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Chapter 30

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

Conceptual Problems

1 • [SSM] True or false:

(a) The displacement current has different units than the conduction current.

(b) Displacement current only exists if the electric field in the region is

changing with time.

(c) In an oscillating LC circuit, no displacement current exists between the

capacitor plates when the capacitor is momentarily fully charged.

(d) In an oscillating LC circuit, no displacement current exists between the

capacitor plates when the capacitor is momentarily uncharged.

(a) False. Like those of conduction current, the units of displacement current are

C/s.

(b) True. Because displacement current is given by dt d I

e 0 d

φ ∈ = , I

d

is zero if

0

e

= dt dφ .

(c) True. When the capacitor is fully charged, the electric flux is momentarily a

maximum (its rate of change is zero) and, consequently, the displacement current

between the plates of the capacitor is zero.

(d) False. I

d

is zero if 0

e

= dt dφ . At the moment when the capacitor is

momentarily uncharged, dE/dt ≠ 0 and so 0

e

≠ dt dφ .

2 • Using SI units, show that dt d I

e 0 d

φ ∈ = has units of current.

Determine the Concept We need to show that dt d

e 0

φ ∈ has units of amperes.

We can accomplish this by substituting the SI units of

0

∈ and dt d

e

φ and

simplifying the resulting expression.

A

s

C

s

m

C

N

m N

C

2

2

= =

⋅

⋅

⋅

3 • [SSM] True or false:

(a) Maxwell’s equations apply only to electric and magnetic fields that are

constant over time.

(b) The electromagnetic wave equation can be derived from Maxwell’s

equations.

Chapter 30

840

(c) Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves.

(d) The electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave in free space

are in phase.

(a) False. Maxwell’s equations apply to both time-independent and time-

dependent fields.

(b) True. One can use Faraday’s law and the modified version of Ampere’s law to

derive the wave equation.

(c) True. Both the electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave

oscillate at right angles to the direction of propagation of the wave.

(d) True.

4 • Theorists have speculated about the existence of magnetic monopoles,

and several experimental searches for such monopoles have occurred. Suppose

magnetic monopoles were found and that the magnetic field at a distance r from a

monopole of strength q

m

is given by B = (μ

0

/4π)q

m

/r

2

. Modify the Gauss’s law for

magnetism equation to be consistent with such a discovery.

Determine the Concept Gauss’s law for magnetism would become

inside m, 0

S

n

q dA B μ =

∫

where q

m, inside

is the total magnetic charge inside the

Gaussian surface. Note that Gauss’s law for electricity follows from the existence

of electric monopoles (charges), and the electric field due to a point charge

follows from the inverse-square nature of Coulomb’s law.

5 • (a) For each of the following pairs of electromagnetic waves, which

has the higher frequency: (1) visible light or X rays, (2) green light or red light,

(3) infrared waves or red light. (b) For each of the following pairs of

electromagnetic waves, which has the longer wavelength: (1) visible light or

microwaves, (2) green light or ultraviolet light, (3) gamma rays or ultraviolet

light.

Determine the Concept Refer to Table 30-1 to rank order the frequencies and

wavelengths of the given electromagnetic radiation.

(a) (1) X rays (2) green light (3) red light

(b) (1) microwaves (2) green light (3) ultraviolet light

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

841

6 • The detection of radio waves can be accomplished with either an

electric dipole antenna or a loop antenna. True or false:

(a) The electric dipole antenna works according to Faraday’s law.

(b) If a linearly polarized radio wave is approaching you head on such that its

electric field oscillates vertically, to best detect this wave the normal to a

loop antenna’s plane should be oriented so that it points either right or left.

(c) If a linearly polarized radio wave is approaching you such that its electric

field oscillates in a horizontal plane, to best detect this wave using an dipole

antenna the antenna should be oriented vertically.

(a) False. A dipole antenna is oriented parallel to the electric field of an incoming

wave so that the wave can induce an alternating current in the antenna.

(b) True. A loop antenna is oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field of an

incoming wave so that the changing magnetic flux through the loop can induce a

current in the loop. Orienting the loop antenna’s plane so that it points either right

or left satisfies this condition.

(c) False. The dipole antenna needs to be oriented parallel to the electric field of

an incoming wave so that the wave can induce an alternating current in the

antenna.

7 • A transmitter emits electromagnetic waves using an electric dipole

antenna oriented vertically. (a) A receiver to detect these waves also uses an

electric dipole antenna that is one mile from the transmitting antenna and at the

same altitude. How should the receiver’s electric dipole antenna be oriented for

optimum signal reception? (b) A receiver to detect these waves uses a loop

antenna that is one mile from the transmitting antenna and at the same altitude.

How should the loop antenna be oriented for optimum signal reception?

Determine the Concept

(a) The electric dipole antenna should be oriented vertically.

(b) The loop antenna and the electric dipole transmitting antenna should be in the

same vertical plane.

8 • Show that the expression

0

μ B E

r r

× for the Poynting vector S

r

(Equation 30-21) has units of watts per square meter (the SI units for

electromagnetic wave intensity).

Determine the Concept We can that

0

μ B E

r r

× has units of W/m

2

by substituting

the SI units of E

r

, B

r

and

0

μ and simplifying the resulting expression.

Chapter 30

842

2 2 2 2

m

W

m

s

J

m

s

m N

m

s

C

C

m N

m

A

C

N

A

m

C

N

A

m T

T

C

N

= =

⋅

= ⋅

⋅

= ⋅ = =

⋅

⋅

9 • [SSM] If a red light beam, a green light beam, and a violet light

beam, all traveling in empty space, have the same intensity, which light beam

carries more momentum? (a) the red light beam, (b) the green light beam, (c) the

violet light beam, (d) They all have the same momentum. (e) You cannot

determine which beam carries the most momentum from the data given.

Determine the Concept The momentum of an electromagnetic wave is directly

proportional to its energy ( c U p = ). Because the intensity of a wave is its energy

per unit area and per unit time (the average value of its Poynting vector), waves

with equal intensity have equal energy and equal momentum. ( ) d is correct.

10 • If a red light plane wave, a green light plane wave, and a violet light

plane wave, all traveling in empty space, have the same intensity, which wave has

the largest peak electric field? (a) the red light wave, (b) the green light wave,

(c) the violet light wave, (d) They all have the same peak electric field. (e) You

cannot determine the largest peak electric field from the data given.

Determine the Concept The intensity of an electromagnetic wave is given by

0

0 0

av

2μ

B E

I = = S

r

.

The intensity of an electromagnetic

wave is given by:

0

0 0

av

2μ

B E

I = = S

r

Because E

0

= cB

0

:

0

2

0

av

2 μ c

E

= S

r

This result tells us that

2

0

av

E ∝ S

r

independently of the wavelength of the

electromagnetic radiation. Thus ( ) d is correct.

11 • Two sinusoidal plane electromagnetic waves are identical except that

wave A has a peak electric field that is three times the peak electric field of wave

B. How do their intensities compare? (a) I

A

=

1

3

I

B

(b) I

A

=

1

9

I

B

(c) I

A

= 3I

B

(d)

I

A

= 9I

B

(e) You cannot determine how their intensities compare from the data

given.

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

843

Determine the Concept The intensity of an electromagnetic wave is given by

0

0 0

av

2μ

B E

I = = S

r

.

Express the intensities of the two

waves:

0

A , 0 A , 0

A

2μ

B E

I = and

0

B , 0 B , 0

B

2μ

B E

I =

Dividing the first of these equations

by the second and simplifying yields:

B , 0 B , 0

A , 0 A , 0

0

B , 0 B , 0

0

A , 0 A , 0

B

A

2

2

B E

B E

B E

B E

I

I

= =

μ

μ

Because wave A has a peak electric

field that is three times that of wave

B, the peak magnetic field of A is

also three times that of wave B.

Hence:

( )( )

9

3 3

B , 0 B , 0

B , 0 B , 0

B

A

= =

B E

B E

I

I

⇒

B A

9I I =

( ) d is correct.

Estimation and Approximation

12 •• In laser cooling and trapping, the forces associated with radiation

pressure are used to slow down atoms from thermal speeds of hundreds of meters

per second at room temperature to speeds of a few meters per second or slower.

An isolated atom will absorb only radiation of specific frequencies. If the

frequency of the laser-beam radiation is tuned so that the target atoms will absorb

the radiation, then the radiation is absorbed during a process called resonant

absorption. The cross-sectional area of the atom for resonant absorption is

approximately equal to λ

2

, where λ is the wavelength of the laser light.

(a) Estimate the acceleration of a rubidium atom (molar mass 85 g/mol) in a laser

beam whose wavelength is 780 nm and intensity is 10 W/m

2

. (b) About how long

would it take such a light beam to slow a rubidium atom in a gas at room

temperature (300 K) to near-zero speed?

Picture the Problem We can use Newton’s second law to express the

acceleration of an atom in terms of the net force acting on the atom and the

relationship between radiation pressure and the intensity of the beam to find the

net force. Once we know the acceleration of an atom, we can use the definition of

acceleration to find the stopping time for a rubidium atom at room temperature.

(a) Apply Newton’s second law to

the atom to obtain:

ma F =

r

(1)

where F

r

is the radiation force exerted

by the laser beam.

Chapter 30

844

The radiation pressure P

r

and

intensity of the beam I are related

according to:

c

I

A

F

P = =

r

r

Solve for F

r

to obtain:

c

I

c

IA

F

2

r

λ

= =

Substitute for F

r

in equation (1) to

obtain:

ma

c

I

=

2

λ

⇒

mc

I

a

2

λ

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate a:

( )( )

( )

2 5

2 5

8

23

2 2

m/s 10 4 . 1

m/s 10 44 . 1

m/s 10 998 . 2

particles 10 6.022

mol 1

mol

g

85

nm 780 W/m 10

× =

× =

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

×

= a

(b) Using the definition of

acceleration, express the stopping

time Δt of the atom:

a

v v

t

initial final

−

= Δ

Because

final

v ≈ 0:

a

v

t

initial

−

≈ Δ

Using the rms speed as the initial

speed of an atom, relate

initial

v to the

temperature of the gas:

m

kT

v v

3

rms initial

= =

Substitute in the expression for the

stopping time to obtain:

m

kT

a

t

3 1

− = Δ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δt:

( )( )

ms 1 . 2

particles 10 6.022

mol 1

mol

g

85

K 300 J/K 10 38 . 1 3

m/s 10 44 . 1

1

Δ

23

23

2 5

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

×

×

× −

− =

−

t

13 •• [SSM] One of the first successful satellites launched by the United

States in the 1950s was essentially a large spherical (aluminized) Mylar balloon

from which radio signals were reflected. After several orbits around Earth,

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

845

scientists noticed that the orbit itself was changing with time. They eventually

determined that radiation pressure from the sunlight was causing the orbit of this

object to change—a phenomenon not taken into account in planning the mission.

Estimate the ratio of the radiation-pressure force by the sunlight on the satellite to

the gravitational force by Earth’s gravity on the satellite.

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of pressure to express the

radiation force on the balloon. We’ll assume that the gravitational force on the

balloon is approximately its weight at the surface of Earth, that the density of

Mylar is approximately that of water and that the area receiving the radiation from

the sunlight is the cross-sectional area of the balloon.

The radiation force acting on the

balloon is given by:

A P F

r r

=

where A is the cross-sectional area of

the balloon.

Because the radiation from the Sun is

reflected, the radiation pressure is

twice what it would be if it were

absorbed:

c

I

P

2

r

=

Substituting for P

r

and A yields:

( )

c

I d

c

d I

F

2

2

2 2

4

1

r

π π

= =

The gravitational force acting on the

balloon when it is in a near-Earth

orbit is approximately its weight at

the surface of Earth:

g t A

g V g m w F

ballon surface, Mylar

Mylar Mylar balloon balloon g

ρ

ρ

=

= = =

where t is the thickness of the Mylar

skin of the balloon.

Because the surface area of the

balloon is

2 2

4 d r π π = :

g t d F

2

Mylar g

πρ =

Express the ratio of the radiation-

pressure force to the gravitational

force and simplify to obtain:

gc t

I

g t d

c

I d

F

F

Mylar

2

Mylar

2

g

r

2

2

ρ πρ

π

= =

Chapter 30

846

Assuming the thickness of the Mylar skin of the balloon to be 1 mm, substitute

numerical values and evaluate F

r

/F

g

:

( )

7

8

2 3

3

2

g

r

10 2

s

m

10 998 . 2 mm 1

s

m

81 . 9

m

kg

10 00 . 1 2

m

kW

35 . 1

−

× ≈

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

=

F

F

14 •• Some science fiction writers have described solar sails that could

propel interstellar spaceships. Imagine a giant sail on a spacecraft subjected to

radiation pressure from our Sun. (a) Explain why this arrangement works better if

the sail is highly reflective rather than highly absorptive. (b) If the sail is assumed

highly reflective, show that the force exerted by the sunlight on the spacecraft is

given by ( ) c r A P

2

S

2π where P

S

is the power output of the Sun (3.8 × 10

26

W), A

is the surface area of the sail, m is the total mass of the spacecraft, r is the distance

from the Sun, and c is the speed of light. (Assume the area of the sail is much

larger than the area of the spacecraft so that all the force is due to radiation

pressure on the sail only.) (c) Using a reasonable value for A, compare the force

on the spacecraft due to the radiation pressure and the force on the spacecraft due

to the gravitational pull of the Sun. Does the result imply that such a system will

work? Explain your answer.

