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Solids

Conceptual Problems

1 • In the classical model of conduction, the electron loses energy on

average during a collision because it loses the drift velocity it had acquired since

the last collision. Where does this energy appear?

Determine the Concept The energy lost by the electrons in collision with the

ions of the crystal lattice appears as J oule heat (I

2

R).

2 • A metal is a good conductor because the valence energy band for

electrons is (a) empty, (b) partly filled, (c) filled, but there is only a small gap to a

higher empty band, (d) completely filled, (e) None of the above.

Determine the Concept If the valence band is only partially full, there are many

available empty energy states in the band, and the electrons in the band can easily

be raised to a higher energy state by an electric field. ( ) b is correct.

3 • Thomas refuses to believe that a potential difference can be created

simply by bringing two different metals into contact with each other. J ohn talks

him into making a small wager and is about to win the bet. (a) Which two metals

from Table 38-2 would demonstrate his point most effectively? (b) What is the

value of that contact potential?

Picture the Problem The contact potential is given by

e

V

2 1

contact

φ φ −

= , where φ

1

and φ

2

are the work functions of the two different metals in contact with each

other.

(a) Express the contact potential

in terms of the work functions of

the metals:

e

V

2 1

contact

φ φ −

=

Examining Table 38-2, we see that the greatest difference between the work

functions will occur when potassium and nickel are joined.

(b) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate V

contact

:

V 1 . 3

eV 1 . 2 eV 2 . 5

contact

=

−

=

e

V

4 • (a) In Problem 3, which choices of different metals would make the

least impressive demonstration? (b) What is the value of that contact potential?

193

Chapter 38

194

Picture the Problem The contact potential is given by

e

V

2 1

contact

φ φ −

= , where φ

1

and φ

2

are the work functions of the two different metals in contact with each

other.

(a) Express the contact potential

in terms of the work functions of

the metals:

e

V

2 1

contact

φ φ −

=

Examining Table 38-2, we see that the least difference between the work

functions will occur when silver and gold are joined.

(b) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate :

contact

V

V 1 . 0

eV 7 . 4 eV 8 . 4

contact

=

−

=

e

V

5 • [SSM] When a sample of pure copper is cooled from 300 K to 4 K,

its resistivity decreases more than the resistivity of a sample of brass when it is

cooled through the same temperature difference. Why?

Determine the Concept The resistivity of brass at 4 K is almost entirely due to

the ″residual resistance,″ the resistance due to impurities and other imperfections

of the crystal lattice. In brass, the zinc ions act as impurities in copper. In pure

copper, the resistivity at 4 K is due to its residual resistance, which is very low if

the copper is very pure.

6 • Insulators are poor conductors of electricity because (a) there is a

small energy gap between the filled valence band and the next higher band where

electrons can exist, (b) there is a large energy gap between the completely filled

valence band and the next higher band where electrons can exist, (c) the valence

band has a few vacancies for electrons, (d) the valence band is only partly filled,

(e) None of the above.

Determine the Concept Insulators are poor conductors of electricity because

there is a large energy gap between the filled valence band and the next higher

band where electrons can exist. ( ) b is correct.

7 • [SSM] How does the sign of the change in the resistivity of a sample

of copper compare with the sign of the change of the resistivity of a sample of

silicon when the temperatures of both samples increase?

Determine the Concept The resistivity of copper increases with increasing

temperature; the resistivity of (pure) silicon decreases with increasing temperature

because the number of charge carriers increases.

Solids

195

8 • True or false:

(a) Solids that are good electrical conductors are usually good heat conductors.

(b) At T =0, an intrinsic semiconductor is an insulator.

(c) The Fermi energy is the average energy of an electron in a solid.

(d) At T =0, the value of the Fermi factor can be either 1 or 0.

(e) Semiconductors conduct current in one direction only.

(f) The classical free-electron theory adequately explains the heat capacity of

metals.

(g) The contact potential between two metals is proportional to the difference in

the work functions of the two metals.

(a) True

(b) True

(c) False. The Fermi energy is the energy of the last filled (or half-filled) level at

T =0.

(d) True

(e) False

(f) False. The classical free-electron theory predicts heat capacities for metals that

are not observed experimentally.

(g) True

9 • Which of the following elements are most likely to act as acceptor

impurities in germanium? (a) bromine (b) gallium (c) silicon (d) phosphorus

(e) magnesium

Determine the Concept Because a gallium atom can accept electrons from the

valence band of germanium to complete its four covalent bonds, ( ) b is correct.

10 • Which of the following elements are most likely to serve as donor

impurities in germanium? (a) bromine (b) gallium (c) silicon (d) phosphorus

(e) magnesium

Determine the Concept Because phosphorus has 3 electrons that it can donate to

the conduction band of germanium without leaving holes in the valence

band, ( ) d is correct.

Chapter 38

196

11 • An electron hole is created when a photon is absorbed by a

semiconductor. How does this hole enable the semiconductor to conduct

electricity?

Determine the Concept The excited electron is in the conduction band and can

conduct electricity. The positive hole left in the valence band moves through the

band and also contributes to the current.

12 • Examine the positions of phosphorus, boron, thallium, and antimony in

Table 36-1. (a) Which of these elements can be used to dope silicon to create an

n-type semiconductor? (b) Which of these elements can be used to dope silicon to

create a p-type semiconductor?

Determine the Concept

(a) Phosphorus and antimony will make n-type semiconductors since each has one

more valence electron than silicon.

(b) Boron and thallium will make p-type semiconductors since each has one less

valence electron than silicon.

13 • When photons of visible light strike the p-type semiconductor in a pn

junction solar cell, (a) only free electrons are created, (b) only positive holes are

created, (c) both electrons and holes are created, (d) protons are created, (e) None

of the above.

Determine the Concept Because a pn junction solar cell has donor impurities on

one side and acceptor impurities on the other, both electrons and holes are created

when photons of visible light strike the p-type semiconductor cell. ( ) c is

correct.

Estimation and Approximation

14 • The ratio of the resistivity of the most resistive (least conductive)

material to that of the least resistive material (excluding superconductors) is

approximately 10

24

. You can develop a feeling for how remarkable this range is

by considering what the ratio is of the largest values to smallest values of other

material properties. Choose any three properties of materials, and using tables in

this book or some other resource, calculate the ratio of the largest instance of the

property to the smallest instance of that property (other than zero) and rank these

in decreasing order. Can you find any other property that shows a range as large

as that of electrical resistivity?

Solids

197

Picture the Problem We can use the list of tables on the inside back covers of

volumes 1 and 2 to find tables of material properties. A representative sample is

included in the following table in which all the units are SI:

Table Material

property

Largest

value

Smallest

value

Ratio (order of

magnitude)

13-1 Mass

density

22.5×10

3

(Osmium)

0.08994

(Hydrogen)

10

5

20-3 Thermal

conductivity

429

(Ag)

0.026

(air)

10

4

20-1 Thermal

expansion

51×10

−6

(ice)

10

−6

(invar)

10

2

12-8 Tensile

Strength

520

(steel)

2

(concrete)

10

2

12-8 Young’s

modulus

200

(steel)

9

(bone)

10

18-1 Heat

capacity

4.18

(water)

0.900

(Al)

1

15 • A device is said to be "ohmic" if a graph of current versus applied

voltage is a straight line through the origin. The resistance R of the device is the

reciprocal of the slope of this line. A pn junction is an example of a nonohmic

device, as may be seen from Figure 38-21. For nonohmic devices, it is sometimes

convenient to define the differential resistance as the reciprocal of the slope of the

I versus V curve. Using the curve in Figure 38-21, estimate the differential

resistance of the pn junction at applied voltages of –20 V, +0.2 V, +0.4 V, +0.6 V,

and +0.8 V.

Picture the Problem Figure 38-21 is reproduced below. We can draw tangent

lines at each of the voltages and estimate the slope. The differential resistance is

the reciprocal of the slope.

Chapter 38

198

V (V) 1/slope (Ω)

–20

∞

+0.2

40

+0.4

20

+0.6

10

+0.8

5

Remarks: Note that, because of the difficulty in determining the slopes, these

results are only approximations.

The Structure of Solids

16 • Calculate the center-to-center separation distance r

0

between the K

+

and the Cl

–

ions in KCl. Do this by assuming that each ion occupies a cubic

volume of side r

0

. The molar mass of KCl is 74.55 g/mol and its density is

1.984 g/cm

3

.

Picture the Problem We can use the geometry of the ion to relate the volume per

mole to the length of its side r

0

and the definition of density to express the volume

per mole in terms of its molar mass and density.

Because the cube length/ion is r

0

,

the volume/mole is given by:

3

0 A mol

2 r N V = ⇒ 3

A

mol

0

2N

V

r =

Solids

199

The volume/mole is given by:

ρ

M

V =

mol

where M is the molar mass of KCl.

Substitute for V

mol

in the expression

for r

0

to obtain:

3

A

0

2 N

M

r

ρ

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate r

0

:

( )( )

nm 315 . 0

mol particles/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 984 . 1 2

g/mol 55 . 74

3

23 3

0

=

×

= r

17 • The center-to-center separation distance between the Li

+

and Cl

–

ions

in LiCl is 0.257 nm. Use this value and the molar mass of LiCl (42.4 g/mol) to

compute the density of LiCl.

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of density and the geometry of

the ions to compute the density of LiCl.

