Agrippina notes

Historical Context

Role of imperial woman in Roman Society

 Expected to be modest
 Expected to marry young and raise large families
 Behave with dignity and awareness of their responsibilities
 Could inherit property
 No part in politics (could influence husbands)
 Played important role in dynastic succession, promoting sons (Imperial

Background and rise to prominence

Family background and status

 Born in Julio-claudian line
 Mother = Agrippina the elder (granddaughter of Augustus)
 Father = Germanicus (grandson of Livia [Aug third wife])
 THEREFORE Agrippina was:
 The great granddaughter of an emperor
 Sister of an emperor (Gaius)
 Niece and later wife of an emperor (Claudius)
 Mother of an emperor (Nero)
 “Agrippina’s exceptionally illustrious birth is indisputable” Tacitus
 “Her pedigree was impeccable” S. Perowne

Early life, ambitions and marriages

 Born in: AD15
 Born at: Ara Uborium (Rhine Frontier)
 Had to endure the deaths of:
 Mother
 Father
 Two elder brothers (Nero and Drusus)
 Lived in imperial palace with Livia, during the reign of Tiberius
 Came under care of Tiberius
 Married off at age 14 AD 28 to Domitius
 Married again to Crispus AD 41
 Third marriage to Claudius AD 49
 Her ambition was to exert political influence
 Her mother game her a sense of entitlement that their family was meant to rule
 She grew up “in an appalling atmosphere of malevolence, suspicion and
criminal violence” Michael Grant
 “They prayed her (Agrippina the elder) might live to survive the enemy”
 “It was not an injury that she did not reign” Tacitus (describing what Tib said to
Agrippina the elder)


Basis of power and influence; patronage

 Alliances and use of patron client relationship
 Pallas to promote her to Claudius as future wife = allowed her to set up
 Pallas influence Claudius to adopt Nero = assuring family succession and
giving Ag power
 Vitellius = to change incest law to marry Claudius
 She won support partly by “fears and partly by favors” Dio Cassius
 “Her private life was chaste unless power was to be gained” Tacitus
 Bloodline (Julio-claudian)
 Being direct descendent of Augustus and daughter of mystic
Germanicus=very influential base of prominence contributing to
immense power, gave her “mystic” nature
 Mother = popular support because of poor treatment by Tiberius and
sense of entitlement
 Brother Gaius (emperor) thrust her into public sphere
 Marriages
 Gave her wealth and power
 Domitius = a lot of money (although stripped), and a son Nero
 Crispus = a large estate on the Tiber, immense wealth, a lot of political
 Claudius = most power
 Hailed Augustus (coin minted in Rome)
 “Agrippinas lust was not for passion, but for power” Barret
 Gave her influence to groom Nero successor
 Personality and ambition
 Seen as manipulative, cunning, thick skinned, smart, strategic and
adaptable = allowed her to gain so much influence.

Role during the reign of Gaius (Caligula), including exile

 Gaius reign = 37 AD – 41 AD
 Accession = good for Ag because public sympathized with family
 Honors:
 Honorary vestal virgin
 “Which would give them such important legal advantages as
exemption from authority of a male guardian” Barrett
 Imperial seats at games
 Included in the annual vows of emperors safety
 Included in the preamble proposal to the senate
 “May this be good fortune for Gaius ceaser and his sisters”
 Included in the annual vows of Allegiance to the emperor
 “Nor shall I consider myself or my children more precious than I
do Gaius and his sisters” Suetonius
 “This represents a key stage in the elevation of woman in the imperial
house” Barrett
 Coin issued in AD 38 represents Agrippina as Secuitas (security), holding a
 Drusilla and Livilla on coin as well
 Sisters of an Emperor had never been on a coin before
 Cornucopia is a symbol of plenty and fertility
 Great suspicion Gaius had incestuous relationship with sisters, especially
 Caused Agrippina and her role within the empire to feel threatened, as
Drusilla’s children more likely to be heirs.
 By 38 AD Gaius suffered major illness and his whole regime changed
 Drusilla died
 Agrippina and Livilla = exiled to the Pontian Islands
 Linked to a conspiracy to kill Gaius and were charged with
adultry with Lepidus in a plot to overthrow princeps
 They did not return to Rome until death of Gaius