Picture the Problem (b) We can use the definition of radiation pressure to show

that the force exerted by the sunlight on the spacecraft is given by ( ) c r A P

2

S

2π

where P

S

is the power output of the Sun (3.8 × 10

26

W), A is the surface area of

the sail, m is the total mass of the spacecraft, r is the distance from the Sun, and c

is the speed of light.

(a) If the sail is highly reflective rather than highly absorptive, the radiation force

is doubled.

(b) Because the sail is highly

reflective:

c

IA

A P F

2

r r

= =

where A is the area of the sail.

The intensity of the solar radiation on

the sail is given by

2

s

4 r

P

I

π

= .

Substituting for I yields:

c r

A P

c r

A P

F

2

s

2

s

r

2 4

2

π π

= =

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

847

(c) Express the ratio of the force on

the spacecraft due to the radiation

pressure and the force on the

spacecraft due the gravitational force

of the Sun on the spacecraft:

S

S

2

S

2

S

g

r

2

2

cGmM

A P

r

GmM

c r

A P

F

F

π

π

= =

Assuming a 15-m diameter circular sail and a 500-kg spacecraft (values found

using the internet), substitute numerical values and evaluate the ratio of the

accelerations:

( ) ( )

( )( )

4

30

2

2

11 8

2 26

g

10 4 . 5

kg 10 99 . 1 kg 500

kg

m N

10 673 . 6

s

m

10 998 . 2 2

m 15

4

W 10 8 . 3

−

−

× =

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ⋅

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

=

π

π

F

F

r

for A = 177 m

2

and m = 500 kg.

This scheme is not likely to work effectively. For any reasonable spacecraft mass,

the surface mass density of the sail would to be extremely small (experimental

sails have area densities of approximately 3 g/m

2

) and the sail would have to be

huge. Additionally, unless struts are built into the sail, it would collapse during

use.

Maxwell’s Displacement Current

15 • [SSM] A parallel-plate capacitor has circular plates and no dielectric

between the plates. Each plate has a radius equal to 2.3 cm and the plates are

separated by 1.1 mm. Charge is flowing onto the upper plate (and off of the lower

plate) at a rate of 5.0 A. (a) Find the rate of change of the electric field strength in

the region between the plates. (b) Compute the displacement current in the region

between the plates and show that it equals 5.0 A.

Picture the Problem We can differentiate the expression for the electric field

between the plates of a parallel-plate capacitor to find the rate of change of the

electric field strength and the definitions of the conduction current and electric

flux to compute I

d

.

(a) Express the electric field strength

between the plates of the parallel-

plate capacitor:

A

Q

E

0

∈

=

Chapter 30

848

Differentiate this expression with

respect to time to obtain an

expression for the rate of change of

the electric field strength:

A

I

dt

dQ

A A

Q

dt

d

dt

dE

0 0 0

1

∈ ∈ ∈

= =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate dE/dt:

( ) ( )

s V/m 10 4 . 3

s V/m 10 40 . 3

m 023 . 0 m N / C 10 854 . 8

A 0 . 5

14

14

2 2 2 12

⋅ × =

⋅ × =

⋅ ×

=

−

π dt

dE

(b) Express the displacement current

I

d

: dt

d

I

e

0 d

φ

∈ =

Substitute for the electric flux to

obtain:

[ ]

dt

dE

A EA

dt

d

I

0 0 d

∈ ∈ = =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I

d

:

( ) ( ) ( ) A 0 . 5 s V/m 10 40 . 3 m 023 . 0 m N / C 10 854 . 8

14 2 2 2 12

d

= ⋅ × ⋅ × =

−

π I

16 • In a region of space, the electric field varies with time as

E = (0.050 N/C) sin (ωt), where ω = 2000 rad/s. Find the peak displacement

current through a surface that is perpendicular to the electric field and has an area

equal to 1.00 m

2

.

Picture the Problem We can express the displacement current in terms of the

electric flux and differentiate the resulting expression to obtain I

d

in terms of

dE/dt.

The displacement current I

d

is

given by: dt

d

I

e

0 d

φ

∈ =

Substitute for the electric flux to

obtain:

[ ]

dt

dE

A EA

dt

d

I

0 0 d

∈ ∈ = =

Because ( ) t E 2000 sin N/C 050 . 0 = :

( ) [ ]

( ) ( ) t A

t

dt

d

A I

2000 cos N/C 050 . 0 s 2000

2000 sin N/C 050 . 0

0

1 -

0 d

∈

∈

=

=

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

849

I

d

will have its maximum value

when cos 2000t = 1. Hence:

( ) ( ) N/C 050 . 0 s 2000

0

-1

max d,

A I ∈ =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate I

d,max

:

( ) ( ) nA 89 . 0

C

N

050 . 0 m 00 . 1

m N

C

10 854 . 8 s 2000

2

2

2

12 1

max d,

= ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

× =

− −

I

17 • For Problem 15, show that the magnetic field strength between the

plates a distance r from the axis through the centers of both plates is given by

B = (1.9 × 10

–3

T/m)r.

Picture the Problem We can use Ampere’s law to a circular path of radius r

between the plates and parallel to their surfaces to obtain an expression relating B

to the current enclosed by the amperian loop. Assuming that the displacement

current is uniformly distributed between the plates, we can relate the displacement

current enclosed by the circular loop to the conduction current I.

Apply Ampere’s law to a circular

path of radius r between the plates

and parallel to their surfaces to

obtain:

I I rB d

0 enclosed 0

C

2 μ μ π = = = ⋅

∫

l

r r

B

Assuming that the displacement

current is uniformly distributed:

2

d

2

R

I

r

I

π π

= ⇒

d 2

2

I

R

r

I =

where R is the radius of the circular

plates.

Substituting for I yields:

d 2

2

0

2 I

R

r

rB

μ

π = ⇒

d 2

0

2

I

R

r

B

π

μ

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate B:

( )

( )( )

( )

r

r r B

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

× =

×

=

−

−

m

T

10 9 . 1

m 023 . 0 2

A 0 . 5 A / N 10 4

3

2

2 7

π

π

18 •• The capacitors referred to in this problem have only empty space

between the plates. (a) Show that a parallel-plate capacitor has a displacement

current in the region between its plates that is given by I

d

= C dV/dt, where C is

the capacitance and V is the potential difference between the plates. (b) A 5.00-nF

Chapter 30

850

parallel-plate capacitor is connected to an ideal ac generator so the potential

difference between the plates is given by V = V

0

cos ωt, where V

0

= 3.00 V and

ω = 500π rad/s. Find the displacement current in the region between the plates as

a function of time.

Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of the displacement current and

electric flux, together with the expression for the capacitance of an air-core-

parallel-plate capacitor to show that I

d

= C dV/dt.

(a) Use its definition to express the

displacement current I

d

: dt

d

I

e

0 d

φ

∈ =

Substitute for the electric flux to

obtain:

[ ]

dt

dE

A EA

dt

d

I

0 0 d

∈ ∈ = =

Because E = V/d:

dt

dV

d

A

d

V

dt

d

A I

0

0 d

∈

∈ =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

The capacitance of an air-core-

parallel-plate capacitor whose plates

have area A and that are separated by

a distance d is given by:

d

A

C

0

∈

=

Substituting yields:

dt

dV

C I =

d

(b) Substitute in the expression derived in (a) to obtain:

( ) ( ) [ ] ( )( )( )

( ) t

t t

dt

d

I

π μ

π π π

500 sin A 6 . 23

500 sin s 500 V 00 . 3 nF 00 . 5 500 cos V 00 . 3 nF 00 . 5

1

d

− =

− = =

−

19 •• [SSM] There is a current of 10 A in a resistor that is connected in

series with a parallel plate capacitor. The plates of the capacitor have an area of

0.50 m

2

, and no dielectric exists between the plates. (a) What is the displacement

current between the plates? (b) What is the rate of change of the electric field

strength between the plates? (c) Find the value of the line integral

∫

⋅

C

d B l

r r

, where

the integration path C is a 10-cm-radius circle that lies in a plane that is parallel

with the plates and is completely within the region between them.

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

851

Picture the Problem We can use the conservation of charge to find I

d

, the

definitions of the displacement current and electric flux to find dE/dt, and

Ampere’s law to evaluate l

r r

d ⋅ B around the given path.

(a) From conservation of charge we

know that:

A 10

d

= = I I

(b) Express the displacement current

I

d

:

[ ]

dt

dE

A EA

dt

d

dt

d

I

0 0

e

0 d

∈ ∈

φ

∈ = = =

Substituting for dE/dt yields:

A

I

dt

dE

0

d

∈

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate dE/dt:

( )

s m

V

10 3 . 2

m 50 . 0

m N

C

10 85 . 8

A 10

12

2

2

2

12

⋅

× =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

×

=

−

dt

dE

(c) Apply Ampere’s law to a circular

path of radius r between the plates

and parallel to their surfaces to

obtain:

enclosed 0

C

I d μ = ⋅

∫

l

r r

B

Assuming that the displacement

current is uniformly distributed and

letting A represent the area of the

circular plates yields:

A

I

r

I

d

2

enclosed

=

π

⇒

d

2

enclosed

I

A

r

I

π

=

Substitute for

enclosed

I to obtain:

d

2

0

C

I

A

r

d

π μ

= ⋅

∫

l

r r

B

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

∫

⋅

C

l

r r

d B :

( ) ( ) ( )

m T 79 . 0

m 50 . 0

A 10 m 10 . 0 A / N 10 4

2

2 2 7

C

⋅ =

×

= ⋅

−

∫

μ

π π

l

r r

d B

20 ••• Demonstrate the validity of the generalized form of Ampère’s law

(Equation 30-4) by showing that it gives the same result as the Biot–Savart law

(Equation 27-3) in a specified situation. Figure 30-13 shows two momentarily

Chapter 30

852

equal but opposite point charges (+Q and –Q) on the x axis at x = –a and x = +a,

respectively. At the same instant there is a current I in the wire connecting them,

as shown. Point P is on the y axis at y = R. (a) Use the Biot–Savart law to show

that the magnitude of the magnetic field at point P is given byB =

μ

0

Ia

2πR

1

R

2

+ a

2

.

(b) Now consider a circular strip of radius r and width dr in the x = 0 plane that

has its center at the origin. Show that the flux of the electric field through this

strip is given by ( ) dr a r

r Q

dA E

x

2 3

2 2

0

+ =

∈

π

. (c) Use the result from Part (b) to

show that the total electric flux φ

e

through a circular surface S of radius R. is

given by

φ

e

=

Q

∈

o

1−

a

a

2

+ R

2

⎛

⎝

⎜

⎞

⎠

⎟

. (d) Find the displacement current I

d

through S,

and show that

I + I

d

= I

a

a

2

+ R

2

(e) Finally, show that the generalized form of

Ampere’s law (Equation 30-4) gives the same result for the magnitude of the

magnetic field as found in Part (a).

Picture the Problem We can follow the step-by-step instructions in the problem

statement to show that Equation 30-4 gives the same result for B as that given in

Part (a).

(a) Express the magnetic field

strength at P using the expression for

B due to a straight wire segment:

( )

2 1

0

sin sin

4

θ θ

π

μ

+ =

R

I

B

P

where

2 2

2 1

sin sin

a R

a

+

= = θ θ

Substitute for sinθ

1

and sinθ

2

to

obtain:

2 2

0

2 2

0

1

2

2

4

a R

R

Ia

a R

a

R

I

B

P

+

=

+

=

π

μ

π

μ

(b) Express the electric flux through

the circular strip of radius r and

width dr in the yz plane:

( ) rdr E dA E d

x x

π φ 2

e

= =

The electric field due to the dipole is:

( )

2 3

2 2

1 2 2

2

cos

2

a r

kQa

a r

kQ

E

x

+

=

+

= θ

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

853

Substitute for E

x

to obtain:

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

rdr

a r

Qa

rdr

a r

Qa

rdr

a r

kQa

dA E d

x

2 3

2 2

0

2 3

2 2

0

2 3

2 2

e

2

4

2

2

2

+

=

+

=

+

= =

∈

π

∈ π

π φ

(c) Multiply both sides of the

expression for dφ

e

by ∈

0

:

( )

rdr

a r

Qa

d

2 3

2 2

e 0

+

= φ ∈

Integrate r from 0 to R to obtain:

( )

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

− =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

+

−

=

+

=

∫

2 2 2 2

0

2 3

2 2

e 0

1

1 1

a R

a

Q

a

a R

Qa

a r

rdr

Qa

R

φ ∈

(d) The displacement current is

defined to be:

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

− − =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

− =

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

− = =

2 2

2 2

2 2

e

0 d

1

1

1

a R

a

I

dt

dQ

a R

a

a R

a

Q

dt

d

dt

d

I

φ

∈

The total current is the sum of I and

I

d

:

2 2

2 2

d

1

a R

a

I

a R

a

I I I I

+

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

− − = +

(e) Apply Equation 30-4 (the

generalized form of Ampere’s law)

to obtain:

( )

∫

+ = = ⋅

C

I I RB d

d 0

2 μ π l

r r

B

Solving for B yields:

( )

d

0

2

I I

R

B + =

π

μ

Chapter 30

854

Substitute for I + I

d

from (d) to

obtain:

2 2

0

2 2

0

1

2

2

a R

R

Ia

a R

a

I

R

B

+

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+

=

π

μ

π

μ

Maxwell’s Equations and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

21 • The color of the dominant light from the Sun is in the yellow-green

region of the visible spectrum. Estimate the wavelength and frequency of the

dominant light emitted by our Sun. HINT: See Table 30-1.

