- chap3
- Heat Transfer
- SACNAS 2016 Research Presentation
- HMT R04 May Jun 2009
- Auto
- Mechanical Engineering 170715
- HT3eChap17_101
- Thermal-II-Lab-Manual.doc
- Ch1 Introduction
- Thermal Stresses Induced by a Point Heat Source in a Circular Plate by Quasi-static Approach
- Prob Set 1 PMAT 507 PROBLEM MATH
- heat-transfer-problems.pdf
- 13 Heat
- bm3 sciencegr 6 1314
- Conduction heat transfer
- Burn Thermal - Emed
- 77a91d14685b26f386cbb5c19b0e101a2979
- 06473843
- Heat Loss Calculation in a Vertical Horizontal Tank and a Pipleline
- 2nd Syllabi XI
- A COMPARISON OF HEAT TRANSFER IN FINS WITH DIFFERENT CROSS-SECTIONS.
- Factory Layout
- 18982557X
- Heat Transfer Poster
- Transmission of Heat
- heat under the microscope.pdf
- Thermo-Cam at Topic Week
- 48 Knox
- Simpson 2012
- 1-s2.0-S129007290600161X-main.pdf
- SW-EK-TM4C123GXL-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-TM4C-BOOTLDR-UG-2.1.0.12573
- Sw Ek Tm4c1294xl Boostxl Senshub Ug 2.1.0.12573
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boostxl Senshub Ug 2.1.0.12573
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boostxl Battpack Ug 2.1.0.12573
- SW-TM4C-EXAMPLES-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-EM-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-BOOSTXL-KENTEC-L35-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-BOOST-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boostxl Breakout Ug 2.1.0.12573
- Sw Ek Tm4c1294xl Boostxl Battpack Ug 2.1.0.12573
- Sw Dk Tm4c129x Boostxl Senshub Ug 2.1.0.12573
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-BOOST-DLPTRF7970ABP-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-TM4C-IQMATH-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-BOOST-DLP7970ABP-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-EM-TRF7970ATB-UG-2.1.0.12573
- Chap 41
- SW-EK-LM4F232-UG-2.1.0.12573
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-BOOST-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573
- Chap 33
- Chap 38
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-UG-2.1.0.12573
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boost Capsense Ug 2.1.0.12573
- SW-DK-TM4C123G-EM-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573
- Chap 39
- SW-DK-TM4C123G-UG-2.1.0.12573
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boost Dlptrf7970abp Ug 2.1.0.12573
- Chap 35
- SW-EK-TM4C123GXL-BOOST-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573

**Thermal Properties and Processes
**

Conceptual Problems

1 • Why does the mercury level of a thermometer first decrease slightly

when the thermometer is first placed in warm water?

Determine the Concept The glass bulb warms and expands first, before the

mercury warms and expands.

2 • A large sheet of metal has a hole cut in the middle of it. When the

sheet is heated, the area of the hole will (a) not change, (b) always increase,

(c) always decrease, (d) increase if the hole is not in the exact center of the sheet,

(e) decrease only if the hole is in the exact center of the sheet.

Determine the Concept The heating of the sheet causes the average separation of

its molecules to increase. The consequence of this increased separation is that the

area of the hole always increases. ) (b is correct.

3 • [SSM] Why is it a bad idea to place a tightly sealed glass bottle that

is completely full of water, into your kitchen freezer in order to make ice?

Determine the Concept Water expands greatly as it freezes. If a sealed glass

bottle full of water is placed in a freezer, as the water freezes there will be no

room for the expansion to take place. The bottle will be broken.

4 • The windows of your physics laboratory are left open on a night when

the temperature of the outside dropped well below freezing. A steel ruler and a

wooden ruler were left on the window sill, and when you arrive in the morning

they are both very cold. The coefficient of linear expansion of wood is about

5 × 10

−6

K

−1

. Which ruler should you use to make the most accurate length

measurements? Explain your answer.

Determine the Concept You should use the wooden ruler. Because the

coefficient of expansion for wood is about half that for metal, the metal ruler will

have shrunk considerably more than will have the wooden ruler.

5 • Bimetallic strips are used both for thermostats and for electrical circuit

breakers. A bimetallic strip consists of a pair of thin strips of metal that have

different coefficients of linear expansion and are bonded together to form one

doubly thick strip. Suppose a bimetallic strip is constructed out of one steel strip

and one copper strip, and suppose the bimetallic strip is curled in the shape of a

circular arc with the steel strip on the outside. If the temperature of the strip is

decreased, will the strip straighten out or curl more tightly?

1863

Chapter 20

1864

Determine the Concept The strip will curl more tightly. Because the coefficient

of linear expansion for copper (17 × 10

−6

K

−1

) is greater than the coefficient of

linear expansion for steel (11 × 10

−6

K

−1

), the length of the copper strip will

decrease more than the length of the steel strip−resulting in a tighter curl.

6 • Metal A has a coefficient of linear expansion that is three times the

coefficient of linear expansion of metal B. How do their coefficients of volume

expansion β compare? (a)

β

A

= β

B

, (b) β

A

= 3β

B

, (c) β

A

= 6β

B

, (d) β

A

= 9β

B

,

(e) You cannot tell from the data given.

Determine the Concept We know that the coefficient of volume expansion is

three times the coefficient of linear expansion and so can use this fact to express

the ratio of

A

β to

B

β .

Express the coefficient of volume

expansion of metal A in terms of its

coefficient of linear expansion:

A A

3α β =

Express the coefficient of volume

expansion of metal B in terms of its

coefficient of linear expansion:

B B

3α β =

Dividing the first of these equations

by the second yields:

B

A

B

A

B

A

3

3

α

α

α

α

β

β

= =

Because

B A

3α α = :

3

3

B

B

B

A

= =

α

α

β

β

⇒ ( ) b is correct.

7 • The summit of Mount Rainier is 14 410 ft above sea level.

Mountaineers say that you cannot hard boil an egg at the summit. This statement

is true because at the summit of Mount Rainier (a) the air temperature is too low

to boil water, (b) the air pressure is too low for alcohol fuel to burn, (c) the

temperature of boiling water is not hot enough to hard boil the egg, (d) the oxygen

content of the air is too low to support combustion, (e) eggs always break in

climbers′ backpacks.

Determine the Concept Actually, an egg can be hard boiled, but it takes quite a

bit longer than at sea level. ) (c is the best response.

8 • Which gases in Table 20-3 cannot be condensed by applying pressure

at 20ºC? Explain your answer.

Determine the Concept Gases that cannot be liquefied by applying pressure at

20°C are those for which T

c

< 293 K. These are He, Ar, Ne, H

2

, O

2

, NO.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1865

9 •• [SSM] The phase diagram in Figure 20-15 can be interpreted to

yield information on how the boiling and melting points of water change with

altitude. (a) Explain how this information can be obtained. (b) How might this

information affect cooking procedures in the mountains?

Determine the Concept

(a) With increasing altitude, decreases; from curve OC, the temperature of the

liquid-gas interface decreases as the pressure decreases, so the boiling

temperature decreases. Likewise, from curve OB, the melting temperature

increases with increasing altitude.

(b) Boiling at a lower temperature means that the cooking time will have to be

increased.

10 •• Sketch a phase diagram for carbon dioxide using information from

Section 20-3.

Determine the Concept The following phase diagram for carbon dioxide was

constructed using information in Section 20-3.

atm , P

K , T

5.1

216.6 304.2

Gas

Gas

Solid

Vapor

Liquid

point Critical

11 •• Explain why the carbon dioxide on Mars is found in the solid state in

the polar regions even though the atmospheric pressure at the surface of Mars is

only about 1 percent of the atmospheric pressure at the surface of Earth.

Determine the Concept At very low pressures and temperatures, carbon dioxide

can exist only as a solid or gas (or vapor above the gas). The atmosphere of Mars

is 95 percent carbon dioxide. Mars, on average, is warm enough so that the

atmosphere is mostly gaseous carbon dioxide. The polar regions are cold enough

to enable solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) to exist, even at the low pressure.

12 •• Explain why decreasing the temperature of your house at night in

winter can save money on heating costs. Why doesn’t the cost of the fuel

consumed to heat the house back to the daytime temperature in the morning equal

Chapter 20

1866

the savings realized by cooling it down in the evening and keeping it cool

throughout the night?

Determine the Concept The amount of heat lost by the house is proportional to

the difference between the temperature inside the house and that of the outside air.

Hence, the rate at which the house loses heat (that must be replaced by the

furnace) is greater at night when the temperature of the house is kept high than

when it is allowed to cool down.

13 •• [SSM] Two solid cylinders made of materials A and B have the

same lengths; their diameters are related by d

A

= 2d

B

. When the same temperature

difference is maintained between the ends of the cylinders, they conduct heat at

the same rate. Their thermal conductivities are therefore related by which of the

following equations? (a) k

A

= k

B

/4, (b) k

A

= k

B

/2, (c) k

A

= k

B

, (d) k

A

= 2k

B

,

(e) k

A

= 4k

B

B

Picture the Problem The rate at which heat is conducted through a cylinder is

given by x T kA dt dQ I Δ Δ = = / / (see Equation 20-7) where A is the cross-

sectional area of the cylinder.

The heat current in cylinder A is the

same as the heat current in cylinder

B:

B A

I I =

Substituting for the heat currents

yields:

L

T

A k

L

T

A k

Δ

=

Δ

B B A A

⇒

A

B

B A

A

A

k k =

Because d

A

= 2d

B

:

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

B

B

B A

4A

A

k k ⇒

B 4

1

A

k k =

) (a is correct.

14 •• Two solid cylinders made of materials A and B have the same

diameter; their lengths are related by L

A

= 2L

B

. When the same temperature

difference is maintained between the ends of the cylinders, they conduct heat at

the same rate. Their thermal conductivities are therefore related by which of the

following equations? (a) k

A

= k

B

/4, (b) k

A

= k

B

/2, (c) k

A

= k

B

, (d) k

A

= 2k

B

,

(e) k

A

= 4k

B

. B

Determine the Concept We can use the expression for the heat current in a

conductor, Equation 20-7, to relate the heat current in each cylinder to its thermal

conductivity, cross-sectional area, temperature difference, and length.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1867

The heat current in cylinder A is the

same as the heat current in cylinder

B:

B A

I I =

Substituting for the heat currents

yields:

B

B

A

A

L

T

A k

L

T

A k

Δ

=

Δ

⇒

B

A

B A

L

L

k k =

Because L

A

= 2L

B

:

B

B

B

B A

2

2

k

L

L

k k = = ⇒ ( ) d is correct.

