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**Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe
**

Conceptual Problems

1 • How are baryons and mesons similar? How are they different?

Similarities

Differences

Baryons and mesons are hadrons, i.e.,

they participate in the strong

interaction. Both are composed of

quarks.

Baryons consist of three quarks and are

fermions. Mesons consist of two quarks

and are bosons. Baryons have baryon

number +1 or −1. Mesons have baryon

number 0.

2 • The muon and the pion have nearly the same masses. How do these

particles differ?

Determine the Concept The muon is a lepton. It is a spin-½ particle and is a

fermion. It does not participate in strong interactions. It appears to be an

elementary particle like the electron. The pion is a meson. Its spin is 0 and it is a

boson. It does participate in strong interactions and is composed of quarks.

3 • [SSM] How can you tell whether a decay proceeds by the strong

interaction or the weak interaction?

Determine the Concept A decay process involving the strong interaction has a

very short lifetime (∼10

−23

s), whereas decay processes that proceed by the weak

interaction have lifetimes of order 10

−10

s.

4 • True or false:

(a) All baryons are hadrons.

(b) All hadrons are baryons.

(a) True

(b) False. There are two kinds of hadrons-baryons, which have spin

2

1

(or

2

3

,

2

5

and so on), and mesons, which have zero or integral spin.

5 • True or false: All mesons are spin-

1

2

particles.

False. Mesons have zero or integral spins.

363

Chapter 41

364

6 • A particle made of exactly two quarks is (a) a meson, (b) a baryon,

(c) a lepton, (d) either a meson or a baryon, but definitely not a lepton?

Determine the Concept A meson has 2 quarks, a baryon has 3 quarks. Hence

( ) a is correct.

7 • Have any quark–antiquark combinations whose electric charge is not

an integral multiplied by the fundamental charge e been observed?

Determine the Concept No; from Table 41-2 it is evident that any quark-

antiquark combination always results in an integral or zero charge.

8 • True or false:

(a) A lepton is a combination of three quarks.

(b) The typical times for decays by the weak interaction are orders of magnitude

longer than the typical times for decays by the strong interaction.

(c) The muon and the pion are both mesons.

(a) False. Leptons are not made up of quarks.

(b) True

(c) False. The muon is lepton, not a meson.

9 • True or false:

(a) Electrons interact with protons by the strong interaction.

(b) Strangeness is not conserved in reactions involving the weak interaction.

(c) Neutrons have zero charm.

(a) False. Electrons interact with protons by the electromagnetic interaction.

(b) True

(c) True

Estimation and Approximation

10 •• Grand unification theories predict that the proton has a long but finite

lifetime. Current experiments based on detecting the decay of protons in water

infer that this lifetime is at least 10

32

years. Assume 10

32

years is, in fact, the

mean lifetime of the proton. Estimate the expected time between proton-decays

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

365

that occur in the water of a filled Olympic-size swimming pool. An Olympic-size

swimming pool is 100 m × 25 m × 2.0 m. Give your answer in days.

Picture the Problem Assuming that the lifetime of a proton is 10

32

y, one proton

out of every 10

32

protons should decay every year on average. Hence, we can

estimate the expected time between proton-decays that occur in the water of a

filled Olympic-size swimming pool by determining the number of protons N in

the pool and dividing 10

32

y by this number.

The mean time between

disintegrations is the ratio of the

lifetime of the protons to the number

of protons N in the pool:

N

t

y 10

32

mean

= Δ (1)

The number of protons N in the pool

is related to the mass of water in the

pool M

water

, the molar mass of water

m

molar, water

, and the number of

protons per molecule n:

water molar,

A

water

m

nN

M

N

=

Solve for N to obtain:

water molar,

water A

m

M nN

N =

Because the mass of the water is the

product of its density and the volume

of the pool:

water molar,

pool water A

m

V nN

N

ρ

=

Substituting for N in equation (1)

yields:

( )

pool water A

water molar,

32

water molar,

pool water A

32

mean

y 10

y 10

V nN

m

m

V nN

t

ρ

ρ

=

= Δ

Because each molecule of water has

10 protons:

molecule

protons

10 = n

Chapter 41

366

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δt

mean

:

( )

( )( )( )

d 22

y

d 365.24

y 0598 . 0 y 0598 . 0

m 0 . 2 m 25 m 100

m

kg

10

mol

molecules

10 02 . 6

molecule

protons

10

g 10

kg 1

mol

g

18 y 10

3

3 23

3

32

mean

≈ × = =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

= t Δ

11 •• Table 41-6 lists some properties of the four fundamental interactions.

To better understand the significance of this table, confirm the ratio of the

numerical entries in the second and fourth column of the last row of the table by

estimating the ratio of the electromagnetic force to the gravitational force between

two protons of a nucleus.

Picture the Problem We can use

2

nucleus

2

proton em

r kq F = and

2

nucleus

2

proton grav

r Gm F = to

estimate the ratio of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces between two

protons located in a nucleus.

