# Chapter 20

Thermal Properties and Processes

Conceptual Problems

1 • Why does the mercury level of a thermometer first decrease slightly
when the thermometer is first placed in warm water?

Determine the Concept The glass bulb warms and expands first, before the
mercury warms and expands.

2 • A large sheet of metal has a hole cut in the middle of it. When the
sheet is heated, the area of the hole will (a) not change, (b) always increase,
(c) always decrease, (d) increase if the hole is not in the exact center of the sheet,
(e) decrease only if the hole is in the exact center of the sheet.

Determine the Concept The heating of the sheet causes the average separation of
its molecules to increase. The consequence of this increased separation is that the
area of the hole always increases. ) (b is correct.

3 • [SSM] Why is it a bad idea to place a tightly sealed glass bottle that
is completely full of water, into your kitchen freezer in order to make ice?

Determine the Concept Water expands greatly as it freezes. If a sealed glass
bottle full of water is placed in a freezer, as the water freezes there will be no
room for the expansion to take place. The bottle will be broken.

4 • The windows of your physics laboratory are left open on a night when
the temperature of the outside dropped well below freezing. A steel ruler and a
wooden ruler were left on the window sill, and when you arrive in the morning
they are both very cold. The coefficient of linear expansion of wood is about
5 × 10
−6
K
−1
. Which ruler should you use to make the most accurate length

Determine the Concept You should use the wooden ruler. Because the
coefficient of expansion for wood is about half that for metal, the metal ruler will
have shrunk considerably more than will have the wooden ruler.

5 • Bimetallic strips are used both for thermostats and for electrical circuit
breakers. A bimetallic strip consists of a pair of thin strips of metal that have
different coefficients of linear expansion and are bonded together to form one
doubly thick strip. Suppose a bimetallic strip is constructed out of one steel strip
and one copper strip, and suppose the bimetallic strip is curled in the shape of a
circular arc with the steel strip on the outside. If the temperature of the strip is
decreased, will the strip straighten out or curl more tightly?

1863
Chapter 20

1864
Determine the Concept The strip will curl more tightly. Because the coefficient
of linear expansion for copper (17 × 10
−6
K
−1
) is greater than the coefficient of
linear expansion for steel (11 × 10
−6
K
−1
), the length of the copper strip will
decrease more than the length of the steel strip−resulting in a tighter curl.

6 • Metal A has a coefficient of linear expansion that is three times the
coefficient of linear expansion of metal B. How do their coefficients of volume
expansion β compare? (a)

β
A
= β
B
, (b) β
A
= 3β
B
, (c) β
A
= 6β
B
, (d) β
A
= 9β
B
,
(e) You cannot tell from the data given.

Determine the Concept We know that the coefficient of volume expansion is
three times the coefficient of linear expansion and so can use this fact to express
the ratio of
A
β to
B
β .

Express the coefficient of volume
expansion of metal A in terms of its
coefficient of linear expansion:

A A
3α β =

Express the coefficient of volume
expansion of metal B in terms of its
coefficient of linear expansion:

B B
3α β =

Dividing the first of these equations
by the second yields:
B
A
B
A
B
A
3
3
α
α
α
α
β
β
= =

Because
B A
3α α = :

3
3
B
B
B
A
= =
α
α
β
β
⇒ ( ) b is correct.

7 • The summit of Mount Rainier is 14 410 ft above sea level.
Mountaineers say that you cannot hard boil an egg at the summit. This statement
is true because at the summit of Mount Rainier (a) the air temperature is too low
to boil water, (b) the air pressure is too low for alcohol fuel to burn, (c) the
temperature of boiling water is not hot enough to hard boil the egg, (d) the oxygen
content of the air is too low to support combustion, (e) eggs always break in
climbers′ backpacks.

Determine the Concept Actually, an egg can be hard boiled, but it takes quite a
bit longer than at sea level. ) (c is the best response.

8 • Which gases in Table 20-3 cannot be condensed by applying pressure

Determine the Concept Gases that cannot be liquefied by applying pressure at
20°C are those for which T
c
< 293 K. These are He, Ar, Ne, H
2
, O
2
, NO.
Thermal Properties and Processes

1865
9 •• [SSM] The phase diagram in Figure 20-15 can be interpreted to
yield information on how the boiling and melting points of water change with
altitude. (a) Explain how this information can be obtained. (b) How might this
information affect cooking procedures in the mountains?

Determine the Concept
(a) With increasing altitude, decreases; from curve OC, the temperature of the
liquid-gas interface decreases as the pressure decreases, so the boiling
temperature decreases. Likewise, from curve OB, the melting temperature
increases with increasing altitude.

(b) Boiling at a lower temperature means that the cooking time will have to be
increased.

10 •• Sketch a phase diagram for carbon dioxide using information from
Section 20-3.

Determine the Concept The following phase diagram for carbon dioxide was
constructed using information in Section 20-3.

atm , P
K , T
5.1
216.6 304.2
Gas
Gas
Solid
Vapor
Liquid
point Critical

11 •• Explain why the carbon dioxide on Mars is found in the solid state in
the polar regions even though the atmospheric pressure at the surface of Mars is
only about 1 percent of the atmospheric pressure at the surface of Earth.

Determine the Concept At very low pressures and temperatures, carbon dioxide
can exist only as a solid or gas (or vapor above the gas). The atmosphere of Mars
is 95 percent carbon dioxide. Mars, on average, is warm enough so that the
atmosphere is mostly gaseous carbon dioxide. The polar regions are cold enough
to enable solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) to exist, even at the low pressure.

12 •• Explain why decreasing the temperature of your house at night in
winter can save money on heating costs. Why doesn’t the cost of the fuel
consumed to heat the house back to the daytime temperature in the morning equal
Chapter 20

1866
the savings realized by cooling it down in the evening and keeping it cool
throughout the night?

Determine the Concept The amount of heat lost by the house is proportional to
the difference between the temperature inside the house and that of the outside air.
Hence, the rate at which the house loses heat (that must be replaced by the
furnace) is greater at night when the temperature of the house is kept high than
when it is allowed to cool down.

13 •• [SSM] Two solid cylinders made of materials A and B have the
same lengths; their diameters are related by d
A
= 2d
B
. When the same temperature
difference is maintained between the ends of the cylinders, they conduct heat at
the same rate. Their thermal conductivities are therefore related by which of the
following equations? (a) k
A
= k
B
/4, (b) k
A
= k
B
/2, (c) k
A
= k
B
, (d) k
A
= 2k
B
,
(e) k
A
= 4k
B
B

Picture the Problem The rate at which heat is conducted through a cylinder is
given by x T kA dt dQ I Δ Δ = = / / (see Equation 20-7) where A is the cross-
sectional area of the cylinder.

The heat current in cylinder A is the
same as the heat current in cylinder
B:

B A
I I =
Substituting for the heat currents
yields:

L
T
A k
L
T
A k
Δ
=
Δ
B B A A

A
B
B A
A
A
k k =
Because d
A
= 2d
B
:

=
B
B
B A
4A
A
k k ⇒
B 4
1
A
k k =
) (a is correct.

14 •• Two solid cylinders made of materials A and B have the same
diameter; their lengths are related by L
A
= 2L
B
. When the same temperature
difference is maintained between the ends of the cylinders, they conduct heat at
the same rate. Their thermal conductivities are therefore related by which of the
following equations? (a) k
A
= k
B
/4, (b) k
A
= k
B
/2, (c) k
A
= k
B
, (d) k
A
= 2k
B
,
(e) k
A
= 4k
B
. B

Determine the Concept We can use the expression for the heat current in a
conductor, Equation 20-7, to relate the heat current in each cylinder to its thermal
conductivity, cross-sectional area, temperature difference, and length.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1867
The heat current in cylinder A is the
same as the heat current in cylinder
B:

B A
I I =
Substituting for the heat currents
yields:

B
B
A
A
L
T
A k
L
T
A k
Δ
=
Δ

B
A
B A
L
L
k k =
Because L
A
= 2L
B
:

B
B
B
B A
2
2
k
L
L
k k = = ⇒ ( ) d is correct.

15 •• If you feel the inside of a single pane window during a very cold day,
it is cold, even though the room temperature can be quite comfortable. Assuming
the room temperature is 20.0°C and the outside temperature is 5.0°C, Construct a
plot of temperature versus position starting from a point 5.0 m in behind the
window (inside the room) and ending at a point 5.0 m in front of the window.
Explain the heat transfer mechanisms that occur along this path.

Determine the Concept The temperatures on both sides of the glass are almost
the same. Because glass is an excellent conductor of heat, there need not be a
huge temperature difference. Thus the temperature must drop quickly as you near
the pane on the warm side and the same on the outside. This is sketched
qualitatively in the following diagram. Convection and radiation are primarily
responsible for heat transfer on the inside and outside, and it is mainly conduction
through the glass. Conduction through the interior and exterior air is minimal.
C , ° T
20
5
Inside Outside
m , x
5 0

16 •• During the thermal retrofitting of many older homes in California, it
was found that the 3.5-in-deep spaces between the wallboards and the outer
sheathing were filled with just air (no insulation). Filling the space with insulating
material certainly reduces heating and cooling costs; although, the insulating
material is a better conductor of heat than air is. Explain why adding the
insulation is a good idea.

Determine the Concept The tradeoff is the reduction of convection cells between
the walls by putting in the insulating material, versus a slight increase in
conductivity. The net reduction in convection results in a higher R value.
Chapter 20

1868
Estimation and Approximation

17 •• [SSM] You are using a cooking pot to boil water for a pasta dish.
The recipe calls for at least 4.0 L of water to be used. You fill the pot with 4.0 L
of room temperature water and note that this amount of water filled the pot to the
brim. Knowing some physics, you are counting on the volume expansion of the
steel pot to keep all of the water in the pot while the water is heated to a boil. Is
your assumption correct? Explain. If your assumption is not correct, how much
water runs over the sides of the pot due to the thermal expansion of the water?