The density of LiCl is given by:

cell unit

cell unit

V

M

= ρ

Express the volume of the unit cell:

( )

3

0 cell unit

2r V =

Because the unit cell has four

molecules, its mass is given by:

A

cell unit

4

N

M

M =

Substitute for V

unit cell

and M

unit cell

to obtain:

( ) ( )

3

0 A

3

0

A

2

4

2

4

r N

M

r

N

M

= = ρ

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ρ:

( )

( ) ( ) [ ]

3

3

9 23

g/cm 07 . 2

m 10 257 . 0 2 mol particles/ 10 022 . 6

g/mol 4 . 42 4

=

× ×

=

−

ρ

18 • Find the value of n in Equation 38-6 that gives the measured

dissociation energy of 741 kJ /mol for LiCl, which has the same structure as NaCl

and for which r

0

=0.257 nm.

Picture the Problem We can solve Equation 38-6 for n and then substitute

numerical values to evaluate n.

Chapter 38

200

Equation 38-6 is:

( )

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − =

n r

ke

r U

1

1

0

2

0

α

and

( )

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− =

n r

ke

r U

1

1

0

2

0

α

Solve for n to obtain:

( )

2

0 0

1

1

ke

r r U

n

α

−

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n:

( ) ( )

( )( )

4.64

nm eV 44 . 1 7476 . 1

nm 257 . 0

kJ /mol 47 . 96

pair eV/ion 1

kJ /mol 741

1

1

=

⋅

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

= n

19 •• (a) Use Equation 38-6 and calculate U(r

0

) for calcium oxide, CaO,

where r

0

=0.208 nm. Assume n =8. (b) If n increase from 8 to 10, what is the

fractional change in U(r

0

)?

Picture the Problem We can substitute numerical values in Equation 38-6 to

evaluate U(r

o

) for n =8 and n =10.

(a) Equation 38-6 is:

( )

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − =

n r

ke

r U

1

1

0

2

0

α

Substitute numerical values and evaluate U(r

0

):

( )

( )( )( )

( )

eV 6 . 10

8

1

1

1eV

J 10 1.602

m 10 0.208

C 10 1.602 /C m N 10 8.988 1.7476

19

9

2

19 2 2 9

o

− =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

×

× ⋅ ×

− =

−

−

−

r U

( )

( )

1

8

10

8

8 10

0

0

− =

−

=

Δ

=

=

=

= =

n

n

n

n n

U

U

U

U U

r U

r U

(b) The fractional change is given by:

Solids

201

Substitute numerical values and evaluate U(r

0

) for n =10:

( )

( ) ( )

( )

eV 9 . 10

10

1

1

eV 1

J 10 1.602

m 10 0.208

C 10 1.602

C

m N

10 8.988 1.7476

19

9

2

19

2

2

9

o 10

− =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

×

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ⋅

×

− =

−

−

−

=

r U

n

Substitute numerical values and evaluate

the fractional change in U(r

0

):

( )

( )

% 83 . 2 1

eV 6 . 10

eV 9 . 10

0

0

= −

−

−

=

Δ

r U

r U

A Microscopic Picture of Conduction

20 • A measure of the density of the free electrons in a metal is the distance

r

s

, which is defined as the radius of the sphere whose volume equals the volume

per conduction electron. (a) Show that r

s

=[3/(4πn)]

1/3

, where n is the free-

electron number density. (b) Calculate r

s

for copper in nanometers.

Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the volume occupied by one

electron to show that

3 1

s

4

3

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

n

r

π

.

(a) The volume occupied by one

electron is:

3

s

3

4 1

r

n

π = ⇒

3 1

s

4

3

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

n

r

π

(b) From Table 38-1:

3 28

Cu

m 10 47 . 8

−

× = n

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate r

s

for copper:

( )

nm 141 . 0

m 10 47 . 8 4

3

3

3 28 s

=

×

=

−

π

r

21 • (a) Given a mean free path λ =0.400 nm and a mean speed

v

av

=1.17 × 10

5

m/s for the charge flow in copper at a temperature of 300 K,

calculate the classical value for the resistivity ρ of copper. (b) The classical model

suggests that the mean free path is temperature independent and that v

av

depends

on temperature. According to this model, what would ρ be at 100 K?

Chapter 38

202

Picture the Problem (a) We can use the expression for the resistivity of the

copper in terms of v

av

and λ to find the classical value for the resistivity ρ of

copper. In Part (b) we can use

e

av

3

m

kT

v = to relate the average speed to the

temperature.

(a) In terms of the mean free path

and the mean speed, the resistivity is: λ

ρ

2

e

av e

e n

v m

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ρ (see Table 38-1 for the free-electron

number density of copper):

( )( )

( )( ) ( )

m 123 . 0

nm 400 . 0 C 10 602 . 1 m 10 8.47

m/s 10 17 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9

2

19 3 28

5 31

⋅ =

× ×

× ×

=

− −

−

Ω μ ρ

(b) Relate the average speed of the

electrons to the temperature:

e

av

3

m

kT

v =

Substitute for v

av

in the expression

for ρ to obtain:

kT m

e n m

kT

e n

m

e 2

e e

2

e

e

3

1 3

λ λ

ρ = =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ρ:

( )( )( )

( )( ) ( )

m n 7 . 70

nm 400 . 0 C 10 602 . 1 m 10 47 . 8

K 100 J /K 10 381 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9 3

2

19 3 28

23 31

⋅ =

× ×

× ×

=

− −

− −

Ω ρ

Free Electrons in a Solid

22 •• Silicon has a molar mass of 28.09 g/mol and a density of

2.41 × 10

3

kg/m

3

. Each atom of silicon has four valence electrons and the Fermi

energy of the material is 4.88 eV. (a) Given that the electron mean free path at

room temperature is l =27.0 nm, estimate the resistivity. (b) The accepted value

for the resistivity of silicon is 640 Ω⋅m (at room temperature). How does this

accepted value compare to the value calculated in Part (a)?

Picture the Problem We can use Equation 38-14 to estimate the resistivity of

silicon.

(a) From Equation 38-14:

λ

ρ

2

e

av e

e n

v m

=

Solids

203

The speed of the electrons is given

by:

e

F

F av

2

m

E

u v = =

Substituting for v

av

yields:

λ λ

ρ

2

e

F e

2

e

e

F

e

2

2

e n

E m

e n

m

E

m

= =

The electron density of Si is given

by:

atom A e

N MN n =

where N

atom

is the number of electrons

per atom.

Substitute for n

e

to obtain:

λ

ρ

2

atom A

F e

2

e N MN

E m

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ρ:

( )( )

( ) ( )

m n 3 . 8

m 10 27.0 C 10 1.602

atom

e 4

kg 0.02809

atoms 10 6.022

m

kg

10 2.41

eV 1

J 10 1.602

eV 4.88 kg 10 9.109 2

9

2

19

23

3

3

19

31

⋅ =

× ×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

×

=

− −

−

−

Ω

ρ

(b) The accepted resistivity of 640 Ω⋅m is much greater than the calculated value.

We assume that valence electrons will produce conduction in the material. Silicon

is a semiconductor and a gap between the valence band and conduction band

exists. Only electrons with sufficient energies will be found in the conduction

band.

23 • Calculate the number density of free electrons in (a) Ag

(ρ =10.5 g/cm

3

) and (b) Au (ρ =19.3 g/cm

3

), assuming one free electron per

atom, and compare your results with the values listed in Table 38-1.

Picture the Problem The number density of free electrons is given by

, M N n

A

ρ = where N

A

is Avogadro’s number, ρ is the density of the element,

and M is its molar mass.

Relate the number density of free

electrons to the density ρ and

molar mass M of the element:

M N

n ρ

=

A

⇒

M

N

n

A

ρ

=

Chapter 38

204

(a) For Ag:

( )( )

3 22

23 3

Ag

cm electrons/ 10 86 . 5

g/mol 87 . 107

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 5 . 10

× =

×

= n

(b) For Au:

( )( )

3 22

23 3

Ag

cm electrons/ 10 90 . 5

g/mol 97 . 196

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 3 . 19

× =

×

= n

Both these results agree with the values in Table 38-1.

24 • The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm

3

. How many free electrons are

present per aluminum atom?

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n

e

is given by

, N nM n

A e

ρ = where N

A

is Avogadro’s number, ρ is the density of the element,

M is its molar mass, and n is the free electron number density for the element.

The number of free electrons per

atom is given by:

A

e

N

nM

n

ρ

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n

e

:

( )( )

( )( )

0 . 3

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 7 . 2

g/mol 98 . 26 cm electrons/ 10 1 . 18

23 3

3 22

e

=

×

×

= n

25 • The density of tin is 7.3 g/cm

3

. How many free electrons are present

per tin atom?

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n

e

is given by

, N nM n

A e

ρ = where N

A

is Avogadro’s number, ρ is the density of the element,

M is its molar mass, and n is the free electron number density for the element.

The number of free electrons per

atom is given by:

A

e

N

nM

n

ρ

=

Solids

205

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n

e

:

( )( )

( )( )

0 . 4

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 3 . 7

g/mol 69 . 118 cm electrons/ 10 8 . 14

23 3

3 22

e

=

×

×

= n

26 • Calculate the Fermi temperature for (a) Mg, (b) Mn, and (c) Zn.

Picture the Problem The Fermi temperature T

F

is defined by kT

F

=E

F

, where E

F

is the Fermi energy. See Table 38-1 for Fermi energies at T =0.

k

E

T

F

F

=

The Fermi temperature is given

by:

(a) For Mg:

K 10 25 . 8

eV/K 10 617 . 8

eV 11 . 7

4

5

F

× =

×

=

−

T

(b) For Mn:

K 10 28 . 1

eV/K 10 617 . 8

eV 0 . 11

5

5

F

× =

×

=

−

T

(c) For Zn:

K 10 10 . 1

eV/K 10 617 . 8

eV 46 . 9

5

5

F

× =

×

=

−

T

27 • What is the speed of a conduction electron whose energy is equal to

the Fermi energy E

F

for (a) Na, (b) Au, and (c) Sn?