The electromagnetic force between

two protons located in a nucleus is

given by:

2

nucleus

2

proton

em

r

kq

F =

The gravitational force between

these same protons is given by:

2

nucleus

2

proton

grav

r

Gm

F =

Divide F

em

by F

grav

to obtain:

2

proton

2

proton

2

nucleus

2

proton

2

nucleus

2

proton

grav

em

Gm

kq

r

Gm

r

kq

F

F

= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F

em

/F

grav

:

( )

( )

36

2

27

2

2

11

2

19

2

2

9

grav

em

10 24 . 1

kg 10 67 . 1

kg

m N

10 67 . 6

C 10 60 . 1

C

m N

10 99 . 8

× =

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ⋅

×

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ⋅

×

=

− −

−

F

F

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

367

Spin and Antiparticles

12 • Two pions at rest annihilate according to the reaction π

+

+ π

–

→ γ + γ.

(a) Why must the energies of the two γ-rays be equal? (b) Find the energy of each

γ-ray. (c) Find the wavelength of each γ-ray.

Picture the Problem We can use both conservation of energy and momentum to

explain why the energies of the two γ-rays must be equal. We can find the energy

of each γ-ray in Table 41-1 and find their wavelengths using λ = hc/E.

(a) The initial momentum is zero; therefore, the final momentum must be zero.

The momentum of the photon is E/c. To conserve both momentum and energy the

two photons must have the same momentum magnitude. Hence they must have

the same energy.

(b) From Table 41-1:

MeV 6 . 139 =

γ

E

(c) The wavelength of each γ ray

is given by: E E

hc fm MeV 1240 ⋅

= = λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ:

fm 88 . 8

MeV 6 . 139

fm MeV 1240

=

⋅

= λ

13 • Find the minimum energy of the photon needed for the following pair-

production reactions: (a) γ → π

+

+ π

–

, (b) γ → p + p

–

, and (c) γ → μ

–

+ μ

+

.

Picture the Problem In each case, the required energy is given by

where m is mass of each particle produced in the pair-production reaction. These

masses can be found in Tables 41-1 and 41-3.

2

2mc E =

( )

MeV 2 . 279

MeV/ 6 . 139 2 2

2 2 2

=

= = c c c m E

π

(a) For γ → π

+

+ π

–

:

(b) For γ → p + p

–

: ( )

MeV 1877

MeV/ 3 . 938 2 2

2 2 2

p

=

= = c c c m E

(c) For γ → μ

–

+ μ

+

: ( )

MeV 3 . 211

MeV/ 659 . 105 2 2

2 2 2

=

= = c c c m E

μ

Chapter 41

368

The Conservation Laws

14 • State which of the following decays or reactions violate one or more of

the conservation laws, and give the law or laws violated in each case:

a)

p

+

→n + e

+

+ν

e

, (b)

n →p

+

+π

−

, (c)

e

+

+ e

−

→γ , (d)

p + p

−

→γ + γ , and

(e)

ν

e

+ p →n + e

+

.

Picture the Problem We need to check for conservation of energy, charge,

baryon number, and lepton number.

(a) Energy conservation: Because

n p

m m < , energy conservation

is violated.

Charge conservation:

+e → 0 + e + 0 = +e

Because the net charge is +e before and

after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:

+1 → +1 + 0 + 0 = +1

Because B is +1 before and after the

decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:

0 → 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

Because 0

e

= L before and after the

decay, the lepton number for electrons

is conserved.

This process is not allowed because it violates conservation of energy.

(b) Energy conservation: Because

−

+ <

π

m

p n

m m , energy

conservation is violated.

Charge conservation:

0 → +e + (−e) = 0

Because the net charge is 0 before and

after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:

+1 → +1 + 0 = +1

Because B = +1 before and after the

decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:

0 → 0 + 0 = 0

Because L = 0 before and after the

decay, lepton number is conserved.

Because energy is not conserved, this decay is not allowed.

(c) Momentum conservation is violated. Two (or more) γ rays must be emitted to

conserve momentum.

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

369

(d) Energy conservation: Energy is conserved.

Charge conservation:

+1 + (−1) → 0 + 0 = 0

Because the net charge is zero before

and after the decay, charge is

conserved.

Baryon number:

+1 + (−1) → 0 + 0 = 0

Because B = 0 before and after the

decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:

0 → 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

Because 0

e

= L before and after the

decay, the lepton number for electrons

is conserved.

Because none of the conservation laws are violated, this is an allowed process.

(e) Energy conservation: Because

+

+ <

e

n p

m m m , energy is

conserved.

Charge conservation:

0 + 1 → 0 + 1 = 1

Because the net charge is one before

and after the decay, charge is

conserved.

Baryon number:

0 + 1 → +1 + 0 = +1

Because B = +1 before and after the

decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:

−1 + 0 → 0 + (−1) = −1

Because 1

e

− = L before and after the

decay, the lepton number for electrons

is conserved.

Because none of the conservation laws are violated, this is an allowed process.

15 • Determine the change in strangeness in each reaction that follows, and

state whether the each decay can proceed by the strong interaction, by the weak

interaction, or not at all: (a)

Ω

−

→ Ξ

0

+ π

−

, (b)

Ξ

0

→ p + π

–

+ π

0

, and

(c)

→ p + π Λ

0 –

.