Determine the Concept The volume of water overflowing is the difference
between the change in volume of the water and the change in volume of the pot.
See Table 20-1 for the coefficient of volume expansion of water and the
coefficient of linear expansion of steel.

Express the volume of water that
overflows when the pot and the water
are heated:
( ) T V
T V T V
V V V
Δ
Δ Δ
Δ Δ
0 steel O H
0 steel 0 O H
pot O H ovefrlow
2
2
2
β β
β β
− =
− =
− =

Because the coefficient of volume
expansion of steel is three times its
coefficient of linear expansion:

steel steel
3α β =
Substituting for
O H
2
β and
steel
β yields: ( ) T V V Δ 3
0 steel O H overflow
2
α α − =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :
overflow
V

( ) ( )( )( ) mL 56 C 20 C 100 L 4.0 K 10 11 3 K 10 207 . 0
1 6 1 3
overflow
= ° − ° × − × =
− − − −
V

Your assumption was not correct and 56 mL of water overflowed.

18 •• Liquid helium is stored in containers fitted with 7.00-cm-thick
″superinsulation″ consisting of numerous layers of very thin aluminized Mylar
sheets. The rate of evaporation of liquid helium in a 200-L container is about
0.700 L per day when the container is stored at room temperature (20ºC). The
density of liquid helium is 0.125 kg/L and the latent heat of vaporization is
21.0 kJ/kg. Estimate the thermal conductivity of the superinsulation.

Picture the Problem We can express the heat current through the insulation
in terms of the rate of evaporation of the liquid helium and in terms of the
temperature gradient across the superinsulation. Equating these equations will
lead to an expression for the thermal conductivity k of the superinsulation. Note
that the boiling temperature of liquid helium is 4.2 K.
Thermal Properties and Processes

1869
Express the heat current in terms of
the rate of evaporation of the liquid
helium:

dt
dm
L I
v
=

Express the heat current in terms of
superinsulation and the conductivity
of the superinsulation:

x
T
kA I
Δ
Δ
=

Equate these expressions and solve
for k to obtain:

T A
dt
dm
x L
k
Δ
Δ
=
v

Using the definition of density,
express the rate of loss of liquid
helium:

dt
dV
dt
dm
ρ =
Substitute for
dt
dm
to obtain:

T A
dt
dV
x L
k
Δ
Δ
=
ρ
v

Express the ratio of the area of the
spherical container to its volume:

3
3
4
2
4
r
r
V
A
π
π
= ⇒
3 2
36 V A π =
Substituting for A yields:
T V
dt
dV
x L
k
Δ
Δ
=
3 2
v
36π
ρ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate k:

( )
( ) ( )
K m
W
10 12 . 3
K 289 m 10 200 36
s 86400
m 10 0.700
m
kg
125 m 10 7.00
kg
kJ
21.0
6
3
2
3 3
3 3
3
2

× =
×

⎛ ×

×

=

π
k

19 •• [SSM] Estimate the thermal conductivity of human skin.

Picture the Problem We can use the thermal current equation for the thermal
conductivity of the skin. If we model a human body as a rectangular
parallelepiped that is 1.5 m high × 7 cm thick × 50 cm wide, then its surface area
2
. We’ll also assume that a typical human, while resting, produces
energy at the rate of 120 W, that normal internal and external temperatures are
33°C and 37°C, respectively, and that an average skin thickness is 1.0 mm.
Chapter 20

1870

Use the thermal current equation to
express the rate of conduction of
thermal energy:

I = kA
ΔT
Δx

x
T
A
I
k
Δ
Δ
=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate k:
( )
K m
mW
17
m 10 0 . 1
C 33 C 37
m 8 . 1
W 120
3
2 ⋅
=
×
° − °
=

k

20 •• You are visiting Finland with a college friend and have met some
Finnish friends. They talk you into taking part in a traditional Finnish after-sauna
exercise which consists of leaving the sauna, wearing only a bathing suit, and
running out into the mid-winter Finnish air. Estimate the rate at which you
initially lose energy to the cold air. Compare this rate of initial energy loss to the
resting metabolic rate of a typical human under normal temperature conditions.
Explain the difference.

Picture the Problem We can use the Stefan-Boltzmann law to estimate the rate at
which you lose energy when you first step out of the sauna. If we model a human
body as a rectangular parallelepiped that is 1.5 m high × 7 cm thick × 50 cm wide,
then its surface area is about 1.8 m
2
. Assume that your skin temperature is initially
37°C (310 K), that the mid-winter outside temperature is −10°C (263 K), and that
the emissivity of your skin is 1.

Use the Stefan-Boltzmann law to
express the net rate at which you
radiate energy to the cold air:

( )
4
air
4
skin net
T T A P − = εσ
Substitute numerical values and evaluate P
net
:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) W 450 K 63 2 K 310 m 8 . 1
K m
W
10 670 . 5 1
4 4 2
4 2
8
net
= − ⎟

× =

P

This result is almost four times greater than the basal metabolic rate of 120 W.
We can understand the difference in terms of the temperature of your skin when
you first step out of the sauna and the fact that radiation loses are dependent on
the fourth power of the absolute temperature.

Remarks: The emissivity of your skin is, in fact, very close to 1.

21 •• Estimate the rate of heat conduction through a 2.0-in-thick wooden
door during a cold winter day in Minnesota. Include the brass doorknob. What is
the ratio of the heat that escapes through the doorknob to the heat that escapes
through the whole door? What is the total overall R-factor for the door, including
the knob? The thermal conductivity of brass is ( ) K m W 85 ⋅ .
Thermal Properties and Processes

1871

Picture the Problem We can use the thermal current equation (Equation 20-7) to
estimate the rate of heat loss through the door and its knob. We’ll assume that the
door is made of oak with an area of 2.0 m
2
, that the knob is made of brass, that the
conducting path has a diameter of 3.0 cm, and that the inside temperature is 20°C.
Take the outside temperature to be −20°C. The reciprocal of the equivalent R-
factor is the sum of the reciprocals of the R-values of the door and the knob.

The total thermal current through the
door is the sum of the thermal
currents through the door and the
knob:
knob
knob knob
door
door door
knob door tot
Δ
Δ
Δ
Δ
x
T A k
x
T A k
I I I
+ =
+ =

Assume that to
obtain:
x x x Δ Δ Δ
knob door
= =

( )
x
T
A k A k I
Δ
Δ
knob knob door door tot
+ =
Substitute numerical values and evaluate I
tot
:

( ) ( )
( )
( )
kW 28 . 0
in 39.37
m 1
in 0 . 2
C 20 C 20
m 10 0 . 3
4 K m
W
85 m 0 . 2
K m
W
15 . 0
2
2 2
tot
=

° − − °

×

+

=

π
I

Express the ratio of the thermal
currents through the knob and the
door:
knob
knob knob
door
door door
door
knob
Δ
Δ
Δ
Δ

=
x
T
A k
x
T
A k
I
I

Because the temperature difference
across the door and the knob are the
same and we’ve assumed that the
thickness of the door and length of
the knob are the same:

knob knob
door door
door
knob
A k
A k
I
I
=

Substitute numerical values to
obtain:
( )
( )
0 . 5
m 10 0 . 3
4 K m
W
85
m 0 . 2
K m
W
15 . 0
2
2
2
door
knob
=
×

=

π I
I

Relate the equivalent R-factor to the
R-factors of the door and knob;
knob door eq
1 1 1
R R R
+ =
Chapter 20

1872

Substitute for R
door
and R
knob
to
obtain:
x
A k A k
A k
x
A k
x
R
Δ
Δ
1
Δ
1 1
knob knob door door
knob knob door door
eq
+
=
+ =

Solving for R
eq
yields:

knob knob door door
eq
Δ
A k A k
x
R
+
=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate R
eq
:

( )
( ) ( )
W
K
14 . 0
m 10 0 . 3
4 K m
W
85 m 0 . 2
K m
W
15 . 0
in 39.37
m 1
in 0 . 2
2
2 2
eq
=
×

+

=

π
R

22 •• Estimate the effective emissivity of Earth, given the following
information. The solar constant, which is the intensity of radiation incident on
Earth from the Sun, is about 1.37 kW/m
2
. Seventy percent of this energy is
absorbed by Earth, and Earth’s average surface temperature is 288 K. (Assume
that the effective area that is absorbing the light is πR
2
, where R is Earth’s radius,
while the blackbody-emission area is 4πR
2
.)

Picture the Problem The amount of heat radiated by Earth must equal the solar
flux from the Sun, or else the temperature on Earth would continually increase.
The emissivity of Earth is related to the rate at which it radiates energy into space
by the Stefan-Boltzmann law .
4
r
AT e P σ =

Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law,
express the rate at which Earth
radiates energy as a function of its
emissivity e and temperature T:

4
r
A'T e P σ = ⇒
4
r
A'T
P
e
σ
=
where A′ is the surface area of Earth.
Use its definition to express the
Earth:

A
P
I
absorbed
=
where A is the cross-sectional area of
Earth.

