# Chapter 41

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

Conceptual Problems

1 • How are baryons and mesons similar? How are they different?

Similarities

Differences
Baryons and mesons are hadrons, i.e.,
they participate in the strong
interaction. Both are composed of
quarks.
Baryons consist of three quarks and are
fermions. Mesons consist of two quarks
and are bosons. Baryons have baryon
number +1 or −1. Mesons have baryon
number 0.

2 • The muon and the pion have nearly the same masses. How do these
particles differ?

Determine the Concept The muon is a lepton. It is a spin-½ particle and is a
fermion. It does not participate in strong interactions. It appears to be an
elementary particle like the electron. The pion is a meson. Its spin is 0 and it is a
boson. It does participate in strong interactions and is composed of quarks.

3 • [SSM] How can you tell whether a decay proceeds by the strong
interaction or the weak interaction?

Determine the Concept A decay process involving the strong interaction has a
very short lifetime (∼10
−23
s), whereas decay processes that proceed by the weak
interaction have lifetimes of order 10
−10
s.

4 • True or false:

(a) All baryons are hadrons.
(b) All hadrons are baryons.

(a) True

(b) False. There are two kinds of hadrons-baryons, which have spin
2
1
(or
2
3
,
2
5

and so on), and mesons, which have zero or integral spin.

5 • True or false: All mesons are spin-

1
2
particles.

False. Mesons have zero or integral spins.

363
Chapter 41

364
6 • A particle made of exactly two quarks is (a) a meson, (b) a baryon,
(c) a lepton, (d) either a meson or a baryon, but definitely not a lepton?

Determine the Concept A meson has 2 quarks, a baryon has 3 quarks. Hence
( ) a is correct.

7 • Have any quark–antiquark combinations whose electric charge is not
an integral multiplied by the fundamental charge e been observed?

Determine the Concept No; from Table 41-2 it is evident that any quark-
antiquark combination always results in an integral or zero charge.

8 • True or false:

(a) A lepton is a combination of three quarks.
(b) The typical times for decays by the weak interaction are orders of magnitude
longer than the typical times for decays by the strong interaction.
(c) The muon and the pion are both mesons.

(a) False. Leptons are not made up of quarks.

(b) True

(c) False. The muon is lepton, not a meson.

9 • True or false:

(a) Electrons interact with protons by the strong interaction.
(b) Strangeness is not conserved in reactions involving the weak interaction.
(c) Neutrons have zero charm.

(a) False. Electrons interact with protons by the electromagnetic interaction.

(b) True

(c) True

Estimation and Approximation
10 •• Grand unification theories predict that the proton has a long but finite
lifetime. Current experiments based on detecting the decay of protons in water
infer that this lifetime is at least 10
32
years. Assume 10
32
years is, in fact, the
mean lifetime of the proton. Estimate the expected time between proton-decays
Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

365
that occur in the water of a filled Olympic-size swimming pool. An Olympic-size
swimming pool is 100 m × 25 m × 2.0 m. Give your answer in days.

Picture the Problem Assuming that the lifetime of a proton is 10
32
y, one proton
out of every 10
32
protons should decay every year on average. Hence, we can
estimate the expected time between proton-decays that occur in the water of a
filled Olympic-size swimming pool by determining the number of protons N in
the pool and dividing 10
32
y by this number.

The mean time between
disintegrations is the ratio of the
lifetime of the protons to the number
of protons N in the pool:

N
t
y 10
32
mean
= Δ (1)
The number of protons N in the pool
is related to the mass of water in the
pool M
water
, the molar mass of water
m
molar, water
, and the number of
protons per molecule n:

water molar,
A
water
m
nN
M
N
=

Solve for N to obtain:

water molar,
water A
m
M nN
N =

Because the mass of the water is the
product of its density and the volume
of the pool:

water molar,
pool water A
m
V nN
N
ρ
=
Substituting for N in equation (1)
yields:

( )
pool water A
water molar,
32
water molar,
pool water A
32
mean
y 10
y 10
V nN
m
m
V nN
t
ρ
ρ
=
= Δ

Because each molecule of water has
10 protons:

molecule
protons
10 = n
Chapter 41

366

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δt
mean
:

( )
( )( )( )
d 22
y
d 365.24
y 0598 . 0 y 0598 . 0
m 0 . 2 m 25 m 100
m
kg
10
mol
molecules
10 02 . 6
molecule
protons
10
g 10
kg 1
mol
g
18 y 10
3
3 23
3
32
mean
≈ × = =

×

×
= t Δ

11 •• Table 41-6 lists some properties of the four fundamental interactions.
To better understand the significance of this table, confirm the ratio of the
numerical entries in the second and fourth column of the last row of the table by
estimating the ratio of the electromagnetic force to the gravitational force between
two protons of a nucleus.

Picture the Problem We can use
2
nucleus
2
proton em
r kq F = and
2
nucleus
2
proton grav
r Gm F = to
estimate the ratio of the electromagnetic and gravitational forces between two
protons located in a nucleus.