Picture the Problem We can find both the wavelength and frequency of the

dominant light emitted by our Sun in Table 30-1.

Because the radiation from the Sun is

yellow-green dominant, the dominant

wavelength is approximately:

nm 580

green - yellow

= λ

The corresponding frequency is:

Hz 10 17 . 5

nm 580

m/s 10 998 . 2

14

8

green - yellow

green - yellow

× =

×

=

=

λ

c

f

22 • (a) What is the frequency of microwave radiation that has a 3.00-cm-

long wavelength? (b) Using Table 30-1, estimate the ratio of the shortest

wavelength of green light to the shortest wavelength of red light.

Picture the Problem We can use c = fλ to find the frequency corresponding to

the given wavelength.

(a) The frequency of an

electromagnetic wave is the ratio of

the speed of light in a vacuum to the

wavelength of the wave:

λ

c

f =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate f:

GHz 99 . 9

Hz 10 993 . 9

m 10 00 . 3

m/s 10 998 . 2

10

2

8

=

× =

×

×

=

−

f

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

855

(b) The ratio of the shortest

wavelength green light to the shortest

wavelength red light is:

84 . 0

nm 620

nm 520

red shortest

green shortest

= ≈

λ

λ

23 • (a) What is the frequency of an X ray that has a 0.100-nm-long

wavelength? (b) The human eye is sensitive to light that has a wavelength equal to

550 nm. What is the color and frequency of this light? Comment on how this

answer compares to your answer for Problem 21.

Picture the Problem We can use c = fλ to find the frequency corresponding to

the given wavelengths and consult Table 30-1 to determine the color of light with

a wavelength of 550 nm.

(a) The frequency of an X ray with a

wavelength of 0.100 nm is:

Hz 10 00 . 3

m 10 100 . 0

m/s 10 998 . 2

18

9

8

× =

×

×

= =

−

λ

c

f

(b) The frequency of light with a

wavelength of 550 nm is:

Hz 10 45 . 5

nm 550

m/s 10 998 . 2

14

8

× =

×

= f

Consulting Table 30-1, we see that the color of light that has a wavelength of

550 nm is yellow-green. This result is consistent with those of Problem 21 and is

close to the wavelength of the peak output of the Sun. Because we see naturally

by reflected sunlight, this result is not surprising.

Electric Dipole Radiation

24 •• Suppose a radiating electric dipole lies along the z axis. Let I

1

be the

intensity of the radiation at a distance of 10 m and at angle of 90º. Find the

intensity (in terms of I

1

) at (a) a distance of 30 m and an angle of 90º, (b) a

distance of 10 m and an angle of 45º, and (c) a distance of 20 m and an angle of

30º.

Picture the Problem We can use the intensity I

1

at a distance r = 10 m and at an

angle θ = 90° to find the constant in the expression for the intensity of radiation

from an electric dipole and then use the resulting equation to find the intensity at

the given distances and angles.

Express the intensity of radiation as a

function of r and θ :

( ) θ θ

2

2

sin ,

r

C

r I = (1)

where C is a constant.

Chapter 30

856

Express I(90°,10 m):

( )

( )

2

2

2 1

m 100

90 sin

m 10

m 10 , 90

C

C

I I

=

° = = °

Solving for C yields:

( )

1

2

m 100 I C =

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

( )

( )

θ θ

2

2

1

2

sin

m 100

,

r

I

r I = (2)

(a) Evaluate equation (2) for

r = 30 m and θ = 90°:

( )

( )

( )

1 9

1

2

2

1

2

90 sin

m 30

m 100

m 30 , 90

I

I

I

=

° = °

(b) Evaluate equation (2) for

r = 10 m and θ = 45°:

( )

( )

( )

1 2

1

2

2

1

2

45 sin

m 10

m 100

m 10 , 45

I

I

I

=

° = °

(c) Evaluate equation (2) for

r = 20 m and θ = 30°:

( )

( )

( )

1 16

1

2

2

1

2

30 sin

m 20

m 100

m 20 , 30

I

I

I

=

° = °

25 •• (a) For the situation described in Problem 24, at what angle is the

intensity at a distance of 5.0 m equal to I

1

? (b) At what distance is the intensity

equal to I

1

when θ = 45º?

Picture the Problem We can use the intensity I

1

at a distance r = 10 m and at an

angle θ = 90° to find the constant in the expression for the intensity of radiation

from an electric dipole and then use the resulting equation to find the angle for a

given intensity and distance and the distance corresponding to a given intensity

and angle.

Express the intensity of radiation as a

function of r and θ :

( ) θ θ

2

2

sin ,

r

C

r I = (1)

where C is a constant.

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

857

Express I(90°,10 m):

( )

( )

2

2

2 1

m 100

90 sin

m 10

m 10 , 90

C

C

I I

=

° = = °

Solving for C yields:

( )

1

2

m 100 I C =

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

( )

( )

θ θ

2

2

1

2

sin

m 100

,

r

I

r I = (2)

(a) For r = 5 m and I(θ,r) = I

1

: ( )

( )

θ

2

2

1

2

1

sin

m 0 . 5

m 100 I

I = ⇒

4

1

2

sin = θ

Solve for θ to obtain:

( ) ° = =

−

30 sin

2

1

1

θ

(b) For θ = 45° and I(θ,r) = I

1

: ( )

° = 45 sin

m 100

2

2

1

2

1

r

I

I

or

( )

2

2

1

2

m 100 = r

Solve for r to obtain:

( ) m 1 . 7 m 100

2

2

1

= = r

26 •• You and your engineering crew are in charge of setting up a wireless

telephone network for a village in a mountainous region. The transmitting antenna

of one station is an electric dipole antenna located atop a mountain 2.00 km above

sea level. There is a nearby mountain that is 4.00 km from the antenna and is also

2.00 km above sea level. At that location, one member of the crew measures the

intensity of the signal to be 4.00 × 10

–12

W/m

2

. What should be the intensity of the

signal at the village that is located at sea level and 1.50 km from the transmitter?

Picture the Problem We can use the intensity I at a distance r = 4.00 km and at

an angle θ = 90° to find the constant in the expression for the intensity of

radiation from an electric dipole and then use the resulting equation to find the

intensity at sea level and 1.50 km from the transmitter.

Express the intensity of radiation as a

function of r and θ :

( ) θ θ

2

2

sin ,

r

C

r I = (1)

where C is a constant.

Chapter 30

858

Use the given data to obtain:

( )

( )

2

2

2

2 12

km 00 . 4

90 sin

km 00 . 4

W/m 10 4

C

C

=

° = ×

−

Solving for C yields:

( ) ( )

W 10 40 . 6

W/m 10 00 . 4 km 00 . 4

5

2 12 2

−

−

× =

× = C

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

( ) θ θ

2

2

5

sin

W 10 40 . 6

,

r

r I

−

×

= (2)

For a point at sea level and 1.50 km

from the transmitter:

° =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

−

1 . 53

km 1.50

km 00 . 2

tan

1

θ

Evaluate I(53.1°,1.50 km):

( )

( )

2 2

2

5

pW/m 2 . 18 1 . 53 sin

km 50 . 1

W 10 40 . 6

km 5 . 1 , 1 . 53 = °

×

= °

−

I

27 ••• [SSM] A radio station that uses a vertical electric dipole antenna

broadcasts at a frequency of 1.20 MHz and has a total power output of 500 kW.

Calculate the intensity of the signal at a horizontal distance of 120 km from the

station.

Picture the Problem The intensity of radiation from an electric dipole is given by

C(sin

2

θ)/r

2

, where C is a constant whose units are those of power, r is the distance

from the dipole to the point of interest, and θ is the angle between the antenna

and the position vector . r

r

We can integrate the intensity to express the total power

radiated by the antenna and use this result to evaluate C. Knowing C we can find

the intensity at a horizontal distance of 120 km.

Express the intensity of the signal as

a function of r and θ :

( )

2

2

sin

,

r

C r I

θ

θ =

At a horizontal distance of 120 km

from the station:

( )

( )

( )

2

2

2

km 120

km 120

90 sin

90 , km 120

C

C I

=

°

= °

(1)

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

859

From the definition of intensity we

have:

IdA dP =

and

( )dA r I P

∫∫

= θ ,

tot

where, in polar coordinates,

φ θ θ d d r dA sin

2

=

Substitute for dA to obtain:

( ) φ θ θ θ

π π

d d r r I P sin ,

2

2

0 0

tot

∫ ∫

=

Substitute for I(r,θ):

φ θ θ

π π

d d C P

∫ ∫

=

2

0 0

3

tot

sin

From integral tables we find that:

( )]

3

4

2 sin cos sin

0

2

3

1

0

3

= + − =

∫

π

π

θ θ θ θd

Substitute and integrate with respect

to φ to obtain:

[ ] C C d C P

3

8

3

4

3

4

2

0

2

0

tot

π

φ φ

π

π

= = =

∫

Solving for C yields:

tot

8

3

P C

π

=

Substitute for P

tot

and evaluate C to

obtain:

( ) kW 68 . 59 kW 500

8

3

= =

π

C

Substituting for C in equation (1)

and evaluating I(120 km, 90°):

( )

( )

2

2

W/m 14 . 4

km 120

kW 68 . 59

90 , km 120

μ =

= ° I

28 ••• Regulations require that licensed radio stations have limits on their

broadcast power so as to avoid interference with signals from distant stations.

You are in charge of checking compliance with the law. At a distance of 30.0 km

from a radio station that broadcasts from a single vertical electric dipole antenna

at a frequency of 800 kHz, the intensity of the electromagnetic wave is

2.00 × 10

–13

W/m

2

. What is the total power radiated by the station?

Picture the Problem The intensity of radiation from an electric dipole is given by

C(sin

2

θ)/r

2

, where C is a constant whose units are those of power, r is the distance

from the dipole to the point of interest, and θ is the angle between the electric

dipole moment and the position vector . r

r

We can integrate the intensity to express

Chapter 30

860

the total power radiated by the antenna and use this result to evaluate C. Knowing

C we can find the total power radiated by the station.

From the definition of intensity we

have:

IdA dP =

and

( )dA r I P

∫∫

= θ ,

tot

where, in polar coordinates,

φ θ θ d d r dA sin

2

=

Substitute for dA to obtain:

( ) φ θ θ θ

π π

d d r r I P sin ,

2

2

0 0

tot

∫ ∫

= (1)

Express the intensity of the signal as

a function of r and θ :

( )

2

2

sin

,

r

C r I

θ

θ = (2)

Substitute for I(r,θ) in equation (1) to

obtain:

φ θ θ

ππ

d d C P

∫ ∫

=

2

0 0

3

tot

sin

From integral tables we find that:

( )]

3

4

2 sin cos sin

0

2

3

1

0

3

= + − =

∫

π

π

θ θ θ θd

Substitute and integrate with respect

to φ to obtain:

[ ] C C d C P

3

8

3

4

3

4

2

0

2

0

tot

π

φ φ

π

π

= = =

∫

From equation (2) we have:

( )

θ

θ

2

2

sin

, r r I

C =

Substitute for C in the expression for

P

tot

to obtain:

( )

θ

θ π

2

2

tot

sin

,

3

8 r r I

P =

or, because θ = 90°,

( )

2

tot

3

8

r r I P

π

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate P

tot

:

( )( )

mW 51 . 1

km 0 . 30 W/m 10 00 . 2

3

8

2 2 13

tot

=

× =

−

π

P

29 ••• A small private plane approaching an airport is flying at an altitude of

2.50 km above sea level. As a flight controller at the airport, you know your

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

861

system uses a vertical electric dipole antenna to transmit 100 W at 24.0 MHz.

What is the intensity of the signal at the plane’s receiving antenna when the plane

is 4.00 km from the airport? Assume the airport is at sea level.

Picture the Problem The intensity of radiation from the airport’s vertical dipole

antenna is given by C(sin

2

θ)/r

2

, where C is a constant whose units are those of

power, r is the distance from the dipole to the point of interest, and θ is the angle

between the electric dipole moment and the position vector . r

r

We can integrate the

intensity to express the total power radiated by the antenna and use this result to

evaluate C. Knowing C we can find the intensity of the signal at the plane’s

elevation and distance from the airport.