Role during the reign of Claudius

 Became extremely powerful during his reign
 Claudius reign “was dictated not so much by his own judgment but by
his wives and freedmen” Suetonius
 Married to Crispinus for early part of his reign
 Some historians argue to keep her away from the intrigue of Messalina
 Agrippina was recommended by Pallas to Claudius
 She was available and of right family background
 Still young enough to have more children (even though she never did)
 Would be good for Claudius as he was unpopular with people and
Agrippina was popular
 Claudius decision to marry Agrippina was “taken for political
reasons, to shore up an unpopular regime” Holland
 “She had a nieces privilege of kissing and caressing Claudius, and
exercised it with noticeable effect on his passion” Suetonius
 Law had to be changed to allow them to marry (Vitellius)
 Married in AD49 – Allowed to exert considerable influence
 Relief on the Sebastian at Aphrodisias – seen standing next to the senate
and emperor (display of matrimonial harmony)
 Coins and Cameos represent the union as a new beginning
 AD 50 received title Augusta – Only woman to receive this while husband still
 Shown on coin “Agrippina Augusta”
 “Conveyed the notion of empress” Barrett “She could lay equal claim to
the majesty that the office or emperor conveyed”
 Public promotion and partnership in empire
 Coins – In Rome and Provinces = proves her popularity
 Caratacus surrender to her
 “She was offered the same homage and gratitude” Tacitus
 Roman standards = unprecedented
 “She was asserting her partnership in the empire her ancestors
had won” Tacitus
 Present at daily saultatio = increasing political role
 Riding in the carpentium = thrust into public sphere
 Veterans colony at place of birth named after her, Colonoa Claudia Ara
Augusta Agrippinensium
 Mother and promoter of Nero
 Recalled tutor Seneca to groom Nero
 Influenced Claudius to adopt Nero
 Gave him precedence over his own son
 Britannicus too young (9)
 Messalina tarnished his image
 Games being held in Nero’s behalf
 Publically wearing Toga Virilius before legal age
 Donating to senate and PG before becoming princeps
 Marriage to Octavia
 Knew Loyalty of the Guard was critical to sustainability
 Replaced PP of Geta and Crispinus (loyal to Messalina) with Burrus
(loyal to Ag)
 Hand picked middlemen to consolidate position
 Allegedly killed Claudius
 “Agrippina poisoned Claudius” Tacitus
 Supposedly she had began to loose her influence
 Ultimately securing her position in the empire to set it up for her son

Role and changing relationship with Nero during his reign
 Became princeps at 17
 Declared emperor when he was conducted into the Guards camp.
 “He was hailed emperor. The army’s decision was followed by senatorial
 Agrippina exercised considerable power and authority in the early days of
Nero’s rule
 “Agrippina managed for him all imperial business” Dio
 Suetonius records “Nero allowed his mother full authority in all business,
public as well as private”
 “The first five years of Nero’s reign were dominated by his relations with his
mother” “Agrippina pressed even harder than she had done under Claudius for
full share of power, for a partner in empire” Bauman
 Tacitus tells us ever outward honor was heaped on Agrippina
 Reluctant to acknowledge that she exercised real political control of him
 Power and authority presented on gold and silver coins
 Shown face to face and equal in size to Nero on the obverse of coins in
 Shown side by side with him on obverse of coins of 55AD
 Suggests partner in running empire
 First imperial woman to share portrait with reigning princeps on
Roman coinage
 Her next to Nero on the relief at the Sebastian of Aphrodisias shows Ag
performing the crucial role of initiation (crowning)
 Reflects the idea that she brought him to power, not the senate
 Honors for Agrippina
 Would ride with Nero through the streets in a litter
 Make a special show of devotion by walking beside her as she was carried
 Meeting of the senate were convened on the Palatine to enable her to
follow the proceedings, even though she was never allowed to enter the
 Granted the gesture of two lictors – they suggest the power and authority
of the magistrates
 Agrippinas privilege would have served to elevate her in the public mind
to the status of a woman who had quasi-official share in the
administration of the empire
 Dio claims she also received various embassies and sent letters to peoples,
governs and kings
 Shows her influence in politics
 Gradually loosing control over Nero (fell in love with Acte a slave)
 Felt threatened by Acte and tried everything to remove her but nothing worked
 ““It was I who made you emperor”- just as if she had the power to take
away the sovereignty from him again” Dio
 Nero wanted to show he was independent
 “ A daughter of the imperial family…was surprisingly inept at handling
her teenage son” Barrett
 Agrippina threatened Nero she would present Britannicus to the PG as the
legitimate heir
 Nero expelled Agrippina from Imperial palace to live with his grandmother
 Tacitus explains this was to prevent her from giving great receptions
 Nero killed Britannicus
 “Agrippina realized her last support was gone” Tacitus
 Nero could now kill by himself – showed Agrippina that she was no
longer needed
 Widely believed that Nero had a hand in Agrippinas death
 “Strike here” Tacitus as she pointed to her stomach (where Nero was