Picture the Problem The decay will occur via the strong interaction if

strangeness is conserved. If ΔS = ±1, it will occur via the weak interaction. If S

changes by more than 1, the decay will not occur.

Chapter 41

370

(a) List the strangeness of Ω

–

, Ξ

0

,

and π

–

:

Ω

–

: S = −3

Ξ

0

: S = −2

π

–

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 3 2 + = − − − = ΔS

Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

(b) List the strangeness of Ξ

0

, p, π

–

,

and π

0

:

Ξ

0

: S = −2

p: S = 0

π

–

: S = 0

π

0

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 2 2 0 + = − − = ΔS

Because ΔS = +2, the reaction is not allowed.

(c) List the strangeness of Λ

0

,

p

+

, and π

–

:

Λ

0

: S = −1

p

+

: S = 0

π

–

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 1 0 + = − − = ΔS

Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

16 • Determine the change in strangeness for each decay, and state whether

each decay can proceed by the strong interaction, by the weak interaction, or not

at all: (a)

Ω

−

→ Λ

0

+ K

−

and (b)

Ξ

0

→ p + π

–

.

Picture the Problem The decay will occur via the strong interaction if

strangeness is conserved. If ΔS = ±1, it will occur via the weak interaction. If S

changes by more than 1, the decay will not occur.

(a) List the strangeness of Ω

–

,

Λ

0

, and K

–

:

Ω

–

: S = −3

Λ

0

: S = −1

K

–

: S = −1

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 3 1 1 + = − − − − = ΔS

Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

371

(b) List the strangeness of Ξ

0

, p,

and π

–

:

Ξ

0

: S = −2

p: S = 0

π

–

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 2 2 0 + = − − = ΔS

Because ΔS = +2, the reaction is not allowed.

17 • Determine the change in strangeness for each decay, and state whether

each decay can proceed by the strong interaction, by the weak interaction, or not

at all: (a)

Ω

−

→ Λ

0

+ ν

e

+ e

−

and (b) Σ

+

→ p + π

0

.

Picture the Problem The decay will occur via the strong interaction if

strangeness is conserved. If ΔS = ±1, it will occur via the weak interaction. If S

changes by more than 1, the decay will not occur.

(a) List the strangeness of Ω

–

, Λ

0

,

e

ν , and e

–

:

Ω

–

: S = −3

Λ

0

: S = −1

e

ν : S = 0

e

–

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 2 3 1 + = − − − = ΔS

Because ΔS = +2, the reaction is not allowed.

(b) List the strangeness of Σ

+

, p,

and π

0

:

Σ

+

: S = −1

p: S = 0

π

0

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 1 0 + = − − = ΔS

Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

18 • (a) Which of the following decays of the τ particle is possible?

τ μ

τ μ

ν ν μ τ

ν ν μ τ

+ + →

+ + →

−

−

(b) Explain why the other decay is not possible. (c) Calculate the kinetic energy of

the decay products for the decay that is possible.

Chapter 41

372

Picture the Problem We can decide whether the given decays of the τ particle

are possible by determining whether energy conservation is satisfied and whether

conservation of both the τ and μ lepton numbers is satisfied.

(a) The decay

τ μ

ν ν μ τ + + →

−

is allowed. The decay satisfies energy

conservation and conservation of both the τ and μ lepton numbers.

(b) The decay

τ μ

ν ν μ τ + + →

−

is not allowed. The decay scheme does not

conserve τ and μ lepton numbers.

(c) The total kinetic for the

decay

τ μ

ν ν μ τ + + →

−

is:

2 2

tot

c m c m K

μ τ

− =

From Table 41-3 we have:

2

MeV/ 1784 c m =

τ

and

2

MeV/ 659 . 105 c m =

μ

( ) ( )

MeV 1678

MeV/ 106 MeV/ 1784

2 2 2 2

tot

=

− = c c c c K

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate K

tot

:

Remarks: Note that the kinetic energy of the individual decay products

cannot be determined from the decay scheme alone.

19 •• [SSM] Using Error! Reference source not found. and the laws of

conservation of charge number, baryon number, strangeness, and spin, identify

the unknown particle, symbolized by (?), in each of the following reactions: (a) p

+ π

–

→ Σ

0

+ (?),

(b) p + p → π

+

+ n + K

+

+ (?), and (c) p + K

−

→ Ξ

−

+(?)

Picture the Problem We can systematically determine Q, B, S, and s for each

reaction and then use these values to identify the unknown particles.

(a) For the strong reaction:

( ) ? p

0

+ → +

−

Σ π

Charge number: +1 − 1 = 0 + Q ⇒ Q = 0

Baryon number: +1 + 0 = +1 + B ⇒ B = 0

Strangeness: 0 + 0 = −1 + S ⇒ S = +1

Spin:

+

2

1

+ 0 = +

2

1

+ s ⇒ s = 0

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

373

These properties indicate that the particle is the kaon

0

K .

(b) For the strong reaction:

( ) ? K n p p + + + → +

+ +

π

Charge number: +1 + 1 = +1 + 0 + 1 + Q ⇒ Q = 0

Baryon number: +1 + 1 = 0 + 1 + 0 + B ⇒ B = +1

Strangeness: 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + 1 + S ⇒ S = −1

Spin:

+

2

1

+

2

1

= 0 +

2

1

+ 0 + s ⇒ s = +

2

1

These properties indicate that the particle is either the

0

Σ or the

0

Λ baryon.