Express the intensity of the signal as

a function of r and θ :

( )

2

2

sin

,

r

C r I

θ

θ = (1)

From the definition of intensity we

have:

IdA dP =

and

( )dA r I P

∫∫

= θ ,

tot

where, in polar coordinates,

φ θ θ d d r dA sin

2

=

Substitute for dA to obtain:

( ) φ θ θ θ

π π

d d r r I P sin ,

2

2

0 0

tot

∫ ∫

=

Substituting for I(r,θ) yields:

φ θ θ

ππ

d d C P

∫ ∫

=

2

0 0

3

tot

sin

From integral tables we find that:

( )]

3

4

2 sin cos sin

0

2

3

1

0

3

= + − =

∫

π

π

θ θ θ θd

Substitute and integrate with respect

to φ to obtain:

[ ] C C d C P

3

8

3

4

3

4

2

0

2

0

tot

π

φ φ

π

π

= = =

∫

Solving for C yields:

tot

8

3

P C

π

=

Substitute for C in equation (1) to

obtain:

( )

2

2

tot

sin

8

3

,

r

P

r I

θ

π

θ =

Chapter 30

862

At the elevation of the plane:

° =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

−

0 . 58

m 2500

m 4000

tan

1

θ

and

( ) ( ) m 4717 m 4000 m 2500

2 2

= + = r

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate I(4717 m, 58°):

( )

( )

( )

2

2

2

nW/m 386

m 4717

0 . 58 sin

8

W 100 3

0 . 58 , m 4717

=

°

= °

π

I

Energy and Momentum in an Electromagnetic Wave

30 • An electromagnetic wave has an intensity of 100 W/m

2

. Find its

(a) rms electric field strength, and (b) rms magnetic field strength.

Picture the Problem We can use P

r

= I/c to find the radiation pressure. The

intensity of the electromagnetic wave is related to the rms values of its electric

and magnetic field strengths according to I = E

rms

B

rms

/μ

0

, where B

rms

= E

rms

/c.

(a) Relate the intensity of the

electromagnetic wave to E

rms

and

B

rms

:

0

rms rms

μ

B E

I =

or, because B

rms

= E

rms

/c,

c

E c E E

I

0

2

rms

0

rms rms

μ μ

= =

Solving for E

rms

yields:

cI E

0 rms

μ =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E

rms

:

( )( )( ) V/m 194 W/m 100 m/s 10 998 . 2 N/A 10 4

2 8 2 7

rms

= × × =

−

π E

(b) Express B

rms

in terms of E

rms

:

c

E

B

rms

rms

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate B

rms

:

nT 647

m/s 10 998 . 2

V/m 194

8

rms

=

×

= B

31 • [SSM] The amplitude of an electromagnetic wave’s electric field is

400 V/m. Find the wave’s (a) rms electric field strength, (b) rms magnetic field

strength, (c) intensity and (d) radiation pressure (P

r

).

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

863

Picture the Problem The rms values of the electric and magnetic fields are found

from their amplitudes by dividing by the square root of two. The rms values of the

electric and magnetic field strengths are related according to B

rms

= E

rms

/c. We can

find the intensity of the radiation using I = E

rms

B

rms

/μ

0

and the radiation pressure

using P

r

= I/c.

(a) Relate E

rms

to E

0

:

V/m 283

V/m 8 . 282

2

V/m 400

2

0

rms

=

= = =

E

E

(b) Find B

rms

from E

rms

:

nT 943 T 9434 . 0

m/s 10 998 . 2

V/m 8 . 282

8

rms

rms

= =

×

= =

μ

c

E

B

(c) The intensity of an

electromagnetic wave is given by:

0

rms rms

μ

B E

I =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate I:

( )( )

2 2

2 7

W/m 212 W/m 3 . 212

N/A 10 4

T 9434 . 0 V/m 8 . 282

= =

×

=

−

π

μ

I

(d) Express the radiation pressure in

terms of the intensity of the wave:

c

I

P =

r

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate P

r

:

nPa 708

m/s 10 998 . 2

W/m 3 . 212

8

2

r

=

×

= P

32 • The rms value of an electromagnetic wave’s electric field strength is

400 V/m. Find the wave’s (a) rms magnetic field strength, (b) average energy

density, and (c) intensity.

Picture the Problem Given E

rms

, we can find B

rms

using B

rms

= E

rms

/c. The

average energy density of the wave is given by u

av

= E

rms

B

rms

/μ

0

c and the intensity

of the wave by I = u

av

c .

(a) Express B

rms

in terms of E

rms

:

c

E

B

rms

rms

=

Chapter 30

864

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate B

rms

:

T 33 . 1

T 334 . 1

m/s 10 998 . 2

V/m 400

8

rms

μ

μ

=

=

×

= B

(b) The average energy density u

av

is

given by:

c

B E

u

0

rms rms

av

μ

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate u

av

:

( )( )

( )( )

3 3

8 2 7

av

J/m 42 . 1 J/m 417 . 1

m/s 10 998 . 2 N/A 10 4

T 334 . 1 V/m 400

μ μ

π

μ

= =

× ×

=

−

u

(c) Express the intensity as the

product of the average energy

density and the speed of light in a

vacuum:

c u I

av

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate I:

( )( )

2

8 3

W/m 425

m/s 10 998 . 2 J/m 417 . 1

=

× = μ I

33 •• (a) An electromagnetic wave that has an intensity equal to 200 W/m

2

is normal to a black 20 cm by 30 cm rectangular card absorbs 100 percent of the

wave. Find the force exerted on the card by the radiation. (b) Find the force

exerted by the same wave if the card reflects 100 percent of the wave.

Picture the Problem We can find the force exerted on the card using the

definition of pressure and the relationship between radiation pressure and the

intensity of the electromagnetic wave. Note that, when the card reflects all the

radiation incident on it, conservation of momentum requires that the force is

doubled.

(a) Using the definition of pressure,

express the force exerted on the card

by the radiation:

A P F

r r

=

Relate the radiation pressure to the

intensity of the wave:

c

I

P =

r

Substitute for P

r

to obtain:

c

IA

F =

r

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

865

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate F

r

:

( )( )( )

nN 40

m/s 10 998 . 2

m 30 . 0 m 20 . 0 W/m 200

8

2

r

=

×

= F

(b) If the card reflects all of the

radiation incident on it, the force

exerted on the card is doubled:

nN 80

r

= F

34 •• Find the force exerted by the electromagnetic wave on the card in Part

(b) of Problem 33 if both the incident and reflected rays are at angles of 30º to the

normal.

Picture the Problem Only the normal component of the radiation pressure exerts

a force on the card.

Using the definition of pressure,

express the force exerted on the card

by the radiation:

θ cos 2

r r

A P F =

where the factor of 2 is a consequence

of the fact that the card reflects the

radiation incident on it.

Relate the radiation pressure to the

intensity of the wave:

c

I

P =

r

Substitute for P

r

to obtain:

c

IA

F

θ cos 2

r

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F

r

:

( )( )( )

nN 69

m/s 10 998 . 2

30 cos m 30 . 0 m 20 . 0 W/m 200 2

8

2

r

=

×

°

= F

35 • [SSM] (a) For a given distance from a radiating electric dipole, at

what angle (expressed as θ and measured from the dipole axis) is the intensity

equal to 50 percent of the maximum intensity? (b) At what angle θ is the intensity

equal to 1 percent of the maximum intensity?

Picture the Problem At a fixed distance from the electric dipole, the intensity of

radiation is a function θ alone.

(a) The intensity of the radiation

from the dipole is proportional to

sin

2

θ:

( ) θ θ

2

0

sin I I = (1)

where I

0

is the maximum intensity.

Chapter 30

866

For

0 2

1

I I = :

θ

2

0 0 2

1

sin I I = ⇒

2

1

2

sin = θ

Solving for θ yields:

( ) ° = =

−

45 sin

2

1

1

θ

(b) For

0

01 . 0 I I = :

θ

2

0 0

sin 01 . 0 I I = ⇒ 01 . 0 sin

2

= θ

Solving for θ yields:

( ) ° = =

−

7 . 5 01 . 0 sin

1

θ

36 •• A laser pulse has an energy of 20.0 J and a beam radius of 2.00 mm.

The pulse duration is 10.0 ns and the energy density is uniformly distributed

within the pulse. (a) What is the spatial length of the pulse? (b) What is the

energy density within the pulse? (c) Find the rms values of the electric and

magnetic fields in the pulse.

Picture the Problem The spatial length L of the pulse is the product of its speed c

and duration Δt. We can find the energy density within the pulse using its

definition (u = U/V). The electric amplitude of the pulse is related to the energy

density in the beam according to

2

0

E u ∈ = and we can find B from E using

B = E/c.

(a) The spatial length L of the pulse

is the product of its speed c and

duration Δt:

t c L Δ =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate L:

( )( )

m 00 . 3

m 998 . 2 ns 0 . 10 m/s 10 998 . 2

8

=

= × = L

(b) The energy density within the

pulse is the energy of the beam per

unit volume:

L r

U

V

U

u

2

π

= =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate u:

( ) ( )

3 3

2

kJ/m 531 kJ/m 9 . 530

m 998 . 2 mm 00 . 2

J 0 . 20

= =

=

π

u

(c) E is related to u according to:

2

rms 0

E u ∈ = ⇒

0

rms

∈

u

E =

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

867

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E

rms

:

MV/m 245 MV/m 9 . 244

m N / C 10 854 . 8

kJ/m 9 . 530

2 2 12

3

rms

= =

⋅ ×

=

−

E

Use B

rms

= E

rms

/c to find B

rms

:

T 817 . 0

m/s 10 998 . 2

MV/m 9 . 244

8

rms

=

×

= B

37 •• [SSM] An electromagnetic plane wave has an electric field that is

parallel to the y axis, and has a Poynting vector that is given by

( ) ( ) [ ] i S

ˆ

cos W/m 100 ,

2 2

t kx t x ω − =

r

, where x is in meters, k = 10.0 rad/m,

ω = 3.00 × 10

9

rad/s, and t is in seconds. (a) What is the direction of propagation

of the wave? (b) Find the wavelength and frequency of the wave. (c) Find the

electric and magnetic fields of the wave as functions of x and t.

Picture the Problem We can determine the direction of propagation of the wave,

its wavelength, and its frequency by examining the argument of the cosine

function. We can find E from c E

0

2

μ = S

r

and B from B = E/c. Finally, we can

use the definition of the Poynting vector and the given expression for S

r

to find

E

r

and B

r

.

(a) Because the argument of the cosine function is of the form t kx ω − , the wave

propagates in the +x direction.

(b) Examining the argument of the

cosine function, we note that the

wave number k of the wave is:

1

m 0 . 10

2

−

= =

λ

π

k ⇒ m 628 . 0 = λ

Examining the argument of the

cosine function, we note that the

angular frequency ω of the wave

is:

1 9

s 10 00 . 3 2

−

× = = f π ω

Solving for f yields:

MHz 477

2

s 10 00 . 3

1 9

=

×

=

−

π

f

(c) Express the magnitude of S

r

in

terms of E:

c

E

0

2

μ

= S

r

⇒ S

r

c E

0

μ =

Chapter 30

868

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E:

( )( )( ) V/m 1 . 194 W/m 100 m/s 10 998 . 2 N/A 10 4

2 8 2 7

= × × =

−

π E

Because

( ) ( ) [ ] i S

ˆ

cos W/m 100 ,

2 2

t kx t x ω − =

r

and B E S

r r r

× =

0

1

μ

:

( ) ( ) [ ] j E

ˆ

cos V/m 194 , t kx t x ω − =

r

where k = 10.0 rad/m and

ω = 3.00 × 10

9

rad/s.

Use B = E/c to evaluate B:

nT 4 . 647

m/s 10 998 . 2

V/m 1 . 194

8

=

×

= B

Because B E S

r r r

× =

0

1

μ

, the direction

of B

r

must be such that the cross

product of E

r

with B

r

is in the +x

direction:

( ) ( ) [ ] k B

ˆ

cos nT 647 , t kx t x ω − =

r

where k = 10.0 rad/m and

ω = 3.00 × 10

9

rad/s.

38 •• A parallel-plate capacitor is being charged. The capacitor consists of a

pair of identical circular parallel plates that have radius b and a separation

distance d. (a) Show that the displacement current in the capacitor gap has the

same value as the conduction current in the capacitor leads. (b) What is the

direction of the Poynting vector in the region between the capacitor plates?

(c) Find an expression for the Poynting vector in this region and show that its flux

into the region between the plates is equal to the rate of change of the energy

stored in the capacitor.

Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the electric field strength

between the plates of the parallel-plate capacitor and the definition of the

displacement current to show that the displacement current in the capacitor is

equal to the conduction current in the capacitor leads. In (b) we can use the

definition of the Poynting vector and the directions of the electric and magnetic

fields to determine the direction of the Poynting vector between the capacitor

plates. In (c), we’ll demonstrate that the flux of S

r

into the region between the

plates is equal to the rate of change of the energy stored in the capacitor by

evaluating these quantities separately and showing that they are equal.