For 70% absorption of the Sun’s

( )
A
P
I
r
70 . 0
=
Substitute for P
r
and A in the
expression for e and simplify to
( ) ( ) ( )
4 4 2
2
4
4
70 . 0
4
70 . 0 70 . 0
T
I
T R
I R
A'T
AI
e
σ σ π
π
σ
= = =
Thermal Properties and Processes

1873
obtain:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate e:
( )( )
( )( )
61 . 0
K 288 K W/m 10 670 . 5 4
kW/m 37 . 1 70 . 0
4 4 2 8
2
=
⋅ ×
=

e

23 •• Black holes are highly condensed remnants of stars. Some black
holes, together with a normal star, form binary systems. In such systems the
black hole and the normal star orbit about the center of mass of the system. One
way black holes can be detected from Earth is by observing the frictional heating
of the atmospheric gases from the normal star that fall into the black hole. These
gases can reach temperatures greater than 1.0 × 10
6
K. Assuming that the falling
gas can be modeled as a blackbody radiator, estimate λ
max
for use in an
astronomical detection of a black hole. (Remark: This is in the X-ray region of
the electromagnetic spectrum.)

Picture the Problem The wavelength at which maximum power is radiated by
the gas falling into a black hole is related to its temperature by Wien’s
displacement law.

Wien’s displacement law relates the
wavelength at which maximum power
is radiated by the gas to its temperature:

T
K mm 898 . 2
max

= λ

Substitute for T and evaluate λ
max
:
nm 9 . 2
K 10 0 . 1
K mm 898 . 2
6
max
=
×

= λ

24 ••• Your cabin in northern Michigan has walls that consist of pine logs
that have average thicknesses of about 20 cm. You decide to finish the interior of
the cabin to improve the look and to increase the insulation of the exterior walls.
You choose to buy insulation with an R-factor of 31 to cover the walls. In
addition, you cover the insulation with 1.0-in-thick gypsum wallboard. Assuming
heat transfer is only due to conduction, estimate the ratio of thermal current
through the walls during a cold winter night before the renovation to the thermal
current through the walls following the renovation.

Picture the Problem We can use the thermal current equation to find the thermal
current per square meter through the walls of the cabin both before and after the
walls have been insulated. See Table 20-5 for the R-factor of gypsum wallboard
and Table 20-4 for the thermal conductivity of white pine.

The rate at which heat is conducted
through the walls is given by the
thermal current equation:

before
before before
Δ
Δ
Δ
R
T
x
T
A k I = =
Chapter 20

1874
With the insulation in place:
after
after after
Δ
Δ
Δ
R
T
x
T
A k I = =
Divide the second of these equations
by the first to obtain:

after
before
before
after
before
after
Δ
Δ
R
R
R
T
R
T
I
I
= =

before
R is the R-factor for pine and
is the sum of the R-factors for
pine, the insulating material, and the
gypsum board:
after
R
pine before
R R =
and
gypsum 31 pine eq after
R R R R R + + = =

Substitute for and to
obtain:
before
R
after
R
gypsum 31 pine
pine
before
after
R R R
R
I
I
+ +
=

gypsum 31
pine
pine
before
after
R R
k
x
k
x
I
I
+ +
Δ
Δ
=

Because
pine
pine
k
x
R
Δ
= :
Substitute numerical values and evaluate the ratio :
before after
/ I I

% 24
Btu
F ft h
32 . 0
in 0.375
in 1
Btu
F ft h
31
F ft h
in Btu
78 . 0
cm 2.54
in 1
cm 20
F ft h
in Btu
78 . 0
cm 2.54
in 1
cm 20
2 2
2
2
before
after
=
° ⋅ ⋅
× +
° ⋅ ⋅
+
° ⋅ ⋅

×
° ⋅ ⋅

×
=
I
I

25 ••• [SSM] You are in charge of transporting a liver from New York,
New York to Los Angeles, California for a transplant surgery. The liver is kept
cold in a Styrofoam ice chest initially filled with 1.0 kg of ice. It is crucial that the
liver temperature is never warmer than 5.0°C. Assuming the trip from the hospital
in New York to the hospital in Los Angeles takes 7.0 h, estimate the R-value the
Styrofoam walls of the ice chest must have.

Picture the Problem The R factor is the thermal resistance per unit area of a slab
of material. We can use the thermal current equation to express the thermal
resistance of the styrofoam in terms of the maximum amount of heat that can
enter the chest in 7.0 h without raising the temperature above 5.0°C. We’ll
Thermal Properties and Processes

1875
assume that the surface area of the ice chest is 1.0 m
2
and that the ambient
temperature is 25°C
The R-factor needed for the
styrofoam walls of the ice chest is the
product of their thermal resistance
and area:

RA R =
f
(1)

Use the thermal current equation to
express R:
tot
tot
Δ Δ
Δ
Δ Δ
Q
t T
t
Q
T
I
T
R = = =

Substitute for R in equation (1) to
obtain:
tot
f
Δ Δ
Q
t T A
R =

The total heat entering the chest in
7 h is given by:
O H O H ice f ice
water ice
warm
ice
melt tot
2 2
ΔT c m L m
Q Q Q
+ =
+ =

Substitute for Q
tot
and simplify to
obtain:
( )
O H O H f ice
f
2 2
Δ
Δ Δ
T c L m
t T A
R
+
=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate R
f
:

( )
( ) ( )
Btu
ft h F
8
C 5
K kg
kJ
18 . 4
kg
kJ
5 . 333 kg 1
Btu
J 35 . 1054
h 7
C 5
F 9
C 20
m 10 29 . 9
ft 1
m 1.0
2 2 2
2
2
f
⋅ ⋅ °

°

+

°
°
× °

×
×
=

R

Thermal Expansion

26 •• You have inherited your grandfather’s grandfather clock that was
calibrated when the temperature of the room was 20ºC. Assume that the pendulum
consists of a thin brass rod of negligible mass with a compact heavy bob at its
end. (a) During a hot day, the temperature is 30ºC, does the clock run fast or
slow? Explain. (b) How much time does it gain or lose during this day?

Picture the Problem We can determine whether the clock runs fast or slow from
the expression for the period of a simple pendulum and the dependence of its
length on the temperature. We can use the expression for the period of a simple
pendulum and the equation describing its length as a function of temperature to
find the time gained or lost in a 24-h period.

Chapter 20

1876
(a) Express the period of the
pendulum in terms of its length:
g
L
T π 2
P
=
Because L T ∝
P
and L is temperature dependent, the clock runs slow.

(b) The period of the pendulum when
the temperature is 20°C is given by:

g
L
T
20
20
2π = (1)
When the temperature increases to
30°C, the period of the pendulum
increases due to the increase in its
length:

( )
C 20
C 20
1
1
2 2
t T
g
t L
g
L
T
Δ + =
Δ +
= =
α
α
π π

20
20
20
T
T T
T
T −
=
Δ
=
Δ
τ
τ

The daily fractional gain or loss is
given by :
Substituting for T and simplifying
yields:

1 1
1
C
20
20 C 20
− Δ + =
− Δ +
=
Δ
t
T
T t T
α
α
τ
τ

Solve for Δτ to obtain:

( )τ α τ 1 1
C
− Δ + = Δ t
Substitute numerical values and Δτ:

( )( ) ( ) s 2 . 8
h
s 3600
h 24 1 C 20 C 30 K 10 19 1
1 6
= ⎟

× − ° − ° × + = Δ
− −
τ

27 •• [SSM] You need to fit a copper collar tightly around a steel shaft that
has a diameter of 6.0000 cm at 20ºC. The inside diameter of the collar at that
temperature is 5.9800 cm. What temperature must the copper collar have so that it
will just slip on the shaft, assuming the shaft itself remains at 20ºC?

Picture the Problem Because the temperature of the steel shaft does not change,
we need consider just the expansion of the copper collar. We can express the
required temperature in terms of the initial temperature and the change in
temperature that will produce the necessary increase in the diameter D of the
copper collar. This increase in the diameter is related to the diameter at 20°C and
the increase in temperature through the definition of the coefficient of linear
expansion.

Express the temperature to which the T T T Δ + =
i

Thermal Properties and Processes

1877
copper collar must be raised in terms
of its initial temperature and the
increase in its temperature:
Apply the definition of the
coefficient of linear expansion to
express the change in temperature
required for the collar to fit on the
shaft:

D
D D
D
T
α α
Δ
=

⎛ Δ
= Δ
Substitute for ΔT to obtain:
D
D
T T
α
Δ
+ =
i

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate T: ( )( )
C 220
cm 5.9800 K 10 17
cm 9800 . 5 cm 0000 . 6
C 20
1 6
° =
×

+ ° =
− −
T

28 •• You have a copper collar and a steel shaft. At 20°C, the collar has an
inside diameter of 5.9800 cm and the steel shaft has diameter of 6.0000 cm. The
copper collar was heated. When its inside diameter exceeded 6.0000 cm is was
slipped on the shaft. The collar fitted tightly on the shaft after they cooled to room
temperature. Now, several years later, you need to remove the collar from the
shaft. To do this you heat them both until you can just slip the collar off the shaft.
What temperature must the collar have so that the collar will just slip off the
shaft?

Picture the Problem Because the temperatures of both the steel shaft and the
copper collar change together, we can find the temperature change required for the
collar to fit the shaft by equating their diameters for a temperature increase ΔT.
These diameters are related to their diameters at 20°C and the increase in
temperature through the definition of the coefficient of linear expansion.

Express the temperature to which the
collar and the shaft must be raised in
terms of their initial temperature and
the increase in their temperature:

T T T Δ + =
i
(1)
Express the diameter of the steel
shaft when its temperature has been
increased by ΔT:

( ) T D D Δ + =
° steel C steel,20 steel
1 α
Express the diameter of the copper
collar when its temperature has been
( ) T D D Δ + =
° Cu C Cu,20 Cu
1 α
Chapter 20

1878
increased by ΔT:

If the collar is to fit over the shaft
when the temperature of both has
been increased by ΔT:

( )
( ) T D
T D
Δ + =
Δ +
°
°
steel C steel,20
Cu C Cu,20
1
1
α
α

steel C steel,20 Cu C Cu,20
C Cu,20 C steel,20
α α
° °
° °

= Δ
D D
D D
T

Solving for ΔT yields:
Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:
steel C steel,20 Cu C Cu,20
C Cu,20 C steel,20
i
α α
° °
° °

+ =
D D
D D
T T

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

( )( ) ( )( )
C 580
/K 10 11 cm 6.0000 /K 10 17 cm 5.9800
cm 5.9800 cm 6.0000
C 20
6 6
° =
× − ×

+ ° =
− −
T

29 •• A container is filled to the brim with 1.4 L of mercury at 20ºC. As the
temperature of container and mercury is increased to 60ºC, a total of 7.5 mL of
mercury spill over the brim of the container. Determine the linear expansion
coefficient of the material that makes up the container.