15 •• If you feel the inside of a single pane window during a very cold day,

it is cold, even though the room temperature can be quite comfortable. Assuming

the room temperature is 20.0°C and the outside temperature is 5.0°C, Construct a

plot of temperature versus position starting from a point 5.0 m in behind the

window (inside the room) and ending at a point 5.0 m in front of the window.

Explain the heat transfer mechanisms that occur along this path.

Determine the Concept The temperatures on both sides of the glass are almost

the same. Because glass is an excellent conductor of heat, there need not be a

huge temperature difference. Thus the temperature must drop quickly as you near

the pane on the warm side and the same on the outside. This is sketched

qualitatively in the following diagram. Convection and radiation are primarily

responsible for heat transfer on the inside and outside, and it is mainly conduction

through the glass. Conduction through the interior and exterior air is minimal.

C , ° T

20

5

Inside Outside

m , x

5 0

16 •• During the thermal retrofitting of many older homes in California, it

was found that the 3.5-in-deep spaces between the wallboards and the outer

sheathing were filled with just air (no insulation). Filling the space with insulating

material certainly reduces heating and cooling costs; although, the insulating

material is a better conductor of heat than air is. Explain why adding the

insulation is a good idea.

Determine the Concept The tradeoff is the reduction of convection cells between

the walls by putting in the insulating material, versus a slight increase in

conductivity. The net reduction in convection results in a higher R value.

Chapter 20

1868

Estimation and Approximation

17 •• [SSM] You are using a cooking pot to boil water for a pasta dish.

The recipe calls for at least 4.0 L of water to be used. You fill the pot with 4.0 L

of room temperature water and note that this amount of water filled the pot to the

brim. Knowing some physics, you are counting on the volume expansion of the

steel pot to keep all of the water in the pot while the water is heated to a boil. Is

your assumption correct? Explain. If your assumption is not correct, how much

water runs over the sides of the pot due to the thermal expansion of the water?

Determine the Concept The volume of water overflowing is the difference

between the change in volume of the water and the change in volume of the pot.

See Table 20-1 for the coefficient of volume expansion of water and the

coefficient of linear expansion of steel.

Express the volume of water that

overflows when the pot and the water

are heated:

( ) T V

T V T V

V V V

Δ

Δ Δ

Δ Δ

0 steel O H

0 steel 0 O H

pot O H ovefrlow

2

2

2

β β

β β

− =

− =

− =

Because the coefficient of volume

expansion of steel is three times its

coefficient of linear expansion:

steel steel

3α β =

Substituting for

O H

2

β and

steel

β yields: ( ) T V V Δ 3

0 steel O H overflow

2

α α − =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

overflow

V

( ) ( )( )( ) mL 56 C 20 C 100 L 4.0 K 10 11 3 K 10 207 . 0

1 6 1 3

overflow

= ° − ° × − × =

− − − −

V

Your assumption was not correct and 56 mL of water overflowed.

18 •• Liquid helium is stored in containers fitted with 7.00-cm-thick

″superinsulation″ consisting of numerous layers of very thin aluminized Mylar

sheets. The rate of evaporation of liquid helium in a 200-L container is about

0.700 L per day when the container is stored at room temperature (20ºC). The

density of liquid helium is 0.125 kg/L and the latent heat of vaporization is

21.0 kJ/kg. Estimate the thermal conductivity of the superinsulation.

Picture the Problem We can express the heat current through the insulation

in terms of the rate of evaporation of the liquid helium and in terms of the

temperature gradient across the superinsulation. Equating these equations will

lead to an expression for the thermal conductivity k of the superinsulation. Note

that the boiling temperature of liquid helium is 4.2 K.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1869

Express the heat current in terms of

the rate of evaporation of the liquid

helium:

dt

dm

L I

v

=

Express the heat current in terms of

the temperature gradient across the

superinsulation and the conductivity

of the superinsulation:

x

T

kA I

Δ

Δ

=

Equate these expressions and solve

for k to obtain:

T A

dt

dm

x L

k

Δ

Δ

=

v

Using the definition of density,

express the rate of loss of liquid

helium:

dt

dV

dt

dm

ρ =

Substitute for

dt

dm

to obtain:

T A

dt

dV

x L

k

Δ

Δ

=

ρ

v

Express the ratio of the area of the

spherical container to its volume:

3

3

4

2

4

r

r

V

A

π

π

= ⇒

3 2

36 V A π =

Substituting for A yields:

T V

dt

dV

x L

k

Δ

Δ

=

3 2

v

36π

ρ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate k:

( )

( ) ( )

K m

W

10 12 . 3

K 289 m 10 200 36

s 86400

m 10 0.700

m

kg

125 m 10 7.00

kg

kJ

21.0

6

3

2

3 3

3 3

3

2

⋅

× =

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

−

−

−

−

π

k

19 •• [SSM] Estimate the thermal conductivity of human skin.

Picture the Problem We can use the thermal current equation for the thermal

conductivity of the skin. If we model a human body as a rectangular

parallelepiped that is 1.5 m high × 7 cm thick × 50 cm wide, then its surface area

is about 1.8 m

2

. We’ll also assume that a typical human, while resting, produces

energy at the rate of 120 W, that normal internal and external temperatures are

33°C and 37°C, respectively, and that an average skin thickness is 1.0 mm.

Chapter 20

1870

Use the thermal current equation to

express the rate of conduction of

thermal energy:

I = kA

ΔT

Δx

⇒

x

T

A

I

k

Δ

Δ

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate k:

( )

K m

mW

17

m 10 0 . 1

C 33 C 37

m 8 . 1

W 120

3

2 ⋅

=

×

° − °

=

−

k

20 •• You are visiting Finland with a college friend and have met some

Finnish friends. They talk you into taking part in a traditional Finnish after-sauna

exercise which consists of leaving the sauna, wearing only a bathing suit, and

running out into the mid-winter Finnish air. Estimate the rate at which you

initially lose energy to the cold air. Compare this rate of initial energy loss to the

resting metabolic rate of a typical human under normal temperature conditions.

Explain the difference.

Picture the Problem We can use the Stefan-Boltzmann law to estimate the rate at

which you lose energy when you first step out of the sauna. If we model a human

body as a rectangular parallelepiped that is 1.5 m high × 7 cm thick × 50 cm wide,

then its surface area is about 1.8 m

2

. Assume that your skin temperature is initially

37°C (310 K), that the mid-winter outside temperature is −10°C (263 K), and that

the emissivity of your skin is 1.

Use the Stefan-Boltzmann law to

express the net rate at which you

radiate energy to the cold air:

( )

4

air

4

skin net

T T A P − = εσ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate P

net

:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) W 450 K 63 2 K 310 m 8 . 1

K m

W

10 670 . 5 1

4 4 2

4 2

8

net

= − ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

× =

−

P

This result is almost four times greater than the basal metabolic rate of 120 W.

We can understand the difference in terms of the temperature of your skin when

you first step out of the sauna and the fact that radiation loses are dependent on

the fourth power of the absolute temperature.

Remarks: The emissivity of your skin is, in fact, very close to 1.

21 •• Estimate the rate of heat conduction through a 2.0-in-thick wooden

door during a cold winter day in Minnesota. Include the brass doorknob. What is

the ratio of the heat that escapes through the doorknob to the heat that escapes

through the whole door? What is the total overall R-factor for the door, including

the knob? The thermal conductivity of brass is ( ) K m W 85 ⋅ .

Thermal Properties and Processes

1871

Picture the Problem We can use the thermal current equation (Equation 20-7) to

estimate the rate of heat loss through the door and its knob. We’ll assume that the

door is made of oak with an area of 2.0 m

2

, that the knob is made of brass, that the

conducting path has a diameter of 3.0 cm, and that the inside temperature is 20°C.

Take the outside temperature to be −20°C. The reciprocal of the equivalent R-

factor is the sum of the reciprocals of the R-values of the door and the knob.

The total thermal current through the

door is the sum of the thermal

currents through the door and the

knob:

knob

knob knob

door

door door

knob door tot

Δ

Δ

Δ

Δ

x

T A k

x

T A k

I I I

+ =

+ =

Assume that to

obtain:

x x x Δ Δ Δ

knob door

= =

( )

x

T

A k A k I

Δ

Δ

knob knob door door tot

+ =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I

tot

:

( ) ( )

( )

( )

kW 28 . 0

in 39.37

m 1

in 0 . 2

C 20 C 20

m 10 0 . 3

4 K m

W

85 m 0 . 2

K m

W

15 . 0

2

2 2

tot

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

° − − °

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

+

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

=

−

π

I

Express the ratio of the thermal

currents through the knob and the

door:

knob

knob knob

door

door door

door

knob

Δ

Δ

Δ

Δ

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

x

T

A k

x

T

A k

I

I

Because the temperature difference

across the door and the knob are the

same and we’ve assumed that the

thickness of the door and length of

the knob are the same:

knob knob

door door

door

knob

A k

A k

I

I

=

Substitute numerical values to

obtain:

( )

( )

0 . 5

m 10 0 . 3

4 K m

W

85

m 0 . 2

K m

W

15 . 0

2

2

2

door

knob

=

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

=

−

π I

I

Relate the equivalent R-factor to the

R-factors of the door and knob;

knob door eq

1 1 1

R R R

+ =

Chapter 20

1872

Substitute for R

door

and R

knob

to

obtain:

x

A k A k

A k

x

A k

x

R

Δ

Δ

1

Δ

1 1

knob knob door door

knob knob door door

eq

+

=

+ =

Solving for R

eq

yields:

knob knob door door

eq

Δ

A k A k

x

R

+

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate R

eq

:

( )

( ) ( )

W

K

14 . 0

m 10 0 . 3

4 K m

W

85 m 0 . 2

K m

W

15 . 0

in 39.37

m 1

in 0 . 2

2

2 2

eq

=

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

+

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

−

π

R

22 •• Estimate the effective emissivity of Earth, given the following

information. The solar constant, which is the intensity of radiation incident on

Earth from the Sun, is about 1.37 kW/m

2

. Seventy percent of this energy is

absorbed by Earth, and Earth’s average surface temperature is 288 K. (Assume

that the effective area that is absorbing the light is πR

2

, where R is Earth’s radius,

while the blackbody-emission area is 4πR

2

.)

Picture the Problem The amount of heat radiated by Earth must equal the solar

flux from the Sun, or else the temperature on Earth would continually increase.

The emissivity of Earth is related to the rate at which it radiates energy into space

by the Stefan-Boltzmann law .