(a) The displacement current is

proportional to the rate at which the

flux is changing between the plates:

( )

dt

dE

A AE

dt

d

dt

d

I

0 0

e

0 d

∈ ∈

φ

∈ = = =

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

869

The electric field strength between

the plates of the capacitor is given

by:

A

Q

E

0

∈

=

where Q is the instantaneous charge on

the capacitor plates.

Substituting for E yields:

I

dt

dQ

A

Q

dt

d

A I = = =

0

0 d

∈

∈

(b) Because E

r

is perpendicular to the plates of the capacitor and B

r

is tangent to

circles that are concentric and whose center is through the middle of the capacitor

plates, S

r

points radially inward toward the center of the capacitor.

(c) The Poynting vector is:

B E S

r r r

× =

0

1

μ

(1)

Letting the direction of E

r

be the +x

direction:

i E

ˆ

E =

r

where E is the electric field strength

between the plates of the capacitor.

Apply Ampere’s law to a closed

circular path of radius R ≤ b to

obtain:

( )

d 0

2 I R B μ π =

Substituting for I

d

and simplifying

yields:

( )

dt

dE

R

EA

dt

d

dt

d

R B

2

0 0

0 0

e

0 0

2

π ∈ μ

∈ μ

φ

∈ μ π

=

= =

Solve for B to obtain:

dt

dE

R B

2

0 0

∈ μ

=

and

j B

ˆ

2

0 0

dt

dE

R

∈ μ

− =

r

where j

ˆ

is a unit vector that is tangent

to the concentric circles.

Chapter 30

870

Substitute for B

r

and E

r

in equation

(1) and simplify to obtain:

x

y

B

E

S

R

ˆ

R

( )

R

j i

j i S

ˆ

2

ˆ ˆ

2

ˆ

2

ˆ

1

0

0

0 0

0

R

dt

dE E

R

dt

dE E

dt

dE

R E

∈

∈

∈ μ

μ

− =

− × =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

r

where R ≤ b, E is the electric field

strength between the plates, R is the

radial distance from the line joining the

centers of the plates, R

ˆ

is a unit vector

pointing radially outward from the line

joining the centers of the plates, and b

is the radius of the plates.

The rate at which energy is stored

in the capacitor is:

( ) ( )

dt

dE

E Ad

E

dt

d

V uV

dt

d

dt

dU

0

2

0

∈

∈

=

= =

Because

A

Q

E

0

∈

= :

I

A

Qd

dt

dQ

A

Qd

A

Q

dt

d

A

Q

Ad

dt

dU

0 0

0 0

0

∈ ∈

∈ ∈

∈

= =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Consider a cylindrical surface of

length d and radius b. Because

S

r

points inward, the energy flowing

into the solenoid per unit time is:

( )

( )

dt

dE

d Eb

bd

dt

dE

Eb

bd S dA S

2

0

0 2

1

n

2

2

∈ π

π ∈

π

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

=

∫

Substituting for E and simplifying

yields:

I

A

Qd

dt

dQ

A

d b

b

Q

A

Q

dt

d

d b

A

Q

dA S

0 0

2

2

0

2

0

0 n

∈ ∈ π

π

∈ ∈

∈ π

= ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

∫

Because dt dU dA S =

∫

n

, we’ve proved that the flux of S

r

into the region

between the capacitor is equal to the rate of change of the energy stored in the

capacitor.

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

871

39 •• [SSM] A pulsed laser fires a 1000-MW pulse that has a 200-ns

duration at a small object that has a mass equal to 10.0 mg and is suspended by a

fine fiber that is 4.00 cm long. If the radiation is completely absorbed by the

object, what is the maximum angle of deflection of this pendulum? (Think of the

system as a ballistic pendulum and assume the small object was hanging vertically

before the radiation hit it.)

Picture the Problem The diagram

shows the displacement of the

pendulum bob, through an angle θ, as a

consequence of the complete absorption

of the radiation incident on it. We can

use conservation of energy (mechanical

energy is conserved after the collision)

to relate the maximum angle of

deflection of the pendulum to the initial

momentum of the pendulum bob.

Because the displacement of the bob

during the absorption of the pulse is

negligible, we can use conservation of

momentum (conserved during the

collision) to equate the momentum of

the electromagnetic pulse to the initial

momentum of the bob.

h

m

L

L cos

θ

θ

0

g

= U

Apply conservation of energy to

obtain:

0

i f i f

= − + − U U K K

or, because U

i

= K

f

= 0 and

m

p

K

2

2

i

i

= ,

0

2

f

2

i

= + − U

m

p

U

f

is given by:

( ) θ cos 1

f

− = = mgL mgh U

Substitute for U

f

:

( ) 0 cos 1

2

2

i

= − + − θ mgL

m

p

Solve for θ to obtain:

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

−

gL m

p

2

2

i 1

2

1 cos θ

Chapter 30

872

Use conservation of momentum to

relate the momentum of the

electromagnetic pulse to the initial

momentum p

i

of the pendulum bob:

i wave em

p

c

t P

c

U

p =

Δ

= =

where Δt is the duration of the pulse.

Substitute for p

i

:

( )

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

Δ

− =

−

gL c m

t P

2 2

2 2

1

2

1 cos θ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate θ :

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )( )

° =

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

×

− =

−

10 . 6

m 0400 . 0 m/s 81 . 9 m/s 10 998 . 2 mg 0 . 10 2

ns 200 MW 1000

1 cos

2

2

8 2

2 2

1

θ

Remarks: The solution presented here is valid only if the displacement of the

bob during the absorption of the pulse is negligible. (Otherwise, the

horizontal component of the momentum of the pulse-bob system is not

conserved during the collision.) We can show that the displacement during

the pulse-bob collision is small by solving for the speed of the bob after

absorbing the pulse. Applying conservation of momentum (mv = P(Δt)/c) and

solving for v gives v = 6.67 × 10

−7

m/s. This speed is so slow compared to c,

we can conclude that the duration of the collision is extremely close to 200 ns

(the time for the pulse to travel its own length). Traveling at 6.67 × 10

−7

m/s

for 200 ns, the bob would travel 1.33 × 10

−13

m—a distance 1000 times

smaller that the diameter of a hydrogen atom. (Because 6.67×10

−7

m/s is the

maximum speed of the bob during the collision, the bob would actually travel

less than 1.33 × 10

−13

m during the collision.)

40 •• The mirrors used in a particular type of laser are 99.99% reflecting.

(a) If the laser has an average output power of 15 W, what is the average power of

the radiation incident on one of the mirrors? (b) What is the force due to radiation

pressure on one of the mirrors?

Picture the Problem We can use the definitions of pressure and the relationship

between radiation pressure and the intensity of the radiation to find the force due

to radiation pressure on one of the mirrors.

(a) Because only about 0.01 percent

of the energy inside the laser "leaks

out", the average power of the

radiation incident on one of the

mirrors is:

W 10 5 . 1

10 1.0

W 15

5

4

× =

×

=

−

P

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

873

(b) Use the definition of radiation

pressure to obtain:

A

F

P

r

r

=

where F

r

is the force due to radiation

pressure and A is the area of the mirror

on which the radiation is incident.

The radiation pressure is also related

to the intensity of the radiation: Ac

P

c

I

P

2 2

r

= =

where P is the power of the laser and

the factor of 2 is due to the fact that the

mirror is essentially totally reflecting.

Equate the two expression for the

radiation pressure and solve for F

r

:

Ac

P

A

F 2

r

= ⇒

c

P

F

2

r

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate F

r

:

( )

mN 0 . 1

m/s 10 998 . 2

W 10 5 . 1 2

8

5

r

=

×

×

= F

41 •• [SSM] (a) Estimate the force on Earth due to the pressure of the

radiation on Earth by the Sun, and compare this force to the gravitational force of

the Sun on Earth. (At Earth’s orbit, the intensity of sunlight is 1.37 kW/m

2

.)

(b)

.

Repeat Part (a) for Mars which is at an average distance of 2.28 × 10

8

km

from the Sun and has a radius of 3.40 × 10

3

km. (c) Which planet has the larger

ratio of radiation pressure to gravitational attraction.

Picture the Problem We can find the radiation pressure force from the definition

of pressure and the relationship between the radiation pressure and the intensity of

the radiation from the Sun. We can use Newton’s law of gravitation to find the

gravitational force the Sun exerts on Earth and Mars.

(a) The radiation pressure exerted on

Earth is given by:

A

F

P

Earth r,

Earth r,

= ⇒ A P F

Earth r, Earth r,

=

where A is the cross-sectional area of

Earth.

Express the radiation pressure in

terms of the intensity of the

radiation I from the Sun:

c

I

P =

Earth r,

Substituting for P

r, Earth

and A yields:

c

R I

F

2

Earth r,

π

=

Chapter 30

874

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate F

r

:

( )( )

N 10 83 . 5

N 10 825 . 5

m/s 10 998 . 2

m 10 37 . 6 kW/m 37 . 1

8

8

8

2

6 2

Earth r,

× =

× =

×

×

=

π

F

The gravitational force exerted

on Earth by the Sun is given by:

2

earth sun

Earth g,

r

m Gm

F =

where r is the radius of Earth’s orbit.

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F

g, Earth

:

( )( )( )

( )

N 10 529 . 3

m 10 50 . 1

kg 10 98 . 5 kg 10 99 . 1 kg / m N 10 673 . 6

22

2

11

24 30 2 2 11

Earth g,

× =

×

× × ⋅ ×

=

−

F

Express the ratio of the force due to

radiation pressure F

r, Earth

to the

gravitational force F

g, Earth

:

14

22

8

Earth g,

Earth r,

10 65 . 1

N 10 529 . 3

N 10 825 . 5

−

× =

×

×

=

F

F

or

( )

Earth g,

14

Earth r,

10 65 . 1 F F

−

× =

(b) The radiation pressure exerted

on Mars is given by:

A

F

P

Mars r,

Mars r,

= ⇒ A P F

Mars r, Mars r,

=

where A is the cross-sectional area of

Mars.

Express the radiation pressure

on Mars in terms of the intensity

of the radiation I

Mars

from the

sun:

c

I

P

Mars

Mars r,

=

Substituting for P

r, Mars

and A yields:

c

R I

F

2

Mars Mars

Mars r,

π

=

Express the ratio of the solar

constant at Earth to the solar

constant at Mars:

2

Mars

earth

earth

Mars

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

r

r

I

I

⇒

2

Mars

earth

earth Mars

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

r

r

I I

Substitute for

Mars

I to obtain:

2

Mars

earth

2

Mars earth

Mars r,

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

r

r

c

R I

F

π

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

875

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F

r, Mars

:

( )( )

N 10 18 . 7

m 10 28 . 2

m 10 50 . 1

m/s 10 998 . 2

km 10 40 . 3 kW/m 37 . 1

7

2

11

11

8

2

3 2

Mars r,

× =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

×

×

×

=

π

F

The gravitational force exerted on

Mars by the Sun is given by:

( )

2

Earth sun

2

Mars sun

Mars g,

11 . 0

r

m Gm

r

m Gm

F = =

where r is the radius of Mars’ orbit.

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F

g

( )( )( )( )

( )

N 10 68 . 1

m 10 28 . 2

kg 10 98 . 5 11 . 0 kg 10 99 . 1 kg / m N 10 673 . 6

21

2

11

24 30 2 2 11

Mars g,

× =

×

× × ⋅ ×

=

−

F

Express the ratio of the force due to

radiation pressure F

r, Mars

to the

gravitational force F

g, Mars

:

14

21

7

Mars g,

Mars r,

10 27 . 4

N 10 68 . 1

N 10 18 . 7

−

× =

×

×

=

F

F

or

( )

Mars g,

14

Mars r,

10 27 . 4 F F

−

× =

(c) Because the ratio of the radiation pressure force to the gravitational force is

1.65 × 10

−14

for Earth and 4.27 × 10

−14

for Mars, Mars has the larger ratio. The

reason that the ratio is higher for Mars is that the dependence of the radiation

pressure on the distance from the Sun is the same for both forces (r

−2

), whereas

the dependence on the radii of the planets is different. Radiation pressure varies as

R

2

, whereas the gravitational force varies as R

3

(assuming that the two planets

have the same density, an assumption that is nearly true). Consequently, the ratio

of the forces goes as

1 3 2

/

−

= R R R . Because Mars is smaller than Earth, the ratio

is larger.

The Wave Equation for Electromagnetic Waves

42 • Show by direct substitution that Equation 30-8a is satisfied by the

wave function

E

y

= E

0

sin kx −ωt ( )= E

0

sin k x − ct ( ) where c = ω/k.

Picture the Problem We can show that Equation 30-8a is satisfied by the wave

function E

y

by showing that the ratio of ∂

2

E

y

/∂x

2

to ∂

2

E

y

/∂t

2

is 1/c

2

where c = ω/k.

