At the end of this Lesson the Trainee i!! "e a"!e to de#onstrate an $nderstandin% of
Pi&e Materia!s & S&e'ia! Pi&es(
There are many kinds of pipe materials. However, only the materials being used for
desalination plants will be discussed.
The water used or produced in the desalination plant is sea water (cooling water),
brine, distilled water, steam, boiler feed water (condensate water) and product water.
The water is highly corrosive against steel, so that special consideration has to be
taken to withstand this corrosion or any other chemical attack.
The selection of the material applied for each part must be decided from the view
point of the chemical reactions involved.
Ordinary steel pipe cannot be used for sea water applications. The iron molecules in
the steel will react with chlorine ions in the sea water. Additionally, the iron molecules
will react with the oygen in the sea water.
!n place of ordinary steel pipe, stainless steel can be used. "hromium, nickel and
other elements are added to the steel to withstand the above chemical reactions.
Ordinary stainless steel, called #$#%&' ((!# "ode), has a content of "r ()* + ,&-),
.i (*./ + )&-), 0n (1 ,-), #i (1 )-) and carbon (1 &.&*-), in addition to iron.
2or a more highly anti+corrosive material, #$#%)34 was developed. Two or three
percent of molybdenum is added to it, and the carbon content is reduced to below
5e can use ordinary carbon steel pipe such as #67%*, #T7%*, etc. for desalination
e8uipment and machinery, but, the following treatment or addition of material is
9inc coated steel, so+called galvani:ed steel, is effective in this environment, end
likewise, rubber lined steel. This type of steel is used for tanks, pump casings,
impellers, agitators, etc.
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.on metallic materials such as 2<7 (fibre glass re+enforced plastic) and 7@"
(polyvinyl chloride) are also very effective. Aoth materials can be used for storage,
towers, frames, piping or as a coating on steel. 7@" pumps, 7@" valves and other
7@" made parts are common and useful in corrosive environment.
BAO..A pipesB are a uni8ue type of pipes for sea water. Here the steel pipe is lined
and coated with concrete or asphalt.
Attention should be paid to oygen dissolving in the water during the condensing
process at the evaporators. This water generates steel stain.
6alvani:ed welded carbon steel is selected for pipes of large diameter. 9inc coating
is the anti+corrosion material.
7roduct water is produced from sea water evaporation by the evaporators. This
water seems pure, but some entrainment of sea water occurs with the vapor.
"onse8uently, very small amounts of impurities such as salts will be retained in the
product water. Therefore, attention should be also paid to the material used in pipes
handling product water, to avoid possible corrosion, or else.
#trong acids such as sulfuric acid (H
) and hydrochloric acid (H"l) react very
strongly with ordinary materials.
"arbon steel also is easily attacked by the sulfate ion (#O
) or chlorine ion ("l
Aoth of these ions react with iron to form 2e#O
, 2e
and 2e"l
, and 2e"l
respectively. Ordinary carbon steel pipe cannot be used for lines handling these
To improve this weakness of carbon steel, stainless steels have been developed, as
already described. !n the same way #$#%)34 is specially resistant to weak acids
such as dilute sulphuric acid.
Other organic materials such as 2<7 and 7@" are very useful against this kind of
corrosion. These are listed in Table ,+,.
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"arbon steel pipe is usually used for steam lines. 7ressure and temperature affect
the material specification.
2or low pressure steam lines, carbon steel pipe #T76%* is used. !t has a content of
nearly CC- iron and small amounts of carbon (&.,/ + &.%-), silica, manganese, and
others (,./ barDsteam lines use this material).
2or medium pressures, or high temperatures lines, carbon steel pipe #T7T%* is
used. This pipe may be used for temperatures over %/& ". 0anganese content is 
increased for thermal resistance and strength. )' bar steam piping uses this material
in the desalination plant.
@ent pipes connect between brine heaters and condensers, evaporator tops and
condensers, and deaerators and condensers.