Relationships with other members of the imperial court: Seneca, Burrus and
imperial freedmen

 Seneca = Good relationship to begin with than turned sour
 Convinced Claudius to recall him from exile to tutor Nero
 She knew extreme influence tutors had in shaping political
 “A brilliant mind whose political views on the best way to rule
Rome coincided with her own” Barrett
 Speculated to be lovers – “her private life was chaste unless power was
to be gained” Tacitus
 Helped her groom Nero as successor which would give her power
 Gained popularity from recalling him as he was well liked
 Provided Ag with the means to influence Nero politically
 Shift in relationship to where he was in dominant position
 Tacitus says that Seneca prevented Agrippina from mounting imperial
dais to receive foreign delegates (as she had done with Claudius)
 Convinced Nero to remove Pallas from his financial post
 Saw the removal of Agrippina from the obverse of the coinage in Rome
 Informed Nero on the intention of his mother paying to Britannicus
 Workings of Seneca attributed to breakdown of Pallas and Agrippinas
 “Seneca and Burrus combined forces to curtail Agrippinas power”
 Burrus = Good relationship to begin with (PG prefect)
 Agrippina persuaded Claudius to replaced Geta and Crispinus (loyal to
Messalina & Britannicus) with Burrus.
 Burrus loyal to Agrippina and would assure the smooth accession of her
son to the throne = Vital for Agrippinas further influence
 Burrus = fully aware of who was responsible for his appointment as
commander of PG and that is why she and Nero had his loyalty
 Provided her with support fundamental to an emperors principate
 Shift in Power similar to that of Seneca
 Convinced Nero to remove Pallas from his financial post
 Saw the removal of Agrippina from the obverse of the coinage in Rome
 Informed Nero on the intention of his mother paying to Britannicus
 Workings of Burrus attributed to breakdown of Pallas and Agrippinas
 “Seneca and Burrus combined forces to curtail Agrippinas power”
 Although during Nero’s endeavors to kill his mother Burrus point blank
refused to kill her
 Indicated that despite her decline Burrus still displayed some
 Imperial freedmen-Pallas
 Pallas = super loyal
 Claudius financial secretary (wealth = power)
 “Position would have given (her) unique access to the financial
operations of the state” Barrett
 Secured support even before her marriage to Claudius
 Assisted Claudius marring Agrippina
 Helped in the adoption of Nero to Claudius
 Helped betrothal of Nero to Octavia
 Continued loyalty and supporter was crucial to Agrippinas
power and largely due to his actions that she became as powerful as she
 Suetonius “chief supporter”
Key elements to
 Tacitus puts forth the argument that they were lovers due to his
continued loyalty
 Barret disagrees claiming it would be unlikely that a woman from
the Julio-claudian line “would have condescended to liaison with
an ex-slave”
 Imperial freedmen- Narcissus
 Closest and most trusted freedmen of Claudius
 All of the sources claim that him and Ag were “arch-opponents” Barrett
 Dio claimed Agrippina had won over Pallas AND Narcissus
 Openly argued at draining of Fuciene lake
 Blamed Narcissus for fail of the draining – charging him with
embezzlement even though the charges were never taken to
 An obstacle for Agrippinas plans with Nero