Chapter 30

876

Differentiate ( ) t kx E E

y

ω − = sin

0

with respect to x:

[ ]

) cos(

) sin(

0

0

t kx kE

t kx E

x x

E

y

ω

ω

− =

−

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Evaluate the second partial

derivative of E

y

with respect to x:

[ ]

) sin(

) cos(

0

2

0 2

2

t kx E k

t kx kE

x x

E

y

ω

ω

− − =

−

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

(1)

Differentiate ( ) t kx E E

y

ω − = sin

0

with respect to t:

[ ]

) cos(

) sin(

0

0

t kx E

t kx E

t t

E

y

ω ω

ω

− − =

−

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Evaluate the second partial

derivative of E

y

with respect to t:

[ ]

) sin(

) cos(

0

2

0

2

2

t kx E

t kx E

t t

E

y

ω ω

ω ω

− − =

− −

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

(2)

Divide equation (1) by equation (2)

to obtain:

( )

( )

2

2

0

2

0

2

2

2

2

2

sin

sin

ω ω ω

ω k

t kx E

t kx E k

t

E

x

E

y

y

=

− −

− −

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

or

2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2

2

1

t

E

c t

E

k

x

E

y y y

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

ω

provided c = ω/k.

43 • Use the values of μ

0

and

0

∈ in SI units to compute

0 0

1 μ ∈ and

show that it is equal to 3.00 × 10

8

m/s.

Picture the Problem Substitute numerical values and evaluate c:

( )( )

m/s 10 00 . 3

m N / C 10 854 . 8 N/A 10 4

1

8

2 2 12 2 7

× =

⋅ × ×

=

− −

π

c

44 •• (a) Use Maxwell’s equations to show for a plane wave, in which E

r

and B

r

are independent of y and z, that

t

B

x

E

y

z

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

and

t

E

x

B

z

y

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

0 0

∈ μ .

(b) Show that E

z

and B

y

also satisfy the wave equation.

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

877

Picture the Problem We can use Figures 30-5 and 30-6 and a derivation similar

to that in the text to obtain the given results.

In Figure 30-5, replace B

z

by E

z

. For

Δx small:

( ) ( ) x

x

E

x E x E

z

z z

Δ

∂

∂

+ =

1 2

Evaluate the line integral of E

r

around the rectangular area ΔxΔz:

z x

x

E

d

z

Δ Δ

∂

∂

− ≈ ⋅

∫

l

r r

E (1)

Express the magnetic flux through

the same area:

∫

Δ Δ =

S

n

z x B dA B

y

Apply Faraday’s law to obtain:

( )

z x

t

B

z x B

t

dA B

t

d

y

y

Δ Δ

∂

∂

− =

Δ Δ

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

− ≈ ⋅

∫ ∫

S

n

l

r r

E

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

z x

t

B

z x

x

E

y

z

Δ Δ

∂

∂

− = Δ Δ

∂

∂

−

or

t

B

x

E

y

z

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

In Figure 30-6, replace E

y

by B

y

and

evaluate the line integral of B

r

around the rectangular area ΔxΔz:

∫ ∫

= ⋅

S

n 0 0

dA E d ∈ μ l

r r

B

provided there are no conduction

currents.

Evaluate these integrals to obtain:

t

E

x

B

z

y

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

0 0

∈ μ

(b) Using the first result obtained in

(a), find the second partial derivative

of E

z

with respect to x:

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

t

B

x x

E

x

y

z

or

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

x

B

t x

E

y

z

2

2

Chapter 30

878

Use the second result obtained in (a)

to obtain:

2

2

0 0 0 0

2

2

t

E

t

E

t x

E

z z z

∂

∂

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∈ μ ε μ

or, because μ

0

∈

0

= 1/c

2

,

2

2

2 2

2

1

t

E

c x

E

z z

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

.

Using the second result obtained in

(a), find the second partial derivative

of B

y

with respect to x:

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

t

E

x x

B

x

z

y

0 0

∈ μ

or

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

x

E

t x

B

z

y

0 0

2

2

∈ μ

Use the first result obtained in (a) to

obtain:

2

2

0 0 0 0

2

2

t

B

t

B

t x

B

y y y

∂

∂

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∈ μ ∈ μ

or, because μ

0

∈

0

= 1/c

2

,

2

2

2 2

2

1

t

B

c x

B

y y

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

.

45 •• [SSM] Show that any function of the form y(x, t) = f(x – vt) or

y(x, t) = g(x + vt) satisfies the wave Equation 30-7

Picture the Problem We can show that these functions satisfy the wave

equations by differentiating them twice (using the chain rule) with respect to x

and t and equating the expressions for the second partial of f with respect to u.

Let u = x − vt. Then:

u

f

u

f

x

u

x

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

and

u

f

v

u

f

t

u

t

f

∂

∂

− =

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Express the second derivatives of

f with respect to x and t to obtain: 2

2

2

2

u

f

x

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

and

2

2

2

2

2

u

f

v

t

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Divide the first of these equations by

the second to obtain:

2

2

2

2

2

1

v

t

f

x

f

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

⇒

2

2

2 2

2

1

t

f

v x

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

879

Let u = x + vt. Then:

u

f

u

f

x

u

x

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

and

u

f

v

u

f

t

u

t

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Express the second derivatives of

f with respect to x and t to obtain: 2

2

2

2

u

f

x

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

and

2

2

2

2

2

u

f

v

t

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

Divide the first of these equations by

the second to obtain:

2

2

2

2

2

1

v

t

f

x

f

=

∂

∂

∂

∂

⇒

2

2

2 2

2

1

t

f

v x

f

∂

∂

=

∂

∂

General Problems

46 • An electromagnetic wave has a frequency of 100 MHz and is traveling

in a vacuum. The magnetic field is given by ( ) ( ) ( )i B

ˆ

cos T 10 00 . 1 ,

8

t kz t z ω − × =

−

r

.

(a) Find the wavelength and the direction of propagation of this wave. (b) Find

the electric field vector ( ) t z, E

r

. (c) Determine the Poynting vector, and use it to

find the intensity of this wave.

Picture the Problem We can use c = fλ to find the wavelength. Examination of

the argument of the cosine function will reveal the direction of propagation of the

wave. We can find the magnitude, wave number, and angular frequency of the

electric vector from the given information and the result of (a) and use these

results to obtain E

r

(z, t). Finally, we can use its definition to find the Poynting

vector.

(a) Relate the wavelength of the

wave to its frequency and the speed

of light:

f

c

= λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ:

m 00 . 3

MHz 100

m/s 10 998 . 2

8

=

×

= λ

From the sign of the argument of the cosine function and the spatial dependence

on z, we can conclude that the wave propagates in the +z direction.

Chapter 30

880

(b) Express the amplitude of E

r

: ( )( )

V/m 00 . 3

T 10 m/s 10 998 . 2

8 8

=

× = =

−

cB E

Find the angular frequency and

wave number of the wave:

( )

1 8

s 10 28 . 6 MHz 100 2 2

−

× = = = π π ω f

and

1

m 09 . 2

m 00 . 3

2 2

−

= = =

π

λ

π

k

Because S

r

is in the positive z direction, E

r

must be in the negative y direction in

order to satisfy the Poynting vector expression:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] j E

ˆ

s 10 28 . 6 m 09 . 2 cos V/m 00 . 3 ,

1 8 1

t z t z

− −

× − − =

r

(c) Use its definition to express and evaluate the Poynting vector:

( )

( )( )

( ) ( ) [ ]( ) i j B E S

ˆ ˆ

s 10 28 . 6 m 09 . 2 cos

N/A 10 4

T 10 V/m 00 . 3 1

,

1 8 1 2

2 7

8

0

× × −

×

−

= × =

− −

−

−

t z t z

π μ

r r r

or

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]k S

ˆ

s 10 28 . 6 m 09 . 2 cos mW/m 9 . 23 ,

1 8 1 2 2

t z t z

− −

× − =

r

The intensity of the wave is the

average magnitude of the Poynting

vector. The average value of the

square of the cosine function is 1/2:

( )

2

2

2

1

mW/m 9 . 11

mW/m 9 . 23

=

= = S

r

I

47 •• [SSM] A circular loop of wire can be used to detect electromagnetic

waves. Suppose the signal strength from a 100-MHz FM radio station 100 km

distant is 4.0 μW/m

2

,

and suppose the signal is vertically polarized. What is the

maximum rms voltage induced in your antenna, assuming your antenna is a

10.0-cm-radius loop?

Picture the Problem We can use Faraday’s law to show that the maximum rms

voltage induced in the loop is given by , 2

0 rms

B Aω ε = where A is the area of

the loop, B

0

is the amplitude of the magnetic field, and ω is the angular frequency

of the wave. Relating the intensity of the radiation to B

0

will allow us to express

rms

ε as a function of the intensity.

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

881

The emf induced in the antenna is

given by Faraday’s law:

( ) ( )

( )

t t B R

t B

dt

d

R

dt

dB

A

BA

dt

d

A

dt

d

dt

d

ω ω ω π

ω π

φ

ε

ε

cos cos

sin

ˆ

peak 0

2

0

2

m

− = − =

− = − =

− = ⋅ − = − = n B

r

where

0

2

peak

B R ω π ε = and R is the

radius of the loop antenna..

rms

ε equals

peak

ε divided by the

square root of 2: 2 2

0

2

peak

rms

B R ω π

ε

ε = = (1)

The intensity of the signal is given

by:

0

0 0

2μ

B E

I =

or, because

0 0

cB E = ,

0

2

0

0

0 0

2 2 μ μ

c B B cB

I = =

Solving for B

0

yields:

c

I

B

0

0

2μ

=

Substituting for B

0

and ω in

equation (1) and simplifying yields:

( )

c

I

f R

c

I

f R

0 2 2

0 2

rms

2

2

2

2

μ

π

μ

π π

ε

=

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ε

rms

:

( ) ( )

( )( )

mV .6 2

m/s 10 998 . 2

W/m 0 . 4 N/A 10 4

MHz 100 m 100 . 0 2

8

2 2 7

2 2

rms

=

×

×

=

−

μ π

π ε

48 •• The electric field strength from a radio station some distance from the

electric dipole transmitting antenna is given by

( ) ( )t rad/s 10 00 . 1 cos N/C 10 00 . 1

6 4

× ×

−

, where t is in seconds. (a) What peak

voltage is picked up on a 50.0-cm long wire oriented parallel with the electric

field direction? (b) What is the maximum voltage that can be induced by this

electromagnetic wave in a conducting loop of radius 20.0 cm? What orientation of

the loop does this require?

Chapter 30

882

Picture the Problem The voltage induced in the piece of wire is the product of

the electric field and the length of the wire. The maximum rms voltage induced in

the loop is given by ,

0

B Aω ε = where A is the area of the loop, B

0

is the

amplitude of the magnetic field, and ω is the angular frequency of the wave.

(a) Because E is independent of x: l E V =

where l is the length of the wire.

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate V:

( ) [ ]( )

( ) t

t V

6

6 4

10 cos V 0 . 50

m 500 . 0 10 cos N/C 10 00 . 1

μ =

× =

−

and V 0 . 50

peak

μ = V

(b) The maximum voltage induced in

a loop is given by:

A B

0

ω ε =

where A is the area of the loop and B

0

is

the amplitude of the magnetic field.

Eliminate B

0

in favor of E

0

and

substitute for A to obtain:

c

R E

2

0

π ω

ε =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ε:

( )( ) ( )

nV 9 . 41

m/s 10 998 . 2

m 200 . 0 N/C 10 00 . 1 s 10 00 . 1

8

2 4 1 6

=

×

× ×

=

− −

π

ε

The loop antenna should be oriented so the transmitting antenna lies in the plane

of the loop.

49 ••• A parallel-plate capacitor has circular plates of radius a that are

separated by a distance d. In the gap between the two plates is a thin straight wire

of resistance R that connects the centers of the two plates. A time-varying voltage

given by V

0

sin ωt is applied across the plates. (a) What is the current drawn by

this capacitor? (b) What is the magnetic field as a function of the radial distance r

from the centerline within the capacitor plates? (c) What is the phase angle

between the current drawn by the capacitor and the applied voltage?

Picture the Problem Some of the charge entering the capacitor passes through

the resistive wire while the rest of it accumulates on the upper plate. The total

current is the rate at which the charge passes through the resistive wire plus the

rate at which it accumulates on the upper plate. The magnetic field between the

capacitor plates is due to both the current in the resistive wire and the

displacement current though a surface bounded by a circle a distance r from the

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

883

resistive wire. The phase difference between the current drawn by the capacitor

and the applied voltage may be calculated using a phasor diagram.