Picture the Problem We can solve the expression for the Fermi energy for the

speed of a conduction electron.

Express the Fermi energy in terms of

the Fermi speed of a conduction

electron:

2

F e 2

1

F

u m E = ⇒

e

F

F

2

m

E

u =

(a) Substitute numerical values (see

Table 38-1 for E

F

) and evaluate u

F

for Na:

( )( )

m/s 10 07 . 1

kg 10 109 . 9

J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 24 . 3 2

6

31

19

F

× =

×

×

=

−

−

u

Chapter 38

206

(b) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate u

F

for Au:

( )( )

m/s 10 39 . 1

kg 10 109 . 9

J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 53 . 5 2

6

31

19

F

× =

×

×

=

−

−

u

(c) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate u

F

for Sn:

( )( )

m/s 10 89 . 1

kg 10 109 . 9

J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 2 . 10 2

6

31

19

F

× =

×

×

=

−

−

u

28 • Calculate the Fermi energy for (a) Al, (b) K, and (c) Sn using the

number densities given in Table 38-1.

Picture the Problem The Fermi energy at T =0 depends on the number of

electrons per unit volume (the number density) according to

( )( ) . nm eV 365 . 0

3 2 2

F

V N E ⋅ =

The Fermi energy at T =0 is given

by:

( )

3 2

2

F

nm eV 365 . 0

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅ =

V

N

E

(a) For Al, N/V =18.1×10

22

electrons/cm

3

(see Table 38-1) and:

( )( ) eV 7 . 11 cm electrons/ 10 1 . 18 nm eV 365 . 0

3 2

3 22 2

F

= × ⋅ = E

(b) For K, N/V =1.40 × 10

22

electrons/cm

3

and:

( )( ) eV 12 . 2 cm electrons/ 10 40 . 1 nm eV 365 . 0

3 2

3 22 2

F

= × ⋅ = E

(c) For Sn, N/V =14.8×10

22

electrons/cm

3

and:

( )( ) eV 2 . 10 cm electrons/ 10 8 . 14 nm eV 365 . 0

3 2

3 22 2

F

= × ⋅ = E

29 • Find the average energy of the conduction electrons at T =0 in

(a) copper and (b) lithium.

Picture the Problem The average energy of electrons in a Fermi gas at T =0 is

three-fifths of the Fermi energy.

Solids

207

The average energy at T =0 is given

by:

F 5

3

av

E E =

(a) For copper, E

F

=7.04 eV (see

Table 38-1) and:

( ) eV 22 . 4 eV 04 . 7

5

3

av

= = E

(b) For lithium, E

F

=4.75 eV and:

( ) eV 85 . 2 eV 75 . 4

5

3

av

= = E

30 • Calculate (a) the Fermi temperature and (b) the Fermi energy at T =0

for iron.

Picture the Problem The Fermi energy at T =0 is given by

( )( )

2 3 2

F

nm eV 365 . 0 V N E ⋅ = , where N/V is the free-electron number density and

the Fermi temperature is related to the Fermi energy according to .

F F

E kT =

(a) The Fermi temperature for iron is

given by: k

E

T

F

F

=

Substitute numerical values (see

Table 38-1) and evaluate T

F

:

K 10 30 . 1

eV/K 10 8.617

eV 2 . 11

5

5 F

× =

×

=

−

T

(b) The Fermi energy at T =0 is

given by:

( )

2 3

2

F

nm eV 365 . 0

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⋅ =

V

N

E

Substitute numerical values (see Table 38-1) and evaluate E

F

:

( )( ) eV 2 . 11 cm electrons/ 10 0 . 17 nm eV 365 . 0

3 2

3 22 2

F

= × ⋅ = E

31 •• [SSM] (a) Assuming that each gold atom in a sample of gold metal

contributes one free electron, calculate the free-electron density in gold knowing

that its atomic mass is 196.97 g/mol and its density is 19.3 × 10

3

kg/m

3

. (b) If the

Fermi speed for gold is 1.39 × 10

6

m/s, what is the Fermi energy in electron volts?

(c) By what factor is the Fermi energy higher than the kT energy at room

temperature? (d) Explain the difference between the Fermi energy and the kT

energy.

Picture the Problem We can use

m

N N

V n

atom A

e

ρ

ρ = = , where N

atom

is the

number of electrons per atom, to calculate the electron density of gold. The Fermi

energy is given by

2

F e 2

1

F

u m E = .

Chapter 38

208

(a) The electron density of gold is

given by:

m

N N

V n

atom A

e

ρ

ρ = =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n

e

:

( )

3 28

23

3

3

e

e/m 10 90 . 5

kg 0.197

atom 1

1e

atoms 10 6.022

m

kg

10 19.3

× =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

= n

(b) The Fermi energy is given by:

2

F e 2

1

F

u m E =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E

F

:

( )( ) eV 50 . 5

J 10 1.602

eV 1

m/s 10 1.39 kg 10 9.109

2

1

19

2

6 31

F

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

× × =

−

−

E

(c) The factor by which the Fermi

energy is higher than the kT energy

at room temperature is:

kT

E

f

F

=

At room temperature

kT =0.026 eV. Substitute

numerical values and evaluate f:

212

eV 0.026

eV 5.50

= = f

(d) The ratio E

F

/kT is equal to 212 T =300 K. The Fermi energy is the energy of

the most energetic conduction electron when the crystal is at absolute zero.

Because no two conduction electrons can occupy the same state, the Fermi energy

is quite high compared with kT. The kT energy is the energy the average

conduction electron would have when the crystal is at temperature T if the

electrons did not obey the exclusion principle.

32 •• The bulk modulus B of a material can be defined by B = −V ∂P ∂V .

(a) Use the monatomic ideal-gas relation PV =

2

3

NE

av

, where E

av

is the average

kinetic energy, Equation 38-22 and Equation 38-23 to show that

P =

2

5

NE

F

V = CV

−5/ 3

, where C is a constant independent of V. (b) Show that the

bulk modulus of the free electrons in a solid metal is therefore

V NE P B

F 3

2

3

5

= = . (c) Compute the bulk modulus in newtons per square meter

for the free electrons in a sample of copper and compare your result with the

measured value of 140 × 10

9

N/m

2

.

Picture the Problem We can follow the procedure given in the problem

statement to show that

3 5 F

5

2

−

= = CV

V

NE

P and

V

NE

P B

3

2

3

5

F

= = .

Solids

209

(a) We’re given that, for a

monatomic ideal-gas:

av 3

2

NE PV =

Because :

F 5

3

av

E E =

F F

5

2

5

3

3

2

E

V

N

E

V

N

P

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= (1)

The Fermi energy is given by:

3 2

3 2

e

2

3 2

e

2

F

3

8

3

8

−

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= V

N

m

h

V

N

m

h

E

π π

Substitute to obtain:

3 5 3 5

3 2

e

2 3 5

3 2

3 2

e

2

3

20

3

8 5

2

− −

−

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

CV V

m

h N

V

N

m

h

V

N

P

π

π

where

3 2

e

2 3 5

3

20

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

π m

h N

C is a constant.

(b) The bulk modulus is given

by:

[ ]

P

CV V CV

CV

dV

d

V

dV

dP

V B

3

5

3

5

3

5

3 5 3 8

3 5

=

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − =

− = − =

− −

−

Substitute for P from equation (1) to

obtain:

V NE E

V

N

B

F 3

2

F

5

2

3

5

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

(c) Substitute numerical values and evaluate B for copper:

( )( )( )

2 19 3 22

GN/m 6 . 63 J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 04 . 7 cm electrons/ 10 47 . 8

3

2

= × × =

−

B

From Table 13-2: BB

Cu

=140 GN/m

2

Divide the calculated value for B by

the value from Table 13-2 to obtain:

454 . 0

GN/m 140

GN/m 6 . 63

2

2

Cu

= =

B

B

or

Cu

454 . 0 B B =

Chapter 38

210

33 •• [SSM] The pressure of a monatomic ideal gas is related to the

average kinetic energy of the gas particles byPV =

2

3

NE

av

, where N is the number

of particles and E

av

is the average kinetic energy. Use this information to calculate

the pressure of the free electrons in a sample of copper in newtons per square

meter, and compare your result with atmospheric pressure, which is about

10

5

N/m

2

. (Note: The units are most easily handled by using the conversion

factors 1 N/m

2

=1 J /m

3

and 1 eV =1.602 × 10

–19

J .)

Picture the Problem We can solve

av 3

2

NE PV = for P and substitute for E

av

in

order to express P in terms of N/V and E

F

.

Solve

av 3

2

NE PV = for P:

av

3

2

E

V

N

P

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Because :

F 5

3

av

E E =

F F

5

2

5

3

3

2

E

V

N

E

V

N

P

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Substitute numerical values (see Table 38-1) and evaluate P:

( )( )( )

atm 10 77 . 3

N/m 10 101.325

atm 1

N/m 10 82 . 3 N/m 10 82 . 3

J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 04 . 7 cm electrons/ 10 47 . 8

5

2

5

2 3

2 10 2 10

19 3 22

× =

×

× × = × =

× × =

−

P

34 • Calculate the contact potential between (a) Ag and Cu, (b) Ag and Ni,

and (c) Ca and Cu.

Picture the Problem The contact potential is given by

e

V

2 1

contact

φ φ −

= , where φ

1

and φ

2

are the work functions of the two different metals in contact with each

other.