Impact of personality on career: public image

 Number of coins, busts, statues and reliefs of Agrippina from Rome and the
empire reflect her high profile
 First appeared on coinage under Gaius
 On reverse of coin, portrayed as Securitas (security)
 Appeared on coinage under Claudius
 On reverse of coin
 Shown with head draped = a symbol of piety or wearing a crown of
wheat = association with Demeter (goddess of fertility)
 Obverse of the coin with Claudius = partnership
 Appeared as Augusta
 Appeared on coinage under Nero
 Early years shows them facing another with legend “Agrippina Augusta,
Wife of the divine Claudius, Mother of Nero Ceaser”
 Another coin shows obverse of an elephant chariot bearing the figures of
Divine Augustus and Divine Claudius on reverse with the legend “By The
Decree of the Senate, Agrippina Augusta, Wife of the Divine Claudius,
Mother of Nero Ceaser”
 Portrait appeared on coins throughout the empire
 Two reliefs from Sebasteion of Aphrodisias show public image of Ag in Roman
empire = she appears as an equal to Claudius and Nero
 Shown with Senator and Claudius wearing wreath of Oak leaves
 Shown placing a crown on Nero’s head
 Wide range of public statues and busts are an indication of her popularity and
 Consciously promoted her own public image
 Wore military cloak of gold on ceremonial occasions (draining of Fuciene Lake)
 Resembling her mother
 Surrender of Caratacus she sat on dais with Claudius and was offered the “same
homage and gratitude”
 Tacitus “She was asserting her partnership in the empire her ancestors
had won”
 Used her family connection and status to promote her public image
 Many members of imperial court owed their positions and loyalty to Agrippina
and therefore helped her promote a positive public image.

Attempts on her life

 Sources depict strained relationship between Ag and Nero from 55 AD
 Tacitus suggested she tried to raise funds and form a faction to bring about her
son’s demise: “She seemed to be looking round for a Party, and a leader for it”
 Nero had enough = began to organize demise
 Dismissed Pallas
 Took away her privileges (lictors, bodyguards)
 Removed her from the Palace = exposed to dangers
 Silana put up two of her clients to charge Agrippina with plotting to marry
Plautus and inciting revolt against Nero, Nero listened with terror and
“resolved to kill his mother” Tacitus
 Seneca advised Nero not to act so hastily but to give his mother a hearing
 Agrippina knew legal framework and turned charge against the accusers
 Kept low profile until the threat of Nero’s mistress Poppaea Sabina.
 Only way he could break mother domination was to have her killed
 Attempts at murder:
 Poison = she had taken the antidote
 “She had strengthen her physical resistance by a preventive
course of antidotes” Tacitus
 Collapsible bedframe above her = someone gave secret away
 “Rigged up a machine in the ceiling of her bedroom which would
dislodge the panels and drop them on her while she slept”
 Tried to drown her with a collapsible boat = she swam to safety
 “A ship could be made, he now said, with a section which would
come loose at sea and hurl Agrippina into the water without
warning” Tacitus
 He tried to get the Praetorian Guard to kill her but they would not as
they were loyal to Germanicus and Ag and they did not want to tarnish
their name or be apart of a plot
 “The Guard were devoted to the while imperial house of
Germanicus; they would not commit no violence against his
offspring” Tacitus
 “Everyone longed for the mothers domination to end. But no one believed that
her son’s hatred would go as far as murder” Tacitus