Picture the Problem The linear expansion coefficient of the container is one-
third its coefficient of volume expansion. We can relate the changes in volume of
the mercury and the container to their initial volumes, temperature change, and
coefficients of volume expansion, and, because we know the amount of spillage,
obtain an equation that we can solve for β
c
.

Relate the linear expansion
coefficient of the container to its
coefficient of volume expansion:

c 3
1
c
β α = (1)
Express the difference in the change
in the volume of the mercury and the
container in terms of the spillage:

mL 5 . 7
c Hg
= Δ − Δ V V (2)
Express using the definition of
the coefficient of volume expansion:
Hg
V Δ

T V V Δ = Δ
Hg Hg Hg
β
Express using the definition of
the coefficient of volume expansion:
c
V Δ T V V Δ = Δ
c c c
β
Thermal Properties and Processes

1879

Chapter 20

1880

Substitute for and in
equation (2) to obtain:
Hg
V Δ
c
V Δ

mL 5 . 7
c c Hg Hg
= Δ − Δ T V T V β β
T V
T V
Δ
mL 5 . 7 Δ
c
Hg Hg
c

=
β
β
Solving for β
c
yields:
or, because V = V
Hg
= V
c
,
T V
T V
T V
Δ
mL 5 . 7
Δ
mL 5 . 7 Δ
Hg
Hg
c
− =

=
β
β
β

Substitute for
c
β in equation (1) to
obtain:

T V T V Δ 3
mL 5 . 7
Δ 3
mL 5 . 7
Hg Hg 3
1
c
− = − = α β α

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate α
c
:
( )
( )( )
1 6
1 3
3
1
c
K 10 15
K 40 L 4 . 1 3
mL 5 . 7
K 10 18 . 0
− −
− −
× =
− × = α

30 •• A car has a 60.0-L steel gas tank filled to the brim with 60.0-L of
gasoline when the temperature of the outside is 10ºC. The coefficient of volume
expansion for gasoline at 20°C is 0.950 × 10
−3
K

1. How much gasoline spills out
of the tank when the outside temperature increases to 25ºC? Take the expansion
of the steel tank into account.

Picture the Problem The amount of gas that spills is the difference between the
change in the volume of the gasoline and the change in volume of the tank. We
can find this difference by expressing the changes in volume of the gasoline and
the tank in terms of their common volume at 10°C, their coefficients of volume
expansion, and the change in the temperature.

Express the spill in terms of the
change in volume of the gasoline and
the change in volume of the tank:

tank gasoline spill
V V V Δ − Δ =
Relate to the coefficient
of volume expansion for
gasoline:
gasoline
V Δ

T V V Δ = Δ
gasoline gas
β
Thermal Properties and Processes

1881

Relate to the coefficient of
linear expansion for steel:
tank
V Δ T V V Δ = Δ
tank tank
β
or, because β
steel
= 3α
steel
,
T V V Δ = Δ
steel tank

( )
steel gasoline
steel gas spill
3
3
α β
α β
− Δ =
Δ − Δ =
T V
T V T V V

Substitute for and
and simplify to obtain:
gasoline
V Δ
tank
V Δ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :
spill
V

( )( )[ ( )] L 8 . 0 K 10 11 3 K 10 950 . 0 C 0 1 C 25 L 60.0
1 6 1 3
spill
≈ × − × ° − ° =
− − − −
V

31 ••• What is the tensile stress in the copper collar of Problem 27 when its
temperature returns to 20ºC?

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of Young’s modulus to express
the tensile stress in the copper in terms of the strain it undergoes as its
temperature returns to 20°C. We can show that ΔL/L for the circumference of the
collar is the same as Δd/d for its diameter.

Using Young’s modulus, relate the
stress in the collar to its strain:

where L
20°C
is the circumference of the
collar at 20°C.

Express the circumference of the
collar at the temperature at which
it fits over the shaft:

Express the circumference of the
collar at 20 °C:

C 20
Strain Stress
°
Δ
= × =
L
L
Y Y
T T
d L π =
C 20 C 20 ° °
= d L π
Substitute for and and
simplify to obtain:
T
L
C 20°
L

C 20
C 20
C 20
C 20
Stress
°
°
°
°

=

=
d
d d
Y
d
d d
Y
T
T
π
π π
Chapter 20

1882

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the stress:

( )
2 12 2 10
N/m 10 7 . 3
cm 5.9800
cm 9800 . 5 cm 0000 . 6
N/m 10 11 Stress
− −
× =

× =

The van der Waals Equation, Liquid-Vapor Isotherms, and Phase
Diagrams

32 • (a) Calculate the volume of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas at a temperature
of 100ºC and a pressure of 1.00 atm. (b) Calculate the temperature at which
1.00 mol of steam at a pressure of 1.00 atm has the volume calculated in Part (a).
Use a = 0.550 Pa⋅m
6
/mol
2
and b = 30.0 cm
3
/mol.

Picture the Problem We can apply the ideal-gas law to find the volume of 1.00
mol of steam at 100°C and a pressure of 1.00 atm and then use the van der Waals
equation to find the temperature at which the steam will this volume.

(a) Solving the ideal-gas law for the
volume gives:

P
nRT
V =
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate V:

( )( )( )
L 6 . 30
m 10
L 1
m 10 06 . 3
atm
kPa 101.325
atm 00 . 1
K 373 K J/mol 314 . 8 mol 00 . 1
3 3
3 2
=
× × =
×

=

V

(b) Solve van der Waals equation
for T to obtain:

( )
nR
bn V
V
an
P
T

+
=
2
2

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
K 375
K J/mol 8.314 mol 1.00
mol 00 . 1 /mol m 10 30.0 m 10 3.06
m 10 3.06
mol 1.00 /mol m Pa 0.550
kPa 325 . 101
3 6 3 2
2
3 2
2 2 6
=

× − ×
×

×

+ =
− −

T

Thermal Properties and Processes

1883
33 •• [SSM] Using Figure 20-16, find the following quantities. (a) The
temperature at which water boils on a mountain where the atmospheric pressure is
70.0 kPa, (b) the temperature at which water boils in a container where the
pressure inside the container is 0.500 atm, and (c) the pressure at which water
boils at 115ºC.

Picture the Problem Consulting Figure 20-16, we see that:

(a) At 70.0 kPa, water boils at approximately C 90° .

(b) At 0.500 atm (about 51 kPa), water boils at approximately C 78° .

(c) The pressure at which water boils at 115°C is approximately kPa 127 .

34 •• The van der Waals constants for helium are a = 0.03412 L
2
⋅atm/mol
2

and b = 0.0237 L/mol. Use these data to find the volume in cubic centimeters
occupied by one helium atom. Then, estimate the radius of the helium atom.

Picture the Problem Assume that a helium atom is spherical. Then we can find
its volume from the van der Waals equation and its radius from
3
3
4
r V π = .

In the van der Waals equation, b is the
volume of 1 mol of molecules. For He,
1 molecule = 1 atom. Use Avogadro’s
number to express b in cm
3
/atom:

atom
cm
10 94 . 3
mol
atoms
10 6.022
L
cm
10
mol
L
0237 . 0
3
23
23
3
3

× =
×

= b

The volume of a spherical helium
atom is given by:
3
3
4
r V π = ⇒
3 3
4
3
4
3
π π
b V
r = =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate r:
( )
nm 211 . 0
4
cm 10 94 . 3 3
3
3 23
=
×
=

π
r

Conduction

35 • [SSM] A 20-ft × 30-ft slab of insulation has an R factor of 11. At
what rate is heat conducted through the slab if the temperature on one side is a
constant 68ºF and the temperature of the other side is a constant 30ºF?

Chapter 20

1884
Picture the Problem We can use its definition to express the thermal current in
the slab in terms of the temperature differential across it and its thermal resistance
and use the definition of the R factor to express I as a function of ΔT, the cross-
sectional area of the slab, and R
f
.

Express the thermal current through
the slab in terms of the temperature
difference across it and its thermal
resistance:

R
T
I
Δ
=
Substitute to express R in terms of
the insulation’s R factor:

f f
/ R
T A
A R
T
I
Δ
=
Δ
=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate I:
( )( )( )
h
kBtu
2.1
Btu
F ft h
11
F 30 F 68 ft 30 ft 20
2
=
° ⋅ ⋅
° − °
= I

36 •• A copper cube and an aluminum, cube each with 3.00-cm-long edges,
are arranged as shown in Figure 20-17. Find (a) the thermal resistance of each
cube, (b) the thermal resistance of the two-cube combination, (c) the thermal
current I, and (d) the temperature at the interface of the two cubes.