The contact potential is given by:

e

V

2 1

contact

φ φ −

=

(a) For Ag and Cu (see Table 38-1):

V 6 . 0

eV 1 . 4 eV 7 . 4

contact

=

−

=

e

V

(b) For Ag and Ni:

V 5 . 0

eV 7 . 4 eV 2 . 5

contact

=

−

=

e

V

Solids

211

(c) For Ca and Cu (see Table 38-1):

V 9 . 0

eV 2 . 3 eV 1 . 4

contact

=

−

=

e

V

Heat Capacity Due to Electrons in a Metal

35 •• [SSM] Gold has a Fermi energy of 5.53 eV. Determine the molar

specific heat at constant volume at room temperature for gold.

Picture the Problem We can use Equation 38-29 to find the molar specific heat

of gold at constant volume and room temperature.

The molar specific heat is given by

Equation 38-29:

F

2

V

2T

RT

c'

π

=

The Fermi energy is given by:

F F

kT E = ⇒

k

E

T

F

F

=

Substitute for T

F

to obtain:

F

2

V

2E

RkT

c'

π

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate :

V

c'

( )( ) ( )

( )

K J /mol 192 . 0

eV 5.53 2

K 300

J 10 1.602

eV 1

J /mol 10 381 . 1 K J /mol 8.314

19

23 2

V

⋅ =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

×

=

−

−

π

c'

Remarks: The value 0.192 J/mol K is for a mole of gold atoms. Because each

gold atom contributes one electron to the metal, a mole of gold corresponds

to a mole of electrons.

Quantum Theory of Electrical Conduction

36 • The resistivities and Fermi speeds of Na, Au, and Sn at T =273 K are

4.2 μΩ⋅cm, 2.04 μΩ⋅cm and 10.6 μΩ⋅cm, and 1.07×10

6

m/s, 1.39×10

6

m/s and

1.89×10

6

m/s respectively. Use these values to find the mean free paths for the

conduction electrons in these elements.

Picture the Problem We can solve the equation giving the resistivity of a

conductor in terms of the mean free path and the mean speed for the mean free

path and use the Fermi speeds as the mean speeds.

Chapter 38

212

In terms of the mean free path and

the mean speed, the resistivity is: λ

ρ

2

av e

ne

v m

= ⇒

ρ

λ

2

av e

ne

v m

=

Using the Fermi speeds as the average speeds, substitute numerical values

and evaluate the mean free path of Na:

( )( )

( )( ) ( )

nm 34

cm 2 . 4 C 10 602 . 1 cm electrons/ 10 65 . 2

m/s 10 07 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9

2

19 3 22

6 31

Na

=

⋅ Ω × ×

× ×

=

−

−

μ

λ

Proceed as above for Au:

( )( )

( )( ) ( )

nm 1 . 41

cm 04 . 2 C 10 602 . 1 cm electrons/ 10 90 . 5

m/s 10 39 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9

2

19 3 22

6 31

Au

=

⋅ Ω × ×

× ×

=

−

−

μ

λ

Proceed as above for Sn:

( )( )

( )( ) ( )

nm 29 . 4

cm 6 . 10 C 10 602 . 1 cm electrons/ 10 8 . 14

m/s 10 89 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9

2

19 3 22

6 31

Sn

=

⋅ Ω × ×

× ×

=

−

−

μ

λ

37 •• [SSM] The resistivity of pure copper increases by approximately

1.0 × 10

–8

Ω⋅m with the addition of 1.0 percent (by number of atoms) of an

impurity distributed throughout the metal. The mean free path λ depends on both

the impurity and the oscillations of the lattice ions according to the equation

1/λ =1/λ

t

+1/λ

i

, where λ

t

is the mean free path associated with the thermal

vibrations of the ions and λ

i

is the mean free path associated with the impurities.

(a) Estimate λ

i

using Equation 38-14 and the data given in Table 38-1. (b) If r is

the effective radius of an impurity lattice ion seen by an electron, the scattering

cross section is πr

2

. Estimate this area, using the fact that r is related to λ

i

by

Equation 38-16.

Picture the Problem We can solve the resistivity equation for the mean free path

and then substitute the Fermi speed for the average speed to express the mean free

path as a function of the Fermi energy.

(a) In terms of the mean free path

and the mean speed, the resistivity

is:

i

2

F e

i

2

av e

i

λ λ

ρ

ne

u m

ne

v m

= = ⇒

i

2

F e

i

ρ

λ

ne

u m

=

Solids

213

Express the Fermi speed u

F

in terms

of the Fermi energy E

F

:

e

F

F

2

m

E

u =

Substitute for u

F

and simplify to

obtain:

i

2

F e

i

2

ρ

λ

ne

E m

=

Substitute numerical values (see Table 38-1) and evaluate λ

i

:

( )( )( )

( )( ) ( )

nm 66

nm 1 . 66

m 10 0 . 1 C 10 602 . 1 m electrons/ 10 47 . 8

J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 04 . 7 kg 10 109 . 9 2

8

2

19 3 28

19 31

i

=

=

⋅ Ω × × ×

× ×

=

− −

− −

λ

(b) From Equation 38-16 we have:

2

1

r nπ

λ = ⇒

λ

π

n

r

1

2

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate πr

2

: ( )( )

2 4

3 28

2

nm 10 8 . 1

nm 1 . 66 m 10 47 . 8

1

−

−

× =

×

= r π

Band Theory of Solids

38 • Electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface of a

semiconductor. The maximum wavelength of this light that is required if

electrons are to cross the energy gap between the valence band and the conduction

band is 380.0 nm. What is the energy gap, in electron volts, for this

semiconductor?

Picture the Problem We can use λ hc E =

g

to calculate the energy gap for this

semiconductor.

The lowest photon energy to increase

conductivity is given by:

λ

hc

E =

g

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E

g

:

( )( )

( )( )

eV 26 . 3

J /eV 10 1.602 m 10 380.0

m/s 10 998 . 2 s J 10 6.626

19 9

8 34

g

=

× ×

× ⋅ ×

=

− −

−

E

Chapter 38

214

39 • [SSM] An electron occupies the highest energy level of the valence

band in a silicon sample. What is the maximum photon wavelength that will

excite the electron across the energy gap if the gap is 1.14 eV?

Picture the Problem We can relate the maximum photon wavelength to the

energy gag using . λ hc hf E = = Δ

Express the energy gap as a function

of the wavelength of the photon:

λ

hc

hf E = = Δ ⇒

E

hc

Δ

= λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ:

m 09 . 1

eV 14 . 1

nm eV 1240

μ λ =

⋅

=

40 • An electron occupies the highest energy level of the valence band in a

germanium sample. What is the maximum photon wavelength that will excite the

electron into the conduction band? In germanium, the energy gap between the

valence and conduction bands is 0.74 eV.

Picture the Problem We can relate the maximum photon wavelength to the

energy gag using . λ hc hf E = = Δ

Express the energy gap as a function

of the wavelength of the photon:

λ

hc

hf E = = Δ ⇒

E

hc

Δ

= λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ:

m 7 . 1

eV 74 . 0

nm eV 1240

μ λ =

⋅

=

41 • An electron occupies the highest energy level of the valence band in a

diamond sample. What is the maximum photon wavelength that will excite the

electron into the conduction band? In diamond, the energy gap between the

valence and conduction bands is 7.0 eV.

Picture the Problem We can relate the maximum photon wavelength to the

energy gag using . λ hc hf E = = Δ

Express the energy gap as a function

of the wavelength of the photon:

λ

hc

hf E = = Δ ⇒

E

hc

Δ

= λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ:

nm 180

eV 0 . 7

nm eV 1240

=

⋅

= λ

Solids

215

42 •• A photon of wavelength 3.35 μm has just enough energy to raise an

electron from the valence band to the conduction band in a lead sulfide sample.

(a) Find the energy gap between these bands in lead sulfide. (b) Find the

temperature T for which kT equals this energy gap.

Picture the Problem We can use λ hc hf E = = Δ to find the energy gap between

these bands and T =E

g

/k to find the temperature for which kT equals this energy

gap.

(a) Express the energy gap as a

function of the wavelength of the

photon:

λ

hc

E = Δ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate ΔE:

eV 370 . 0

eV 3701 . 0

m 35 . 3

nm eV 1240

=

=

⋅

= Δ

μ

E

(b) The temperature is related to the

energy gap E

g

according to:

k

E

T

g

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate T:

K 10 29 . 4

eV/K 10 617 . 8

eV 3701 . 0

3

5

× =

×

=

−

T

Semiconductors

43 • The donor energy levels in an n-type semiconductor are 0.0100 eV

below the conduction band. Find the temperature for which kT =0.0100 eV.

Picture the Problem We can use ΔE =kT to find the temperature for which

kT =0.0100 eV

Express the temperature T in terms

of the energy gap ΔE:

k

E

T

Δ

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate T:

K 116

J 10 1.602

eV 1

J /K 10 381 . 1

eV 0100 . 0

19

23

=

×

× ×

=

−

−

T

Chapter 38

216

44 •• When a thin slab of semiconducting material is illuminated with

monochromatic electromagnetic radiation, most of the radiation is transmitted

through the slab if the wavelength is greater than 1.85 mm. For wavelengths less

than 1.85 mm, most of the incident radiation is absorbed. Determine the energy

gap of this semiconductor.

Picture the Problem We can use hf E = to find the energy gap of this

semiconductor.