Death: motives, manner and impact of death

 According to Tacitus, Nero’s involvement with a noble woman, Poppaea Sabina
in AD58 proved a major reason for the death of Agrippina.
 She saw her as a threat to her position and wanted to safeguard
interests of Octavia, an ally since her expulsion from the palace in 55 AD
 Also argues that Peoppea was constantly telling Nero of her treachery
and fuelling a growing mistrust that he had already harbored
 Relationship with woman other than mother (Acte) made her furious causing
her to become increasingly hostile towards him.
 Nero began to look to others, such as Seneca, for help whilst openly
disobeying his mother.
 Nero became increasingly frustrated by Agrippina’s continuing dominance and
desire for power.
 Dio record her scolding of Nero “It was I who made you emperor”
 Continued to be the dominating mother and this finally threatened Neros pride
in his maturity and security in imperial office
 Wanted to free himself of his mothers influence
 Changing relationship= important motive for her death
 After her death in a letter to the senate Nero swore that Agerinus had come to
kill him and that Agrippina had paid for complicity however that was probably
 Tacitus claims that Anicetus killed Agrippina.
 “ The murders closed round her bed. First the captain hit her on the
head with a truncheon. Than as the lieutenant was drawing his sword to
finish her off, she cried out: ‘strike here!’- pointing to her womb. Blow
after blow fell, and she died” Tacitus
 Dio account is more dramtic although it is the same story line:
 “She saw them, she knew for what they had come, and leaping from her
bed she tore open her clothing, exposing her abdomen, and cried out
“Strike here Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero””
 Dio also claims that Nero wanted to see the body and examine the wounds and
when he saw it he said “I did not know I had so beautiful a mother”
 In a speech to senate after her death Nero said that it “was providential. And he
even called the shipwreck a happy accident. For even the greatest fool could not
believe it accidental” Tacitus
 Nero went to Campania after death and was scared to return to Rome but was
advised that the city was happy that Agrippina was dead
 On his return to Rome Tacitus records that they “found even greater
enthusiasm than they had promised”
 Barret claims that she was much more popular in hinterland than in capital
“The concern of he crowds who congregated around her villa during her last
hours and the general relief on hearing that she had survived the shipwreck
indicate …. Agrippina was much more popular in the hinterland than in the
 Weidemann claims that only “later in Flavian propaganda was the death of
Agrippina in AD 59 interpreted as a turning point in Nero’s reign, an act of
unforgivable wickedness typical of a tyrant. In fact, it seems to have made little
difference to Nero’s popularity at the time.”
 Tacitus = “To this day Agrippina remains unique as the daughter of a great
commander and the sister, wife and mother of emperors”
 This was the end which Agrippina had anticpated for years. When she asked
astrologers about Nero, they had answered that he would become emperor but
kill his mother. Her reply was: “Let him kill me – just let him rule” Tacitus


Impact and influence on her time

 BIG impact on her time
 Evident through the Ancient historians writing so much about her
 The fact that there are whole books dedicated to her represent what a
large impact she had
 She went beyond exceptional woman, not only in honours and privileges
granted to her but also in her exercise of political power even though she never
held political office
 Extended her sphere of influence through every meand possible throughout her
 Bloodlink = great influence
 People worshiped her because of her pedigree
 Ancient sources portray Agrippina as a unscrupulous woman who would do
anything to satisfy her personal lust for power
 Modern sources reveal a politically astute woman who undoubtedly used her
considerable talents to fulfill her ambitions, and in so doing she contributed to
he strength and stability of the regime.
 Her greatest impact on her times was evident in her relationships with the
emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero with the key nobles and freedmen of
their reigns
 In every facet of her rule as wife of Claudius, Agrippina was able to extend her
authority and influence to such an extent that it could be said that she ruled the
empire herself
 “From this moment the country was transformed. Complete obedience
was accorded to a woman” Tacitus
 Evaluations of her impact vary between negative ancient and more positive
 “No man or woman was safe is she suspected rivalry or desired their
wealth” – Showing she eliminated rivals (Scullard)
 “Agrippina threw herself wholeheartedly into promoting the new link,
and redoubled her efforts when she herself was given the title of
Augusta” – always promoting Nero and title of Augusta with her family
linage (Bauman)
 When she is depicted on coins “powerful hint that Agrippina saw herself
as a kind of regent or co-ruler with her son” (Barret)
 Impact on the early roman empire:
 Agrippinas influence on administration during Claudius reign brought
the chaos to an end. Working with Seneca, Burrus and Pallas she was
about to bring a degree of political stability
 Major impact on succession = promoting suitable Emperor after
 Gaius gave her lots of honours increasing her power
 Seneca worked hard to limit her role under Nero – although this was the
zenith of her power it didn’t last long
 Removed people close to Agrippina like Pallas and then took the
ultimate step of having her killed
 Specific examples of impact:
 Able to decide leadership of the Praetorian Guard
 Able to remove political and personal rivals
 Powers of Patronage allowed her clients to promote the interests of
 She came as close as a woman could to actually exercising power
 Influence is evident in colony at Ara Uborium (her place of birth)
 Strong influence seen when she was able to affect events in the provinces. She
sponsored games in Asia, at Adalia and Mytilene.