(c) For the strong reaction:

( ) ? K p + → +

− −

Ξ

Charge number: +1 − 1 = −1 + Q ⇒ Q = +1

Baryon number: +1 + 0 = +1 + B ⇒ B = 0

Strangeness: 0 − 1 = −2 + S ⇒ S = +1

Spin:

+

2

1

+ 0 = +

2

1

+ s ⇒ s = 0

These properties indicate that the particle is the kaon

+

K .

20 •• Test the following decays for violation of the conservation of energy,

electric charge, baryon number, and lepton number: (a) n → π

+

+ π

–

+ μ

+

+ μ

–

and

(b) π

0

→ e

+

+ e

–

+ γ. Assume that linear momentum and angular momentum are

conserved. State which conservation laws (if any) are violated in each decay.

Picture the Problem A decay process is allowed if energy, charge, baryon

number, and lepton number are conserved.

(a) Energy conservation: Because

μ π

m m m 2 2

n

+ > , energy

conservation is not violated.

Charge conservation:

0 → +1 + (−1) + 1 + (−1) = 0

Because the total charge is 0 before and

after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:

1 → 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

Because baryon number changes from

+1 to 0, conservation of baryon number

is violated.

Chapter 41

374

Lepton number:

0 → 0 + 0 + 1 + (−1) = 0

Because 0 =

μ

L before and after the

decay, the lepton number for muons is

conserved.

Not allowed. The decay violates conservation of baryon number.

(b) Energy conservation: Because , energy

conservation is not violated.

e

2m m >

π

Charge conservation:

0 → +1 + (−1) + 0 = 0

Because the total charge is 0 before and

after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:

0 → 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

Because B = 0 before and after the

decay, the baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number:

0 → +1 + (−1) + 0 = 0

Because 0

e

= L before and after the

decay, the lepton number for electrons

is conserved.

Allowed. The decay satisfies all the conservation laws.

Quarks

21 • Find the baryon number, charge, and strangeness for the following

quark combinations and identify the hadron: (a) uud, (b) udd, (c) uus, (d) dds, (e)

uss, and (f) dss.

Picture the Problem For each quark combination we can determine the baryon

number B, the charge Q, and the strangeness S (from Table 41-2) and then use

Table 41-1 to find a match and complete the following table.

Combination B Q S hadron

(a) uud 1 +1 0 p

+

(b) udd 1 0 0 n

(c) uus 1 +1 −1 Σ

+

(d) dds 1 −1 −1 Σ

−

(e) uss 1 0 −2 Ξ

0

(f) dss 1 −1 −2 Ξ

−

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

375

22 • Find the baryon number, charge, and strangeness for the following

quark combinations: (a)

ud , (b) u d , (c)

us , and (d)

u s.

Picture the Problem For each quark combination we can determine the baryon

number B, the charge Q, and the strangeness S (from Table 41-2) and then use

Table 41-1 to find a match and complete the following table.

Combination B Q S hadron

(a) d u 0 +1 0 π

+

(b) d u 0 −1 0 π

−

(c) s u 0 +1 +1 K

+

(d) s u 0 −1 −1 K

−

23 • The Δ

++

particle is a baryon that decays by the strong interaction. Its

strangeness, charm, topness, and bottomness are all zero. What combination of

quarks gives a particle that has these properties?

Determine the Concept From Table 41-2 we see that to satisfy the conditions of

charge = +2 and zero strangeness, charm, topness, and bottomness, the quark

combination must be uuu.

24 • Find a possible combination of quarks that gives the correct values for

electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for (a) K

+

and (b) K

0

.

Picture the Problem Because K

+

and K

0

are mesons, they consist of a quark and

an antiquark. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks

with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for

these particles.

(a) For K

+

we need: Q = +1

B = 0

S = +1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s u

(b) For K

0

we need: Q = 0

B = 0

S = +1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s d

Chapter 41

376

25 • The D

+

meson has zero strangeness, but it has charm of +1. (a) What is

a possible quark combination that will give the correct properties for this particle?

(b) Repeat Part (a) for the D

–

meson, which is the antiparticle of the D

+

meson.

Determine the Concept Because D

+

and D

−

are mesons, they consist of a quark

and an antiquark.

(a) B = 0, so we must look for a combination of quark and antiquark. Because it

has charm of +1, one of the quarks must be c. Because the charge is +e, the

antiquark must be . d The possible combination for D

+

is . d c .

(b) Because D

−

is the antiparticle of D

+

, the quark combination is . d c

26 • Find a possible combination of quarks that gives the correct values for

electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for (a) K

–

(the K

–

is the

antiparticle of the K

+

) and (b)

0

K .

Picture the Problem We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of

quarks with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness

for these particles. Because K

–

and

0

K are mesons, they consist of a quark and an

antiquark.