Picture the Problem We can use kA x R Δ = to find the thermal resistance of each
cube and the fact that they are in series to find the thermal resistance of the two-
cube system. We can use R T I Δ = to find the thermal current through the cubes
and the temperature at their interface. See Table 20-4 for the thermal
conductivities of copper and aluminum.

kA
x
R
Δ
=

(a) Using its definition, express the
thermal resistance of each cube:
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate the thermal resistance of
the copper cube:

( )
K/W 0831 . 0 K/W 08313 . 0
cm 3.00
K m
W
401
cm 3.00
2
Cu
= =

= R

Thermal Properties and Processes

1885
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate the thermal resistance of
the aluminum cube:

( )
K/W 141 . 0 K/W 1406 . 0
cm 3.00
K m
W
37 2
cm 3.00
2
Al
= =

= R

(b) Because the cubes are in series,

K/W 0.224 K/W 0.2237
K/W 0.1406 K/W 0.08313
Al Cu
= =
+ =
+ = R R R

(c) Using its definition, find the
thermal current:

kW 0.36 W 6 . 357
K/W 0.2237
C 20 C 100 Δ
= =
° − °
= =
R
T
I

(d) Express the temperature at the
interface between the two cubes:

Cu interface
Δ C 100 T T − ° =

Express the temperature differential
across the copper cube:

Cu Cu Cu Cu
IR R I T = = Δ

Substitute for ΔT
Cu
to obtain:
Cu interface
C 100 IR T − ° =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate T
interface
:

( )( )
C 70
K/W 08313 . 0 W 357.6
C 100
interface
° ≈

° = T

37 •• Two metal cubes, one copper and one aluminum, with 3.00-cm-long
edges, are arranged in parallel, as shown in Figure 20-18. Find (a) the thermal
current in each cube, (b) the total thermal current, and (c) the thermal resistance of
the two-cube combination.

Picture the Problem We can use Equation 20-9 to find the thermal current in
each cube. Because the currents are additive, we can find the equivalent resistance
of the two-cube system from
total eq
I T R Δ = .

(a) The thermal current in each cube
is given by Equation 20-9:

x
T
kA
R
T
I
Δ
Δ
=
Δ
=
Chapter 20

1886

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the thermal current in the copper
cube:

( ) kW 96 . 0 W 4 . 962
cm 3.00
C 20 C 100
cm 3.00
K m
W
401
2
Cu
= =

⎛ ° − °

= I

Substitute numerical values and evaluate the thermal current in the
aluminum cube:

( ) kW 57 . 0 W 8 . 568
cm 3.00
C 20 C 100
cm 3.00
K m
W
37 2
2
Al
= =

⎛ ° − °

= I

(b) Because the cubes are in parallel,
their total thermal currents are

kW 1.5 kW 1.531
W 8 . 68 5 W 4 . 62 9
Al Cu
= =
+ = + = I I I

(c) Use the relationship between the
total thermal current, temperature
differential and thermal resistance to
find R
eq
:
K/W 0.052
kW 1.531
C 20 C 100 Δ
total
eq
=
° − °
= =
I
T
R

38 •• The cost of air conditioning a house is approximately proportional to
the rate at which heat is absorbed by the house from its surroundings divided by
the coefficient of performance (COP) of the air conditioner. Let us denote the
temperature difference between the inside temperature and the outside
temperature as ΔT. Assuming that the rate at which heat is absorbed by a house is
proportional to ΔT and that the air conditioner is operating ideally, show that the
cost of air conditioning is proportional to (ΔT)
2
divided by the temperature inside
the house.

Picture the Problem The cost of operating the air conditioner is proportional to
the energy used in its operation. We can use the definition of the COP to relate the
rate at which the air conditioner removes heat from the house to rate at which it
must do work to maintain a constant temperature differential between the interior
and the exterior of the house. To obtain an expression for the minimum rate at
which the air conditioner must do work, we’ll assume that it is operating with the
maximum efficiency possible. Doing so will allow us to derive an expression for
the rate at which energy is used by the air conditioner that we can integrate to
obtain the energy (and hence the cost of operation) required.

Relate the cost C of air conditioning
the energy W required to operate the
air conditioner:
uW C = (1)
where u is the unit cost of the energy.
Thermal Properties and Processes

1887
Express the rate dQ/dt at which heat
flows into a house provided the
house is maintained at a constant
temperature:

T k
dt
dQ
P Δ = =
where ΔT is the temperature difference
between the interior and exterior of the
house.

Use the definition of the COP to
relate the rate at which the air
conditioner must remove heat dW/dt
to maintain a constant temperature:

dt dW
dt dQ
= COP ⇒
dt
dQ
dt
dW
COP
1
=
Express the maximum value of the
COP:
T
T
Δ
=
c
max
COP
where
house
the inside c
T T = is the temperature
of the cold reservoir.

Letting COP = COP
max
, substitute to
obtain an expression for the
minimum rate at which the air
conditioner must do work in order to
maintain a constant temperature:

T
T
dt
dQ
dt
dW
Δ
c
=
Substituting for dQ/dt gives:
( )
2
c c
T
T
k
T
T
T k
dt
dW
Δ = Δ
Δ
=

Separate variables and integrate
this equation to obtain:

( ) ( ) t T
T
k
dt' T
T
k
W
t
Δ Δ = Δ =

Δ
2
c 0
2
c

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:
( ) t T
T
k
u C Δ Δ
2
c
= ⇒
( )
c
2
Δ
T
T
C ∝

39 •• A spherical shell of thermal conductivity k has inside radius r
1
and
2
(Figure 20-19). The inside of the shell is held at a temperature
T
1
, and the outside of the shell is held at temperature T
2
, with T
1
< T
2
. In this
problem, you are to show that the thermal current through the shell is given by
I = −
4πkr
1
r
2
r
2
− r
1
T
2
− T
1
( )

where I is positive if heat is transferred in the +r direction. Here is a suggested
procedure for obtaining this result: (1) obtain an expression for the thermal current
I through a thin spherical shell of radius r and thickness dr when there is a
temperature difference dT across the thickness of the shell; (2) explain why the
thermal current is the same through each such thin shell; (3) express the thermal
current I through such a shell element in terms of the area A = 4πr
2
, the thickness
Chapter 20

1888
dr, and the temperature difference dT across the element; and (4) separate
variables (solve for dT in terms of r and dr) and integrate.

Picture the Problem We can follow the step-by-step instructions given in the
problem statement to obtain the differential equation describing the variation of T
with r. Integrating this equation will yield an equation that we can solve for the
current I.

(1) The thermal current through a
thin spherical shell surface of area A
and thickness dr due to a
dr
dT
is given by:

dr
dT
kA I =

(2) Conservation of energy requires that the thermal current through each shell be
the same.

dr
dT
kr I
2
4π =

(3) For a shell of area A = 4π r
2
:
2
4 r
dr
k
I
dT
π
=

(4) Separating the variables yields:
Integrate from r = r
1
to r = r
2
and
simplify to obtain:

∫ ∫
=
2
1
2
1
2
4
r
r
T
T
r
dr
k
I
dT
π

and

− − =

− = −
2 1
1 2
1 1
4
1
4
2
1
r r k
I
r k
I
T T
r
r
π π

Solving for I gives:

( )
1 2
1 2
2 1
4
T T
r r
r kr
I −

− =
π

40 • Calculate λ
max
(the wavelength at which the emitted power is
maximum) for a human skin. Assume the human skin is a blackbody emitter with
a temperature of 33ºC.

Picture the Problem We can apply Wein’s displacement law to find the
wavelength at which the power is a maximum.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1889
Wein’s law relates the maximum
wavelength of the radiation to the
temperature of its source:

T
K mm 898 . 2
max

= λ

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate λ
max
:
m 47 . 9
K 33 K 273
K mm 2.898
max
μ λ =
+

=

41 • [SSM] The universe is filled with radiation that is believed to be
remaining from the Big Bang. If the entire universe is considered to be a
blackbody with a temperature equal to 2.3 K, what is the λ
max
(the wavelength at

Picture the Problem We can use Wein’s law to find the peak wavelength of this

Wein’s law relates the maximum
wavelength of the background
radiation to the temperature of the
universe:

T
K mm 2.898
max

= λ

Substituting for T gives:
mm .3 1
K 3 . 2
K mm 2.898
max
=

= λ

42 • What is the range of temperatures for star surfaces for which λ
max
(the
wavelength at which the power of the emitted radiation is maximum) is in the
visible range?

Picture the Problem The visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum extends
from approximately 400 nm to 700 nm. We can use Wein’s law to find the range
of temperatures corresponding to these wavelengths.

Wein’s law relates the maximum
wavelength of the radiation to the
temperature of its source:

T
K mm 2.898
max

= λ

Solving for T yields:
max
K mm 2.898
λ

= T

For λ
max
= 400 nm:

K 7250
nm 400
K mm 2.898
=

= T

For λ
max
= 700 nm:

K 4140
nm 700
K mm 2.898
=

= T
Chapter 20

1890
The range of temperatures is K 7250 K 4140 ≤ ≤ T .

43 • The heating wires of a 1.00-kW electric heater are red hot at a
temperature of 900ºC. Assuming that 100 percent of the heat released is due to
radiation and that the wires act as blackbody emitters, what is the effective area of
the radiating surface? (Assume a room temperature of 20ºC.)

Picture the Problem We can apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to find the net
power radiated by the wires of its heater to the room.

Relate the net power radiated to the
surface area of the heating wires,
their temperature, and the room
temperature:

( )
4
0
4
net
T T A e P − = σ ⇒
( )
4
0
4
net
T T e
P
A

=
σ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate A:

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
2
4 4
4 2
8
cm 5 . 93
K 293 K 1173
K m
W
10 5.6703 1
kW 1.00
=

×
=

A

44 •• A blackened, solid copper sphere that has a radius equal to 4.0 cm
hangs in an evacuated enclosure whose walls have a temperature of 20ºC. If the
sphere is initially at 0ºC, find the initial rate at which its temperature changes,
assuming that heat is transferred by radiation only. (Assume the sphere is a
blackbody emitter.)