The electromagnetic force between
two protons located in a nucleus is
given by:

2
nucleus
2
proton
em
r
kq
F =

The gravitational force between
these same protons is given by:

2
nucleus
2
proton
grav
r
Gm
F =

Divide F
em
by F
grav
to obtain:

2
proton
2
proton
2
nucleus
2
proton
2
nucleus
2
proton
grav
em
Gm
kq
r
Gm
r
kq
F
F
= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate F
em
/F
grav
:

( )
( )
36
2
27
2
2
11
2
19
2
2
9
grav
em
10 24 . 1
kg 10 67 . 1
kg
m N
10 67 . 6
C 10 60 . 1
C
m N
10 99 . 8
× =
×

⎛ ⋅
×
×

⎛ ⋅
×
=
− −

F
F

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

367
Spin and Antiparticles

12 • Two pions at rest annihilate according to the reaction π
+
+ π

→ γ + γ.
(a) Why must the energies of the two γ-rays be equal? (b) Find the energy of each
γ-ray. (c) Find the wavelength of each γ-ray.

Picture the Problem We can use both conservation of energy and momentum to
explain why the energies of the two γ-rays must be equal. We can find the energy
of each γ-ray in Table 41-1 and find their wavelengths using λ = hc/E.

(a) The initial momentum is zero; therefore, the final momentum must be zero.
The momentum of the photon is E/c. To conserve both momentum and energy the
two photons must have the same momentum magnitude. Hence they must have
the same energy.

(b) From Table 41-1:

MeV 6 . 139 =
γ
E

(c) The wavelength of each γ ray
is given by: E E
hc fm MeV 1240 ⋅
= = λ

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate λ:
fm 88 . 8
MeV 6 . 139
fm MeV 1240
=

= λ

13 • Find the minimum energy of the photon needed for the following pair-
production reactions: (a) γ → π
+
+ π

, (b) γ → p + p

, and (c) γ → μ

+ μ
+
.

Picture the Problem In each case, the required energy is given by
where m is mass of each particle produced in the pair-production reaction. These
masses can be found in Tables 41-1 and 41-3.
2
2mc E =

( )
MeV 2 . 279
MeV/ 6 . 139 2 2
2 2 2
=
= = c c c m E
π

(a) For γ → π
+
+ π

:
(b) For γ → p + p

: ( )
MeV 1877
MeV/ 3 . 938 2 2
2 2 2
p
=
= = c c c m E

(c) For γ → μ

+ μ
+
: ( )
MeV 3 . 211
MeV/ 659 . 105 2 2
2 2 2
=
= = c c c m E
μ

Chapter 41

368
The Conservation Laws

14 • State which of the following decays or reactions violate one or more of
the conservation laws, and give the law or laws violated in each case:
a)

p
+
→n + e
+

e
, (b)

n →p
+

, (c)

e
+
+ e

→γ , (d)

p + p

→γ + γ , and
(e)

ν
e
+ p →n + e
+
.

Picture the Problem We need to check for conservation of energy, charge,
baryon number, and lepton number.

(a) Energy conservation: Because
n p
m m < , energy conservation
is violated.

Charge conservation:
+e → 0 + e + 0 = +e

Because the net charge is +e before and
after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:
+1 → +1 + 0 + 0 = +1
Because B is +1 before and after the
decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:
0 → 0 + 0 + 0 = 0
Because 0
e
= L before and after the
decay, the lepton number for electrons
is conserved.

This process is not allowed because it violates conservation of energy.

(b) Energy conservation: Because

+ <
π
m
p n
m m , energy
conservation is violated.

Charge conservation:
0 → +e + (−e) = 0

Because the net charge is 0 before and
after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:
+1 → +1 + 0 = +1

Because B = +1 before and after the
decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:
0 → 0 + 0 = 0

Because L = 0 before and after the
decay, lepton number is conserved.

Because energy is not conserved, this decay is not allowed.

(c) Momentum conservation is violated. Two (or more) γ rays must be emitted to
conserve momentum.
Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

369
(d) Energy conservation: Energy is conserved.

Charge conservation:
+1 + (−1) → 0 + 0 = 0

Because the net charge is zero before
and after the decay, charge is
conserved.

Baryon number:
+1 + (−1) → 0 + 0 = 0

Because B = 0 before and after the
decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:
0 → 0 + 0 + 0 = 0
Because 0
e
= L before and after the
decay, the lepton number for electrons
is conserved.

Because none of the conservation laws are violated, this is an allowed process.

(e) Energy conservation: Because
+
+ <
e
n p
m m m , energy is
conserved.

Charge conservation:
0 + 1 → 0 + 1 = 1

Because the net charge is one before
and after the decay, charge is
conserved.

Baryon number:
0 + 1 → +1 + 0 = +1

Because B = +1 before and after the
decay, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number; electrons:
−1 + 0 → 0 + (−1) = −1
Because 1
e
− = L before and after the
decay, the lepton number for electrons
is conserved.

Because none of the conservation laws are violated, this is an allowed process.

15 • Determine the change in strangeness in each reaction that follows, and
state whether the each decay can proceed by the strong interaction, by the weak
interaction, or not at all: (a)

Ω

→ Ξ
0
+ π

, (b)

Ξ
0
→ p + π

+ π
0
, and
(c)

→ p + π Λ
0 –
.