(a) For K

–

we need: Q = −1

B = 0

S = −1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s u

(b) For

0

K we need: Q = 0

B = 0

S = −1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s d

Remarks: An alternative solution could take advantage of our results in

Problem 24 for the antiparticles K

+

and K

0

.

27 •• [SSM] Find a possible quark combination for the following

particles: (a)

, (b) p Λ

0 –

, and (c) Σ

–

.

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

377

Picture the Problem Because Λ

0

, p

–

, and Σ

–

are baryons, they are made up of

three quarks. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks

with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for

these particles.

(a) For Λ

0

we need: Q = 0

B = +1

S = −1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The uds

(b) For p

–

we need: Q = −1

B = −1

S = +1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The d u u

(c) For Σ

–

we need: Q = −1

B = +1

S = −1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The dds

28 •• Find a possible quark combination for the following particles: (a)

n ,

(b)

, and (c) Σ Ξ

0 +

.

Picture the Problem Because n , Ξ

0

, and Σ

+

are baryons, they are made up of

three quarks. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks

with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for

these particles.

(a) For n we need: Q = 0

B = −1

S = 0

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The d d u

(b) For Ξ

0

we need: Q = 0

B = +1

S = −2

Chapter 41

378

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The uss

(c) For Σ

+

we need: Q = +1

B = +1

S = −1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The uus

29 •• Find a possible quark combination for the following particles: (a) Ω

–

and (b) Ξ .

−

Picture the Problem Because Ω

–

and Ξ

–

are baryons, they are made up of three

quarks. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks with the

correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for these

particles.

(a) For Ω

–

we need: Q = −1

B = +1

S = −3

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The sss

(b) For Ξ

–

we need: Q = −1

B = +1

S = −2

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The ssd

30 •• State the properties of the particles made up of the following quarks:

(a) ddd, (b)

uc , (c)

ub , and (d)

s s s .

Picture the Problem We can use Table 41-2 to identify the properties of the

particles made up of the given quarks.

Particle Q B S Charm Topness Bottomness

(a) ddd −1 +1 0 0 0 0

(b) c u 0 0 0 −1 0 0

(c)

b u

+1 0 0 0 0 −1

(d) s s s +1 −1 +3 0 0 0

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

379

The Evolution of the Universe

31 • [SSM] A galaxy is receding from Earth at 2.5 percent the speed of

light. Estimate the distance from Earth to this galaxy.

Picture the Problem We can use Hubble’s law to find the distance from Earth to

this galaxy.

The recessional velocity of

galaxy is related to its distance

by Hubble’s law:

Hr v = ⇒

H

v

r =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate r:

( ) ( )( )

y 10 3 . 3

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 998 . 2 0.025

y 10

km/s 23

0.025

8

6

5

6

⋅ × =

⋅

×

=

⋅

=

c

c c

c

r

32 • Estimate the speed of a galaxy that is 12 × 10

9

c⋅y away from us.

Picture the Problem We can use Hubble’s law to find the speed of the galaxy.

The recessional velocity of the

galaxy is related to its distance by

Hubble’s law:

Hr v =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate v:

( ) c

c

c

c

v 92 . 0

km/s 10 998 . 2

y 10 12

y 10

km/s 23

5

9

6

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⋅ ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

=

33 •• The Doppler frequency shift for a light from a source that is receding

from a stationary receiver is given by ′ f = f

0

1− β ( ) 1+ β ( ), where β = v/c

(Equation 39-16b). Show that the Doppler wavelength shift for light is

′ λ = λ

0

1+ β ( ) 1− β ( ).

Picture the Problem We can substitute for f ′ and f

0

, using v = fλ, in Equation 39-

16b to show that the relativistic wavelength shift is .

1

1

0

β

β

λ λ

−

+

= '

From Equation 39-16b:

β

β

+

−

=

1

1

0

f f'

Chapter 41

380

'

f'

λ

c

= and

0

0

c

λ

= f

Express f ′ and f

0

in terms of λ′

and λ

0

:

Substitute for f ′ and f

0

to obtain:

β

β

λ λ +

−

=

1

1

'

0

c c

⇒

β

β

λ λ

−

+

=

1

1

0

'

34 •• The red line in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen is frequently referred

to as the Hα line, and it has a wavelength of 656.3 nm. Using Hubble’s law and

the Doppler equation for light from Problem 33, determine the wavelength of the

Hα line in the spectrum emitted from galaxies at distances of (a) 5.00 × 10

6

c⋅y,

(b) 500 × 10

6

c⋅y, and (c) 5.00 × 10

9

c⋅y from Earth.

Picture the Problem Using Hubble’s law, we can rewrite the equation from

Problem 33 as

Hr c

Hr c

'

−

+

=

0

λ λ .