(a) The current drawn by the

capacitor is the sum of the

conduction current through the

resistance wire and dQ/dt, where Q

is the charge on the upper plate of

the capacitor:

dt

dQ

I I + =

c

(1)

Express the conduction current I

c

in

terms of the potential difference

between the plates and the resistance

of the wire:

t

R

V

R

V

I ω sin

0

c

= =

Because CV Q = :

t CV

dt

dV

C

dt

dQ

ω ω cos

0

= =

Substitute in equation (1):

t CV t

R

V

I ω ω ω cos sin

0

0

+ = (2)

The capacitance of a parallel-plate

capacitor with plate area A and plate

separation d is given by:

d

a

d

A

C

2

0 0

π ∈ ∈

= =

Substituting for C in equation (2)

gives: ⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ = t

d

a

t

R

V I ω

π ∈ ω

ω cos sin

1

2

0

0

Chapter 30

884

(b) Apply the generalized form of

Ampere’s law to a circular path of

radius r centered within the plates of

the capacitor, where

d

I' is the

displacement current through the flat

surface S bounded by the path and I

c

is the conduction current through the

same surface:

( )

d c 0

C

I' I d + = ⋅

∫

μ l

r r

B

By symmetry the line integral is B

times the circumference of the circle

of radius r:

( ) ( )

d c 0

2 I' I r B + = μ π (3)

In the region between the capacitor

plates there is a uniform electric field

due to the surface charges +Q and –

Q. The associated displacement

current through S is:

( )

dt

dE

r

dt

dE

A'

A'E

dt

d

dt

d

I'

2

0 0

0

e

0 d

π ∈ ∈

∈

φ

∈

= =

= =

provided ( ) a r ≤

To evaluate the displacement current

we first must evaluate E everywhere

on S. Near the surface of a

conductor, where σ is the surface

charge density:

0

∈ σ = E , where ( )

2

a Q A Q π σ = =

so

2

0

a

Q

E

π ∈

=

Substituting for E in the equation

for

d

I' gives:

( )

t V

d

r

t V

dt

d

d

r

dt

dV

d

r

d

V

dt

d

r

dt

dE

r I'

ω

π ∈

ω

ω

π ∈ π ∈

π ∈ π ∈

cos

sin

0

2

0

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0 d

=

= =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= =

Solving for B in equation (3) and substituting for I

c

and

d

I' yields:

( )

( )

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ =

+

=

t

d

r

t

R r

V

t V

d

r

t

R

V

r r

I' I

r B

ω

π ∈

ω ω

π

μ

ω

π ∈

ω ω

π

μ

π

μ

cos sin

1

2

cos sin

2 2

2

0 0 0

0

2

0 0 0 d c 0

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

885

(c) Both the charge Q and the

conduction current I

c

are in phase

with V. However, dQ/dt, which is

equal to the displacement current I

d

through S for r ≥ a, lags V by 90°.

(Mathematically, cos ωt lags behind

sin ωt by 90°.) The voltage V leads

the current I = I

c

+ I

d

by phase angle

δ. The current relation is expressed

in terms of the current amplitudes:

d c

I I I + =

or

( )

t I

t I t I

ω

ω δ ω

cos

sin sin

max d,

max c, max

+

= +

The values of the conduction and

displacement current amplitudes

are obtained by comparison with

the answer to Part (a):

R

V

I

0

max c,

=

and

d

V a

I

0

2

0

max d,

π ∈ ω

=

A phasor diagram for adding the

currents I

c

and I

d

is shown to the

right. The conduction current I

c

is in

phase with the voltage V across the

resistor and I

d

lags behind it by 90°:

δ

max d,

I

max c,

I

max

I

d

I

c

I

I

V

From the phasor diagram we have:

d

a R

R V

d

a

V

I

I

2

0

0

2

0

0

max c,

max d,

tan

π ∈ ω

π ∈ ω

δ

=

= =

so

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

−

d

a R

2

0 1

tan

π ∈ ω

δ

Remarks: The capacitor and the resistive wire are connected in parallel.

The potential difference across each of them is the applied voltage V

0

sin ωt.

50 •• A 20-kW beam of electromagnetic radiation is normal to a surface that

reflects 50 percent of the radiation. What is the force exerted by the radiation on

this surface?

Chapter 30

886

Picture the Problem The total force on the surface is the sum of the force due to

the reflected radiation and the force due to the absorbed radiation. From the

conservation of momentum, the force due to the 10 kW that are reflected is twice

the force due to the 10 kW that are absorbed.

Express the total force on the

surface:

a

F F F + =

r tot

Substitute for F

r

and F

a

to obtain:

( )

c

P

c

P

c

P

F

2

3 2

2

1

2

1

tot

= + =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate F

tot

:

( )

( )

mN 10 . 0

m/s 10 998 . 2 2

kW 20 3

8

tot

=

×

= F

51 •• [SSM] The electric fields of two harmonic electromagnetic waves of

angular frequency ω

1

and ω

2

are given by

r

E

1

= E

1,0

cos k

1

x − ω

1

t ( )

ˆ

j and

by

r

E

2

= E

2,0

cos k

2

x − ω

2

t +δ ( )

ˆ

j . For the resultant of these two waves, find (a) the

instantaneous Poynting vector and (b) the time-averaged Poynting vector.

(c) Repeat Parts (a) and (b) if the direction of propagation of the second wave is

reversed so that

r

E

2

= E

2,0

cos k

2

x +ω

2

t + δ ( )

ˆ

j

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the Poynting vector and the

relationship between B

r

and E

r

to find the instantaneous Poynting vectors for each

of the resultant wave motions and the fact that the time average of the cross

product term is zero for ω

1

≠ ω

2

, and ½ for the square of cosine function to find

the time-averaged Poynting vectors.

(a) Because both waves propagate in

the x direction:

i B E

ˆ

0

S μ = ×

r r

⇒ k B

ˆ

B =

r

Express B in terms of E

1

and E

2

:

( )

2 1

1

E E

c

B + =

Substitute for E

1

and E

2

to obtain:

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]k B

ˆ

cos cos

1

,

2 2 0 , 2 1 1 0 , 1

δ ω ω + − + − = t x k E t x k E

c

t x

r

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

887

The instantaneous Poynting vector for the resultant wave motion is given by:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) [ ( )

( ) ( )] i

k j

k

j S

ˆ

cos cos

cos 2 cos

1

ˆ ˆ

cos cos

1

ˆ

cos cos

1

ˆ

cos cos

1

,

2 2

2 2

0 , 2 2 2

1 1 0 , 2 0 , 1 1 1

2 2

0 , 1

0

2

2 2 0 , 2 1 1 0 , 1

0

2 2 0 , 2 1 1 0 , 1

2 2 0 , 2 1 1 0 , 1

0

δ ω δ ω

ω ω

μ

δ ω ω

μ

δ ω ω

δ ω ω

μ

+ − + + − ×

− + −

=

× + − + − =

+ − + − ×

+ − + − =

t x k E t x k

t x k E E t x k E

c

t x k E t x k E

c

t x k E t x k E

c

t x k E t x k E t x

r

(b) The time average of the cross

product term is zero for ω

1

≠ ω

2

, and

the time average of the square of the

cosine terms is ½:

[ ] i S

ˆ

2

1

2

0 , 2

2

0 , 1

0

av

E E

c

+ =

μ

r

(c) In this case k B

ˆ

2

B − =

r

because the wave with k = k

2

propagates in the

i

ˆ

− direction. The magnetic field is then:

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]k B

ˆ

cos cos

1

,

2 2 0 , 2 1 1 0 , 1

δ ω ω + + − − = t x k E t x k E

c

t x

r

The instantaneous Poynting vector for the resultant wave motion is given by:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) [ ] i

k

j S

ˆ

cos cos

1

ˆ

cos cos

1

ˆ

cos cos

1

,

2 2

2 2

0 , 2 1 1

2 2

0 , 1

0

2 2 0 , 2 1 1 0 , 1

2 2 0 , 2 1 1 0 , 1

0

δ ω ω

μ

δ ω ω

δ ω ω

μ

+ + − − =

+ + − − ×

+ − + − =

t x k E t x k E

c

t x k E t x k E

c

t x k E t x k E t x

r

The time average of the square of the

cosine terms is ½:

[ ] i S

ˆ

2

1

2

0 , 2

2

0 , 1

0

av

E E

c

− =

μ

r

52 •• Show that

∂B

z

∂x

= μ

o

∈

0

∂E

n

∂t

(Equation 30-10) follows from

∫ ∫

∂

∂

∈ − = ⋅

S

y

C

dA

t

E

d

0 0

μ l

r r

B (Equation 30-6d with I = 0) by integrating along a

Chapter 30

888

suitable curve C and over a suitable surface S in a manner that parallels the

derivation of Equation 30-9.

Picture the Problem We’ll choose the

curve with sides Δx and Δz in the xy

plane shown in the diagram and apply

Equation 30-6d to show that

t

E

x

B

y

z

∂

∂

∈ − =

∂

∂

0 0

μ .

Because Δx is very small, we can

approximate the difference in B

z

at the points x

1

and x

2

by:

( ) ( ) x

x

B

B x B x B

z

z z

Δ

∂

∂

≈ Δ = −

1 2

Then:

z x

t

E

d

y

C

Δ Δ

∂

∂

∈ ≈ ⋅

∫

0 0

μ l

r r

B

The flux of the electric field through

this curve is approximately:

y x E dA E

y

S

Δ Δ =

∫

n

Apply Faraday’s law to obtain:

z x

t

E

z x

x

B

y

z

Δ Δ

∂

∂

∈ − = Δ Δ

∂

∂

0 0

μ

or

t

E

x

B

y

z

∂

∂

∈ − =

∂

∂

0 0

μ

53 •• For your backpacking excursions, you have purchased a radio capable

of detecting a signal as weak as 1.00 × 10

–14

W/m

2

. This radio has a 2000-turn

coil antenna that has a radius of 1.00 cm wound on an iron core that increases the

magnetic field by a factor of 200. The broadcast frequency of the radio station is

1400 kHz. (a) What is the peak magnetic field strength of an electromagnetic

wave of this minimum intensity? (b) What is the peak emf that it is capable of

inducing in the antenna? (c) What would be the peak emf induced in a straight

2.00-m long metal wire oriented parallel to the direction of the electric field?

Picture the Problem We can use the relationship between the average value of

the Poynting vector (the intensity), E

0

, and B

0

to find B

0

. The application of

Faraday’s law will allow us to find the emf induced in the antenna. The emf

induced in a 2.00-m wire oriented in the direction of the electric field can be

found using l E = ε and the relationship between E and B.

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

889

(a) The intensity of the signal is

related the amplitude of the magnetic

field in the wave:

0

2

0

0

0 0

av

2 2 μ μ

cB B E

I S = = = ⇒

c

I

B

0

0

2μ

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate B

0

:

( )( )

T 10 16 . 9

m/s 10 998 . 2

W/m 10 00 . 1 N/A 10 4 2

15

8

2 14 2 7

0

−

− −

× =

×

× ×

=

π

B

(b) Apply Faraday’s law to the

antenna coil to obtain:

( ) ( ) ( )

t

t AB NK

t B NK

dt

d

A BA

dt

d

t

ω

ω ω

ω

ε

ε

cos

cos

sin

peak

0 m

0 m

=

=

= =

where ω ε

0 m peak

AB NK =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

peak

ε :

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] V 1 . 10 kHz 1400 2 T 10 16 . 9 m 0100 . 0 200 2000

15 2

peak

μ π π ε = × =

−

(c) The voltage induced in the wire is

the product of its length l and the

amplitude of electric field E

0

:

l E = ε

Relate E to B:

t cB cB E ω sin

0

= =

Substitute for E to obtain: t t B c ω ω ε ε sin sin

peak 0

= = l

where

0 peak

B cl = ε

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

peak

ε :

( )( )( ) V 49 . 5 T 10 16 . 9 m 00 . 2 m/s 10 998 . 2

15 8

peak

μ ε = × × =

−

54 •• The intensity of the sunlight striking Earth’s upper atmosphere is

1.37 kW/m

2

. (a) Find the rms values of the magnetic and electric fields of this

light. (b) Find the average power output of the Sun. (c) Find the intensity and the

radiation pressure at the surface of the Sun.

Picture the Problem We can use I = E

rms

B

rms

/μ

0

and B

rms

= E

rms

/c to express E

rms

in terms of I. We can then use B

rms

= E

rms

/c to find B

rms

. The average power output

Chapter 30

890

of the Sun is given by I R P

2

av

4π = where R is the Earth-Sun distance. The

intensity and the radiation pressure at the surface of the sun can be found from the

definitions of these physical quantities.

(a) The intensity of the radiation

is given by:

0

2

rms

0

rms rms

μ μ c

E B E

I = = ⇒ I c E

0 rms

μ =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

rms

E :

( )( )( )

V/m 718

V/m 4 . 718 kW/m 37 . 1 N/A 10 4 m/s 10 998 . 2

2 2 7 8

rms

=

= × × =

−

π E

Use c E B

rms rms

= to evaluate

rms

B :

T 40 . 2

m/s 10 998 . 2

V/m 4 . 718

8

rms

μ =

×

= B

(b) Express the average power

output of the Sun in terms of the

solar constant:

I R P

2

av

4π =

where R is the Earth-sun distance.