4

r

AT e P σ =

Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law,

express the rate at which Earth

radiates energy as a function of its

emissivity e and temperature T:

4

r

A'T e P σ = ⇒

4

r

A'T

P

e

σ

=

where A′ is the surface area of Earth.

Use its definition to express the

intensity of the radiation received by

Earth:

A

P

I

absorbed

=

where A is the cross-sectional area of

Earth.

For 70% absorption of the Sun’s

radiation incident on Earth:

( )

A

P

I

r

70 . 0

=

Substitute for P

r

and A in the

expression for e and simplify to

( ) ( ) ( )

4 4 2

2

4

4

70 . 0

4

70 . 0 70 . 0

T

I

T R

I R

A'T

AI

e

σ σ π

π

σ

= = =

Thermal Properties and Processes

1873

obtain:

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate e:

( )( )

( )( )

61 . 0

K 288 K W/m 10 670 . 5 4

kW/m 37 . 1 70 . 0

4 4 2 8

2

=

⋅ ×

=

−

e

23 •• Black holes are highly condensed remnants of stars. Some black

holes, together with a normal star, form binary systems. In such systems the

black hole and the normal star orbit about the center of mass of the system. One

way black holes can be detected from Earth is by observing the frictional heating

of the atmospheric gases from the normal star that fall into the black hole. These

gases can reach temperatures greater than 1.0 × 10

6

K. Assuming that the falling

gas can be modeled as a blackbody radiator, estimate λ

max

for use in an

astronomical detection of a black hole. (Remark: This is in the X-ray region of

the electromagnetic spectrum.)

Picture the Problem The wavelength at which maximum power is radiated by

the gas falling into a black hole is related to its temperature by Wien’s

displacement law.

Wien’s displacement law relates the

wavelength at which maximum power

is radiated by the gas to its temperature:

T

K mm 898 . 2

max

⋅

= λ

Substitute for T and evaluate λ

max

:

nm 9 . 2

K 10 0 . 1

K mm 898 . 2

6

max

=

×

⋅

= λ

24 ••• Your cabin in northern Michigan has walls that consist of pine logs

that have average thicknesses of about 20 cm. You decide to finish the interior of

the cabin to improve the look and to increase the insulation of the exterior walls.

You choose to buy insulation with an R-factor of 31 to cover the walls. In

addition, you cover the insulation with 1.0-in-thick gypsum wallboard. Assuming

heat transfer is only due to conduction, estimate the ratio of thermal current

through the walls during a cold winter night before the renovation to the thermal

current through the walls following the renovation.

Picture the Problem We can use the thermal current equation to find the thermal

current per square meter through the walls of the cabin both before and after the

walls have been insulated. See Table 20-5 for the R-factor of gypsum wallboard

and Table 20-4 for the thermal conductivity of white pine.

The rate at which heat is conducted

through the walls is given by the

thermal current equation:

before

before before

Δ

Δ

Δ

R

T

x

T

A k I = =

Chapter 20

1874

With the insulation in place:

after

after after

Δ

Δ

Δ

R

T

x

T

A k I = =

Divide the second of these equations

by the first to obtain:

after

before

before

after

before

after

Δ

Δ

R

R

R

T

R

T

I

I

= =

before

R is the R-factor for pine and

is the sum of the R-factors for

pine, the insulating material, and the

gypsum board:

after

R

pine before

R R =

and

gypsum 31 pine eq after

R R R R R + + = =

Substitute for and to

obtain:

before

R

after

R

gypsum 31 pine

pine

before

after

R R R

R

I

I

+ +

=

gypsum 31

pine

pine

before

after

R R

k

x

k

x

I

I

+ +

Δ

Δ

=

Because

pine

pine

k

x

R

Δ

= :

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the ratio :

before after

/ I I

% 24

Btu

F ft h

32 . 0

in 0.375

in 1

Btu

F ft h

31

F ft h

in Btu

78 . 0

cm 2.54

in 1

cm 20

F ft h

in Btu

78 . 0

cm 2.54

in 1

cm 20

2 2

2

2

before

after

=

° ⋅ ⋅

× +

° ⋅ ⋅

+

° ⋅ ⋅

⋅

×

° ⋅ ⋅

⋅

×

=

I

I

25 ••• [SSM] You are in charge of transporting a liver from New York,

New York to Los Angeles, California for a transplant surgery. The liver is kept

cold in a Styrofoam ice chest initially filled with 1.0 kg of ice. It is crucial that the

liver temperature is never warmer than 5.0°C. Assuming the trip from the hospital

in New York to the hospital in Los Angeles takes 7.0 h, estimate the R-value the

Styrofoam walls of the ice chest must have.

Picture the Problem The R factor is the thermal resistance per unit area of a slab

of material. We can use the thermal current equation to express the thermal

resistance of the styrofoam in terms of the maximum amount of heat that can

enter the chest in 7.0 h without raising the temperature above 5.0°C. We’ll

Thermal Properties and Processes

1875

assume that the surface area of the ice chest is 1.0 m

2

and that the ambient

temperature is 25°C

The R-factor needed for the

styrofoam walls of the ice chest is the

product of their thermal resistance

and area:

RA R =

f

(1)

Use the thermal current equation to

express R:

tot

tot

Δ Δ

Δ

Δ Δ

Q

t T

t

Q

T

I

T

R = = =

Substitute for R in equation (1) to

obtain:

tot

f

Δ Δ

Q

t T A

R =

The total heat entering the chest in

7 h is given by:

O H O H ice f ice

water ice

warm

ice

melt tot

2 2

ΔT c m L m

Q Q Q

+ =

+ =

Substitute for Q

tot

and simplify to

obtain:

( )

O H O H f ice

f

2 2

Δ

Δ Δ

T c L m

t T A

R

+

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate R

f

:

( )

( ) ( )

Btu

ft h F

8

C 5

K kg

kJ

18 . 4

kg

kJ

5 . 333 kg 1

Btu

J 35 . 1054

h 7

C 5

F 9

C 20

m 10 29 . 9

ft 1

m 1.0

2 2 2

2

2

f

⋅ ⋅ °

≈

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

°

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

+

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

°

°

× °

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

×

=

−

R

Thermal Expansion

26 •• You have inherited your grandfather’s grandfather clock that was

calibrated when the temperature of the room was 20ºC. Assume that the pendulum

consists of a thin brass rod of negligible mass with a compact heavy bob at its

end. (a) During a hot day, the temperature is 30ºC, does the clock run fast or

slow? Explain. (b) How much time does it gain or lose during this day?

Picture the Problem We can determine whether the clock runs fast or slow from

the expression for the period of a simple pendulum and the dependence of its

length on the temperature. We can use the expression for the period of a simple

pendulum and the equation describing its length as a function of temperature to

find the time gained or lost in a 24-h period.

Chapter 20

1876

(a) Express the period of the

pendulum in terms of its length:

g

L

T π 2

P

=

Because L T ∝

P

and L is temperature dependent, the clock runs slow.

(b) The period of the pendulum when

the temperature is 20°C is given by:

g

L

T

20

20

2π = (1)

When the temperature increases to

30°C, the period of the pendulum

increases due to the increase in its

length:

( )

C 20

C 20

1

1

2 2

t T

g

t L

g

L

T

Δ + =

Δ +

= =

α

α

π π

20

20

20

T

T T

T

T −

=

Δ

=

Δ

τ

τ

The daily fractional gain or loss is

given by :

Substituting for T and simplifying

yields:

1 1

1

C

20

20 C 20

− Δ + =

− Δ +

=

Δ

t

T

T t T

α

α

τ

τ

Solve for Δτ to obtain:

( )τ α τ 1 1

C

− Δ + = Δ t

Substitute numerical values and Δτ:

( )( ) ( ) s 2 . 8

h

s 3600

h 24 1 C 20 C 30 K 10 19 1

1 6

= ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

× − ° − ° × + = Δ

− −

τ

27 •• [SSM] You need to fit a copper collar tightly around a steel shaft that

has a diameter of 6.0000 cm at 20ºC. The inside diameter of the collar at that

temperature is 5.9800 cm. What temperature must the copper collar have so that it

will just slip on the shaft, assuming the shaft itself remains at 20ºC?

Picture the Problem Because the temperature of the steel shaft does not change,

we need consider just the expansion of the copper collar. We can express the

required temperature in terms of the initial temperature and the change in

temperature that will produce the necessary increase in the diameter D of the

copper collar. This increase in the diameter is related to the diameter at 20°C and

the increase in temperature through the definition of the coefficient of linear

expansion.

Express the temperature to which the T T T Δ + =

i

Thermal Properties and Processes

1877

copper collar must be raised in terms

of its initial temperature and the

increase in its temperature:

Apply the definition of the

coefficient of linear expansion to

express the change in temperature

required for the collar to fit on the

shaft:

D

D D

D

T

α α

Δ

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛ Δ

= Δ

Substitute for ΔT to obtain:

D

D

T T

α

Δ

+ =

i

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate T: ( )( )

C 220

cm 5.9800 K 10 17

cm 9800 . 5 cm 0000 . 6

C 20

1 6

° =

×

−

+ ° =

− −

T

28 •• You have a copper collar and a steel shaft. At 20°C, the collar has an

inside diameter of 5.9800 cm and the steel shaft has diameter of 6.0000 cm. The

copper collar was heated. When its inside diameter exceeded 6.0000 cm is was

slipped on the shaft. The collar fitted tightly on the shaft after they cooled to room

temperature. Now, several years later, you need to remove the collar from the

shaft. To do this you heat them both until you can just slip the collar off the shaft.

What temperature must the collar have so that the collar will just slip off the

shaft?

Picture the Problem Because the temperatures of both the steel shaft and the

copper collar change together, we can find the temperature change required for the

collar to fit the shaft by equating their diameters for a temperature increase ΔT.

These diameters are related to their diameters at 20°C and the increase in

temperature through the definition of the coefficient of linear expansion.