From Problem 33 we have:

c v

c v

'

/ 1

/ 1

1

1

0 0

−

+

=

−

+

= λ

β

β

λ λ

Use Hubble’s law to relate v to r: Hr v =

Substitute for v and simplify to obtain:

Hr c

Hr c

c Hr

c Hr

'

−

+

=

−

+

=

0 0

/ 1

/ 1

λ λ λ

(a) For r = 5.00 × 10

6

c⋅y:

( )

( )

m 10 6 . 6

y 10 5.00

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 998 . 2

y 10 5.00

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 998 . 2

nm 3 . 656

7

6

6

5

6

6

5

−

× =

⋅ ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

− ×

⋅ ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

+ ×

=

c

c

c

c

' λ

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

381

(b) For r = 500 × 10

6

c⋅y:

( )

( )

m 10 8 . 6

y 10 500

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 998 . 2

y 10 500

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 998 . 2

nm 3 . 656

7

6

6

5

6

6

5

−

× =

⋅ ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

− ×

⋅ ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

+ ×

=

c

c

c

c

' λ

(c) For r = 5.00 × 10

9

c⋅y:

( )

( )

m 10 8 . 9

y 10 5.00

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 998 . 2

y 10 5.00

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 998 . 2

nm 3 . 656

7

9

6

5

9

6

5

−

× =

⋅ ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

− ×

⋅ ×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅

+ ×

=

c

c

c

c

' λ

General Problems

35 • (a) What conditions are necessary for a hadron and its antiparticle to

be identical? (b) Find the quark combination of both the hadron and its

antiparticle for both the π

0

and the

Ξ

0

particles. (c) Of the π

0

and the

particles,

which, if any, is its own antiparticle?

Ξ

0

Determine the Concept

(a) Baryon number and lepton numbers are conserved quantities. A particle and

its antiparticle must have baryon numbers that add to zero and lepton numbers

that add to zero. Thus, for a particle and its antiparticle to be identical, its baryon

number and all three of its lepton numbers must equal zero. This means it cannot

be a lepton or a baryon, so it must be a meson. A particle and its antiparticle have

the complementary quark content. That is, if each quark in a particle is replaced

by its antiquark, then the resulting entity is the antiparticle of the particle.

(b) The quark combination for the is a linear combination of

0

π u u and d d and

the quark combination for the

0

π is a linear combination of u u and d d . The

quark combination for the

is uss and that of the Ξ

0 0

Ξ is s s u .

(c) The is a meson with quark content of a linear combination of

0

π u u and d d ,

so the is its own antiparticle. The Ξ

0

π

0

is a baryon. As is explained in the

answer to Part (a), a baryon cannot be its own antiparticle.

36 •• The red line in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen is frequently referred

to as the Hα line, and it has a wavelength of 656.3 nm. Light from a distant

galaxy shows a redshift of the Hα line of hydrogen to a wavelength of 1458 nm.

Chapter 41

382

(a) What is the recessional velocity of the galaxy? (b) Estimate the distance to this

galaxy.

Picture the Problem We can solve the equation derived in Problem 33 for the

recessional velocity of the galaxy and then use Hubble’s equation to estimate the

distance to the galaxy.

(a) From Problem 33 we have:

c v

c v

'

/ 1

/ 1

0

−

+

= λ λ ⇒

2

0

/ 1

/ 1

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

−

+

λ

λ'

c v

c v

Substitute numerical values for

λ′ and λ

0

:

935 . 4

nm 656.3

nm 1458

/ 1

/ 1

2

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

−

+

c v

c v

Simplify to obtain:

c

v

c

v

+ =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− 1 1 4.953

and

3.953 5.953 =

c

v

( )

km/s 10 99 . 1 m/s 10 99 . 1

m/s 10 998 . 2 664 . 0 664 . 0

5 8

8

× = × =

× = = c v

Solving for v gives:

(b) From the Hubble equation we

have:

H

v

r =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate r:

y 10 65 . 8

y 10

km/s 23

km/s 10 1.99

9

6

5

⋅ × =

⋅

×

= c

c

r

37 •• [SSM] (a) In terms of the quark model, show that the reaction

π

0

→ γ + γ does not violate any conservation laws. (b) Which conservation law is

violated by the reaction π

0

→ γ ?

Picture the Problem The π

o

particle is composed of two quarks, u and u .

Hence, the reaction π

o

→γ + γ is equivalent touu →γ + γ .

(a) The u and u annihilate − resulting in the photons.

(b) Two or more photons are required to conserve linear momentum.

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

383

38 •• Test the following decays for violation of the conservation of energy,

electric charge, baryon number, and lepton number: (a)

Λ

0

→ p + π

–

,

(b) Σ

–

→ n + p

–

, and (c)

μ

−

→e

−

+ ν

e

+ν

μ

. Assume that linear momentum and

angular momentum are conserved. State which conservation laws (if any) are

violated in each decay.

Picture the Problem A decay process is allowed if energy, charge, baryon

number, and lepton numbers are conserved.

(a) Energy conservation: Because

π

m m m + >

Λ p

, energy

conservation is not violated.

Charge conservation:

0 → 1 −1 = 0

Because the total charge is 0 before and

after the decay, charge conservation is

not violated.

Baryon number:

1 → 1 + 0 = 1

Because there is no change in baryon

number, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number:

0 → 0 + 0 = 0

Because lepton number is 0 before and

after the decay, lepton number is

conserved.

The decay is allowed.

(b) Energy conservation: Because

p n

m + <

Σ

m m , energy is not

conserved.

Charge conservation:

−1 → 0 − 1 = −1

Because the total charge does not

change, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:

+1 → 1 − 1 = 0

Because B changes from +1 to 0,

baryon number is not conserved.