The energy gap of the semiconductor

is given by: λ

hc

hf E = =

g

where hc =1240 eV⋅nm

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E

g

:

eV 670 . 0

m 85 . 1

nm eV 1240

g

=

⋅

=

μ

E

45 •• The relative binding of the extra electron in the arsenic atom that

replaces an atom in silicon or germanium can be understood from a calculation of

the first Bohr radius of this electron in these materials. Four of arsenic’s valence

electrons form covalent bonds, so the fifth electron sees a center of attraction with

a charge of +e. This model is a modified hydrogen atom. In the Bohr model of the

hydrogen atom, the electron moves in free space at a radius a

0

given by

( )

2

e

2

0 0

4 e m a h ∈ = π (Equation 36-12). When an electron moves in a crystal,

we can approximate the effect of the other atoms by replacing

0

∈ with

0

∈ κ and

m

e

with an effective mass for the electron. For silicon, κ is 12 and the effective

mass is approximately 0.2m

e

. For germanium, κ is 16 and the effective mass is

approximately 0.1m

e

. Estimate the Bohr radii for the valence electron as it orbits

the impurity arsenic atom in silicon and germanium.

Picture the Problem We can make the indicated substitutions in the expression

for a

0

(=0.0529 nm) to obtain an expression for the Bohr radii for the outer

electron as it orbits the impurity arsenic atom in silicon and germanium.

Make the indicated substitutions in

the expression for a

0

to obtain:

0

eff

e

2

e

2

0

eff

e

2

eff e

2

e 0

2

eff

2

0

B

a

m

m

e m

h

m

m

e m m

h m

e m

h

a

κ

π

κ

π

κ

π

κ

=

∈

=

∈

=

∈

=

For silicon:

( ) nm 3 nm 0529 . 0

2 . 0

12

e

e

Si B,

= =

m

m

a

For germanium:

( ) nm 8 nm 0529 . 0

1 . 0

16

e

e

Ge B,

= =

m

m

a

Solids

217

46 •• The ground-state energy of the hydrogen atom is given by

( )

2 2

0

4

e 1

8 h e m E ∈ − = (Equation 36-15 and 36-16 where 4π∈

0

is substituted for

k

–1

). Modify this equation using information in Problem 45 by replacing ∈

0

with

κ∈

0

and m

e

with an effective mass for the electron to estimate the binding energy

of the extra electron of an impurity arsenic atom in (a) silicon and (b) germanium.

Picture the Problem We can make the same substitutions we made in Problem

45 in the expression for E

1

(=13.6 eV) to obtain an expression that we can use to

estimate the binding energy of the extra electron of an impurity arsenic atom in

silicon and germanium.

Make the indicated substitutions

in the expression for E

1

to obtain:

( )

1

2

0

2

e

eff

2 2

0

e

4

2

0

2

e

eff

2 2

0

2

e

eff e

4

2 2

0

eff

4

binding

8

8 8

E

m

m

h

m e

m

m

h m

m m e

h

m e

E

∈

− =

∈ ∈

− =

∈

− =

∈

− =

κ

κ

κ κ

(a) For silicon:

( )

( )

eV 02 . 0

eV 6 . 13

12

2 . 0

2

e

e

binding

− =

− =

m

m

E

(b) For germanium:

( )

( )

eV 05 . 0

eV 6 . 13

16

1 . 0

2

e

e

binding

− =

− =

m

m

E

47 •• A doped n-type silicon sample has 1.00 × 10

16

electrons per cubic

centimeter in the conduction band and has a resistivity of 5.00 × 10

23

Ω⋅m at

300 K. Find the mean free path of the electrons. Use the effective mass of 0.2m

e

for the mass of the electrons. (See Problem 45.) Compare this mean free path with

that of conduction electrons in copper at 300 K.

Picture the Problem We can use the expression for the resistivity ρ of the sample

as a function of the mean free path λ of the conduction electrons in conjunction

with the expression for the average speed v

av

of the electrons to derive an

expression that we can use to calculate the mean free path of the electrons.

Express the resistivity ρ of the

sample as a function of the mean

free path λ of the conduction

electrons:

λ

ρ

2

e

av e

e n

v m

= ⇒

ρ

λ

2

e

av e

e n

v m

= (1)

Chapter 38

218

The average speed v

av

of the

electrons is given by:

e

rms av

3

m

kT

v v = ≈

Substitute for v

av

in the expression

for λ and simplify to obtain:

ρ ρ

λ

2

e

e

e

2

e

e

3 3

e n

T km

m

kT

e n

m

= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate λ:

( )( )( )( )

( )( ) ( )

nm 1 . 37

m 10 00 . 5 C 10 602 . 1 cm 10

K 300 kg 10 109 . 9 2 . 0 J /K 10 381 . 1 3

3

2

19 3 16

31 23

=

⋅ × ×

× ×

=

− − −

− −

Ω

λ

The number density of electrons n

e

is

related to the mass density ρ

m

,

Avogadro’s number N

A

, and the

molar mass M.:

M

N

n

A m

e

ρ

=

Substitute numerical values (For copper, ρ =8.93 g/cm

3

and M =63.5 g/mol.) and

evaluate n

e

:

( )( )

3 28

23 3

e

m electrons/ 10 47 . 8

g/mol 5 . 63

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 93 . 8

× =

×

= n

Using equation (1), evaluate λ

Cu

(see Table 25-1 for the resistivity of copper and

Example 38-5 for u

F

):

( )( )

( )( ) ( )

nm 7 . 38

m 10 70 . 1 C 10 602 . 1 m electrons/ 10 47 . 8

m/s 10 57 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9

8

2

19 3 28

6 31

Cu

=

⋅ × × ×

× ×

=

− −

−

Ω

λ

The mean free paths agree to within about 4%.

48 ••• In the Hall effect, the Hall coefficient R

H

is the proportionality

constant between the transverse electric field and the product of the applied

magnetic field and the current density. That is, E

y

= R

H

B

z

J

x

, where the current

density, the transverse electric field and the applied magnetic field are in the +x,

+y and +z directions, respectively. (The Hall effect is presented in Chapter 26.)

The measured Hall coefficient of a doped silicon sample is 0.0400 V⋅m/(A⋅T) at

room temperature. If all the doping impurities have contributed to the total

number of charge carriers of the sample, find (a) the type of impurity (donor or

acceptor) used to dope the sample and (b) the concentration of these impurities.

Solids

219

Picture the Problem We can use the definition of the Hall electric field in the

slab, the expression for the Hall voltage across it, and the definition of current

density to show that the Hall coefficient is given by 1/(nq). We can use the

expression for the Hall coefficient to determine the type of impurity and the

concentration of these impurities.

(a) The Hall coefficient is:

z x

y

B J

E

R =

where J

x

is x component of the current

density in the material, BB

z

is the z

component of the magnetic field, and

E

y

is the y component resulting Hall

electric field.

Using its definition, express the

Hall electric field in the slab:

w

V

E

y

H

=

d

nqv

wt

I

J

x

= =

The current density in the slab is:

z z

wB nqv

V

B nqv

w

V

R

d

H

d

H

= =

Substitute for E

y

and J

x

and simplify

to obtain:

w B v V

z d H

=

Express the Hall voltage in terms of

v

d

, B, and w:

Substitute for V

H

and simplify to

obtain: nq wB nqv

w B v

R

z

z

1

d

d

= = (1)

Because R >0, q >0 and conduction is by holes and the sample contains acceptor

impurities.

(b) Solve equation (1) for n:

Rq

n

1

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate n:

( )( )

3 20

19

m 10 56 . 1

C 10 602 . 1 T m/A V 0400 . 0

1

−

−

× =

× ⋅ ⋅

= n

Semiconductor Junctions and Devices

Chapter 38

220

49 •• Simple theory for the current versus the bias voltage across a pn

junction yields the equation

I = I

0

e

eV

b

/ kT

−1 ( ). Sketch I versus V

b

for both positive

and negative values of V

b

using this equation.

Picture the Problem The following graph of I/I

0

versus V

b

was plotted using a

spreadsheet program.

-10

0

10

20

30

40

50

-0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10

V

b

(V)

I

/

I

0

50 • The base current in an npn transistor circuit is 25.0 mA. If 88.0 percent

of the electrons entering the base from the emitter reach the collector, what is the

base current?

Picture the Problem The base current is the difference between the emitter

current and the plate current.

The base current I

B

is given by:

C B

I I I − =

B

We’re given that:

mA 25.0 0.880

C

= = I I

Solving for I gives:

mA 4 . 28

0.880

mA 25.0

= = I

Substitute numerical values for I and

I

C

and evaluate I

B

:

mA 4 . 3 mA 25.0 mA .4 8 2

B

= − = I

Solids

221

51 •• [SSM] In Figure 38-28 for the pnp-transistor amplifier, suppose

R

b

=2.00 kΩ and R

L

=10.0 kΩ. Suppose further that a 10.0-μA ac base current i

b

generates a 0.500-mA ac collector current i

c

. What is the voltage gain of the

amplifier?

Picture the Problem We can use its definition to compute the voltage gain of the

amplifier.

The voltage gain of the amplifier

is given by:

b b

c

gain Voltage

R i

R i

L

=

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate the voltage gain:

( )( )

( )( )

250

k 00 . 2 A 0 . 10

k 0 . 10 mA 500 . 0

gain Voltage

=

Ω

Ω

=

μ

52 •• Germanium can be used to measure the energy of incident photons.

Consider a 660-keV gamma ray emitted from

137

Cs. (a) Given that the band gap

in germanium is 0.72 eV, how many electron–hole pairs can be generated as this

gamma ray travels through germanium? (b) The number N of pairs in Part (a) will

have statistical fluctuations given by± N . What then is the energy resolution of

this detector in this photon energy region?

Picture the Problem The number of electron-hole pairs N is related to the energy

E of the incident beam and the energy gap E

g

.