Picture the Problem The rate at which the copper sphere absorbs radiant energy
is given by and, from the Stephan-Boltzmann law, dt mcdT dt dQ / / =
( )
4
0
4
net
T T A e P − = σ where A is the surface area of the sphere, T
0
is its
temperature, and T is the temperature of the walls. We can solve the first equation
for dT/dt and substitute P
net
for dQ/dt in order to find the initial rate at which the
temperature of the sphere changes.

Relate the rate at which the sphere
absorbs radiant energy to the rate at
which its temperature changes:

dt
dT
mc
dt
dQ
P = =
net

Solving for
dt
dT
and substituting
for mc gives:

c r
P
Vc
P
mc
P
dt
dT
ρ π ρ
3
3
4
net net net
= = =

Thermal Properties and Processes

1891
Apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to
relate the net power radiated to the
sphere to the difference in
temperature of the walls and the
blackened copper sphere:

( )
( )
4
0
4 2
4
0
4
net
4 T T e r
T T A e P
− =
− =
σ π
σ

Substitute for to obtain:
net
P
( )
( )
c r
T T e
c r
T T e r
dt
dT
ρ
σ
ρ π
σ π
4
0
4
3
3
4
4
0
4 2
3
4

=

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate dT/dt:

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
K/s 10 2 . 2
K kg
kJ
0.386
m
kg
10 8.93 m 10 4.0
K 273 K 293
K m
W
10 5.6703 1 3
3
3
3 2
4 4
4 2
8

× =

× ×

×
− =
dt
dT

45 •• The surface temperature of the filament of an incandescent lamp is
1300ºC. If the electric power input is doubled, what will the new temperature be?
Hint: Show that you can neglect the temperature of the surroundings.

Picture the Problem We can apply the Stephan-Boltzmann law to express the net
power radiated by the incandescent lamp to its surroundings.

( )

− =
− =
4
0 4
4
0
4
net
1
T
T
AT e
T T A e P
σ
σ

Express the rate at which energy is
3
4
4
0
10 1
K 1573
K 293

× ≈

=

T
T

Evaluate
4
0

T
T
:
Because
4
0

T
T
is so small, we can
neglect the temperature of the
surroundings. Hence:

4
net
AT e P σ ≈ ⇒
4 1
net

=
A e
P
T
σ

Express the temperature T ′when the
electric power input is doubled:
4 1
net
2

=
A e
P
T'
σ

Chapter 20

1892
Dividing the second of these
equations by the first and solving for
T gives:

( )
4 1
2 =
T
T'
⇒ ( ) T T'
4 1
2 =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate T ′
( ) ( )
C 1598
K 1871 K 1573 2
4 1
° =
= = T'

46 •• Liquid helium is stored at its boiling point (4.2 K) in a spherical can
that is separated by an evacuated region of space from a surrounding shield that is
maintained at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (77 K). If the can is 30 cm in
diameter and is blackened on the outside so that it acts as a blackbody emitter,
how much helium boils away per hour?

Picture the Problem We can differentiate Q = mL, where L is the latent heat of
boiling for helium, with respect to time to obtain an expression for the rate at
which the helium boils away.

Express the rate at which the helium
boils away in terms of the rate at
energy:

( )
( )

− =

=

= =
4
0 4
2
4
0
4 2
4
0
4
net
1
T
T
T
L
d e
L
T T d e
L
T T A e
L
P
dt
dm
σπ
σπ
σ

If T
0
<< T, then:

4
2
T
L
d e
dt
dm σπ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate dm/dt:

( ) ( )
( )
g/h 97
h
s 3600
s
kg
10 2.68
K 77
kg
kJ
21
m 30 . 0
K m
W
10 5.6703 1
5
4
2
4 2
8
= × × =

×

π
dt
dm

Thermal Properties and Processes

1893
General Problems

47 • A steel tape is placed around Earth at the equator when the temperature
is 0ºC. What will the clearance between the tape and the ground (assumed to be
uniform) be if the temperature of the tape increases to 30ºC? Neglect the
expansion of Earth.

Picture the Problem The distance by which the tape clears the ground equals
the change in the radius of the circle formed by the tape placed around Earth at the
equator.

Express the change in the radius of
the circle defined by the steel tape:

T R R Δ = Δ α
where R is the radius of Earth, α is the
coefficient of linear expansion of steel,
and ΔT is the increase in temperature.

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ΔR:

( )( )( ) km 1 . 2 m 10 10 . 2 C 0 C 30 K 10 11 m 10 6.37 Δ
3 1 6 6
= × = ° − ° × × =
− −
R

48 •• Show that change in the density ρ of an isotropic material due to an
increase in temperature ΔT is given by Δρ = –βρΔT.

Picture the Problem We can differentiate the definition of the density of an
isotropic material with respect to T and use the definition of the coefficient of
volume expansion to express the rate at which the density of the material changes
with respect to temperature. Once we have an expression for dρ in terms of dT,
we can apply a differential approximation to obtain Δρ in terms of ΔT.

Using its definition, relate the
density of the material to its
mass and volume:

V
m
= ρ
Using its definition, relate the
volume of the material to its
coefficient of volume expansion:

T V V Δ = Δ β
Chapter 20

1894

ρβ β
ρ
β
ρ ρ
− = − =
− = =
V
V
V
V
V
m
dT
dV
dV
d
dT
d
2
2

or
dT d ρβ ρ − =

Differentiate ρ with respect to T and
simplify to obtain:
Using the differential approximations
ρ ρ Δ ≈ d and yields: T dT Δ ≈
T Δ Δ ρβ ρ − =

49 •• [SSM] The solar constant is the power received from the Sun per
unit area perpendicular to the Sun’s rays at the mean distance of Earth from the
Sun. Its value at the upper atmosphere of Earth is about 1.37 kW/m
2
. Calculate
the effective temperature of the Sun if it radiates like a blackbody. (The radius of
the Sun is 6.96 × 10
8
m.).

Picture the Problem We can apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to express the
effective temperature of the Sun in terms of the total power it radiates. We can, in
turn, use the intensity of the Sun’s radiation in the upper atmosphere
of Earth to approximate the total power it radiates.

Apply the Stefan-Boltzmann law to
relate the energy radiated by the Sun
to its temperature:

4
r
AT e P σ = ⇒
4
r
A e
P
T
σ
=
2
S
4 R A π =

Express the surface area of the sun:
Relate the intensity of the Sun’s
to the total power radiated by the
sun:

2
4 R
P
I
r
π
= ⇒ I R P
r
2
4π =
where R is the Earth-Sun distance.
Substitute for P
r
and A in the
expression for T and simplify to
obtain:
4
2
S
2
4
2
S
2
4
4
R e
I R
R e
I R
T
σ π σ
π
= =

Thermal Properties and Processes

1895

Substitute numerical values and evaluate T:

( )
( ) ( )
K 5800
m 10 6.96
K m
W
10 5.67 1
m
kW
1.35 m 10 1.5
4
2
8
2
8
2
2
11
=
×

×

×
=

T

50 •• As part of your summer job as an engineering intern at an insulation
manufacturer, you are asked to determine the R factor of insulating material. This
particular material comes in

1
2
-in sheets. Using this material, you construct a
hollow cube that has 12-in long edges. You place a thermometer and a 100-W
heater inside the box. After thermal equilibrium has been attained, the
temperature inside the box is 90ºC when the temperature outside the box is 20ºC.
Determine the R factor of the material.

Picture the Problem We can solve the thermal-current equation for the R factor
of the material.

Use the equation for the thermal
current to express I in terms of the
insulation:

x
T
kA I
Δ
Δ
=
f
f
R
T A
A
R
T
kA
x
T
I
Δ
=
Δ
=
Δ
Δ
=

Rewrite this expression in terms of
the R factor of the material:
Solving for the R factor gives:
I
T A
I
T A
R
Δ
=
Δ
=
side one
f
6

Substitute numerical values and evaluate R:

( )
Btu
h ft F
2 . 2
s 3600
h 1
Btu
J 1054
m
ft 10.76
K 5
F 9
s
J
m K
0.390
W
m K
0.39 C 20 C 90
W 100
in
m 10 2.54
in 12 6
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
f
⋅ ⋅ °
= × × ×
°
×

=

= ° − °

⎛ ×
×
=

R

Chapter 20

1896
51 • (a) From the definition of β, the coefficient of volume expansion (at
constant pressure), show that β = 1/T for an ideal gas. (b) The experimentally
determined value of β for N
2
gas at 0ºC is 0.003673 K
–1
. By what percent does
this measured value of β differ from the value obtained by modeling N
2
as an
ideal gas?

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the coefficient of volume
expansion with the ideal-gas law to show that β = 1/T.

dT
dV
V
1
= β

(a) Use the definition of the
coefficient of volume expansion to
express β in terms of the rate of
change of the volume with
temperature:
For an ideal gas:
P
nRT
V = and
P
nR
dT
dV
=

Substitute for
dT
dV
to obtain:
T P
nR
V
1 1
= = β
(b) Express the percent difference
between the experimental value and
the theoretical value:
% 3 . 0
K
273
1
K
273
1
K 0.003673
1
1 1
th
th exp
<

=

− −
β
β β

52 •• A rod of length L
A
, made from material A, is placed next to a rod of
length L
B
, made of material B. The rods remain in thermal equilibrium with each
other. (a) Show that even though the lengths of each rod will change with changes
in the ambient temperature, the difference between the two lengths will remain
constant if the lengths L
A
and L
B
are chosen such that L
A
/L
B
= α
B

A
, where α
A

and α
B
are the coefficients of linear expansion, respectively. (b) If material B is
steel, material A is brass, and L
A
= 250 cm at 0ºC, what is the value of L
B
?

Picture the Problem Let ΔL be the difference between L
B
and L B
A

and express L
B
and L
A
in terms of the coefficients of linear expansion of materials
A and B. Requiring that ΔL be constant will lead us to the condition that
L
A
/L
B
= α
B

A
.