Express the temperature to which the

collar and the shaft must be raised in

terms of their initial temperature and

the increase in their temperature:

T T T Δ + =

i

(1)

Express the diameter of the steel

shaft when its temperature has been

increased by ΔT:

( ) T D D Δ + =

° steel C steel,20 steel

1 α

Express the diameter of the copper

collar when its temperature has been

( ) T D D Δ + =

° Cu C Cu,20 Cu

1 α

Chapter 20

1878

increased by ΔT:

If the collar is to fit over the shaft

when the temperature of both has

been increased by ΔT:

( )

( ) T D

T D

Δ + =

Δ +

°

°

steel C steel,20

Cu C Cu,20

1

1

α

α

steel C steel,20 Cu C Cu,20

C Cu,20 C steel,20

α α

° °

° °

−

−

= Δ

D D

D D

T

Solving for ΔT yields:

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

steel C steel,20 Cu C Cu,20

C Cu,20 C steel,20

i

α α

° °

° °

−

−

+ =

D D

D D

T T

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

( )( ) ( )( )

C 580

/K 10 11 cm 6.0000 /K 10 17 cm 5.9800

cm 5.9800 cm 6.0000

C 20

6 6

° =

× − ×

−

+ ° =

− −

T

29 •• A container is filled to the brim with 1.4 L of mercury at 20ºC. As the

temperature of container and mercury is increased to 60ºC, a total of 7.5 mL of

mercury spill over the brim of the container. Determine the linear expansion

coefficient of the material that makes up the container.

Picture the Problem The linear expansion coefficient of the container is one-

third its coefficient of volume expansion. We can relate the changes in volume of

the mercury and the container to their initial volumes, temperature change, and

coefficients of volume expansion, and, because we know the amount of spillage,

obtain an equation that we can solve for β

c

.

Relate the linear expansion

coefficient of the container to its

coefficient of volume expansion:

c 3

1

c

β α = (1)

Express the difference in the change

in the volume of the mercury and the

container in terms of the spillage:

mL 5 . 7

c Hg

= Δ − Δ V V (2)

Express using the definition of

the coefficient of volume expansion:

Hg

V Δ

T V V Δ = Δ

Hg Hg Hg

β

Express using the definition of

the coefficient of volume expansion:

c

V Δ T V V Δ = Δ

c c c

β

Thermal Properties and Processes

1879

Chapter 20

1880

Substitute for and in

equation (2) to obtain:

Hg

V Δ

c

V Δ

mL 5 . 7

c c Hg Hg

= Δ − Δ T V T V β β

T V

T V

Δ

mL 5 . 7 Δ

c

Hg Hg

c

−

=

β

β

Solving for β

c

yields:

or, because V = V

Hg

= V

c

,

T V

T V

T V

Δ

mL 5 . 7

Δ

mL 5 . 7 Δ

Hg

Hg

c

− =

−

=

β

β

β

Substitute for

c

β in equation (1) to

obtain:

T V T V Δ 3

mL 5 . 7

Δ 3

mL 5 . 7

Hg Hg 3

1

c

− = − = α β α

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate α

c

:

( )

( )( )

1 6

1 3

3

1

c

K 10 15

K 40 L 4 . 1 3

mL 5 . 7

K 10 18 . 0

− −

− −

× =

− × = α

30 •• A car has a 60.0-L steel gas tank filled to the brim with 60.0-L of

gasoline when the temperature of the outside is 10ºC. The coefficient of volume

expansion for gasoline at 20°C is 0.950 × 10

−3

K

−

1. How much gasoline spills out

of the tank when the outside temperature increases to 25ºC? Take the expansion

of the steel tank into account.

Picture the Problem The amount of gas that spills is the difference between the

change in the volume of the gasoline and the change in volume of the tank. We

can find this difference by expressing the changes in volume of the gasoline and

the tank in terms of their common volume at 10°C, their coefficients of volume

expansion, and the change in the temperature.

Express the spill in terms of the

change in volume of the gasoline and

the change in volume of the tank:

tank gasoline spill

V V V Δ − Δ =

Relate to the coefficient

of volume expansion for

gasoline:

gasoline

V Δ

T V V Δ = Δ

gasoline gas

β

Thermal Properties and Processes

1881

Relate to the coefficient of

linear expansion for steel:

tank

V Δ T V V Δ = Δ

tank tank

β

or, because β

steel

= 3α

steel

,

T V V Δ = Δ

steel tank

3α

( )

steel gasoline

steel gas spill

3

3

α β

α β

− Δ =

Δ − Δ =

T V

T V T V V

Substitute for and

and simplify to obtain:

gasoline

V Δ

tank

V Δ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

spill

V

( )( )[ ( )] L 8 . 0 K 10 11 3 K 10 950 . 0 C 0 1 C 25 L 60.0

1 6 1 3

spill

≈ × − × ° − ° =

− − − −

V

31 ••• What is the tensile stress in the copper collar of Problem 27 when its

temperature returns to 20ºC?

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of Young’s modulus to express

the tensile stress in the copper in terms of the strain it undergoes as its

temperature returns to 20°C. We can show that ΔL/L for the circumference of the

collar is the same as Δd/d for its diameter.

Using Young’s modulus, relate the

stress in the collar to its strain:

where L

20°C

is the circumference of the

collar at 20°C.

Express the circumference of the

collar at the temperature at which

it fits over the shaft:

Express the circumference of the

collar at 20 °C:

C 20

Strain Stress

°

Δ

= × =

L

L

Y Y

T T

d L π =

C 20 C 20 ° °

= d L π

Substitute for and and

simplify to obtain:

T

L

C 20°

L

C 20

C 20

C 20

C 20

Stress

°

°

°

°

−

=

−

=

d

d d

Y

d

d d

Y

T

T

π

π π

Chapter 20

1882

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the stress:

( )

2 12 2 10

N/m 10 7 . 3

cm 5.9800

cm 9800 . 5 cm 0000 . 6

N/m 10 11 Stress

− −

× =

−

× =

The van der Waals Equation, Liquid-Vapor Isotherms, and Phase

Diagrams

32 • (a) Calculate the volume of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas at a temperature

of 100ºC and a pressure of 1.00 atm. (b) Calculate the temperature at which

1.00 mol of steam at a pressure of 1.00 atm has the volume calculated in Part (a).

Use a = 0.550 Pa⋅m

6

/mol

2

and b = 30.0 cm

3

/mol.

Picture the Problem We can apply the ideal-gas law to find the volume of 1.00

mol of steam at 100°C and a pressure of 1.00 atm and then use the van der Waals

equation to find the temperature at which the steam will this volume.

(a) Solving the ideal-gas law for the

volume gives:

P

nRT

V =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate V:

( )( )( )

L 6 . 30

m 10

L 1

m 10 06 . 3

atm

kPa 101.325

atm 00 . 1

K 373 K J/mol 314 . 8 mol 00 . 1

3 3

3 2

=

× × =

×

⋅

=

−

−

V

(b) Solve van der Waals equation

for T to obtain:

( )

nR

bn V

V

an

P

T

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

=

2

2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

( )( )

( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

K 375

K J/mol 8.314 mol 1.00

mol 00 . 1 /mol m 10 30.0 m 10 3.06

m 10 3.06

mol 1.00 /mol m Pa 0.550

kPa 325 . 101

3 6 3 2

2

3 2

2 2 6

=

⋅

× − ×

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⋅

+ =

− −

−

T

Thermal Properties and Processes

1883

33 •• [SSM] Using Figure 20-16, find the following quantities. (a) The

temperature at which water boils on a mountain where the atmospheric pressure is

70.0 kPa, (b) the temperature at which water boils in a container where the

pressure inside the container is 0.500 atm, and (c) the pressure at which water

boils at 115ºC.

Picture the Problem Consulting Figure 20-16, we see that:

(a) At 70.0 kPa, water boils at approximately C 90° .

(b) At 0.500 atm (about 51 kPa), water boils at approximately C 78° .

(c) The pressure at which water boils at 115°C is approximately kPa 127 .

34 •• The van der Waals constants for helium are a = 0.03412 L

2

⋅atm/mol

2

and b = 0.0237 L/mol. Use these data to find the volume in cubic centimeters

occupied by one helium atom. Then, estimate the radius of the helium atom.

Picture the Problem Assume that a helium atom is spherical. Then we can find

its volume from the van der Waals equation and its radius from

3

3

4

r V π = .

In the van der Waals equation, b is the

volume of 1 mol of molecules. For He,

1 molecule = 1 atom. Use Avogadro’s

number to express b in cm

3

/atom:

atom

cm

10 94 . 3

mol

atoms

10 6.022

L

cm

10

mol

L

0237 . 0

3

23

23

3

3

−

× =

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= b

The volume of a spherical helium

atom is given by:

3

3

4

r V π = ⇒

3 3

4

3

4

3

π π

b V

r = =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate r:

( )

nm 211 . 0

4

cm 10 94 . 3 3

3

3 23

=

×

=

−

π

r

Conduction

35 • [SSM] A 20-ft × 30-ft slab of insulation has an R factor of 11. At

what rate is heat conducted through the slab if the temperature on one side is a

constant 68ºF and the temperature of the other side is a constant 30ºF?

Chapter 20

1884

Picture the Problem We can use its definition to express the thermal current in

the slab in terms of the temperature differential across it and its thermal resistance

and use the definition of the R factor to express I as a function of ΔT, the cross-

sectional area of the slab, and R

f

.

Express the thermal current through

the slab in terms of the temperature

difference across it and its thermal

resistance:

R

T

I

Δ

=

Substitute to express R in terms of

the insulation’s R factor:

f f

/ R

T A

A R

T

I

Δ

=

Δ

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate I:

( )( )( )

h

kBtu

2.1

Btu

F ft h

11

F 30 F 68 ft 30 ft 20

2

=

° ⋅ ⋅

° − °

= I

36 •• A copper cube and an aluminum, cube each with 3.00-cm-long edges,

are arranged as shown in Figure 20-17. Find (a) the thermal resistance of each

cube, (b) the thermal resistance of the two-cube combination, (c) the thermal

current I, and (d) the temperature at the interface of the two cubes.

Picture the Problem We can use kA x R Δ = to find the thermal resistance of each

cube and the fact that they are in series to find the thermal resistance of the two-

cube system. We can use R T I Δ = to find the thermal current through the cubes

and the temperature at their interface. See Table 20-4 for the thermal

conductivities of copper and aluminum.

kA

x

R

Δ

=

(a) Using its definition, express the

thermal resistance of each cube:

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate the thermal resistance of

the copper cube:

( )

K/W 0831 . 0 K/W 08313 . 0

cm 3.00

K m

W

401

cm 3.00

2

Cu

= =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

= R

Thermal Properties and Processes

1885

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate the thermal resistance of

the aluminum cube:

( )

K/W 141 . 0 K/W 1406 . 0

cm 3.00

K m

W

37 2

cm 3.00

2

Al

= =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

= R

(b) Because the cubes are in series,

their thermal resistances are additive:

K/W 0.224 K/W 0.2237

K/W 0.1406 K/W 0.08313

Al Cu

= =

+ =

+ = R R R

(c) Using its definition, find the

thermal current:

kW 0.36 W 6 . 357

K/W 0.2237

C 20 C 100 Δ

= =

° − °

= =

R

T

I

(d) Express the temperature at the

interface between the two cubes:

Cu interface

Δ C 100 T T − ° =

Express the temperature differential

across the copper cube:

Cu Cu Cu Cu

IR R I T = = Δ

Substitute for ΔT

Cu

to obtain:

Cu interface

C 100 IR T − ° =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate T

interface

:

( )( )

C 70

K/W 08313 . 0 W 357.6

C 100

interface

° ≈

−

° = T

37 •• Two metal cubes, one copper and one aluminum, with 3.00-cm-long

edges, are arranged in parallel, as shown in Figure 20-18. Find (a) the thermal

current in each cube, (b) the total thermal current, and (c) the thermal resistance of

the two-cube combination.