(a) The number of electron-hole

pairs N is given by:

g

E

E

N =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate N:

5 5

10 2 . 9 10 17 . 9

eV 72 . 0

keV 660

× = × = = N

(b) The energy resolution of the

detector is given by:

N

N

E

E Δ

=

Δ

For ΔN =1 and

5

10 17 . 9 × = N :

% 10 . 0

10 17 . 9

1

5

=

×

=

Δ

E

E

53 •• Make a sketch showing the valence and conduction band edges and

Fermi energy of a pn-junction diode when biased (a) in the forward direction and

(b) in the reverse direction.

Picture the Problem The nearly full valence band is shown shaded in the

Chapter 38

222

diagram to the right. The Fermi level is shown by the dashed line.

(a)

conduction band

valence band

Fermi level

p-side n-side

(b)

54 •• A good silicon diode has the current–voltage characteristic given by

I = I

0

e

eV

b

/ kT

−1

( )

. Let kT =0.025 eV (room temperature) and the saturation

current I

0

=1.0 nA. (a) Show that for small reverse-bias voltages, the resistance is

25 MΩ. Hint: Do a Taylor-series expansion of the exponential function about

V

b

= 0, or use the expansion for e

x

found in Table M-4 of the Math Tutorial.

(b) Find the dc resistance for a reverse bias of 0.50 V. (c) Find the resistance V/I

for a 0.50-V forward bias. What is the current in this case? (d) Calculate the ac

resistance dV/dI for a 0.50-V forward bias.

Picture the Problem We can use Ohm’s law and the expression for the current

given in the problem statement to find the resistance for small reverse-and-

forward bias voltages.

(a) Use Ohm’s law to express the

resistance:

I

V

R

b

= (1)

( ) 1

b

0

− =

kT eV

e I I (2)

We’re given that:

For eV

b

<<kT:

kT

eV

kT

eV

e

kT eV

b b

1 1 1

b

= − + ≈ −

Substitute for 1

b

−

kT eV

e to obtain:

kT

eV

I I

b

0

=

Substitute for I in equation (1) and

simplify:

0

b

0

b

eI

kT

kT

eV

I

V

R = =

Solids

223

( )( )

( )( )

Ω =

×

×

=

−

−

M 25

nA 0 . 1 C 10 602 . 1

eV / J 10 602 . 1 eV 025 . 0

19

19

R

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate R:

(b) Substitute equation (2) in

equation (1) to obtain:

( ) 1

b

0

b

−

=

kT eV

e I

V

R (3)

Evaluate

kT

eV

b

for V

b

=− 0.50 V:

( )( )

( )( )

8 . 19

J /eV 10 602 . 1 eV 025 . 0

V 50 . 0 C 10 602 . 1

19

19

b

− =

×

− ×

=

−

−

kT

eV

Evaluate equation (3) for

V

b

=− 0.50 V:

( )( )

Ω 10 0 . 5

1 nA 0 . 1

V 50 . 0

8

8 . 19

× =

−

−

=

−

e

R

(c) The resistance V/I is given by:

( ) 1

b

0

−

= =

kT eV

e I

V

I

V

R (4)

Evaluate

kT

eV

b

for V

b

=+0.50 V:

( )( )

( )( )

8 . 19

K 293 J /K 10 1.381

V 50 . 0 C 10 602 . 1

23

19

b

=

×

×

=

−

−

kT

eV

Substituting numerical values in

equation (4) gives:

( )( )

Ω =

−

= 3 . 1

1 nA 0 . 1

V 50 . 0

8 . 19

e

R

From equation (1):

A 38 . 0

1.3

V 50 . 0

=

Ω

= I

(d) Evaluate R

ac

= dV/dI to obtain:

( ) [ ]

kT eV kT eV

kT eV

e

eI

kT

e

kT

eI

e I

dV

d

dV

dI

dI

dV

R

b b

b

0

1

0

1

0

1

ac

1

−

−

−

−

=

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

=

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

− =

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

= =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate R

ac

:

( ) Ω = Ω =

−

m 63 M 25

8 . 19

ac

e R

Chapter 38

224

55 •• A differential long slab of silicon of thickness t =1.0 mm and width

w =1.0 cm is placed in a magnetic field B =0.40 T. The slab is in the xy plane

with the length of the slab parallel with the x axis, and the magnetic field points in

the +z direction. When a current of 0.20 A exists in the sample in the +x direction,

a potential difference of 5.0 mV develops across the width of the sample and the

electric field in the sample points in the +y direction. Determine the

semiconductor type (n or p) and the concentration of charge carriers. (The Hall

effect is presented in Chapter 26.)

Picture the Problem We can use the Hall-effect equation to find the

concentration of charge carriers in the slab of silicon. We can determine the

semiconductor type by determining the directions of the magnetic and electric

fields.

Use the expression for the Hall-

effect voltage to relate the

concentration of charge carriers n to

the Hall voltage V

H

:

nte

IB

V =

H

⇒

H

teV

IB

n =

( )( )

( )( )( )

3 23

19

m 10 0 . 1

mV 0 . 5 C 10 602 . 1 mm 0 . 1

T 40 . 0 A 20 . 0

−

−

× =

×

= n

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate n:

Referring to Figure 26-28, note that B

r

points out of the page. E

r

is in the +y

direction. Therefore, the charge carriers are holes and the semiconductor is p-type.

The BCS Theory

56 • (a) Use Equation 38-37 to calculate the superconducting energy gap

for tin, and compare your result with the measured value of 6.00 × 10

–4

eV.

(b) Use the measured value to calculate the minimum value of the wavelength of a

photon that has sufficient energy to break up Cooper pairs in tin (T

c

=3.72 K) at

T =0.

Picture the Problem We can calculate E

g

using

c g

5 . 3 kT E = and find the

minimum value of the wavelength of a photon that has sufficient energy to break

up Cooper pairs in tin at T =0 using .

g

E hc = λ

(a) From Equation 38-37 we have:

c g

5 . 3 kT E =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E

g

:

( )( )

meV 12 . 1

K 72 . 3 eV/K 10 617 . 8 5 . 3

5

g

=

× =

−

E

Solids

225

Express the ratio of E

g

to E

g,measured

:

87 . 1

eV 10 6.0

meV 12 . 1

4

measured g,

g

=

×

=

−

E

E

or

measured g, g

2E E ≈

(b) The minimum value of the

wavelength of a photon that has

sufficient energy to break up Cooper

pairs in tin at T =0 is given by:

g

E

hc

= λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ:

mm 07 . 2

eV 10 00 . 6

nm eV 1240

4

=

×

⋅

=

−

λ

57 • [SSM] (a) Use Equation 38-37 to calculate the superconducting

energy gap for lead, and compare your result with the measured value of

2.73 × 10

–3

eV. (b) Use the measured value to calculate the minimum value of the

wavelength of a photon that has sufficient energy to break up Cooper pairs in lead

(T

c

=7.19 K) at T =0.

Picture the Problem We can calculate E

g

using

c g

5 . 3 kT E = and find the

minimum value of the wavelength of a photon that has sufficient energy to break

up Cooper pairs in lead at T =0 using .

g

E hc = λ

(a) From Equation 38-37 we have:

c g

5 . 3 kT E =

( )( )

meV 17 . 2

K 19 . 7 eV/K 10 62 . 8 5 . 3

5

g

=

× =

−

E

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E

g

:

Express the ratio of E

g

to E

g,measured

:

795 . 0

eV 10 73 . 2

meV 17 . 2

3

measured g,

g

=

×

=

−

E

E

or

measured g, g

8 . 0 E E ≈

Chapter 38

226

(b) The minimum value of the

wavelength of a photon that has

sufficient energy to break up Cooper

pairs in lead at T =0 is given by:

g

E

hc

= λ

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate λ:

mm 454 . 0

eV 10 73 . 2

nm eV 1240

3

=

×

⋅

=

−

λ

The Fermi-Dirac Distribution

58 •• The number of electrons in the conduction band of an insulator or

intrinsic semiconductor is governed chiefly by the Fermi factor. Because the

valence band in these materials is nearly filled and the conduction band is nearly

empty, the Fermi energy E

F

is generally midway between the top of the valence

band and the bottom of the conduction band; that is, it is at E

g

/2, where E

g

is the

band gap between the two bands and the energy is measured from the top of the

valence band. (a) In silicon, E

g

≈ 1.0 eV. Show that in this case the Fermi factor

for electrons at the bottom of the conduction band is given by exp(–E

g

/2kT) and

evaluate this factor. Discuss the significance of this result if there are 10

22

valence

electrons per cubic centimeter and the probability of finding an electron in the

conduction band is given by the Fermi factor. (b) Repeat the calculation in Part

(a) for an insulator with a band gap of 6.0 eV.

Picture the Problem We can evaluate the Fermi factor at the bottom of the

conduction band for T near room temperature to show that this factor is given by

exp(−E

g

/2kT).

(a) At the bottom of the conduction

band:

( )

1

2

g

F

>>> =

−

kT E

kT E E

e e for T near room

temperature.

Neglecting the 1 in the denominator

of the Fermi function yields:

( )

kT E

kT E

e

e

E f

2

2 g 2

1

g

g

1 −

= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate ( )

g 2

1

E f for T =300 K:

( )

( )( )

9

5 g 2

1

10 0 . 4

K 300 eV/K 10 62 . 8 2

eV 0 . 1

exp

−

−

× =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

×

−

= E f

Solids

227

Given that low a probability of finding an electron in a state near the bottom of

the conduction band, the exclusion principle has no significant impact on the

distribution function. With 10

22

valence electrons per cm

3

, the number of

electrons in the conduction band will be about 4 × 10

13

per cm

3

.

