) Set y(t) the quantity of salt at time t. Then, as y

(t) is the quantity of salt rate change we have


y

(t) = rate in rate out.


But
rate in = 0,
as pure water enters in tank. For the rate out we have
rate out = 10
_
l
min
_
y(t)
1 000
_
kg
l
_
= 0.01y(t)
_
l
min
_
,
as water drains at 10l/min and each water liter contains y(t)/1 000 kg of salt. Thus
y

= 0.01y.
Solution is easy (exponential law):
dy
dt
= 0.1y,
dy
y
= 0.01dt, ln|y| = 0.01t + C, y(t) = Ae
0.01t
.
As y(0) = 15 (given of the problem) it follows A = 15 and the solution is
y(t) = 15e
0.01t
.
b) Find t such that y(t) = 10. Solve t:
15e
0.01t
= 10, 0.01t = ln
10
15
, t = 100 ln
10
15
40.54 min.
5
Problem 5 (7.5/8)
A sh population of 1 000 is introduced in a lake which carrying capacity is 10 000. It has been observed
that the population tripled in the rst two years.
a) Assuming that the population size satises the logistic equation nd the constants p
0
, K, k and give
the population size formula p(t).
b) How long will it take for the population to increase to 8 000?
Solution
a) It is given p
0
= 1 000, K = 10 000 and
p(t) =
K
1 +
Kp0
p+0
e
kt
=
10 000
1 + 9e
kt
.
k =?
As p(2) = 3p
0
we can nd k:
10 000
1 + 9e
2k
= 3 000, 1 + 9e
2k
=
10
3
, e
2k
=
1
9
_
10
3
1
_
=
7
27
,
k =
1
2
ln
7
27
.
b) Find t such that p(t) = 8 000. Thus solve t. From
10 000
1 + 9e
kt
= 8 000,
with k as earlier, it follows
1 + 9e
kt
=
10
8
, e
kt
=
1
9
_
10
8
1
_
=
1
36
,
t =
1
k
ln
1
36
= 2
ln
1
36
ln
7
27
5.3 years.
6
Problem 6 (8.2/11 28, 8.3/11 24)
a) Determine which of the series is convergent. Precise the criteria ( use for abrevation :
CGS = convergent geometric series with |x| < 1,
DGS = divergent geometric series with |x| 1,
NZL = non zero limit for lim
n
a
n
,
IT = integral test
CT = comparison test.
LCT = limit comparison test).
Series

n=1
5
n
3
n+1

n=1
_
1 + 2
n
_

n=1
ne
n
2

n=1
1
n
3
+5
Convergent? yes no yes yes
Criteria CGS NZL or DGS IT CT or IT
b) Find the sum of rst convergent series.
Solution
s
n
=
n

k=1
5
k
3
k+1
= 3
n

k=1
_
3
5
_
k
(set x =
3
5
)
= 3(x + x
2
+ x
n
)
= 3x((1 + x + x
2
+ x
n1
)
= 3x
1 x
n
1 x
.
Then
s = lim
n
s
n
= 3x
1
1 x
=
3
3
5
1
3
5
=
9
2
.
7
8
9
10