Lepton number:

0 → 0 + 0 = 0

Because L is 0 before and after the

decay, the lepton number is conserved.

Not allowed. The decay violates both energy conservation and baryon number.

(c) Energy conservation: Energy is conserved.

Chapter 41

384

Charge conservation:

−1 → − 1 + 0 + 0 = −1

Because the total charge does not

change, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:

0 → 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

Because B does not change, baryon

number is conserved.

Lepton number:

1 → 1 − 1 + 1 = 1

Because L does not change, lepton

number is conserved.

The decay satisfies all conservation laws and is allowed.

Remarks: The decay in Part (c) is the decay process for the muon μ

−

(see

Example 41-2).

39 •• Consider the following high-energy particle reaction: p + p →

+ K Λ

0 0

+ p + (?), where (?) represents an unknown particle. During this reaction,

stationary protons are bombarded with a beam of high-energy protons. (a) Use the

laws of conservation of charge number, baryon number, strangeness (Error!

Reference source not found.), and spin to determine the unknown particle. (b)

Calculate the Q value for the reaction. (c) The threshold kinetic energy K

th

for this

reaction is given by

K

th

= −

1

2

Q m

p

+ m

p

+ M

1

+ M

2

+ M

3

+ M

4

( )

m

p

, where M

1

,

M

2

, M

3

and M

4

are the masses of the reaction products. Find K

th

.

Picture the Problem We can systematically determine Q, B, S, and s for the

reaction and then use these values to identify the unknown particle. The Q value

for the reaction is given by ( )

2

c m Q Δ − = and the expression for the threshold

energy for the reaction is given in the problem statement.

(a) For the strong reaction:

( ) ? p K p p

o

+ + + → +

o

Λ

Charge number: +1 + 1 = 0 + 0 + 1 + Q ⇒ Q = +1

baryon number: +1 + 1 =+1 + 0 + 1 + B ⇒ B = 0

strangeness: 0 + 0 = −1 + 1 + 0 + S ⇒ S = 0

spin:

+

2

1

+

2

1

= +

2

1

+ 0 +

2

1

+ s ⇒ s = 0

These properties indicate that the unknown particle is a pion

+

π .

(b) The reaction is: p + p → Λ

o

+ K

o

+ p + π

+

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

385

The Q-value for the reaction is:

( ) ( ) [ ]

2

p

K

p p

o o

c M M M M m m Q

+

+ + + − + =

Λ π

Use Table 41-1 to find the mass-energy values:

( ) ( ) [ ] MeV 815 MeV 139.6 938.3 497.7 1116 938.3 938.3 − = + + + − + = Q

Because Q < 0, the reaction is endothermic.

(c) The threshold energy for this reaction is:

( )

+ o o

p

K

p p

p

th

2

π

M M M M m m

m

Q

K + + + + + − =

Λ

Using Table 41-1 to find the mass-energy values, substitute numerical values and

evaluate K

th

:

( )

( )

GeV 98 . 1 MeV 1984

MeV 139.6 938.3 497.7 1116 938.3 938.3

MeV 938.3 2

MeV 815

th

= =

+ + + + +

−

− = K

40 ••• In this problem, you will calculate the difference in the time of arrival

of two neutrinos of different energy from a supernova that is 170 000 light-years

away. Let the energies of the neutrinos be E

1

= 20 MeV and E

2

= 5 MeV, and

assume that the mass of a neutrino is 2.0 eV/c

2

. Because the total energies of the

neutrinos is so much greater than their rest energies, the neutrinos have speeds

that are very nearly equal to c and energies that are approximately E ≈ pc. (a) If t

1

and t

2

are the times that the neutrinos with speeds u

1

and u

2

take to travel a

distance x , show that

Δt = t

2

− t

1

= x u

1

− u

2

( )

u

1

u

2

≈ x Δu ( ) c

2

. (b) The speed of

a neutrino of mass m and total energy E can be found from

E = mc

2

1− u

2

c

2

( )

⎡

⎣

⎤

⎦

1/ 2

(Equation 39-24). Show that when E >> mc

2

, the speed

ratio u/c is given approximately by u c ≈1−

1

2

mc

2

E

( )

2

. (c) Use the results from

Part (a) and Part (b) to calculate u

1

– u

2

for the energies and mass given, and

calculate Δt from the result from Part (a) for x = 170 000 c⋅y. (d) Repeat the

calculation in Part (c) using 20 eV/c

2

for the neutrino mass.

Picture the Problem The solution strategy is outlined in the problem statement.