(b) Evaluate ( )

g 2

1

E f for T =300 K and E

g

=6 eV:

( )

( )( )

51

5

g 2

1

10 2 . 4

K 300 eV/K 10 62 . 8 2

eV 0 . 6

exp

−

−

× =

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

×

−

= E f

The probability of finding even one electron in the conduction band is negligibly

small (approximately 4 × 10

−51

).

59 •• Approximately how many energy states that have energies between

2.00 eV and 2.20 eV are available to electrons in a cube of silver measuring

1.00 mm on a side?

Picture the Problem The number of energy states per unit volume per unit

energy interval N is given by E E g N Δ ≈ ) ( , where N is only approximate, because

ΔE is not infinitesimal and ( )

1/2

3

3/2

e

2 8

E

h

V m

E g

π

= is the density of states.

The number of states N is the product

of the density of states and the

energy interval:

E E g N Δ ≈ ) ( (1)

The density of states is given by:

( )

1/2

3

3/2

e

2 8

E

h

V m

E g

π

=

Substitute numerical values and evaluate g(E):

( )

( ) ( )

( )

1 37

1/2

19

3

34

3

3

2 3

31

J 10 15 . 6

eV

J 10 1.602

eV 10 . 2

s J 10 626 . 6

m 10 00 . 1 kg 10 109 . 9 2 8

−

−

−

− −

× =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

×

⋅ ×

× ×

=

π

E g

Substitute numerical values in equation (1) and evaluate N:

( )( )

18

19

1 37

10 0 . 2

eV

J 10 602 . 1

eV 2.00 eV 20 . 2 J 10 15 . 6 × ≈

×

× − × ≈

−

−

N

Chapter 38

228

60 •• Show that at E =E

F

, the expression for the Fermi factor (Equation 38-

24) is equal to 0.5.

Picture the Problem Evaluating f(E

F

) at E =E

F

will show that f(E) =0.5.

The Fermi factor is:

( )

( )

1

1

F

+

=

− kT E E

e

E f

Evaluate f(E

F

):

( )

( )

5 . 0

1 1

1

1

1

F F

F

=

+

=

+

=

− kT E E

e

E f

61 •• [SSM] (a) Using the equation E

F

= h

2

8m

e

( )

⎡

⎣

⎤

⎦

3N πV ( )

⎡

⎣

⎤

⎦

2/ 3

(Equation 38-22a), calculate the Fermi energy for silver. (b) Determine the

average kinetic energy of a free electron and (c) find the Fermi speed for silver.

Picture the Problem Equation 38-22a expresses the dependence of the Fermi

energy E

F

on the number density of free electrons. Once we’ve determined the

Fermi energy for silver, we can find the average kinetic energy of a free electron

from the Fermi energy for silver and then use the average kinetic energy of a free

electron to find the Fermi speed for silver.

(a) From Equation 38-22a we have:

2/3

e

2

F

3

8

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

V

N

m

h

E

π

Use Table 27-1 to find the free-

electron number density N/V for

silver:

3

28

3

22

m

electrons

5.86x10

cm

electrons

5.86x10

=

=

V

N

Substitute numerical values and evaluate E

F

:

( )

( )

( )

eV 51 . 5

J 10 1.602

1eV m electrons/ 10 5.86 3

kg 10 9.109 8

s J 10 6.626

19

3 2

3 28

31

2

34

F

=

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡ ×

×

⋅ ×

=

− −

−

π

E

(b) The average kinetic energy of a

free electron is given by:

F av

5

3

E E =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate E

av

:

( ) eV 31 . 3 eV 5.51

5

3

av

= = E

Solids

229

(c) Express the Fermi energy in

terms of the Fermi speed of the

electrons:

2

F e 2

1

F

u m E = ⇒

e

F

F

2

m

E

u =

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate u

F

:

( )

m/s 10 08 . 1

1eV

J 10 1.602

kg 10 9.109

3.31eV 2

6

19

31

F

× =

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ ×

×

=

−

−

u

62 •• What is the difference between the energies at which the Fermi factor

is 0.9 and 0.1 at 300 K in (a) copper, (b) potassium, and (c) aluminum.

Picture the Problem We can find the difference between the energies at which

the Fermi factor has the given values by solving the expression for Fermi factor

for E and then deriving an expression for ΔE.

(a) The Fermi factor is:

( )

( )

1

1

F

+

=

− kT E E

e

E f

Solving for E gives:

( )

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

− + = 1

1

ln

F

E f

kT E E

The difference between the energies is given by:

( ) ( )

( )( )

( )( )

( )( )

eV 114 . 0

1

9 . 0

1

ln 1

1 . 0

1

ln

J /eV 10 602 . 1

K 300 J /K 10 381 . 1

1

9 . 0

1

ln

J /eV 10 602 . 1

K 300 J /K 10 381 . 1

1

1 . 0

1

ln

J /eV 10 602 . 1

K 300 J /K 10 381 . 1

9 . 0 1 . 0

19

23

19

23

F

19

23

F

=

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

− − ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

×

×

=

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

×

×

+ −

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

−

×

×

+ =

− = Δ

−

−

−

−

−

−

E

E

E E E

(b) and (c) Because ΔE is independent of E

F

, ΔE is the same as in (a).

63 •• [SSM] What is the probability that a conduction electron in silver

will have a kinetic energy of 4.90 eV at T =300 K?

Picture the Problem The probability that a conduction electron will have a given

kinetic energy is given by the Fermi factor.

Chapter 38

230

The Fermi factor is:

( )

( )

1

1

F

+

=

− kT E E

e

E f

Because E

F

– 4.90 eV >>300k:

( ) 1

1 0

1

eV 90 . 4 =

+

= f

64 •• Show that ( )

2 1 2 3 -

F

2

3

E NE E g = (Equation 38-43) follows from

Equation 38-41 for g(E), and from Equation 38-22a for E

F

.

Picture the Problem We can solve Equation 38-22a for V and substitute in

Equation 38-41 to show that ( )

2 1 2 3 -

F

2

3

E NE E g = .

From Equation 38-22a we have:

3 2

e

2

F

3

8

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

V

N

m

h

E

π

Solving for V yields:

2 3

F e

2

8

3

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

E m

h N

V

π

The density g(E) is given by

Equation 38-41:

( )

2 1

3

2 3

e

2 8

E

h

V m

E g

π

=

Substitute for V and simplify to

obtain:

( )

2 1 2 3

F

2 1

2 3

F e

2

3

2 3

e

2

3

8

3 2 8

E NE

E

E m

h N

h

m

E g

−

=

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

π

π

65 •• Carry out the integration ( ) ( )

∫

=

F

0

av

1

E

dE E Eg N E to show that the

average energy at T =0 is

3

5

E

F

.

Picture the Problem We can use the expression for g(E) from Problem 64 to

show that the average energy at T =0 is

F 5

3

E .

( )

2 1 2 3

F

2

3

E NE E g

−

=

From Problem 64 we have:

Solids

231

Substitute in the expression for E

av

and simplify to obtain:

( )

∫

∫

∫

−

−

=

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

=

F

F

F

0

2 3 2 3

F

0

2 1 2 3

F

0

av

2

3

2

3 1

1

E

E

E

dE E E

dE E E

N

E

N

dE E Eg

N

E

Integrating the expression for E

av

gives:

( )( )

F 5

3

2 5

F 5

2

2 3

F 2

3

0

2 3 2 3

F av

F

2

3

E

E E

dE E E E

E

=

=

=

−

−

∫

66 •• The density of the electron states in a metal can be written

g(E) =AE

1/2

, where A is a constant and E is measured from the bottom of the

conduction band. (a) Show that the total number of states is

2 3

F 3

2

AE .

(b) Approximately what fraction of the conduction electrons are within kT of the

Fermi energy? (c) Evaluate this fraction for copper at T =300 K.

Picture the Problem We can integrate g(E) from 0 to E

F

to show that the total

number of states is

2 3

F 3

2

AE .

(a) Integrate g(E) from 0 to E

F

:

2 3

F 3

2

0

2 1

F

AE dE AE N

E

= =

∫

(b) Express the fraction of N within

kT of E

F

:

( )

F

2 3

F 3

2

2 1

F F

2

3

E

kT

AE

kTAE

N

E kTg

= =

(c) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate the expression obtained in

(b) for copper:

( )( )

( )

3

5

F

10 51 . 5

eV 7.04 2

K 300 eV/K 10 62 . 8 3

2

3

−

−

× =

×

=

E

kT

67 •• What is the probability that a conduction electron in silver will have a

kinetic energy of 5.49 eV at T =300 K?

Picture the Problem The probability that a conduction electron in metal is the

Fermi factor.

Chapter 38

232

The Fermi factor is:

( )

( )

1

1

F

+

=

− kT E E

e

E f

Calculate the dimensionless

exponent in the Fermi factor:

( )( )

387 . 0

K 300 eV/K 10 8.617

eV 5.50 eV 49 . 5

5

F

− =

×

−

=

−

−

kT

E E

Use this result to calculate the Fermi

factor:

( ) 60 . 0

1

1

eV 49 . 5

387 . 0

=

+

=

−

e

f

68 •• Using the expression ( ) ( )

2 1 3 2 3

e

2 8 E h V m E g π = (Equation38-41) for

the density of states, estimate the fraction of the conduction electrons in copper

that can absorb energy from collisions with the vibrating lattice ions at (a) 77 K

and (b) 300 K.

Picture the Problem We can integrate the density-of-states function, Equation

38-41, to find the number of occupied states N. The fraction of these states that are

within kT of E

F

can then be found from the ratio of kTg(E

F

) to N.

