REPORT

Topic: Hydraulic turbine












SUMMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
MR. BHUPENDRA BHARTI . Mayank bhatt
. ROLL NO: 111190104033








ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




I HAVE GREAT SENSE OF HAPPINESS AND PRIDE IN WRITING THIS
report. I HAVE WITNESSED THE UNTIRING EFFORTS MADE BY MY
TEACHER MR. BHUPENDRA BHARTI SIR. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK MY
TEACHERS IN GIVING ME IDEAS FOR MAKING THIS REPORT. I WOULD
LIKE TO THANK THE AUTHOR OF THE BOOKS WHICH I USED FOR
REFERENCE. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE HOST AND CREATOR OF
THE WEB SITES FROM WHICH I GOT THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE
REPORT.













TABLE OF CONTENTS:-

S.No Contents
1) Introduction
2) Working principle
3) Layout of Hydroelectric Power Plants
4) Types of hydraulic turbine
5) Pelton Wheel (Pelton turbine)
6) Francis turbine
7) Kaplan turbine
8) Draft tube
9) Governing of turbine
10) Conclusion
11) Reference








INTRODUCTION :
Hydraulics is part of the more general discipline of fluid
power. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation
for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid
properties.

















Working Priniciple
Hydraulic turbines convert the potential energy of water into
mechanical work.
Leonardo da Vinci once said “The power of water has changed
more in this world than emperors or kings”. It was very rightly
stated by him as in present time Hydropower, the power
generated from water, has a major contribution to the world‟s
total power production. This all was made possible by the
development of Hydraulic Turbines which can transfer the energy
from flowing water to the shafts of dynamos producing electrical
power.







Layout of Hydroelectric Power
Plants
 (1) Dam
 (2) Spillway
 (3) Penstock and Tunnel
 (4) Surge Tank
 (5) Power Station










 Types of hydraulic turbine:
 Pelton wheel (Pelton turbine)
 Kaplan turbine (Propeller turbine)
 Francis turbine














 Pelton Wheel (Pelton turbine)

 This turbine is named after Lester A. Pelton (1829 – 1908) an
American Engineer who developed it in the year 1880.Pelton
wheel is a high head turbine. It is used with heads of more
than 500 metres. The flow of water is tangential to the runner.
So it is a tangential flow impulse turbine. A Pelton‟s runner
consists of a single wheel mounted on a horizontal shaft. Water
falls towards the turbine through a pipe called penstock and
flows through a nozzle. The high speed jet of water hits the
buckets (vanes) on the wheel and causes the wheel to rotate.
A spear rod which has a spear shaped end can be moved by a
hand wheel.








• Francis turbine:
• Francis Turbine is the first hydraulic turbine with radial
inflow. It was designed by an American scientist James
Francis. If the water flows radially through the runner, from
outwards to inwards then it is known as an inward radial
flow turbine.
• Francis turbine is a reaction turbine as the energy available
at the inlet of the turbine is a combination of kinetic and
pressure energy.














• Kaplan turbine:
• Kaplan turbine is an axial flow reaction turbine . The water
flows through the runner of the turbine in an axial direction
and the energy at the inlet of the turbine is the sum of
kinetic and pressure energy .
• In an axial flow reaction turbine the shaft is vertical. The
lower end of the shaft is larger and is known as „hub‟ or
„boss‟. It is on this hub that the vanes are attached. If the
vanes are adjustable then it is known as kaplan Turbine and
if the vanes are non adjustable then it is known as Propeller
Turbine









• Draft tube
• The draft tube is a pipe of gradually increasing area which
connects the outlet of the runner with the tailrace. One end
of the draft tube is connected to the outlet of the runner
while the other end is submerged below the level of water in
the tail race.
• It creates a negative head at the outlet of the runner
thereby increasing the net head on the turbine.
• It converts a large proportion of rejected kinetic energy into
useful pressure energy









• Governing of turbine
• It is the operation by which the speed of the turbine is kept
constant under all conditions of working load. This is done
automatically by a governor which regulates the rate flow
through the turbines according to the changing load
conditions on the turbine.
• Governing of a turbine is absolutely necessary if the turbine
is coupled to an electric generator which is required to run at
constant speed under all fluctuating load conditions.










Conclusion:-
It‟s a predict feels highly obliged that I am try to complete my
term paper about the topic hydraulic turbine, it‟s my glad to do
this term paper with the help of internet and some books and
some pdf files. i hope that I have done my best hard work to do
this work hard to hardest to achieve my goal. And thanks to my
sir that he has given to me this work to better myself.
















References

Links

1. www.scribd.com/.../hydraulic-turbine
2. happytreeflash.com/hydraulic- turbine.html
3. http://www.transtutors.com/university-Columbia/system-
response-analysis/hydraulic turbine.html