( )

2 1

2 1

1 2

1 2

u u

u u x

u

x

u

x

t t t

−

= − = − = Δ

(a) Express Δt = t

2

− t

1

in terms of u

2

and u

1

:

Chapter 41

386

Noting that u

1

u

2

≈ c

2

, we have:

2

c

u x

t

Δ

≈ Δ (1)

where Δu = u

1

− u

2

2 1

2

2

2

2

1 1

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

E

mc

E

mc

c

u

(b) From Equation 39-25 we have:

Expand binomially to obtain:

2

2

2

1

1

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

E

mc

c

u

(c) Express u

1

− u

2

in terms of E

1

, E

2

,

and mc

2

:

( )

( ) ( )

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

2

2

2

2

1

2 1

2

1 1

E E

E E mc c

E E

mc c u u

−

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− = −

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δu:

( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( )

c

c

c

c

u

14

2 2

2 2

2

2

2

10 5 . 7

MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20 2

MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20

eV

0 . 2

−

× =

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= Δ

Use equation (1) to evaluate Δt: ( )( )

s 40 . 0

y

Ms 31.56

y 10 275 . 1

10 5 . 7 y 10 70 . 1

8

2

14 5

=

× × =

× ⋅ ×

≈ Δ

−

−

c

c c

t

(d) Using mc

2

= 20 eV for the rest energy of a neutrino:

( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( )

c

c

c

c

u

12

2 2

2 2

2

2

2

10 5 . 7

MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20 2

MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20

eV

20

−

× =

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= Δ

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

387

Use equation (1) to evaluate Δt: ( )( )

s 40

y

Ms 31.56

y 10 275 . 1

10 5 . 7 y 10 70 . 1

6

2

12 5

=

× × =

× ⋅ ×

≈ Δ

−

−

c

c c

t

Remarks: Note that the spread in the arrival time for neutrinos from a

supernova can be used to estimate the mass of a neutrino.

41 ••• A Λ

0

at rest decays by the reaction Λ

0

→ p + π

–

. (a) Calculate the total

kinetic energy of the decay products. (b) Find the ratio of the kinetic energy of the

pion to the kinetic energy of the proton. (c) Find the kinetic energies of the proton

and the pion for this decay.

Picture the Problem We can use the masses of the parent and daughters to find

the total kinetic energy of the decay products under the assumption that the Λ

0

is

initially at rest. Application of conservation of energy and the definition of kinetic

energy will yield the ratio of the kinetic energy of the pion to the kinetic energy of

the proton. Finally, we can use our results in Parts (a) and (b) to find the kinetic

energies of the proton and the pion for this decay.

(a) The total kinetic energy of the

decay products is given by:

( )

2

p tot

c m m m K

π

− − =

Λ

Substitute numerical values (see Table 41-1) and evaluate K

tot

:

MeV 38

MeV

6 . 139

MeV

3 . 938

MeV

1116

2

2 2 2

tot

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − = c

c c c

K

(b) The ratio of the kinetic energies

is given by:

2

p p

2

2

p p 2

1

2

2

1

p

v m

v m

v m

v m

K

K

π π π π π

= =

Use conservation of momentum

(nonrelativistic) to obtain:

p p

v m v m =

π π

⇒

π

π

m

m

v

v

p

p

=

π π

π π

m

m

m

m

m

m

K

K

p

2

p

p p

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Substitute for the ratio of the speeds

to obtain:

Chapter 41

388

72 . 6

MeV

6 . 139

MeV

3 . 938

2

2

p

= =

c

c

K

K

π

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate the ratio of the kinetic

energies:

(c) Express the total kinetic energy in

terms of K

π

and K

p

:

tot p

K K K = +

π

(1)

Use our results in (a) and (b) to

obtain:

MeV 38 72 . 6

p p

= + K K

Solving for K

p

gives:

MeV 5

p

= K

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:

MeV 33

p tot

= − = K K K

π

42 ••• A Σ

0

particle at rest decays by the reaction Σ

0

→Λ

0

+ γ. (a) What is the

total energy (total energy includes rest energy) of the decay products?

(b) Assuming that the kinetic energy of the

Λ

0

is negligible compared with the

energy of the photon, calculate the approximate momentum of the photon. (c) Use

your result from Part (b) to calculate the kinetic energy of the

Λ

0

. (d) Use your

result from Part (c) to obtain a better estimate of the momentum and the energy of

the photon.

Picture the Problem The total energy of the decay products is the rest energy of

the Σ

0

particle. We can find the momentum of the photon from its energy and use

the conservation of momentum to calculate the kinetic energy of the Λ

0

.

( )

2

c m E

Σ

= (a) The total energy of the decay

products is given by:

Substitute numerical values (see

Table 41-1) and evaluate K

tot

:

MeV 1193

MeV

1193

2

2

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= c

c

E

(b) The momentum of the photon

is given by:

c

c m E

c

E

p

2

Λ

−

= =

γ

γ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate p

γ

:

c

c

c

c

p

MeV

77

MeV

1116 MeV 1193

2

2

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

=

γ

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

389

(c) The kinetic energy of the Λ

0

is given by:

Λ

Λ

Λ

=

m

p

K

2

2

or, because

γ

p p =

Λ

,

Λ

Λ

=

m

p

K

2

2

γ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate K

Λ

:

MeV 7 . 2

MeV

1116 2

MeV

77

2

2

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Λ

c

c

K

(d) A better estimate of the energy of

the photon is:

Λ Λ

− − = K c m E E

2

γ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E

γ

:

MeV 74 MeV 7 . 2

MeV

1116 MeV 1193

2

2

= −

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− = c

c

E

γ

The improved estimate of the

momentum of the photon is:

c c

E

p

MeV

74 = =

λ

γ

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