Thermal Properties and Processes

1897
(a) Express the condition that ΔL
does not change when the
temperature of the materials
changes:

constant
A B
= − = Δ L L L (1)

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) T L L L
T L L L L
T L L T L L L
Δ − + Δ =
Δ − + − =
Δ + − Δ + = Δ
A A B B
A A B B A B
A A A B B B
α α
α α
α α

Using the definition of the
coefficient of linear expansion,
substitute for L
B
and L
A
:

or
( ) 0
A A B B
= Δ − T L L α α

The condition that ΔL remain
constant when the temperature
changes by ΔT is:

0
A A B B
= − L L α α
Solving for the ratio of L
A
to L
B

yields:
A
B
B
A
α
α
=
L
L

(b) From (a) we have:

steel
brass
brass
B
A
A steel B
α
α
α
α
L L L L = = =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate L
B
:
( ) cm 430
K 10 11
K 10 19
cm 250
1 6
1 6
B
=
×
×
=
− −
− −
L

53 •• [SSM] On the average, the temperature of Earth’s crust increases
1.0ºC for every increase in depth of 30 m. The average thermal conductivity of
Earth’s crust material is 0.74 J/m⋅s⋅K. What is the heat loss of Earth per second
due to conduction from the core? How does this heat loss compare with the
2
)?

Picture the Problem We can apply the thermal-current equation to calculate
the heat loss of Earth per second due to conduction from its core. We can
also use the thermal-current equation to find the power per unit area radiated
from Earth and compare this quantity to the solar constant.

Express the heat loss of Earth per
unit time as a function of the thermal
conductivity of Earth and its

x
T
kA
dt
dQ
I
Δ
Δ
= = (1)
or

x
T
k R
dt
dQ
Δ
Δ
=
2
E

Chapter 20

1898
Substitute numerical values and evaluate dQ/dt:

( ) kW 10 3 . 1
m 30
C 1.0
K s m
J
0.74 m 10 37 . 6 4
10
2
6
× =

⎛ °

⋅ ⋅
× = π
dt
dQ

Rewrite equation (1) to express the
thermal current per unit area:

x
T
k
A
I
Δ
Δ
=
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate I/A:
( )
2
W/m 0.0247
m 30
C 1.0
K s J/m 0.74
=

⎛ °
⋅ ⋅ =
A
I

Express the ratio of I/A to the solar
constant:
% 002 . 0
kW/m 1.37
W/m 0.0247
constant solar
2
2
<
=
A I

54 •• A copper-bottomed saucepan containing 0.800 L of boiling water boils
dry in 10.0 min. Assuming that all the heat is transferred through the flat copper
bottom, which has a diameter of 15.0 cm and a thickness of 3.00 mm, calculate
the temperature of the outside of the copper bottom while some water is still in
the pan.

Picture the Problem We can find the temperature of the outside of the copper
bottom by finding the temperature difference between the outside of the saucepan
and the boiling water. This temperature difference is related to the rate at which
the water is evaporating through the thermal-current equation.

Express the temperature outside the
pan in terms of the temperature
inside the pan:

T T T T Δ C 100 Δ
in out
+ ° = + = (1)
Relate the thermal current through
the bottom of the saucepan to its
thermal conductivity, area, and the
surfaces:

x
T
kA
t
Q
Δ
Δ
=
Δ
Δ
⇒ x
t
Q
kA
T Δ
Δ
Δ
= Δ
1

v
mL Q = Δ

Because the water is boiling:
Thermal Properties and Processes

1899
Substitute for ΔQ to obtain:

t kA
x mL
T
Δ
Δ
Δ
v
=

Substituting for ΔT in equation (1)
yields:

t kA
x mL
T
Δ
Δ
C 100
v
out
+ ° =
Substitute numerical values and evaluate T
out
:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
C 101
s 600 m 0.150
4 K m
W
401
m 10 3.00
kg
MJ
2.26 kg 0.800
C 100
2
3
out
° =

×

+ ° =

π
T

55 •• A cylindrical steel hot-water tank of cylindrical shape has an inside
diameter of 0.550 m and inside height of 1.20 m. The tank is enclosed with a
5.00-cm-thick insulating layer of glass wool whose thermal conductivity is 0.0350
W/(m⋅K). The insulation is covered by a thin sheet-metal skin. The steel tank and
the sheet-metal skin have thermal conductivities that are much greater than that of
the glass wool. How much electrical power must be supplied to this tank in order
to maintain the water temperature at 75.0ºC when the external temperature is
1.0ºC?

Picture the Problem Thermal energy is lost from this tank through its cylindrical
side and its top and bottom. The power required to maintain the temperature of
the water in the tank is equal to the rate at which thermal energy is conducted
through the insulation.

Express the total thermal current as
the sum of the thermal currents
through the top and bottom and the
side of the hot-water tank:

side bottom and top
I I I + = (1)
Express I through the top and bottom
surfaces:

x
T
k d
x
T
kA I
Δ
Δ
Δ
Δ
2
2
2
1
bottom
and top
π =

=
Substitute numerical values and evaluate :
bottom
and top
I

( )
( )
W 6 . 24
m 0.0500
C 0 . 1 C 75.0
K m
W
0.0350
m 550 . 0
2
2
1
bottom
and top
=
° − °

= π I

Chapter 20

1900
dr
dT
kLr
dr
dT
kA I π 2
side
− = − =
where the minus sign is a consequence
of the heat current being opposite the

Letting r represent the inside radius
of the tank, express the heat current
through the cylindrical side:
r
dr
kL
I
dT
π 2
side
− =

Separating the variables yields:
Integrate from r = r
1
to r = r
2
and
T = T
1
to T = T
2
and simplify to
obtain:

∫ ∫
− =
2
1
2
1
2
side
r
r
T
T
r
dr
kL
I
dT
π

and
]

=

− =
− = −
2
1 side
1
2 side
side
1 2
ln
2
ln
2
ln
2
2
1
r
r
kL
I
r
r
kL
I
r
kL
I
T T
r
r
π
π
π

Solving for I
side
gives:

( )
1 2
2
1
side
ln
2
T T
r
r
kL
I −

=
π

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I
side
:

( )
( ) W 117 C 0 . 1 C 0 . 75
m 0.275
m 0.325
ln
m 1.20
K m
W
0.0350 2
side
= ° − °

=
π
I

Substitute numerical values in
equation (1) and evaluate I:
W 142 W 17 1 W 4.6 2 = + = I

56 ••• The diameter d of a tapered rod of length L is given by d = d
0
(1 + ax),
where a is a constant and x is the distance from one end. If the thermal
conductivity of the material is k what is the thermal resistance of the rod?

Thermal Properties and Processes

1901
Picture the Problem We can use R = ΔT/I and I = −kAdT/dt to express dT in
terms of the linearly increasing diameter of the rod. Integrating this expression
will allow us to find ΔT and, hence, R.

The thermal resistance of the rod is
given by:

I
T
R
Δ
= (1)
where I the thermal current in the rod.

dx
dT
kA I − =
where the minus sign is a consequence
of the heat current being opposite the

Relate the thermal current in the rod
to its thermal conductivity k, cross-
sectional area A, and temperature
Using the dependence of the
diameter of the rod on x, express the
area of the rod:

( )
2 2
0
2
1
4 4
ax d
d
A + = =
π π

Substitute for A to obtain:

( )
dx
dT
ax d k I

+ − =
2 2
0
1
4
π

Separating variables yields:

( )
( )
2 2
0
2 2
0
1
4
1
4
ax
dx
kd
I
ax d k
Idx
dT
+
− =

+
− =
π
π

Integrating T from T
1
to T
2
and x
from 0 to L gives:
( )
∫ ∫
+
− =
L T
T
ax
dx
kd
I
dT
0
2 2
0
1
4
2
1
π

and
( ) aL kd
IL
T T T
+
= Δ = −
1
4
2
0
1 2
π

Substitute for ΔT and I in equation
(1) and simplify to obtain: ( )
( ) aL kd
L
I
aL kd
IL
R
+
=
+
=
1
4 1
4
2
0
2
0
π
π

57 ••• A solid disk of radius r and mass m is spinning about a frictionless
axis through its center and perpendicular to the disk, with angular velocity ω
1
at
temperature T
1
. The temperature of the disk decreases to T
2
. Express the angular
velocity ω
2
, rotational kinetic energy K
2
, and angular momentum L
2
in terms of
Chapter 20

1902
their values at the temperature T
1
and the linear expansion coefficient α of the
disk.

Picture the Problem Let ΔT = T
2
– T
1
. We can apply Newton’s second law to
establish the relationship between L
2
and L
1
and angular momentum conservation
to relate ω
2
and ω
1
. We can express both E
2
and E
1
in terms of their angular
momenta and rotational inertias and take their ratio to establish their relationship.