Picture the Problem We can use Equation 20-9 to find the thermal current in

each cube. Because the currents are additive, we can find the equivalent resistance

of the two-cube system from

total eq

I T R Δ = .

(a) The thermal current in each cube

is given by Equation 20-9:

x

T

kA

R

T

I

Δ

Δ

=

Δ

=

Chapter 20

1886

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the thermal current in the copper

cube:

( ) kW 96 . 0 W 4 . 962

cm 3.00

C 20 C 100

cm 3.00

K m

W

401

2

Cu

= =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ° − °

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

= I

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the thermal current in the

aluminum cube:

( ) kW 57 . 0 W 8 . 568

cm 3.00

C 20 C 100

cm 3.00

K m

W

37 2

2

Al

= =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ° − °

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

= I

(b) Because the cubes are in parallel,

their total thermal currents are

additive:

kW 1.5 kW 1.531

W 8 . 68 5 W 4 . 62 9

Al Cu

= =

+ = + = I I I

(c) Use the relationship between the

total thermal current, temperature

differential and thermal resistance to

find R

eq

:

K/W 0.052

kW 1.531

C 20 C 100 Δ

total

eq

=

° − °

= =

I

T

R

38 •• The cost of air conditioning a house is approximately proportional to

the rate at which heat is absorbed by the house from its surroundings divided by

the coefficient of performance (COP) of the air conditioner. Let us denote the

temperature difference between the inside temperature and the outside

temperature as ΔT. Assuming that the rate at which heat is absorbed by a house is

proportional to ΔT and that the air conditioner is operating ideally, show that the

cost of air conditioning is proportional to (ΔT)

2

divided by the temperature inside

the house.

Picture the Problem The cost of operating the air conditioner is proportional to

the energy used in its operation. We can use the definition of the COP to relate the

rate at which the air conditioner removes heat from the house to rate at which it

must do work to maintain a constant temperature differential between the interior

and the exterior of the house. To obtain an expression for the minimum rate at

which the air conditioner must do work, we’ll assume that it is operating with the

maximum efficiency possible. Doing so will allow us to derive an expression for

the rate at which energy is used by the air conditioner that we can integrate to

obtain the energy (and hence the cost of operation) required.

Relate the cost C of air conditioning

the energy W required to operate the

air conditioner:

uW C = (1)

where u is the unit cost of the energy.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1887

Express the rate dQ/dt at which heat

flows into a house provided the

house is maintained at a constant

temperature:

T k

dt

dQ

P Δ = =

where ΔT is the temperature difference

between the interior and exterior of the

house.

Use the definition of the COP to

relate the rate at which the air

conditioner must remove heat dW/dt

to maintain a constant temperature:

dt dW

dt dQ

= COP ⇒

dt

dQ

dt

dW

COP

1

=

Express the maximum value of the

COP:

T

T

Δ

=

c

max

COP

where

house

the inside c

T T = is the temperature

of the cold reservoir.

Letting COP = COP

max

, substitute to

obtain an expression for the

minimum rate at which the air

conditioner must do work in order to

maintain a constant temperature:

T

T

dt

dQ

dt

dW

Δ

c

=

Substituting for dQ/dt gives:

( )

2

c c

T

T

k

T

T

T k

dt

dW

Δ = Δ

Δ

=

Separate variables and integrate

this equation to obtain:

( ) ( ) t T

T

k

dt' T

T

k

W

t

Δ Δ = Δ =

∫

Δ

2

c 0

2

c

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

( ) t T

T

k

u C Δ Δ

2

c

= ⇒

( )

c

2

Δ

T

T

C ∝

39 •• A spherical shell of thermal conductivity k has inside radius r

1

and

outside radius r

2

(Figure 20-19). The inside of the shell is held at a temperature

T

1

, and the outside of the shell is held at temperature T

2

, with T

1

< T

2

. In this

problem, you are to show that the thermal current through the shell is given by

I = −

4πkr

1

r

2

r

2

− r

1

T

2

− T

1

( )

where I is positive if heat is transferred in the +r direction. Here is a suggested

procedure for obtaining this result: (1) obtain an expression for the thermal current

I through a thin spherical shell of radius r and thickness dr when there is a

temperature difference dT across the thickness of the shell; (2) explain why the

thermal current is the same through each such thin shell; (3) express the thermal

current I through such a shell element in terms of the area A = 4πr

2

, the thickness

Chapter 20

1888

dr, and the temperature difference dT across the element; and (4) separate

variables (solve for dT in terms of r and dr) and integrate.

Picture the Problem We can follow the step-by-step instructions given in the

problem statement to obtain the differential equation describing the variation of T

with r. Integrating this equation will yield an equation that we can solve for the

current I.

(1) The thermal current through a

thin spherical shell surface of area A

and thickness dr due to a

temperature gradient

dr

dT

is given by:

dr

dT

kA I =

(2) Conservation of energy requires that the thermal current through each shell be

the same.

dr

dT

kr I

2

4π =

(3) For a shell of area A = 4π r

2

:

2

4 r

dr

k

I

dT

π

=

(4) Separating the variables yields:

Integrate from r = r

1

to r = r

2

and

simplify to obtain:

∫ ∫

=

2

1

2

1

2

4

r

r

T

T

r

dr

k

I

dT

π

and

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

− = −

2 1

1 2

1 1

4

1

4

2

1

r r k

I

r k

I

T T

r

r

π π

Solving for I gives:

( )

1 2

1 2

2 1

4

T T

r r

r kr

I −

−

− =

π

Radiation

40 • Calculate λ

max

(the wavelength at which the emitted power is

maximum) for a human skin. Assume the human skin is a blackbody emitter with

a temperature of 33ºC.

Picture the Problem We can apply Wein’s displacement law to find the

wavelength at which the power is a maximum.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1889

Wein’s law relates the maximum

wavelength of the radiation to the

temperature of its source:

T

K mm 898 . 2

max

⋅

= λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ

max

:

m 47 . 9

K 33 K 273

K mm 2.898

max

μ λ =

+

⋅

=

41 • [SSM] The universe is filled with radiation that is believed to be

remaining from the Big Bang. If the entire universe is considered to be a

blackbody with a temperature equal to 2.3 K, what is the λ

max

(the wavelength at

which the power of the radiation is maximum) of this radiation?

Picture the Problem We can use Wein’s law to find the peak wavelength of this

radiation.

Wein’s law relates the maximum

wavelength of the background

radiation to the temperature of the

universe:

T

K mm 2.898

max

⋅

= λ

Substituting for T gives:

mm .3 1

K 3 . 2

K mm 2.898

max

=

⋅

= λ

42 • What is the range of temperatures for star surfaces for which λ

max

(the

wavelength at which the power of the emitted radiation is maximum) is in the

visible range?

Picture the Problem The visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extends

from approximately 400 nm to 700 nm. We can use Wein’s law to find the range

of temperatures corresponding to these wavelengths.

Wein’s law relates the maximum

wavelength of the radiation to the

temperature of its source:

T

K mm 2.898

max

⋅

= λ

Solving for T yields:

max

K mm 2.898

λ

⋅

= T

For λ

max

= 400 nm:

K 7250

nm 400

K mm 2.898

=

⋅

= T

For λ

max

= 700 nm:

K 4140

nm 700

K mm 2.898

=

⋅

= T

Chapter 20

1890

The range of temperatures is K 7250 K 4140 ≤ ≤ T .

43 • The heating wires of a 1.00-kW electric heater are red hot at a

temperature of 900ºC. Assuming that 100 percent of the heat released is due to

radiation and that the wires act as blackbody emitters, what is the effective area of

the radiating surface? (Assume a room temperature of 20ºC.)

Picture the Problem We can apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to find the net

power radiated by the wires of its heater to the room.

Relate the net power radiated to the

surface area of the heating wires,

their temperature, and the room

temperature:

( )

4

0

4

net

T T A e P − = σ ⇒

( )

4

0

4

net

T T e

P

A

−

=

σ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate A:

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

2

4 4

4 2

8

cm 5 . 93

K 293 K 1173

K m

W

10 5.6703 1

kW 1.00

=

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

×

=

−

A

44 •• A blackened, solid copper sphere that has a radius equal to 4.0 cm

hangs in an evacuated enclosure whose walls have a temperature of 20ºC. If the

sphere is initially at 0ºC, find the initial rate at which its temperature changes,

assuming that heat is transferred by radiation only. (Assume the sphere is a

blackbody emitter.)

Picture the Problem The rate at which the copper sphere absorbs radiant energy

is given by and, from the Stephan-Boltzmann law, dt mcdT dt dQ / / =

( )

4

0

4

net

T T A e P − = σ where A is the surface area of the sphere, T

0

is its

temperature, and T is the temperature of the walls. We can solve the first equation

for dT/dt and substitute P

net

for dQ/dt in order to find the initial rate at which the

temperature of the sphere changes.

Relate the rate at which the sphere

absorbs radiant energy to the rate at

which its temperature changes:

dt

dT

mc

dt

dQ

P = =

net

Solving for

dt

dT

and substituting

for mc gives:

c r

P

Vc

P

mc

P

dt

dT

ρ π ρ

3

3

4

net net net

= = =

Thermal Properties and Processes

1891

Apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to

relate the net power radiated to the

sphere to the difference in

temperature of the walls and the

blackened copper sphere:

( )

( )

4

0

4 2

4

0

4

net

4 T T e r

T T A e P

− =

− =

σ π

σ

Substitute for to obtain:

net

P

( )

( )

c r

T T e

c r

T T e r

dt

dT

ρ

σ

ρ π

σ π

4

0

4

3

3

4

4

0

4 2

3

4

−

=

−

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate dT/dt:

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

( )

K/s 10 2 . 2

K kg

kJ

0.386

m

kg

10 8.93 m 10 4.0

K 273 K 293

K m

W

10 5.6703 1 3

3

3

3 2

4 4

4 2

8

−

−

−

× =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

× ×

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

×

− =

dt

dT

45 •• The surface temperature of the filament of an incandescent lamp is

1300ºC. If the electric power input is doubled, what will the new temperature be?