Picture the Problem The decay will occur via the strong interaction if
strangeness is conserved. If ΔS = ±1, it will occur via the weak interaction. If S
changes by more than 1, the decay will not occur.

Chapter 41

370
(a) List the strangeness of Ω

, Ξ
0
,
and π

:

Ω

: S = −3
Ξ
0
: S = −2
π

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 3 2 + = − − − = ΔS
Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

(b) List the strangeness of Ξ
0
, p, π

,
and π
0
:

Ξ
0
: S = −2
p: S = 0
π

: S = 0
π
0
: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 2 2 0 + = − − = ΔS
Because ΔS = +2, the reaction is not allowed.

(c) List the strangeness of Λ
0
,
p
+
, and π

:

Λ
0
: S = −1
p
+
: S = 0
π

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 1 0 + = − − = ΔS
Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

16 • Determine the change in strangeness for each decay, and state whether
each decay can proceed by the strong interaction, by the weak interaction, or not
at all: (a)
Ω

→ Λ
0
+ K

and (b)
Ξ
0
→ p + π

.

Picture the Problem The decay will occur via the strong interaction if
strangeness is conserved. If ΔS = ±1, it will occur via the weak interaction. If S
changes by more than 1, the decay will not occur.

(a) List the strangeness of Ω

,
Λ
0
, and K

:

Ω

: S = −3
Λ
0
: S = −1
K

: S = −1

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 3 1 1 + = − − − − = ΔS
Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

371

(b) List the strangeness of Ξ
0
, p,
and π

:

Ξ
0
: S = −2
p: S = 0
π

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 2 2 0 + = − − = ΔS
Because ΔS = +2, the reaction is not allowed.

17 • Determine the change in strangeness for each decay, and state whether
each decay can proceed by the strong interaction, by the weak interaction, or not
at all: (a)

Ω

→ Λ
0
+ ν
e
+ e

and (b) Σ
+
→ p + π
0
.

Picture the Problem The decay will occur via the strong interaction if
strangeness is conserved. If ΔS = ±1, it will occur via the weak interaction. If S
changes by more than 1, the decay will not occur.

(a) List the strangeness of Ω

, Λ
0
,
e
ν , and e

:

Ω

: S = −3
Λ
0
: S = −1
e
ν : S = 0
e

: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 2 3 1 + = − − − = ΔS
Because ΔS = +2, the reaction is not allowed.

(b) List the strangeness of Σ
+
, p,
and π
0
:

Σ
+
: S = −1
p: S = 0
π
0
: S = 0

Determine ΔS:

( ) 1 1 0 + = − − = ΔS
Because ΔS = +1, the reaction can proceed via the weak interaction.

18 • (a) Which of the following decays of the τ particle is possible?

τ μ
τ μ
ν ν μ τ
ν ν μ τ
+ + →
+ + →

(b) Explain why the other decay is not possible. (c) Calculate the kinetic energy of
the decay products for the decay that is possible.

Chapter 41

372
Picture the Problem We can decide whether the given decays of the τ particle
are possible by determining whether energy conservation is satisfied and whether
conservation of both the τ and μ lepton numbers is satisfied.

(a) The decay
τ μ
ν ν μ τ + + →

is allowed. The decay satisfies energy
conservation and conservation of both the τ and μ lepton numbers.

(b) The decay
τ μ
ν ν μ τ + + →

is not allowed. The decay scheme does not
conserve τ and μ lepton numbers.

(c) The total kinetic for the
decay
τ μ
ν ν μ τ + + →

is:

2 2
tot
c m c m K
μ τ
− =
From Table 41-3 we have:

2
MeV/ 1784 c m =
τ

and
2
MeV/ 659 . 105 c m =
μ

( ) ( )
MeV 1678
MeV/ 106 MeV/ 1784
2 2 2 2
tot
=
− = c c c c K

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate K
tot
:
Remarks: Note that the kinetic energy of the individual decay products
cannot be determined from the decay scheme alone.

19 •• [SSM] Using Error! Reference source not found. and the laws of
conservation of charge number, baryon number, strangeness, and spin, identify
the unknown particle, symbolized by (?), in each of the following reactions: (a) p
+ π

→ Σ
0
+ (?),
(b) p + p → π
+
+ n + K
+
+ (?), and (c) p + K

→ Ξ

+(?)

Picture the Problem We can systematically determine Q, B, S, and s for each
reaction and then use these values to identify the unknown particles.

(a) For the strong reaction:
( ) ? p
0
+ → +

Σ π

Charge number: +1 − 1 = 0 + Q ⇒ Q = 0

Baryon number: +1 + 0 = +1 + B ⇒ B = 0

Strangeness: 0 + 0 = −1 + S ⇒ S = +1

Spin:

+
2
1
+ 0 = +
2
1
+ s ⇒ s = 0
Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

373
These properties indicate that the particle is the kaon
0
K .
(b) For the strong reaction:
( ) ? K n p p + + + → +
+ +
π

Charge number: +1 + 1 = +1 + 0 + 1 + Q ⇒ Q = 0

Baryon number: +1 + 1 = 0 + 1 + 0 + B ⇒ B = +1

Strangeness: 0 + 0 = 0 + 0 + 1 + S ⇒ S = −1

Spin:

+
2
1
+
2
1
= 0 +
2
1
+ 0 + s ⇒ s = +
2
1

These properties indicate that the particle is either the
0
Σ or the
0
Λ baryon.