The density of states function is:

( )

2 1

AE E g = where

3

2 3

e

2 8

h

V m

A

π

=

Integrate g(E) from 0 to E

F

to find

the total number of occupied states:

2 3

3

2

0

2 1

F

F

E

E

AE dE AE N = =

∫

Express the fraction of N within kT

of E

F

:

( )

F

2 3

F 3

2

2 1

F F

2

3

E

kT

AE

kTAE

N

E kTg

= =

(a) Substitute numerical values

and evaluate the expression

obtained above for copper at

T =77 K:

( )( )

( )

3

5

F

10 4 . 1

eV 7.04 2

K 77 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3

2

3

−

−

× =

×

=

E

kT

(b) At T =300 K: ( )( )

( )

3

5

F

10 51 . 5

eV 7.04 2

K 300 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3

2

3

−

−

× =

×

=

E

kT

69 •• In an intrinsic semiconductor, the Fermi energy is about midway

between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band. In

germanium, the forbidden energy band has a width of 0.70 eV. Show that at room

Solids

233

temperature the distribution function of electrons in the conduction band is given

by the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution function.

Picture the Problem The distribution function of electrons in the conduction

band is given by ( ) ( ) ( ) E f E g E n = where f(E) is the Fermi factor and g(E) is the

density of states in terms of E

F

.

( ) ( ) ( ) E f E g E n = (1) Express the number of electrons n

with energy E:

where

( )

2 1 2 3

F

2

3

E E

N

E g

E

−

=

and

( )

( )

1

1

F

+

=

− kT E E

e

E f

The dimensionless exponent in the

Fermi factor is:

1

g 2

1

F

>>

−

=

−

kT

E E

kT

E E

and

1 exp

g 2

1

>>

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ −

kT

E E

Hence:

( )

( )

kT E

kT E

kT E E

e e

e

E f

−

−

≈ =

2

g

g

2

1

1

Substitute in equation (1) and

simplify to obtain:

( ) ( )

kT E

kT E

F

e E e NE E n

− −

=

2 1

2

2 3

2

3 g

There is an additional temperature dependence that arises from the fact that E

F

depends on T. At room temperature,

exp[(E − E

g

/2)/kT] ≥ exp(0.35 eV/0.0259 eV) =7.4×10

5

,

so the approximation leading to the Boltzmann distribution is justified.

70 ••• The root-mean-square (rms) value of a variable is obtained by

calculating the average value of the square of that variable and then taking the

square root of the result. Use this procedure to determine the rms energy of a

Fermi distribution. Express your result in terms of E

F

and compare it to the

average energy. Why do E

av

and E

rms

differ?

Chapter 38

234

Picture the Problem We can follow the procedure outlined in the problem

statement to determine the rms energy of a Fermi distribution.

Express the E

rms

in terms of g(E):

( )

2 1

0

2

rms

F

1

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

∫

E

dE E E g

N

E

The density of states g(E) is given

by:

( )

2 1 2 3

F

2

3

E E

N

E g

−

=

Substitute to obtain:

2 1

0

2 3

2 3

F

rms

F

2

1

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

∫

E

dE E

NE

E

Evaluate the integral and simplify to

obtain:

F F rms

655 . 0

7

3

E E E = =

E

rms

>E

av

because the process of averaging the square of the energy weights

larger energies more heavily.

General Problems

71 • The density of potassium is 0.851 g/cm

3

. How many free electrons are

there per potassium atom in a crystal of potassium?

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n

e

is given by

A e

N nM n ρ = where N

A

is Avogadro’s number, ρ is the density of the element, M

is its molar mass, and n is the free electron number density for the element.

The number of electrons per atom is

given by:

A

e

N

nM

n

ρ

=

From Table 38-1:

3 22

3

cm electrons/ 10 40 . 1

nm electrons/ 0 . 14

× =

= n

Substitute numerical values and evaluate n

e

:

( )( )

( )( )

07 . 1

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 851 . 0

mol / g 098 . 39 cm electrons/ 10 40 . 1

23 3

3 22

e

=

×

×

= n

Solids

235

Remarks: Our result of 1.07 free electrons per potassium atom means that,

for every 100 potassium atoms, there are 107 free electrons.

72 • Calculate the number density of free electrons for (a) magnesium,

which has a density of 1.74 g/cm

3

, and (b) zinc, which has a density of

7.14 g/cm

3

. For these calculations assume there are two free electrons per atom,

and compare your results with the values listed in Table 38-1.

Picture the Problem The number of free electrons per atom n

e

is related to the

number density of free electrons n by

A e

N nM n ρ = , where N

A

is Avogadro’s

number, ρ is the density of the element, and M is its molar mass.

The number of electrons per atom is

given by:

A

e

N

nM

n

ρ

=

Solving for n gives:

M

N n

n

A e

ρ

=

(a) Substitute numerical values and evaluate n for Mg:

( )( )( )

3 22

23 3

Mg

cm electrons/ 10 62 . 8

mol / g 31 . 24

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 74 . 1 2

× =

×

= n

(b) Substitute numerical values and evaluate n for Zn:

( )( )( )

3 23

23 3

Zn

cm electrons/ 10 32 . 1

mol / g 38 . 65

mol electrons/ 10 022 . 6 g/cm 14 . 7 2

× =

×

= n

Both results agree with the values in Table 38-1 to within 1%.

73 •• Estimate the fraction of free electrons in copper that are in energy

states above the Fermi energy at (a) 300 K (about room temperature) and (b) at

1000 K.

Picture the Problem We can integrate g(E) from 0 to E

F

to show that the total

number of states is

2 3

F 3

2

AE and then use this result to find the fraction of the free

electrons that are above the Fermi energy at the given temperatures.

Integrate g(E) from 0 to E

F

:

2 3

3

2

0

2 1

F

F

E

E

AE dE AE N = =

∫

Chapter 38

236

Express the fraction of N within kT

of E

F

:

( )

F

2 3

F 3

2

2 1

F F

2

3

E

kT

AE

kTAE

N

E kTg

= =

(a) Substitute numerical values and

evaluate this fraction for copper at

300 K:

( )( )

( )

3

5

F

10 51 . 5

eV 7.04 2

K 300 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3

2

3

−

−

× =

×

=

E

kT

(b) Evaluate the same fraction at

1000 K:

( )( )

( )

2

5

F

10 84 . 1

eV 7.04 2

K 1000 eV/K 10 617 . 8 3

2

3

−

−

× =

×

=

E

kT

74 •• A certain free-electron energy state of manganese has a 10.0 percent

chance of being occupied when the temperature of the manganese is T =1300 K.

What is the energy of this state?

Picture the Problem The Fermi factor gives the probability of an energy state

being occupied as a function of the energy of the state E, the Fermi energy E

F

for

the particular material, and the temperature T.

The Fermi factor is:

( )

( )

1

1

F

+

=

− kT E E

e

E f

For 10 percent probability:

( )

1

1

1 . 0

F

+

=

− kT E E

e

⇒

( )

9

F

=

− kT E E

e

Take the natural logarithm of both

sides of

( )

9

F

=

− kT E E

e to obtain:

( ) 9 ln

F

=

−

kT

E E

⇒ ( ) 9 ln

F

kT E E + =

From Table 37-1, E

F, Mn

=11.0 eV. Substitute numerical values and evaluate E:

( )( ) eV 2 . 11 9 ln

J 10 1.602

eV 1

K 1300 J /K 10 1.381 eV 0 . 11

19

23

= ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

×

× + =

−

−

E

75 •• The semiconducting compound CdSe is widely used for light-emitting

diodes (LEDs). The energy gap in CdSe is 1.80 eV. What is the frequency of the

light emitted by a CdSe LED?

Picture the Problem The energy gap for the semiconductor is related to the

wavelength of the emitted light according to .

g

λ hc E =

Solids

237

The frequency of the emitted light is

related to its wavelength:

λ

c

f =

Express the energy gap in terms

of the wavelength λ of the emitted

light:

g

E

λ

hc

E =

g

⇒

g

E

hc

= λ

hc

cE

E

hc

c

f

g

g

= =

Substituting for λ and simplifying

yields:

( )( )

Hz 10 35 . 4

nm eV 1240

eV 80 . 1 m/s 10 998 . 2

14

8

× =

⋅

×

= f

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate f:

Remarks: This frequency is in the red portion of the visible spectrum.

76 ••• A 2.00-cm

2

wafer of pure silicon is irradiated with electromagnetic

radiation having a wavelength of 775 nm. The intensity of the radiation is

4.00 W/m

2

and every photon that strikes the sample is absorbed and creates an

electron–hole pair. (a) How many electron–hole pairs are produced in one

second? (b) If the number of electron–hole pairs in the sample is 6.25 × 10

11

in

the steady state, at what rate do the electron–hole pairs recombine? (c) If every

recombination event results in the radiation of one photon, at what rate is energy

radiated by the sample?

Picture the Problem The rate of production of electron-hole pairs is the ratio of

the incident energy to the energy required to produce an electron-hole pair.

(a)The number of electron-hole pairs

N produced in one second is:

hc

IA

hc

IA

N

λ

λ

= =

Substitute numerical values and evaluate N:

( )( )( )

( )( )

1 15

19

2 4 2

s 10 12 . 3

J /eV 10 602 . 1 nm eV 1240

nm 775 m 10 00 . 2 W/m 00 . 4

−

−

−

× =

× ⋅

×

= N

(b) In the steady state, the rate of

recombination equals the rate of

generation. Therefore:

1 15

s 10 12 . 3

−

× = N

Chapter 38

238

(c) The power radiated equals the

power absorbed:

IA P =

rad

Substitute numerical values and

evaluate P

rad

:

( )( )

mJ /s 800 . 0

m 10 00 . 2 W/m 00 . 4

2 4 2

rad

=

× =

−

P

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