Hint: Show that you can neglect the temperature of the surroundings.

Picture the Problem We can apply the Stephan-Boltzmann law to express the net

power radiated by the incandescent lamp to its surroundings.

( )

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

− =

4

0 4

4

0

4

net

1

T

T

AT e

T T A e P

σ

σ

Express the rate at which energy is

radiated to the surroundings:

3

4

4

0

10 1

K 1573

K 293

−

× ≈

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

T

T

Evaluate

4

0

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

T

T

:

Because

4

0

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

T

T

is so small, we can

neglect the temperature of the

surroundings. Hence:

4

net

AT e P σ ≈ ⇒

4 1

net

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

A e

P

T

σ

Express the temperature T ′when the

electric power input is doubled:

4 1

net

2

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

A e

P

T'

σ

Chapter 20

1892

Dividing the second of these

equations by the first and solving for

T gives:

( )

4 1

2 =

T

T'

⇒ ( ) T T'

4 1

2 =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate T ′

( ) ( )

C 1598

K 1871 K 1573 2

4 1

° =

= = T'

46 •• Liquid helium is stored at its boiling point (4.2 K) in a spherical can

that is separated by an evacuated region of space from a surrounding shield that is

maintained at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K). If the can is 30 cm in

diameter and is blackened on the outside so that it acts as a blackbody emitter,

how much helium boils away per hour?

Picture the Problem We can differentiate Q = mL, where L is the latent heat of

boiling for helium, with respect to time to obtain an expression for the rate at

which the helium boils away.

Express the rate at which the helium

boils away in terms of the rate at

which its container absorbs radiant

energy:

( )

( )

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

−

=

−

= =

4

0 4

2

4

0

4 2

4

0

4

net

1

T

T

T

L

d e

L

T T d e

L

T T A e

L

P

dt

dm

σπ

σπ

σ

If T

0

<< T, then:

4

2

T

L

d e

dt

dm σπ

≈

Substitute numerical values and evaluate dm/dt:

( ) ( )

( )

g/h 97

h

s 3600

s

kg

10 2.68

K 77

kg

kJ

21

m 30 . 0

K m

W

10 5.6703 1

5

4

2

4 2

8

= × × =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

×

≈

−

−

π

dt

dm

Thermal Properties and Processes

1893

General Problems

47 • A steel tape is placed around Earth at the equator when the temperature

is 0ºC. What will the clearance between the tape and the ground (assumed to be

uniform) be if the temperature of the tape increases to 30ºC? Neglect the

expansion of Earth.

Picture the Problem The distance by which the tape clears the ground equals

the change in the radius of the circle formed by the tape placed around Earth at the

equator.

Express the change in the radius of

the circle defined by the steel tape:

T R R Δ = Δ α

where R is the radius of Earth, α is the

coefficient of linear expansion of steel,

and ΔT is the increase in temperature.

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ΔR:

( )( )( ) km 1 . 2 m 10 10 . 2 C 0 C 30 K 10 11 m 10 6.37 Δ

3 1 6 6

= × = ° − ° × × =

− −

R

48 •• Show that change in the density ρ of an isotropic material due to an

increase in temperature ΔT is given by Δρ = –βρΔT.

Picture the Problem We can differentiate the definition of the density of an

isotropic material with respect to T and use the definition of the coefficient of

volume expansion to express the rate at which the density of the material changes

with respect to temperature. Once we have an expression for dρ in terms of dT,

we can apply a differential approximation to obtain Δρ in terms of ΔT.

Using its definition, relate the

density of the material to its

mass and volume:

V

m

= ρ

Using its definition, relate the

volume of the material to its

coefficient of volume expansion:

T V V Δ = Δ β

Chapter 20

1894

ρβ β

ρ

β

ρ ρ

− = − =

− = =

V

V

V

V

V

m

dT

dV

dV

d

dT

d

2

2

or

dT d ρβ ρ − =

Differentiate ρ with respect to T and

simplify to obtain:

Using the differential approximations

ρ ρ Δ ≈ d and yields: T dT Δ ≈

T Δ Δ ρβ ρ − =

49 •• [SSM] The solar constant is the power received from the Sun per

unit area perpendicular to the Sun’s rays at the mean distance of Earth from the

Sun. Its value at the upper atmosphere of Earth is about 1.37 kW/m

2

. Calculate

the effective temperature of the Sun if it radiates like a blackbody. (The radius of

the Sun is 6.96 × 10

8

m.).

Picture the Problem We can apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to express the

effective temperature of the Sun in terms of the total power it radiates. We can, in

turn, use the intensity of the Sun’s radiation in the upper atmosphere

of Earth to approximate the total power it radiates.

Apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to

relate the energy radiated by the Sun

to its temperature:

4

r

AT e P σ = ⇒

4

r

A e

P

T

σ

=

2

S

4 R A π =

Express the surface area of the sun:

Relate the intensity of the Sun’s

radiation in the upper atmosphere

to the total power radiated by the

sun:

2

4 R

P

I

r

π

= ⇒ I R P

r

2

4π =

where R is the Earth-Sun distance.

Substitute for P

r

and A in the

expression for T and simplify to

obtain:

4

2

S

2

4

2

S

2

4

4

R e

I R

R e

I R

T

σ π σ

π

= =

Thermal Properties and Processes

1895

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

( )

( ) ( )

K 5800

m 10 6.96

K m

W

10 5.67 1

m

kW

1.35 m 10 1.5

4

2

8

2

8

2

2

11

=

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

=

−

T

50 •• As part of your summer job as an engineering intern at an insulation

manufacturer, you are asked to determine the R factor of insulating material. This

particular material comes in

1

2

-in sheets. Using this material, you construct a

hollow cube that has 12-in long edges. You place a thermometer and a 100-W

heater inside the box. After thermal equilibrium has been attained, the

temperature inside the box is 90ºC when the temperature outside the box is 20ºC.

Determine the R factor of the material.

Picture the Problem We can solve the thermal-current equation for the R factor

of the material.

Use the equation for the thermal

current to express I in terms of the

temperature gradient across the

insulation:

x

T

kA I

Δ

Δ

=

f

f

R

T A

A

R

T

kA

x

T

I

Δ

=

Δ

=

Δ

Δ

=

Rewrite this expression in terms of

the R factor of the material:

Solving for the R factor gives:

I

T A

I

T A

R

Δ

=

Δ

=

side one

f

6

Substitute numerical values and evaluate R:

( )

Btu

h ft F

2 . 2

s 3600

h 1

Btu

J 1054

m

ft 10.76

K 5

F 9

s

J

m K

0.390

W

m K

0.39 C 20 C 90

W 100

in

m 10 2.54

in 12 6

2

2

2 2

2

2

2

f

⋅ ⋅ °

= × × ×

°

×

⋅

=

⋅

= ° − °

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

×

=

−

R

Chapter 20

1896

51 • (a) From the definition of β, the coefficient of volume expansion (at

constant pressure), show that β = 1/T for an ideal gas. (b) The experimentally

determined value of β for N

2

gas at 0ºC is 0.003673 K

–1

. By what percent does

this measured value of β differ from the value obtained by modeling N

2

as an

ideal gas?

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the coefficient of volume

expansion with the ideal-gas law to show that β = 1/T.

dT

dV

V

1

= β

(a) Use the definition of the

coefficient of volume expansion to

express β in terms of the rate of

change of the volume with

temperature:

For an ideal gas:

P

nRT

V = and

P

nR

dT

dV

=

Substitute for

dT

dV

to obtain:

T P

nR

V

1 1

= = β

(b) Express the percent difference

between the experimental value and

the theoretical value:

% 3 . 0

K

273

1

K

273

1

K 0.003673

1

1 1

th

th exp

<

−

=

−

−

− −

β

β β

52 •• A rod of length L

A

, made from material A, is placed next to a rod of

length L

B

, made of material B. The rods remain in thermal equilibrium with each

other. (a) Show that even though the lengths of each rod will change with changes

in the ambient temperature, the difference between the two lengths will remain

constant if the lengths L

A

and L

B

are chosen such that L

A

/L

B

= α

B

/α

A

, where α

A

and α

B

are the coefficients of linear expansion, respectively. (b) If material B is

steel, material A is brass, and L

A

= 250 cm at 0ºC, what is the value of L

B

?

Picture the Problem Let ΔL be the difference between L

B

and L B

A

and express L

B

and L

A

in terms of the coefficients of linear expansion of materials

A and B. Requiring that ΔL be constant will lead us to the condition that

L

A

/L

B

= α

B

/α

A

.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1897

(a) Express the condition that ΔL

does not change when the

temperature of the materials

changes:

constant

A B

= − = Δ L L L (1)

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) T L L L

T L L L L

T L L T L L L

Δ − + Δ =

Δ − + − =

Δ + − Δ + = Δ

A A B B

A A B B A B

A A A B B B

α α

α α

α α

Using the definition of the

coefficient of linear expansion,

substitute for L

B

and L

A

:

or

( ) 0

A A B B

= Δ − T L L α α

The condition that ΔL remain

constant when the temperature

changes by ΔT is:

0

A A B B

= − L L α α

Solving for the ratio of L

A

to L

B

yields:

A

B

B

A

α

α

=

L

L

(b) From (a) we have:

steel

brass

brass

B

A

A steel B

α

α

α

α

L L L L = = =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate L

B

:

( ) cm 430

K 10 11

K 10 19

cm 250

1 6

1 6

B

=

×

×

=

− −

− −

L

53 •• [SSM] On the average, the temperature of Earth’s crust increases

1.0ºC for every increase in depth of 30 m. The average thermal conductivity of

Earth’s crust material is 0.74 J/m⋅s⋅K. What is the heat loss of Earth per second

due to conduction from the core? How does this heat loss compare with the

average power received from the Sun (which is about 1.37 kW/m

2

)?

Picture the Problem We can apply the thermal-current equation to calculate

the heat loss of Earth per second due to conduction from its core. We can

also use the thermal-current equation to find the power per unit area radiated

from Earth and compare this quantity to the solar constant.