(c) For the strong reaction:
( ) ? K p + → +
− −
Ξ

Charge number: +1 − 1 = −1 + Q ⇒ Q = +1

Baryon number: +1 + 0 = +1 + B ⇒ B = 0

Strangeness: 0 − 1 = −2 + S ⇒ S = +1

Spin:

+
2
1
+ 0 = +
2
1
+ s ⇒ s = 0
These properties indicate that the particle is the kaon
+
K .

20 •• Test the following decays for violation of the conservation of energy,
electric charge, baryon number, and lepton number: (a) n → π
+
+ π

+ μ
+
+ μ

and
(b) π
0
→ e
+
+ e

+ γ. Assume that linear momentum and angular momentum are
conserved. State which conservation laws (if any) are violated in each decay.

Picture the Problem A decay process is allowed if energy, charge, baryon
number, and lepton number are conserved.

(a) Energy conservation: Because
μ π
m m m 2 2
n
+ > , energy
conservation is not violated.

Charge conservation:
0 → +1 + (−1) + 1 + (−1) = 0
Because the total charge is 0 before and
after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:
1 → 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0
Because baryon number changes from
+1 to 0, conservation of baryon number
is violated.
Chapter 41

374

Lepton number:
0 → 0 + 0 + 1 + (−1) = 0
Because 0 =
μ
L before and after the
decay, the lepton number for muons is
conserved.

Not allowed. The decay violates conservation of baryon number.

(b) Energy conservation: Because , energy
conservation is not violated.
e
2m m >
π

Charge conservation:
0 → +1 + (−1) + 0 = 0
Because the total charge is 0 before and
after the decay, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:
0 → 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 0
Because B = 0 before and after the
decay, the baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number:
0 → +1 + (−1) + 0 = 0
Because 0
e
= L before and after the
decay, the lepton number for electrons
is conserved.

Allowed. The decay satisfies all the conservation laws.

Quarks

21 • Find the baryon number, charge, and strangeness for the following
quark combinations and identify the hadron: (a) uud, (b) udd, (c) uus, (d) dds, (e)
uss, and (f) dss.

Picture the Problem For each quark combination we can determine the baryon
number B, the charge Q, and the strangeness S (from Table 41-2) and then use
Table 41-1 to find a match and complete the following table.

Combination B Q S hadron
(a) uud 1 +1 0 p
+
(b) udd 1 0 0 n
(c) uus 1 +1 −1 Σ
+
(d) dds 1 −1 −1 Σ

(e) uss 1 0 −2 Ξ
0
(f) dss 1 −1 −2 Ξ

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

375

22 • Find the baryon number, charge, and strangeness for the following
quark combinations: (a)

ud , (b) u d , (c)

us , and (d)

u s.

Picture the Problem For each quark combination we can determine the baryon
number B, the charge Q, and the strangeness S (from Table 41-2) and then use
Table 41-1 to find a match and complete the following table.

Combination B Q S hadron
(a) d u 0 +1 0 π
+
(b) d u 0 −1 0 π

(c) s u 0 +1 +1 K
+
(d) s u 0 −1 −1 K

23 • The Δ
++
particle is a baryon that decays by the strong interaction. Its
strangeness, charm, topness, and bottomness are all zero. What combination of
quarks gives a particle that has these properties?

Determine the Concept From Table 41-2 we see that to satisfy the conditions of
charge = +2 and zero strangeness, charm, topness, and bottomness, the quark
combination must be uuu.

24 • Find a possible combination of quarks that gives the correct values for
electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for (a) K
+
and (b) K
0
.

Picture the Problem Because K
+
and K
0
are mesons, they consist of a quark and
an antiquark. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks
with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for
these particles.

(a) For K
+
we need: Q = +1
B = 0
S = +1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s u

(b) For K
0
we need: Q = 0
B = 0
S = +1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s d
Chapter 41

376

25 • The D
+
meson has zero strangeness, but it has charm of +1. (a) What is
a possible quark combination that will give the correct properties for this particle?
(b) Repeat Part (a) for the D

meson, which is the antiparticle of the D
+
meson.

Determine the Concept Because D
+
and D

are mesons, they consist of a quark
and an antiquark.

(a) B = 0, so we must look for a combination of quark and antiquark. Because it
has charm of +1, one of the quarks must be c. Because the charge is +e, the
antiquark must be . d The possible combination for D
+
is . d c .

(b) Because D

is the antiparticle of D
+
, the quark combination is . d c

26 • Find a possible combination of quarks that gives the correct values for
electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for (a) K

(the K

is the
antiparticle of the K
+
) and (b)
0
K .

Picture the Problem We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of
quarks with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness
for these particles. Because K

and
0
K are mesons, they consist of a quark and an
antiquark.

(a) For K

we need: Q = −1
B = 0
S = −1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s u

(b) For
0
K we need: Q = 0
B = 0
S = −1

. is properties e with thes quarks of n combinatio A s d

Remarks: An alternative solution could take advantage of our results in
Problem 24 for the antiparticles K
+
and K
0
.