Because 0 =

τ , ΔL = 0
Apply
t
L
Δ
Δ
=

τ to the spinning
disk:
and
1 2
L L =

Apply conservation of angular
momentum to relate the angular
velocity of the disk at T
2
to the
angular velocity at T
1
:

1 1 2 2
ω ω I I = ⇒
1
2
1
2
ω ω
I
I
= (1)
Express I
2
:
( )
( ) ( )
2
1
2 2
1
2
2 2
Δ Δ 2 1
Δ 1
T T I
T mr mr I
α α
α
+ + =
+ = =

Because (αΔT)
2
is small compared to
αΔT:

( ) T I I Δ 2 1
1 2
α + ≈
Substitute for I
2
in equation (1)
to obtain:

( )
1
1
1
2
Δ 2 1
ω
α
ω
T I
I
+
= (2)

Expanding ( binomially
yields:
)
1
Δ 2 1

+ T α

( )
s order term higher
Δ 2 1 Δ 2 1
1
+
− = +

T T α α
Because the higher order terms are
very small:

( ) T T Δ 2 1 Δ 2 1
1
α α − ≈ +

( )
1 2
2 1 ω α ω T Δ − ≈

Substituting in equation (2) yields:
Express E
2
in terms of L
2
and I
2
:
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 2 I
L
I
L
E = = because L
2
= L
1
.
Express E
1
in terms of L
1
and I
1
:
1
2
1
1
2I
L
E =
Thermal Properties and Processes

1903
Express the ratio of E
2
to E
1
and
simplify to obtain:
2
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
2
I
I
I
L
I
L
E
E
= = ⇒
2
1
1 2
I
I
E E =

Substituting for the ratio of I
1
to I
2

yields:
( ) T E E E Δ 2 1
1
1
2
1 2
α
ω
ω
− = =

58 ••• Write a spreadsheet program to graph the average temperature of the
surface of Earth as a function of emissivity, using the results of Problem 22. How
much does the emissivity have to change in order for the average temperature to
increase by 1 K? This result can be thought of as a model for the effect of
increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases like methane and CO
2
in Earth’s
atmosphere.

Picture the Problem The amount of heat radiated by Earth must equal the solar
flux from the Sun, or else the temperature on Earth would continually increase.
The emissivity of Earth is related to the rate at which it radiates energy into space
by the Stefan-Boltzmann law .
4
r
AT e P σ =

Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law,
express the rate at which Earth
radiates energy as a function of its
emissivity e and temperature T:

4
r
A'T e P σ =
where A′ is the surface area of Earth.
Use its definition to express the
a

absorbed by Earth:

A
P
I
a
= or AI P =
a

where A is the cross-sectional area of
Earth.

For 70% absorption of the Sun’s

( )AI P 70 . 0
a
=
Equate P
r
and P
a
and simplify:

( )
4
70 . 0 A'T e AI σ =
or
( ) ( )
4 2 2
4 70 . 0 T R e I R σ π π =

Solve for T to obtain:
( )
4 1
4
4
70 . 0

= = Ce
e
I
T
σ
(1)

Substitute numerical values for I
and σ and simplify to obtain:

( )( )
( )
( )
4 1
4
4 2 8
2
K 255
K W/m 10 670 . 5 4
W/m 1370 70 . 0

=
⋅ ×
=
e
e
T

Chapter 20

1904
A spreadsheet program to evaluate T as a function of e is shown below. The
formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as follows:

Cell Formula/Content Algebraic Form
B1 255
e B4 0.4
e + 0.1 B5 B4+0.01
( )
C4 \$B\$1/(B4^0.25)
4 1
K 255

e

A B C D
1 T= 255 K
2
3 e T
4 0.40 321
5 0.41 319
6 0.42 317
7 0.43 315

23 0.59 291
24 0.60 290
25 0.61 289
26 0.62 287

A graph of T as a function of e follows.
285
290
295
300
305
310
315
320
325
0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60
e
T

(
K
)

Treating e as a variable, differentiate
equation (1) to obtain:
de Ce
de
dT
4 5
4
1

− = (2)

Thermal Properties and Processes

1905
Divide equation (2) by equation (1)
to obtain:
e
de
Ce
de Ce
T
dT
4
1
4
1
4 1
4 5
− =

=

Use a differential approximation to
obtain:

e
e
T
T Δ
− =
Δ
4
1

T
T
e
e Δ
− =
Δ
4

Substitute numerical values
(e ≈ 0.615 for T
Earth
= 288 K) and
evaluate e e Δ :
014 . 0
K 288
K 1
4 − =

− =
Δ
e
e

59 ••• [SSM] A small pond has a layer of ice 1.00 cm thick floating on its
surface. (a) If the air temperature is –10ºC on a day when there is a breeze, find
the rate in centimeters per hour at which ice is added to the bottom of the layer.
The density of ice is 0.917 g/cm
3
. (b) How long do you and your friends have to
wait for a 20.0-cm layer to be built up so you can play hockey?

Picture the Problem (a) We can differentiate the expression for the heat that
must be removed from water in order to form ice to relate dQ/dt to the rate of ice
build-up dm/dt. We can apply the thermal-current equation to express the rate at
which heat is removed from the water to the temperature gradient and solve this
equation for dm/dt. In Part (b) we can separate the variables in the differential
equation relating dm/dt and ΔT and integrate to find out how long it takes for a
20.0-cm layer of ice to be built up.

(a) Relate the heat that must be
removed from the water to freeze it
to its mass and heat of fusion:

f
mL Q = ⇒
dt
dm
L
dt
dQ
f
=
Using the definition of density,
relate the mass of the ice added to
the bottom of the layer to its density
and volume:

Ax V m ρ ρ = =
Differentiate with respect to time
to express the rate of build-up of
the ice:

dt
dx
A
dt
dm
ρ =
Substitute for
dt
dm
to obtain:
dt
dx
A L
dt
dQ
ρ
f
=

The thermal-current equation is:
x
T
kA
dt
dQ Δ
=
Chapter 20

1906
x
T
kA
dt
dx
A L
Δ
= ρ
f

x
T
L
k
dt
dx Δ
=
ρ
f
(1)

Equate these expressions and
solve for
dt
dx
:

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate
dt
dx
:
( ) ( )
( )( )
cm/h 0.70
cm/h 0.697
h
s 3600
s
m
94 . 1
m 0.0100 kg/m 917
kg
kJ
333.5
C 10 C 0
K m
W
0.592
3
=
= × =

° − − °

=
μ
dt
dx

(b) Separating the variables in
equation (1) gives:

dt
L
T k
xdx
ρ
f
Δ
=
Integrate x from x
i
to x
f
and t′ from
0 to t:
' dt
L
T k
xdx
t x
x
∫ ∫
Δ
=
0 f
f
i
ρ

and
( ) t
L
T k
x x
f
2
i
2
f 2
1
ρ
Δ
= − ⇒
( )
T k
x x L
t
Δ

=
2
2
i
2
f f
ρ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate t:

( ) ( )
( ) ( [ ] )
d 12
h 24
d 1
s 3600
h 1
s 10 03 . 1
m 0.010 m 0.200
C 10 C 0
K m
W
0.592 2
kg
kJ
333.5
m
kg
917
6
2 2
3
= × × × =

° − − °

= t

60 ••• [SSM] A blackened copper cube that has 1.00-cm-long edges is
heated to a temperature of 300ºC, and then is placed in a vacuum chamber whose
walls are at a temperature of 0ºC. In the vacuum chamber, the cube cools
radiatively. (a) Show that the (absolute) temperature T of the cube follows the
differential equation:

dT
dt
= −
eσA
C
T
4
−T
0
4
( )
where C is the heat capacity of the
cube, A is its surface area, e the emissivity, and T
o
the temperature of the vacuum
chamber. (b) Using Euler’s method (Section 5.4 of Chapter 5), numerically solve
the differential equation to find T(t), and graph it. Assume e = 1.00. How long
does it take the cube to cool to a temperature of 15ºC?
Thermal Properties and Processes

1907
Picture the Problem We can use the Stefan-Boltzmann equation and the
definition of heat capacity to obtain the differential equation expressing the rate at
which the temperature of the copper block decreases. We can then approximate
the differential equation with a difference equation for the purpose of solving for
the temperature of the block as a function of time using Euler’s method.

(a) The rate at which heat is radiated
away from the cube is given by:

( )
4
0
4
T T A e
dt
dQ
− = σ
Using the definition of heat capacity,
relate the thermal current to the rate
at which the temperature of the cube
is changing:

dt
dT
C
dt
dQ
− =
Equate these expressions and solve
for
dt
dT
to obtain:
( )
4
0
4
T T
C
A e
dt
dT
− − =
σ

Approximating the differential
equation by the difference equation
gives:

( )
4
0
4
T T
C
A e
t
T
− − =
Δ
Δ σ

( ) t T T
C
A e
T Δ − − = Δ
4
0
4
σ

or
( ) t T T
C
A e
T T
n n n
Δ − − =
+
4
0
4
1
σ
(1)

Solving for ΔT yields:
Use the definition of heat capacity to
obtain:
Vc mc C ρ = =

Substitute numerical values (see Figure 13-1 for ρ
Cu
and Table 19-1 for c
Cu
) and
evaluate C:

( )
K
J
45 . 3
K kg
kJ
386 . 0 m 10 00 . 1
m
kg
10 93 . 8
3 6
3
3
=

×

× =

C

Chapter 20

1908

(b) A spreadsheet program to calculate T as a function of t using equation (1) is
shown below. The formulas used to calculate the quantities in the columns are as
follows:

Cell Formula/Content Algebraic Form
B1
σ 5.67E−08
A B2 6.00E−04
C B3 3.45
T
0
B4 273
B5 10
Δt
A9 A8+\$B\$5 t+Δt
B9 B8-(\$B\$1*\$B\$2/\$B\$3)
(
*(B8^4−\$B\$4^4)*\$B\$5
) t T T
C
A e
T
n n
Δ − −
4
0
4
σ

A B C
1 σ= 5.67 × 10
−8
W/m
2
⋅K
4
2 A= 6.00 × 10
−4
m
2
3 C= 3.45 J/K
4 T
0
= 273 K
5 Δt= 10 s
6
7 t (s) T (K)
8 0 573.00
9 10 562.92
10 20 553.56
11 30 544.85

248 2400 288.22
249 2410 288.08
250 2420 287.95
251 2430 287.82

Thermal Properties and Processes

1909

From the spreadsheet solution, the time to cool to 15°C (288 K) is about 2420 s or
. min 5 . 40 A graph of T as a function of t follows.
270
320
370
420
470
520
570
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
t (s)
T

(
K
)