Express the heat loss of Earth per

unit time as a function of the thermal

conductivity of Earth and its

temperature gradient:

x

T

kA

dt

dQ

I

Δ

Δ

= = (1)

or

x

T

k R

dt

dQ

Δ

Δ

=

2

E

4π

Chapter 20

1898

Substitute numerical values and evaluate dQ/dt:

( ) kW 10 3 . 1

m 30

C 1.0

K s m

J

0.74 m 10 37 . 6 4

10

2

6

× =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ °

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅ ⋅

× = π

dt

dQ

Rewrite equation (1) to express the

thermal current per unit area:

x

T

k

A

I

Δ

Δ

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate I/A:

( )

2

W/m 0.0247

m 30

C 1.0

K s J/m 0.74

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ °

⋅ ⋅ =

A

I

Express the ratio of I/A to the solar

constant:

% 002 . 0

kW/m 1.37

W/m 0.0247

constant solar

2

2

<

=

A I

54 •• A copper-bottomed saucepan containing 0.800 L of boiling water boils

dry in 10.0 min. Assuming that all the heat is transferred through the flat copper

bottom, which has a diameter of 15.0 cm and a thickness of 3.00 mm, calculate

the temperature of the outside of the copper bottom while some water is still in

the pan.

Picture the Problem We can find the temperature of the outside of the copper

bottom by finding the temperature difference between the outside of the saucepan

and the boiling water. This temperature difference is related to the rate at which

the water is evaporating through the thermal-current equation.

Express the temperature outside the

pan in terms of the temperature

inside the pan:

T T T T Δ C 100 Δ

in out

+ ° = + = (1)

Relate the thermal current through

the bottom of the saucepan to its

thermal conductivity, area, and the

temperature gradient between its

surfaces:

x

T

kA

t

Q

Δ

Δ

=

Δ

Δ

⇒ x

t

Q

kA

T Δ

Δ

Δ

= Δ

1

v

mL Q = Δ

Because the water is boiling:

Thermal Properties and Processes

1899

Substitute for ΔQ to obtain:

t kA

x mL

T

Δ

Δ

Δ

v

=

Substituting for ΔT in equation (1)

yields:

t kA

x mL

T

Δ

Δ

C 100

v

out

+ ° =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T

out

:

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

C 101

s 600 m 0.150

4 K m

W

401

m 10 3.00

kg

MJ

2.26 kg 0.800

C 100

2

3

out

° =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ ° =

−

π

T

55 •• A cylindrical steel hot-water tank of cylindrical shape has an inside

diameter of 0.550 m and inside height of 1.20 m. The tank is enclosed with a

5.00-cm-thick insulating layer of glass wool whose thermal conductivity is 0.0350

W/(m⋅K). The insulation is covered by a thin sheet-metal skin. The steel tank and

the sheet-metal skin have thermal conductivities that are much greater than that of

the glass wool. How much electrical power must be supplied to this tank in order

to maintain the water temperature at 75.0ºC when the external temperature is

1.0ºC?

Picture the Problem Thermal energy is lost from this tank through its cylindrical

side and its top and bottom. The power required to maintain the temperature of

the water in the tank is equal to the rate at which thermal energy is conducted

through the insulation.

Express the total thermal current as

the sum of the thermal currents

through the top and bottom and the

side of the hot-water tank:

side bottom and top

I I I + = (1)

Express I through the top and bottom

surfaces:

x

T

k d

x

T

kA I

Δ

Δ

Δ

Δ

2

2

2

1

bottom

and top

π =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

bottom

and top

I

( )

( )

W 6 . 24

m 0.0500

C 0 . 1 C 75.0

K m

W

0.0350

m 550 . 0

2

2

1

bottom

and top

=

° − °

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

= π I

Chapter 20

1900

dr

dT

kLr

dr

dT

kA I π 2

side

− = − =

where the minus sign is a consequence

of the heat current being opposite the

temperature gradient.

Letting r represent the inside radius

of the tank, express the heat current

through the cylindrical side:

r

dr

kL

I

dT

π 2

side

− =

Separating the variables yields:

Integrate from r = r

1

to r = r

2

and

T = T

1

to T = T

2

and simplify to

obtain:

∫ ∫

− =

2

1

2

1

2

side

r

r

T

T

r

dr

kL

I

dT

π

and

]

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

− = −

2

1 side

1

2 side

side

1 2

ln

2

ln

2

ln

2

2

1

r

r

kL

I

r

r

kL

I

r

kL

I

T T

r

r

π

π

π

Solving for I

side

gives:

( )

1 2

2

1

side

ln

2

T T

r

r

kL

I −

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

π

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I

side

:

( )

( ) W 117 C 0 . 1 C 0 . 75

m 0.275

m 0.325

ln

m 1.20

K m

W

0.0350 2

side

= ° − °

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

=

π

I

Substitute numerical values in

equation (1) and evaluate I:

W 142 W 17 1 W 4.6 2 = + = I

56 ••• The diameter d of a tapered rod of length L is given by d = d

0

(1 + ax),

where a is a constant and x is the distance from one end. If the thermal

conductivity of the material is k what is the thermal resistance of the rod?

Thermal Properties and Processes

1901

Picture the Problem We can use R = ΔT/I and I = −kAdT/dt to express dT in

terms of the linearly increasing diameter of the rod. Integrating this expression

will allow us to find ΔT and, hence, R.

The thermal resistance of the rod is

given by:

I

T

R

Δ

= (1)

where I the thermal current in the rod.

dx

dT

kA I − =

where the minus sign is a consequence

of the heat current being opposite the

temperature gradient.

Relate the thermal current in the rod

to its thermal conductivity k, cross-

sectional area A, and temperature

gradient:

Using the dependence of the

diameter of the rod on x, express the

area of the rod:

( )

2 2

0

2

1

4 4

ax d

d

A + = =

π π

Substitute for A to obtain:

( )

dx

dT

ax d k I

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

+ − =

2 2

0

1

4

π

Separating variables yields:

( )

( )

2 2

0

2 2

0

1

4

1

4

ax

dx

kd

I

ax d k

Idx

dT

+

− =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

+

− =

π

π

Integrating T from T

1

to T

2

and x

from 0 to L gives:

( )

∫ ∫

+

− =

L T

T

ax

dx

kd

I

dT

0

2 2

0

1

4

2

1

π

and

( ) aL kd

IL

T T T

+

= Δ = −

1

4

2

0

1 2

π

Substitute for ΔT and I in equation

(1) and simplify to obtain: ( )

( ) aL kd

L

I

aL kd

IL

R

+

=

+

=

1

4 1

4

2

0

2

0

π

π

57 ••• A solid disk of radius r and mass m is spinning about a frictionless

axis through its center and perpendicular to the disk, with angular velocity ω

1

at

temperature T

1

. The temperature of the disk decreases to T

2

. Express the angular

velocity ω

2

, rotational kinetic energy K

2

, and angular momentum L

2

in terms of

Chapter 20

1902

their values at the temperature T

1

and the linear expansion coefficient α of the

disk.

Picture the Problem Let ΔT = T

2

– T

1

. We can apply Newton’s second law to

establish the relationship between L

2

and L

1

and angular momentum conservation

to relate ω

2

and ω

1

. We can express both E

2

and E

1

in terms of their angular

momenta and rotational inertias and take their ratio to establish their relationship.

Because 0 =

∑

τ , ΔL = 0

Apply

t

L

Δ

Δ

=

∑

τ to the spinning

disk:

and

1 2

L L =

Apply conservation of angular

momentum to relate the angular

velocity of the disk at T

2

to the

angular velocity at T

1

:

1 1 2 2

ω ω I I = ⇒

1

2

1

2

ω ω

I

I

= (1)

Express I

2

:

( )

( ) ( )

2

1

2 2

1

2

2 2

Δ Δ 2 1

Δ 1

T T I

T mr mr I

α α

α

+ + =

+ = =

Because (αΔT)

2

is small compared to

αΔT:

( ) T I I Δ 2 1

1 2

α + ≈

Substitute for I

2

in equation (1)

to obtain:

( )

1

1

1

2

Δ 2 1

ω

α

ω

T I

I

+

= (2)

Expanding ( binomially

yields:

)

1

Δ 2 1

−

+ T α

( )

s order term higher

Δ 2 1 Δ 2 1

1

+

− = +

−

T T α α

Because the higher order terms are

very small:

( ) T T Δ 2 1 Δ 2 1

1

α α − ≈ +

−

( )

1 2

2 1 ω α ω T Δ − ≈

Substituting in equation (2) yields:

Express E

2

in terms of L

2

and I

2

:

2

2

1

2

2

2

2

2 2 I

L

I

L

E = = because L

2

= L

1

.

Express E

1

in terms of L

1

and I

1

:

1

2

1

1

2I

L

E =

Thermal Properties and Processes

1903

Express the ratio of E

2

to E

1

and

simplify to obtain:

2

1

1

2

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

2

I

I

I

L

I

L

E

E

= = ⇒

2

1

1 2

I

I

E E =

Substituting for the ratio of I

1

to I

2

yields:

( ) T E E E Δ 2 1

1

1

2

1 2

α

ω

ω

− = =

58 ••• Write a spreadsheet program to graph the average temperature of the

surface of Earth as a function of emissivity, using the results of Problem 22. How

much does the emissivity have to change in order for the average temperature to

increase by 1 K? This result can be thought of as a model for the effect of

increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases like methane and CO

2

in Earth’s

atmosphere.

Picture the Problem The amount of heat radiated by Earth must equal the solar

flux from the Sun, or else the temperature on Earth would continually increase.

The emissivity of Earth is related to the rate at which it radiates energy into space

by the Stefan-Boltzmann law .

4

r

AT e P σ =

Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law,

express the rate at which Earth

radiates energy as a function of its

emissivity e and temperature T:

4

r

A'T e P σ =

where A′ is the surface area of Earth.

Use its definition to express the

intensity of the radiation P

a

absorbed by Earth:

A

P

I

a

= or AI P =

a

where A is the cross-sectional area of

Earth.

For 70% absorption of the Sun’s

radiation incident on Earth:

( )AI P 70 . 0

a

=

Equate P

r

and P

a

and simplify:

( )

4

70 . 0 A'T e AI σ =

or

( ) ( )

4 2 2

4 70 . 0 T R e I R σ π π =

Solve for T to obtain:

( )

4 1

4

4

70 . 0

−

= = Ce

e

I

T

σ

(1)

Substitute numerical values for I

and σ and simplify to obtain:

( )( )

( )

( )

4 1

4

4 2 8

2

K 255

K W/m 10 670 . 5 4

W/m 1370 70 . 0

−

−

=

⋅ ×

=

e

e

T

Chapter 20

1904

A spreadsheet program to evaluate T as a function of e is shown below. The

formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows:

Cell Formula/Content Algebraic Form

B1 255

e B4 0.4

e + 0.1 B5 B4+0.01

( )

C4 $B$1/(B4^0.25)

4 1

K 255

−

e

A B C D

1 T= 255 K

2

3 e T

4 0.40 321

5 0.41 319

6 0.42 317

7 0.43 315

23 0.59 291

24 0.60 290

25 0.61 289

26 0.62 287

A graph of T as a function of e follows.