27 •• [SSM] Find a possible quark combination for the following
particles: (a)

, (b) p Λ
0 –
, and (c) Σ

.

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

377
Picture the Problem Because Λ
0
, p

, and Σ

are baryons, they are made up of
three quarks. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks
with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for
these particles.

(a) For Λ
0
we need: Q = 0
B = +1
S = −1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The uds

(b) For p

we need: Q = −1
B = −1
S = +1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The d u u

(c) For Σ

we need: Q = −1
B = +1
S = −1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The dds

28 •• Find a possible quark combination for the following particles: (a)

n ,
(b)

, and (c) Σ Ξ
0 +
.

Picture the Problem Because n , Ξ
0
, and Σ
+
are baryons, they are made up of
three quarks. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks
with the correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for
these particles.

(a) For n we need: Q = 0
B = −1
S = 0

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The d d u

(b) For Ξ
0
we need: Q = 0
B = +1
S = −2

Chapter 41

378
. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The uss

(c) For Σ
+
we need: Q = +1
B = +1
S = −1

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The uus

29 •• Find a possible quark combination for the following particles: (a) Ω

and (b) Ξ .

Picture the Problem Because Ω

and Ξ

are baryons, they are made up of three
quarks. We can use Tables 41-1 and 41-2 to find combinations of quarks with the
correct values for electric charge, baryon number, and strangeness for these
particles.

(a) For Ω

we need: Q = −1
B = +1
S = −3

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The sss

(b) For Ξ

we need: Q = −1
B = +1
S = −2

. is conditions these satisfies n that combinatio quark The ssd

30 •• State the properties of the particles made up of the following quarks:
(a) ddd, (b)

uc , (c)

ub , and (d)

s s s .

Picture the Problem We can use Table 41-2 to identify the properties of the
particles made up of the given quarks.

Particle Q B S Charm Topness Bottomness
(a) ddd −1 +1 0 0 0 0
(b) c u 0 0 0 −1 0 0
(c)
b u
+1 0 0 0 0 −1
(d) s s s +1 −1 +3 0 0 0

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

379
The Evolution of the Universe

31 • [SSM] A galaxy is receding from Earth at 2.5 percent the speed of
light. Estimate the distance from Earth to this galaxy.

Picture the Problem We can use Hubble’s law to find the distance from Earth to
this galaxy.

The recessional velocity of
galaxy is related to its distance
by Hubble’s law:

Hr v = ⇒
H
v
r =
Substitute numerical values and
evaluate r:
( ) ( )( )
y 10 3 . 3
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 998 . 2 0.025
y 10
km/s 23
0.025
8
6
5
6
⋅ × =

×
=

=
c
c c
c
r

32 • Estimate the speed of a galaxy that is 12 × 10
9
c⋅y away from us.

Picture the Problem We can use Hubble’s law to find the speed of the galaxy.

The recessional velocity of the
galaxy is related to its distance by
Hubble’s law:

Hr v =
Substitute numerical values and evaluate v:

( ) c
c
c
c
v 92 . 0
km/s 10 998 . 2
y 10 12
y 10
km/s 23
5
9
6
=

×
⋅ ×

=

33 •• The Doppler frequency shift for a light from a source that is receding
from a stationary receiver is given by ′ f = f
0
1− β ( ) 1+ β ( ), where β = v/c
(Equation 39-16b). Show that the Doppler wavelength shift for light is

′ λ = λ
0
1+ β ( ) 1− β ( ).

Picture the Problem We can substitute for f ′ and f
0
, using v = fλ, in Equation 39-
16b to show that the relativistic wavelength shift is .
1
1
0
β
β
λ λ

+
= '

From Equation 39-16b:
β
β
+

=
1
1
0
f f'

Chapter 41

380
'
f'
λ
c
= and
0
0
c
λ
= f

Express f ′ and f
0
in terms of λ′
and λ
0
:
Substitute for f ′ and f
0
to obtain:
β
β
λ λ +

=
1
1
'
0
c c

β
β
λ λ

+
=
1
1
0
'

34 •• The red line in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen is frequently referred
to as the Hα line, and it has a wavelength of 656.3 nm. Using Hubble’s law and
the Doppler equation for light from Problem 33, determine the wavelength of the
Hα line in the spectrum emitted from galaxies at distances of (a) 5.00 × 10
6
c⋅y,
(b) 500 × 10
6
c⋅y, and (c) 5.00 × 10
9
c⋅y from Earth.

Picture the Problem Using Hubble’s law, we can rewrite the equation from
Problem 33 as
Hr c
Hr c
'

+
=
0
λ λ .