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate P

av

:

( ) ( )

W 10 87 . 3

W 10 874 . 3

kW/m 37 . 1 m 10 50 . 1 4

26

26

2

2

11

av

× =

× =

× = π P

(c) Express the intensity at the

surface of the Sun in terms of the

sun’s average power output and

radius r:

2

av

4 r

P

I

π

=

Substitute numerical values (see

Appendix B for the radius of the

Sun) and evaluate I at the surface

of the Sun:

( )

2 7

2 7

2

8

26

W/m 10 36 . 6

W/m 10 363 . 6

m 10 96 . 6 4

W 10 874 . 3

× =

× =

×

×

=

π

I

Express the radiation pressure in

terms of the intensity:

c

I

P =

r

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate P

r

:

Pa 212 . 0

m/s 10 998 . 2

W/m 10 363 . 6

8

2 7

r

=

×

×

= P

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

891

55 ••• [SSM] A conductor in the shape of a long solid cylinder that has a

length L, a radius a, and a resistivity ρ carries a steady current I that is uniformly

distributed over its cross-section. (a) Use Ohm’s law to relate the electric field

E

r

in the conductor to I, ρ, and a. (b) Find the magnetic field B

r

just outside the

conductor. (c) Use the results from Part (a) and Part (b) to compute the Poynting

vector ( )

0

μ B E S

r r r

× = at r = a (the edge of the conductor). In what direction is

r

S ?

(d) Find the flux

∫

dA S

n

through the surface of the cylinder, and use this flux to

show that the rate of energy flow into the conductor equals I

2

R, where R is the

resistance of the cylinder.

Picture the Problem A side view of the cylindrical conductor is shown in the

diagram. Let the current be to the right (in the +x direction) and choose a

coordinate system in which the +y direction is radially outward from the axis of

the conductor. Then the +z direction is tangent to cylindrical surfaces that are

concentric with the axis of the conductor (out of the plane of the diagram at the

location indicated in the diagram). We can use Ohm’s law to relate the electric

field strength E in the conductor to I, ρ, and a and Ampere’s law to find the

magnetic field strength B just outside the conductor. Knowing E

r

and B

r

we can

find S

r

and, using its normal component, show that the rate of energy flow into the

conductor equals I

2

R, where R is the resistance.

E

I

a

x

y

Axis of the conductor

B

(a) Apply Ohm’s law to the

cylindrical conductor to obtain:

EL L

a

I

A

L I

IR V = = = =

2

π

ρ ρ

where

2

a

I

E

π

ρ

= .

Because E

r

is in the same direction

as I:

i E

ˆ

2

a

I

π

ρ

=

r

where i

ˆ

is a unit vector

in the direction of the current.

(b) Applying Ampere’s law to a

circular path of radius a at the

surface of the cylindrical conductor

yields:

( ) I I a B d

C

0 enclosed 0

2 μ μ π = = = ⋅

∫

l

r r

B

Chapter 30

892

Solve for the magnetic field strength

B to obtain:

a

I

B

π

μ

2

0

=

Apply a right-hand rule to determine

the direction of B

r

at the point of

interest shown in the diagram:

θ

π

μ

ˆ

2

0

a

I

= B

r

where

ˆ

θ is a unit vector

perpendicular to i

ˆ

and tangent to the

surface of the conducting cylinder.

(c) The Poynting vector is given

by:

B E S

r r r

× =

0

1

μ

Substitute for E

r

and B

r

and simplify

to obtain:

j

k i S

ˆ

2

ˆ

2

ˆ

1

3 2

2

0

2

0

a

I

a

I

a

I

π

ρ

π

μ

π

ρ

μ

− =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

r

Letting rˆ be a unit vector directed

radially outward from the axis of the

cylindrical conductor yields.

r S ˆ

2

3 2

2

a

I

π

ρ

− =

r

where rˆ is a unit

vector directed radially outward away

from the axis of the conducting

cylinder.

(d) The flux through the surface of

the conductor into the conductor is:

( ) aL S dA S π 2

n

∫

=

Substitute for S

n

, the inward

component of S

r

, and simplify to

obtain:

( )

2

2

3 2

2

n

2

2 a

L I

aL

a

I

dA S

π

ρ

π

π

ρ

= =

∫

Because

2

a

L

A

L

R

π

ρ ρ

= = :

R I dA S

2

n

∫

=

Remarks: The equality of the two flow rates is a statement of the

conservation of energy.

56 ••• A long solenoid that has n turns per unit length carries a current that

increases linearly with time. The solenoid has radius R, length L, and the current I

in the windings is given by I = at. (a) Find the induced electric field at a distance r

< R from the central axis of the solenoid. (b) Find the magnitude and direction of

the Poynting vector

r

S at r = R (just inside the solenoid windings). (c) Calculate

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

893

the flux

∫

dA S

n

into the region inside the solenoid, and show that this flux equals

the rate of increase of the magnetic energy inside the solenoid.

Picture the Problem An end view of the solenoid is shown in the diagram. Let

the current be clockwise and choose a coordinate system in which the +x direction

is tangent to cylindrical surfaces concentric with the axis of the solenoid. Note

that the +z direction is out of the plane of the diagram. We can use Faraday’s law

to express the induced electric field at a distance r < R from the solenoid axis in

terms of the rate of change of magnetic flux and at n B

0

μ = to express B

r

in terms

of the current in the windings of the solenoid. We can use the results of (a) to find

the Poynting vector S

r

at the cylindrical surface r = R just inside the solenoid

windings. In Part (c) we’ll use the definition of flux and the expression for the

magnetic energy in a given region to show that the flux of S

r

into the solenoid

equals the rate of increase of the magnetic energy inside the solenoid.

r

×

E

B

x

y

I

R

Axis of the

solenoid

(a) Apply Faraday’s law to a circular

path of radius r < R to relate the

magnitude of the induced electric

field to the magnitude of the rate of

change of the magnetic flux:

( )

dt

d

r E d

C

m

2

φ

π − = = ⋅

∫

l

r r

E

Solving for E yields:

dt

d

r

E

m

2

1 φ

π

− = (1)

Chapter 30

894

Express the magnetic field strength

inside a long solenoid:

at n I n B

0 0

μ μ = =

The magnetic flux through a circle of

radius r is:

2

0 m

r at n BA π μ φ = =

Substitute for

m

φ in equation (1) and

simplify to obtain:

[ ]

2 2

1

0 2

0

r a n

r at n

dt

d

r

E

μ

π μ

π

− = − =

The direction of E

r

is such that it

produces an emf that opposes the

increase in the current, so if the

current is clockwise, then E

r

is in the

opposite direction and:

θ μ

ˆ

0 2

1

r a n − = E

r

where

ˆ

θ is a unit vector that is tangent

to the circles that are concentric with

the axis of the solenoid.

(b) Express S

r

at r = R:

B E S

r r r

× =

0

1

μ

(2)

The magnitude of B

r

is given by:

at n I n B

0 0

μ μ = =

Applying a right-hand rule yields:

( )k B

ˆ

0

at nμ − =

r

Substitute for E

r

and B

r

in equation

(2) and simplify to obtain:

( )

j

k i S

ˆ

2

ˆ ˆ

2

1

2

0

2

0

0

0

Rt a n

at n

r a n

μ

μ

μ

μ

− =

− × ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

r

Because B E

r r

× is a vector that

points toward the axis of the

solenoid, we can also write S

r

as:

r S ˆ

2

0

2

2

1

Rt a n μ − =

r

where rˆ is a unit vector that points

radially outward—away from the axis

of the solenoid.

(c) Consider a cylindrical surface of

length L and radius R. Because

S

r

points inward, the energy flowing

into the solenoid per unit time is:

t La R n

Rt a n

RL RLS dA S

2 2

0

2

2

0

2

n

2

2 2

μ π

μ

π π

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

= =

∫

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

895

Express the magnetic energy in the

solenoid:

( )

( )

( )

2

2

2

2 2 2

0

2

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

m

t La R n

L R

nat

L R

B

V u U

B

μ π

π

μ

μ

π

μ

=

=

= =

Evaluate dU

B

/dt:

∫

= =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

=

dA S t La R n

t La R n

dt

d

dt

dU

B

n

2 2

0

2

2 2 2

0

2

2

μ π

μ π

Remarks: The equality of the two flow rates is a statement of the

conservation of energy.

57 ••• Small particles are be blown out of the solar system by the radiation

pressure of sunlight. Assume that each particle is spherical, has a radius r, has a

density of 1.00 g/cm

3

, and absorbs all the radiation in a cross-sectional area of

πr

2

. Assume the particles are located at some distance d from the Sun, which has

a total power output of 3.83 × 10

26

W. (a) What is the critical value for the radius

r of the particle for which the radiation force of repulsion just balances the

gravitational force of attraction to the Sun? (b) Do particles that have radii larger

than the critical value get ejected from the solar system, or is it only particles that

have radii smaller than the critical value that get ejected? Explain your answer.

Picture the Problem We can use a condition for translational equilibrium to

obtain an expression relating the forces due to gravity and radiation pressure that

act on the particles. We can express the force due to radiation pressure in terms of

the radiation pressure and the effective cross sectional area of the particles and the

radiation pressure in terms of the intensity of the solar radiation. We can solve the

resulting equation for r.

(a) Apply the condition for

translational equilibrium to the

particle:

0

g r

= − F F

or, since F

r

= P

r

A and F

g

= mg,

0

2

s

r

= −

R

m GM

A P (1)

The radiation pressure P

r

depends on

the intensity of the radiation I:

c

I

P =

r

Chapter 30

896

The intensity of the solar radiation at

a distance R is:

2

4 R

P

I

π

=

Substitute for I to obtain:

c R

P

P

2 r

4π

=

Substitute for P

r

, A, and m in

equation (1):

( ) 0

4

2

s

3

3

4

2

2

= −

R

GM r

r

c R

P ρ π

π

π

Solve for r to obtain:

s

16

3

GM c

P

r

ρ π

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate r:

( )

( )( )( )( )

nm 574

kg 10 99 . 1 kg / m N 10 673 . 6 m/s 10 998 . 2 g/cm 00 . 1 16

W 10 83 . 3 3

30 2 2 11 8 3

26

=

× ⋅ × ×

×

=

−

π

r

(b) Because both the gravitational and radiation pressure forces decrease as the

square of the distance from the Sun, it is then a comparison of grain mass to grain

area. Since mass is proportional to volume and thus varies with the cube of the

radius, the larger grains have more mass and thus experience a stronger

gravitational than radiation-pressure force. The critical radius is an upper limit

and so particles smaller than that radius will be blown out.

58 ••• When an electromagnetic wave at normal incidence on a perfectly

conducting surface is reflected, the electric field of the reflected wave at the

reflecting surface is equal and opposite to the electric field of the incident wave at

the reflecting surface. (a) Explain why this assertion is valid. (b) Show that the

superposition of incident and reflected waves results in a standing wave. (c) Are

the magnetic fields of the incident waves and reflected waves at the reflecting

surface equal and opposite as well? Explain your answer.

Picture the Problem

(a) At a perfectly conducting surface 0 = E

r

. Therefore, the sum of the electric

fields of the incident and reflected wave must add to zero, and so

r i

E E

r r

− = .

(b) Let the incident and reflected

waves be described by:

( ) kx t E E

y

− = ω cos

0 i

and

( ) kx t E E

y

+ − = ω cos

0 r

Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves

897

Use the trigonometric identity cos(α + β) = cosαcosβ − sinαsinβ to obtain:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

[ ]

wave. standing a of equation the , sin sin 2

sin sin cos cos sin sin cos cos

sin sin cos cos sin sin cos cos

cos cos cos cos

0

0

0

0 0 0 r i

kx t E

kx t kx t kx t kx t E

kx t kx t kx t kx t E

kx t kx t E kx t E kx t E E E

y

y

y

y y y

ω

ω ω ω ω

ω ω ω ω

ω ω ω ω

=

+ − + =

+ − − − − =

+ − − = + − − = +

(c) Because S B E

r r r

0

μ = × and S

r

is in the direction of propagation of the wave, we

see that for the incident wave ( ) kx t B B

z

− = ω cos

i

. Since both S

r

and E

y

are

reversed for the reflected wave ( ) kx t B B

z r

+ = ω cos . So the magnetic field vectors

are in the direction at the reflecting surface and add at that surface.

Hence

r

B B

r r

2 = .

59 ••• [SSM] An intense point source of light radiates 1.00 MW

isotropically (uniformly in all directions). The source is located 1.00 m above an

infinite, perfectly reflecting plane. Determine the force that the radiation pressure

exerts on the plane.

Picture the Problem Let the point source be a distance a above the plane.

Consider a ring of radius r and thickness dr in the plane and centered at the point

directly below the light source. Express the force on this elemental ring and

integrate the resulting expression to obtain F.

The intensity anywhere along this

infinitesimal ring is given by:

( )

2 2

4 a r

P

+ π

The elemental force dF on the

elemental ring of area 2π rdr is given

by:

( )

( )

2 3

2 2

2 2

2 2

a r c

Pardr

a r

a

a r c

rdr P

dF

+

=

+

+

=

where we have taken into account that

only the normal component of the

incident radiation contributes to the

force on the plane, and that the plane is

a perfectly reflecting plane.

Integrate dF from r = 0 to r = ∞:

( )

∫

∞

+

=

0

2 3

2 2

a r

rdr

c

Pa

F

Chapter 30

898

From integral tables:

( )

a

a r a r

rdr 1 1

0

2 2

0

2 3

2 2

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

+

−

=

+

∞

∞

∫

Substitute to obtain:

c

P

a c

Pa

F =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

1

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate F:

mN 34 . 3

m/s 10 998 . 2

MW 00 . 1

8

=

×

= F

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