Assessment of her life and career

 Difficult to gain a clear and coherent picture of Ag and her motives
 Ancient = wicked, scheming mother prepared to go to any lengths for her son;
as a seductress using her feminine wiles to have her way; and as a violent and
intimidating woman who eliminated anyone who got in that way.
 Suetonius loves the gossip and willing to include anything he has heard
about her
 Tacitus against the whole imperial family and Ag involvement in the
affairs of the state would her opened her up to attack – regardless of
 Modern = consideration of ancient writers context, their gender, policital
persuasion, literary style and the sources available to them in their writing.
 Barrett “both ancient and modern writers offer a lop-ided portrait, at best”
 Modern scholar Ferrero = glowing light
 “(Agrippina) the most remarkable feminine figure in that family”
 Extremely succesfull in terms of wealth, status and power
 Used her considerable talents to make the most of the opportunites presented
to her.
 Openly acknowledged as Claudius “partner in power” and early in Neros reign
became the most powerful woman in the empire
 Had great pride in ancestory and felt it entitled her to a share in political power
 She knew how to exploit her Augustan linage
 Brought respectability and the vital link to the Julian family
 Persuading Claudius to adopt Nero esured her as a legitimate Julian
would become ruler and that she would remain close to seat of power
 In early reign of Nero she felt her lineage, status and experienced
entitled her to take an active role in his reign
 Learnt from experience
 Learnt firsthand about the methods used by those in power to surpress
or eliminate real or potential threat or opposition. She also saw the
damage that could be done by incompetent rule
 Sisters death and mothers death taught her when to be quiet
 Politcally astute
 Kept herself out of harms way during Tiberius reign when other
members of her family were persecuted
 Made most of opportunity to marry Claudius – sought security for her
and her son
 Gained the support and services of capable men in key positions and
built a network of political alliances
 Skillfully used system of promotion and rotation of offices to ensure her
 She was Claudius ‘partner in power’ and took a direct role in his
 Astute enough to ensure Nero had the support of the PG before he was
presented to senate – this ensured his acceptance as Princeps
 Neros “good years” were the ones where he was strongly influenced by
his mother
 Intelligent, ambitious and determined
 These qualities had little opportunity to be exercised – she made the
most of them and created some herself
 Used the same methods that had been used by the men in her family
 Understanding of Roman politics and law and wrote her memoirs
 Ambition of sharing family dynasty – Nero as emperor
 Agrippinas weakness
 Disregard for Roman political conventions – woman not acceptable
rulers, especially to the senatorial class
 Relationship with Nero once he became Princeps = bad as she was
reluctant to surrender the power and influence she had exercised over
him during his youth
 Key people turned on her (Seneca and Burrus)
 Conservative in outlook when it came to future of family dynasty
 To Nero, Ags power and influence would always be a threat. He knew
and feared her capabilities, which is why he decided to get rid of her.
 She cant let go = ultimately brings her down
 Impact of Ag on governance of Rome
 Secured loyalty of PG
 Encourages cooperation between senate and ruler
 Brief ascendency control of Nero’s reign were considered his best years
 Claudius regime was not a vicious dictatorship but gave the appearance
of a benign partnership between ruler and ruled


 There is a physical legacy of Agrippina and a non-physical legacy
 Coins and statues
 Ancient accounts
 Busts
 Sebastian at Aphrodisias
 No woman attempted to hold same power
 Colony
 Hollywood
 Nero
 Fountain @ colonge
 No woman in the dynasties that followed would ever again have the
prominence and power Ag held.
 Roman writers succeeded in blackening her name
 Ancient accounts bear the hallmarks of negative stereotype used for intelligent
or powerful woman.
 They believed her to be the antithesis of the accepted role of the Roman
 She survived only by establishing powerful alliances and isolating opponents
 Nero = most conspicuous legacy, however, he arranged her death and
attempted to remove all trace of her from Rome, destroying her statues and
removing her name from inscriptions
 Could be argument that there was no long lasting impact from her life
 Her legacy was that she formally defined the place of a woman in the Roman
political system.
 Exercided power and influence at highest level in Roman society
 No evidence of any laws or constitutional reform as part of her legacy
 Failed to break down the conservative attitudes of her contemporaries for
whom politics was no place for a woman
 Subsequent emperors such as Vespasian, made no efforts to commemorate her
life and achievements
 No political groups were formed to resurrect her reputation after her death
 No woman would attempt to play a key role in Roman political life for another
150 years – suggesting that part of her legacy was to act as a warning to
aspiring political woman
 Little physical memory of Ag beyond representations of coins
 “There seems to have been no movement to rehabilitate Agrippina after her
death” Barrett

Ancient and Modern images and interpretations of Agrippina the younger