From Problem 33 we have:
c v
c v
'
/ 1
/ 1
1
1
0 0

+
=

+
= λ
β
β
λ λ

Use Hubble’s law to relate v to r: Hr v =

Substitute for v and simplify to obtain:
Hr c
Hr c
c Hr
c Hr
'

+
=

+
=
0 0
/ 1
/ 1
λ λ λ

(a) For r = 5.00 × 10
6
c⋅y:

( )
( )
m 10 6 . 6
y 10 5.00
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 998 . 2
y 10 5.00
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 998 . 2
nm 3 . 656
7
6
6
5
6
6
5

× =
⋅ ×

− ×
⋅ ×

+ ×
=
c
c
c
c
' λ

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

381

(b) For r = 500 × 10
6
c⋅y:

( )
( )
m 10 8 . 6
y 10 500
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 998 . 2
y 10 500
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 998 . 2
nm 3 . 656
7
6
6
5
6
6
5

× =
⋅ ×

− ×
⋅ ×

+ ×
=
c
c
c
c
' λ

(c) For r = 5.00 × 10
9
c⋅y:

( )
( )
m 10 8 . 9
y 10 5.00
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 998 . 2
y 10 5.00
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 998 . 2
nm 3 . 656
7
9
6
5
9
6
5

× =
⋅ ×

− ×
⋅ ×

+ ×
=
c
c
c
c
' λ

General Problems

35 • (a) What conditions are necessary for a hadron and its antiparticle to
be identical? (b) Find the quark combination of both the hadron and its
antiparticle for both the π
0
and the

Ξ
0
particles. (c) Of the π
0
and the

particles,
which, if any, is its own antiparticle?
Ξ
0

Determine the Concept
(a) Baryon number and lepton numbers are conserved quantities. A particle and
its antiparticle must have baryon numbers that add to zero and lepton numbers
that add to zero. Thus, for a particle and its antiparticle to be identical, its baryon
number and all three of its lepton numbers must equal zero. This means it cannot
be a lepton or a baryon, so it must be a meson. A particle and its antiparticle have
the complementary quark content. That is, if each quark in a particle is replaced
by its antiquark, then the resulting entity is the antiparticle of the particle.

(b) The quark combination for the is a linear combination of
0
π u u and d d and
the quark combination for the
0
π is a linear combination of u u and d d . The
quark combination for the

is uss and that of the Ξ
0 0
Ξ is s s u .

(c) The is a meson with quark content of a linear combination of
0
π u u and d d ,
so the is its own antiparticle. The Ξ
0
π
0
is a baryon. As is explained in the
answer to Part (a), a baryon cannot be its own antiparticle.

36 •• The red line in the spectrum of atomic hydrogen is frequently referred
to as the Hα line, and it has a wavelength of 656.3 nm. Light from a distant
galaxy shows a redshift of the Hα line of hydrogen to a wavelength of 1458 nm.
Chapter 41

382
(a) What is the recessional velocity of the galaxy? (b) Estimate the distance to this
galaxy.

Picture the Problem We can solve the equation derived in Problem 33 for the
recessional velocity of the galaxy and then use Hubble’s equation to estimate the
distance to the galaxy.

(a) From Problem 33 we have:
c v
c v
'
/ 1
/ 1
0

+
= λ λ ⇒
2
0
/ 1
/ 1

=

+
λ
λ'
c v
c v

Substitute numerical values for
λ′ and λ
0
:
935 . 4
nm 656.3
nm 1458
/ 1
/ 1
2
=

=

+
c v
c v

Simplify to obtain:

c
v
c
v
+ =

− 1 1 4.953
and
3.953 5.953 =
c
v

( )
km/s 10 99 . 1 m/s 10 99 . 1
m/s 10 998 . 2 664 . 0 664 . 0
5 8
8
× = × =
× = = c v

Solving for v gives:
(b) From the Hubble equation we
have:
H
v
r =

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate r:
y 10 65 . 8
y 10
km/s 23
km/s 10 1.99
9
6
5
⋅ × =

×
= c
c
r

37 •• [SSM] (a) In terms of the quark model, show that the reaction
π
0
→ γ + γ does not violate any conservation laws. (b) Which conservation law is
violated by the reaction π
0
→ γ ?

Picture the Problem The π
o
particle is composed of two quarks, u and u .
Hence, the reaction π
o
→γ + γ is equivalent touu →γ + γ .

(a) The u and u annihilate − resulting in the photons.

(b) Two or more photons are required to conserve linear momentum.

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

383
38 •• Test the following decays for violation of the conservation of energy,
electric charge, baryon number, and lepton number: (a)

Λ
0
→ p + π

,
(b) Σ

→ n + p

, and (c)

μ

→e

+ ν
e

μ
. Assume that linear momentum and
angular momentum are conserved. State which conservation laws (if any) are
violated in each decay.

Picture the Problem A decay process is allowed if energy, charge, baryon
number, and lepton numbers are conserved.

(a) Energy conservation: Because
π
m m m + >
Λ p
, energy
conservation is not violated.

Charge conservation:
0 → 1 −1 = 0

Because the total charge is 0 before and
after the decay, charge conservation is
not violated.

Baryon number:
1 → 1 + 0 = 1

Because there is no change in baryon
number, baryon number is conserved.

Lepton number:
0 → 0 + 0 = 0
Because lepton number is 0 before and
after the decay, lepton number is
conserved.

The decay is allowed.

(b) Energy conservation: Because
p n
m + <
Σ
m m , energy is not
conserved.

Charge conservation:
−1 → 0 − 1 = −1

Because the total charge does not
change, charge is conserved.

Baryon number:
+1 → 1 − 1 = 0

Because B changes from +1 to 0,
baryon number is not conserved.