285

290

295

300

305

310

315

320

325

0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60

e

T

(

K

)

Treating e as a variable, differentiate

equation (1) to obtain:

de Ce

de

dT

4 5

4

1

−

− = (2)

Thermal Properties and Processes

1905

Divide equation (2) by equation (1)

to obtain:

e

de

Ce

de Ce

T

dT

4

1

4

1

4 1

4 5

− =

−

=

−

−

Use a differential approximation to

obtain:

e

e

T

T Δ

− =

Δ

4

1

⇒

T

T

e

e Δ

− =

Δ

4

Substitute numerical values

(e ≈ 0.615 for T

Earth

= 288 K) and

evaluate e e Δ :

014 . 0

K 288

K 1

4 − =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

Δ

e

e

or about a 1.4% change.

59 ••• [SSM] A small pond has a layer of ice 1.00 cm thick floating on its

surface. (a) If the air temperature is –10ºC on a day when there is a breeze, find

the rate in centimeters per hour at which ice is added to the bottom of the layer.

The density of ice is 0.917 g/cm

3

. (b) How long do you and your friends have to

wait for a 20.0-cm layer to be built up so you can play hockey?

Picture the Problem (a) We can differentiate the expression for the heat that

must be removed from water in order to form ice to relate dQ/dt to the rate of ice

build-up dm/dt. We can apply the thermal-current equation to express the rate at

which heat is removed from the water to the temperature gradient and solve this

equation for dm/dt. In Part (b) we can separate the variables in the differential

equation relating dm/dt and ΔT and integrate to find out how long it takes for a

20.0-cm layer of ice to be built up.

(a) Relate the heat that must be

removed from the water to freeze it

to its mass and heat of fusion:

f

mL Q = ⇒

dt

dm

L

dt

dQ

f

=

Using the definition of density,

relate the mass of the ice added to

the bottom of the layer to its density

and volume:

Ax V m ρ ρ = =

Differentiate with respect to time

to express the rate of build-up of

the ice:

dt

dx

A

dt

dm

ρ =

Substitute for

dt

dm

to obtain:

dt

dx

A L

dt

dQ

ρ

f

=

The thermal-current equation is:

x

T

kA

dt

dQ Δ

=

Chapter 20

1906

x

T

kA

dt

dx

A L

Δ

= ρ

f

⇒

x

T

L

k

dt

dx Δ

=

ρ

f

(1)

Equate these expressions and

solve for

dt

dx

:

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate

dt

dx

:

( ) ( )

( )( )

cm/h 0.70

cm/h 0.697

h

s 3600

s

m

94 . 1

m 0.0100 kg/m 917

kg

kJ

333.5

C 10 C 0

K m

W

0.592

3

=

= × =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

° − − °

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

=

μ

dt

dx

(b) Separating the variables in

equation (1) gives:

dt

L

T k

xdx

ρ

f

Δ

=

Integrate x from x

i

to x

f

and t′ from

0 to t:

' dt

L

T k

xdx

t x

x

∫ ∫

Δ

=

0 f

f

i

ρ

and

( ) t

L

T k

x x

f

2

i

2

f 2

1

ρ

Δ

= − ⇒

( )

T k

x x L

t

Δ

−

=

2

2

i

2

f f

ρ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate t:

( ) ( )

( ) ( [ ] )

d 12

h 24

d 1

s 3600

h 1

s 10 03 . 1

m 0.010 m 0.200

C 10 C 0

K m

W

0.592 2

kg

kJ

333.5

m

kg

917

6

2 2

3

= × × × =

−

° − − °

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= t

60 ••• [SSM] A blackened copper cube that has 1.00-cm-long edges is

heated to a temperature of 300ºC, and then is placed in a vacuum chamber whose

walls are at a temperature of 0ºC. In the vacuum chamber, the cube cools

radiatively. (a) Show that the (absolute) temperature T of the cube follows the

differential equation:

dT

dt

= −

eσA

C

T

4

−T

0

4

( )

where C is the heat capacity of the

cube, A is its surface area, e the emissivity, and T

o

the temperature of the vacuum

chamber. (b) Using Euler’s method (Section 5.4 of Chapter 5), numerically solve

the differential equation to find T(t), and graph it. Assume e = 1.00. How long

does it take the cube to cool to a temperature of 15ºC?

Thermal Properties and Processes

1907

Picture the Problem We can use the Stefan-Boltzmann equation and the

definition of heat capacity to obtain the differential equation expressing the rate at

which the temperature of the copper block decreases. We can then approximate

the differential equation with a difference equation for the purpose of solving for

the temperature of the block as a function of time using Euler’s method.

(a) The rate at which heat is radiated

away from the cube is given by:

( )

4

0

4

T T A e

dt

dQ

− = σ

Using the definition of heat capacity,

relate the thermal current to the rate

at which the temperature of the cube

is changing:

dt

dT

C

dt

dQ

− =

Equate these expressions and solve

for

dt

dT

to obtain:

( )

4

0

4

T T

C

A e

dt

dT

− − =

σ

Approximating the differential

equation by the difference equation

gives:

( )

4

0

4

T T

C

A e

t

T

− − =

Δ

Δ σ

( ) t T T

C

A e

T Δ − − = Δ

4

0

4

σ

or

( ) t T T

C

A e

T T

n n n

Δ − − =

+

4

0

4

1

σ

(1)

Solving for ΔT yields:

Use the definition of heat capacity to

obtain:

Vc mc C ρ = =

Substitute numerical values (see Figure 13-1 for ρ

Cu

and Table 19-1 for c

Cu

) and

evaluate C:

( )

K

J

45 . 3

K kg

kJ

386 . 0 m 10 00 . 1

m

kg

10 93 . 8

3 6

3

3

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

× =

−

C

Chapter 20

1908

(b) A spreadsheet program to calculate T as a function of t using equation (1) is

shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as

follows:

Cell Formula/Content Algebraic Form

B1

σ 5.67E−08

A B2 6.00E−04

C B3 3.45

T

0

B4 273

B5 10

Δt

A9 A8+$B$5 t+Δt

B9 B8-($B$1*$B$2/$B$3)

(

*(B8^4−$B$4^4)*$B$5

) t T T

C

A e

T

n n

Δ − −

4

0

4

σ

A B C

1 σ= 5.67 × 10

−8

W/m

2

⋅K

4

2 A= 6.00 × 10

−4

m

2

3 C= 3.45 J/K

4 T

0

= 273 K

5 Δt= 10 s

6

7 t (s) T (K)

8 0 573.00

9 10 562.92

10 20 553.56

11 30 544.85

248 2400 288.22

249 2410 288.08

250 2420 287.95

251 2430 287.82

Thermal Properties and Processes

1909

From the spreadsheet solution, the time to cool to 15°C (288 K) is about 2420 s or

. min 5 . 40 A graph of T as a function of t follows.

270

320

370

420

470

520

570

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

t (s)

T

(

K

)

- chap3Uploaded bydicam2103
- Heat TransferUploaded byRahul Mondal
- SACNAS 2016 Research PresentationUploaded byMiguel Becerra
- HMT R04 May Jun 2009Uploaded bybalakalees
- AutoUploaded byPrabhat TN
- Mechanical Engineering 170715Uploaded bychutiya
- HT3eChap17_101Uploaded bymsdhiman2003
- Thermal-II-Lab-Manual.docUploaded bytagoreboopathy
- Ch1 IntroductionUploaded byamir
- Thermal Stresses Induced by a Point Heat Source in a Circular Plate by Quasi-static ApproachUploaded bySteven Hall
- Prob Set 1 PMAT 507 PROBLEM MATHUploaded byMelissa A. Bernardo
- heat-transfer-problems.pdfUploaded byTareq Dahb
- 13 HeatUploaded bygoldenthangam
- bm3 sciencegr 6 1314Uploaded byapi-233082297
- Conduction heat transferUploaded byNihad S Zain
- Burn Thermal - EmedUploaded byindahkur
- 77a91d14685b26f386cbb5c19b0e101a2979Uploaded byCatanescu Alexandru-Laurentiu
- 06473843Uploaded bydabalejo
- Heat Loss Calculation in a Vertical Horizontal Tank and a PiplelineUploaded byingemarquintero
- 2nd Syllabi XIUploaded byRavi Priya
- A COMPARISON OF HEAT TRANSFER IN FINS WITH DIFFERENT CROSS-SECTIONS.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- Factory LayoutUploaded bykritika
- 18982557XUploaded byAmin Nazrin
- Heat Transfer PosterUploaded bykaerie
- Transmission of HeatUploaded byrtb101
- heat under the microscope.pdfUploaded byMauricio Terrazas
- Thermo-Cam at Topic WeekUploaded byJohn_Ada
- 48 KnoxUploaded byriccardocozza
- Simpson 2012Uploaded byWilliam Rolando Miranda Zamora
- 1-s2.0-S129007290600161X-main.pdfUploaded byNouha Jhider

- SW-EK-TM4C123GXL-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-TM4C-BOOTLDR-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Ek Tm4c1294xl Boostxl Senshub Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boostxl Senshub Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boostxl Battpack Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-TM4C-EXAMPLES-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-EM-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-BOOSTXL-KENTEC-L35-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-BOOST-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boostxl Breakout Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Ek Tm4c1294xl Boostxl Battpack Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Dk Tm4c129x Boostxl Senshub Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-BOOST-DLPTRF7970ABP-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-TM4C-IQMATH-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-EK-TM4C1294XL-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-BOOST-DLP7970ABP-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-EM-TRF7970ATB-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Chap 41Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-EK-LM4F232-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-BOOST-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Chap 33Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Chap 38Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-DK-TM4C129X-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boost Capsense Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-DK-TM4C123G-EM-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Chap 39Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-DK-TM4C123G-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Sw Ek Tm4c123gxl Boost Dlptrf7970abp Ug 2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- Chap 35Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant
- SW-EK-TM4C123GXL-BOOST-CC3000-UG-2.1.0.12573Uploaded bynoscribdyoucant