Lepton number:
0 → 0 + 0 = 0
Because L is 0 before and after the
decay, the lepton number is conserved.

Not allowed. The decay violates both energy conservation and baryon number.

(c) Energy conservation: Energy is conserved.

Chapter 41

384

Charge conservation:
−1 → − 1 + 0 + 0 = −1

Because the total charge does not
change, charge is conserved.
Baryon number:
0 → 0 + 0 + 0 = 0

Because B does not change, baryon
number is conserved.

Lepton number:
1 → 1 − 1 + 1 = 1
Because L does not change, lepton
number is conserved.

The decay satisfies all conservation laws and is allowed.

Remarks: The decay in Part (c) is the decay process for the muon μ

(see
Example 41-2).

39 •• Consider the following high-energy particle reaction: p + p →

+ K Λ
0 0

+ p + (?), where (?) represents an unknown particle. During this reaction,
stationary protons are bombarded with a beam of high-energy protons. (a) Use the
laws of conservation of charge number, baryon number, strangeness (Error!
Reference source not found.), and spin to determine the unknown particle. (b)
Calculate the Q value for the reaction. (c) The threshold kinetic energy K
th
for this
reaction is given by

K
th
= −
1
2
Q m
p
+ m
p
+ M
1
+ M
2
+ M
3
+ M
4
( )
m
p
, where M
1
,
M
2
, M
3
and M
4
are the masses of the reaction products. Find K
th
.

Picture the Problem We can systematically determine Q, B, S, and s for the
reaction and then use these values to identify the unknown particle. The Q value
for the reaction is given by ( )
2
c m Q Δ − = and the expression for the threshold
energy for the reaction is given in the problem statement.

(a) For the strong reaction:
( ) ? p K p p
o
+ + + → +
o
Λ

Charge number: +1 + 1 = 0 + 0 + 1 + Q ⇒ Q = +1

baryon number: +1 + 1 =+1 + 0 + 1 + B ⇒ B = 0

strangeness: 0 + 0 = −1 + 1 + 0 + S ⇒ S = 0

spin:

+
2
1
+
2
1
= +
2
1
+ 0 +
2
1
+ s ⇒ s = 0

These properties indicate that the unknown particle is a pion
+
π .

(b) The reaction is: p + p → Λ
o
+ K
o
+ p + π
+

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

385

The Q-value for the reaction is:

( ) ( ) [ ]
2
p
K
p p
o o
c M M M M m m Q
+
+ + + − + =
Λ π

Use Table 41-1 to find the mass-energy values:

( ) ( ) [ ] MeV 815 MeV 139.6 938.3 497.7 1116 938.3 938.3 − = + + + − + = Q
Because Q < 0, the reaction is endothermic.

(c) The threshold energy for this reaction is:

( )
+ o o
p
K
p p
p
th
2
π
M M M M m m
m
Q
K + + + + + − =
Λ

Using Table 41-1 to find the mass-energy values, substitute numerical values and
evaluate K
th
:

( )
( )
GeV 98 . 1 MeV 1984
MeV 139.6 938.3 497.7 1116 938.3 938.3
MeV 938.3 2
MeV 815
th
= =
+ + + + +

− = K

40 ••• In this problem, you will calculate the difference in the time of arrival
of two neutrinos of different energy from a supernova that is 170 000 light-years
away. Let the energies of the neutrinos be E
1
= 20 MeV and E
2
= 5 MeV, and
assume that the mass of a neutrino is 2.0 eV/c
2
. Because the total energies of the
neutrinos is so much greater than their rest energies, the neutrinos have speeds
that are very nearly equal to c and energies that are approximately E ≈ pc. (a) If t
1

and t
2
are the times that the neutrinos with speeds u
1
and u
2
take to travel a
distance x , show that

Δt = t
2
− t
1
= x u
1
− u
2
( )
u
1
u
2
≈ x Δu ( ) c
2
. (b) The speed of
a neutrino of mass m and total energy E can be found from

E = mc
2
1− u
2
c
2
( )

1/ 2
(Equation 39-24). Show that when E >> mc
2
, the speed
ratio u/c is given approximately by u c ≈1−
1
2
mc
2
E
( )
2
. (c) Use the results from
Part (a) and Part (b) to calculate u
1
– u
2
for the energies and mass given, and
calculate Δt from the result from Part (a) for x = 170 000 c⋅y. (d) Repeat the
calculation in Part (c) using 20 eV/c
2
for the neutrino mass.

Picture the Problem The solution strategy is outlined in the problem statement.

( )
2 1
2 1
1 2
1 2
u u
u u x
u
x
u
x
t t t

= − = − = Δ

(a) Express Δt = t
2
− t
1
in terms of u
2

and u
1
:
Chapter 41

386
Noting that u
1
u
2
≈ c
2
, we have:

2
c
u x
t
Δ
≈ Δ (1)
where Δu = u
1
− u
2

2 1
2
2
2
2
1 1

− =

− =
E
mc
E
mc
c
u

(b) From Equation 39-25 we have:
Expand binomially to obtain:
2
2
2
1
1

− =
E
mc
c
u

(c) Express u
1
− u
2
in terms of E
1
, E
2
,
and mc
2
:

( )
( ) ( )
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
2 1
2
1 1
E E
E E mc c
E E
mc c u u

=

− = −

Substitute numerical values and evaluate Δu:

( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
c
c
c
c
u
14
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
10 5 . 7
MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20 2
MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20
eV
0 . 2

× =

= Δ

Use equation (1) to evaluate Δt: ( )( )
s 40 . 0
y
Ms 31.56
y 10 275 . 1
10 5 . 7 y 10 70 . 1
8
2
14 5
=
× × =
× ⋅ ×
≈ Δ

c
c c
t

(d) Using mc
2
= 20 eV for the rest energy of a neutrino:

( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
c
c
c
c
u
12
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
10 5 . 7
MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20 2
MeV 0 . 5 MeV 20
eV
20

× =

= Δ

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

387
Use equation (1) to evaluate Δt: ( )( )
s 40
y
Ms 31.56
y 10 275 . 1
10 5 . 7 y 10 70 . 1
6
2
12 5
=
× × =
× ⋅ ×
≈ Δ

c
c c
t

Remarks: Note that the spread in the arrival time for neutrinos from a
supernova can be used to estimate the mass of a neutrino.

41 ••• A Λ
0
at rest decays by the reaction Λ
0
→ p + π

. (a) Calculate the total
kinetic energy of the decay products. (b) Find the ratio of the kinetic energy of the
pion to the kinetic energy of the proton. (c) Find the kinetic energies of the proton
and the pion for this decay.

Picture the Problem We can use the masses of the parent and daughters to find
the total kinetic energy of the decay products under the assumption that the Λ
0
is
initially at rest. Application of conservation of energy and the definition of kinetic
energy will yield the ratio of the kinetic energy of the pion to the kinetic energy of
the proton. Finally, we can use our results in Parts (a) and (b) to find the kinetic
energies of the proton and the pion for this decay.

(a) The total kinetic energy of the
decay products is given by:
( )
2
p tot
c m m m K
π
− − =
Λ

Substitute numerical values (see Table 41-1) and evaluate K
tot
:

MeV 38
MeV
6 . 139
MeV
3 . 938
MeV
1116
2
2 2 2
tot
=

− − = c
c c c
K

(b) The ratio of the kinetic energies
is given by:

2
p p
2
2
p p 2
1
2
2
1
p
v m
v m
v m
v m
K
K
π π π π π
= =
Use conservation of momentum
(nonrelativistic) to obtain:

p p
v m v m =
π π

π
π
m
m
v
v
p
p
=
π π
π π
m
m
m
m
m
m
K
K
p
2
p
p p
=

=

Substitute for the ratio of the speeds
to obtain:
Chapter 41

388
72 . 6
MeV
6 . 139
MeV
3 . 938
2
2
p
= =
c
c
K
K
π

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate the ratio of the kinetic
energies:
(c) Express the total kinetic energy in
terms of K
π
and K
p
:

tot p
K K K = +
π
(1)
Use our results in (a) and (b) to
obtain:

MeV 38 72 . 6
p p
= + K K
Solving for K
p
gives:
MeV 5
p
= K

Substitute in equation (1) to obtain:
MeV 33
p tot
= − = K K K
π

42 ••• A Σ
0
particle at rest decays by the reaction Σ
0
→Λ
0
+ γ. (a) What is the
total energy (total energy includes rest energy) of the decay products?
(b) Assuming that the kinetic energy of the

Λ
0
is negligible compared with the
energy of the photon, calculate the approximate momentum of the photon. (c) Use
your result from Part (b) to calculate the kinetic energy of the

Λ
0
. (d) Use your
result from Part (c) to obtain a better estimate of the momentum and the energy of
the photon.

Picture the Problem The total energy of the decay products is the rest energy of
the Σ
0
particle. We can find the momentum of the photon from its energy and use
the conservation of momentum to calculate the kinetic energy of the Λ
0
.

( )
2
c m E
Σ
= (a) The total energy of the decay
products is given by:

Substitute numerical values (see
Table 41-1) and evaluate K
tot
:

MeV 1193
MeV
1193
2
2
=

= c
c
E
(b) The momentum of the photon
is given by:

c
c m E
c
E
p
2
Λ

= =
γ
γ

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate p
γ
:

c
c
c
c
p
MeV
77
MeV
1116 MeV 1193
2
2
=

=
γ

Elementary Particles and the Beginning of the Universe

389

(c) The kinetic energy of the Λ
0

is given by:
Λ
Λ
Λ
=
m
p
K
2
2

or, because
γ
p p =
Λ
,
Λ
Λ
=
m
p
K
2
2
γ

Substitute numerical values and
evaluate K
Λ
:

MeV 7 . 2
MeV
1116 2
MeV
77
2
2
=

=
Λ
c
c
K

(d) A better estimate of the energy of
the photon is:

Λ Λ
− − = K c m E E
2
γ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E
γ
:

MeV 74 MeV 7 . 2
MeV
1116 MeV 1193
2
2
= −

− = c
c
E
γ

The improved estimate of the
momentum of the photon is:
c c
E
p
MeV
74 = =
λ
γ