These venting lines pass humid hot air, containing some sea water mist which is very
6eneral carbon steel is unsuitable. #tainless steel #$#%)34 is used for all these
=uctile cast iron plus 04 (mortar lining) is used for corrosion and pressure resistance
=uctile iron is stronger than common cast iron. The tensile strength is improved and
is twice as strong as ordinary steel pipes.
The outside of underground piping is susceptible of corrosion accordingly the surface
of these piping is coating with mortar to prevent from corrosion.
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0aterials are specified in each country. The following are some of the main national
standards of (apan and the $#A.
Ta"!e 2-)(
#ymbol <egular .ame
(!# (apanese !ndustrial #tandard
A#T0 American #tandard of Testing 0aterial
A7! American 7etroleum !nstitute
A.#! American .ational #tandard !nstitute
These standards specify a symbol for each material.
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Ta"!e 2-2( Pi&in% Materia!s +es'ri&tion(
(!# .o.
.ame of 7iping
0aterial 0aterial ?uality
#T76 %* "arbon steel pipe
for pressure service
"arbon content &.,/-
tensile strength %*./ barDmmE
general use for ordinary pressure
#T76 %*+<.4. Above, rubber lined
in the inside
7ipeF ditto
<ubber lined
#T76 %*+6A4 6alvani:ed
#T76 %*
9inc coated pipe of #T76 %*.
This coating is useful for rust prevention.
(very common in civil water pipe)
#T7T %* "arbon steel pipe
for high temperature
"arbon &.,/- 0anganese content is much
higher than in #T76 %*. The two material
content can be used for temperatures higher
than %/& ". 
#$#%)34 4ow carbon
stainless steel
This alloy steel contains high .i, "r and low
0o, 0n and #i. "arbon content is very small,
as much as &.&%- or less. @ery strong
corrosion resistance for acids such as H
, H"l.
#$#%&' 7lain )*+*
stainless steel
This one is similar to be above #$# %)34, a
slightly lower grade. =oes not contain 0o.
carbon content is higher. Also resistant
"+G&3& "opper+.ickel alloy #pecial high alloy of )&- .i and C&- of "u.
Anti+corrosive against sea water and with
good heat transmission in bundle tubes.
=uctile cast iron =uctile cast iron
Ordinary cast iron is very weak against
tension. This ductile cast iron is as strong as
the grade of steel. (2e H " H #i H 0n)
2<7 2ibre glass
reinforced plastic
6od 8uality of F ()) anti+corrosion against
many chemicals, (,) mechanical strength, (%)
light density, etc.
7@" 7oly vinyl chloride
6ood 8uality of ()) anti+corrosion against
many chemicals, (,) ease of fabrication.
2aultsF weak against ()) impact and (,) heat
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"ast iron has a higher corrosion resistance than common carbon steel. 2or this
reason, it is used in underground piping for city water and sewerage, which re8uire
large diameter pipes. !ts disadvantage is its brittlenessF it is apt to crack by impact.
Thick piping is preferable to maintain strength.
=uctile cast iron is used in the desalination plant. This type of cast iron has improved
the weakness of cast iron. Another name for ductile cast iron is nodular cast iron or
spheroidal graphite cast iron. The tensile strength of this type of cast iron is stronger
than normal carbon steel ('& + G& kgDmmE).
(oints are specially designed to meet the anticipated conditions of use. (!# standard
prescribe several types of Ioint which are shown in 2ig. ,+).
,i%( 2-)( Joint Constr$'tion of +$'ti!e Cast Iron Pi&e(
=uctile cast iron pipe of %&& mm diameter are used in this plant for potable water.
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7ure aluminum is weak, but alloys of aluminum have improved mechanical
(!# standard (H '&*&) covers )C kinds of alloysJ the main alloys are the followingF
A)+"u alloy (' + /- "u) (Alcoa)
A)+"u+#i alloy
A)+#i alloy ()& + )%- #i) (#ilmin)
A)+#i+0g alloy
Al+0g alloy
!n the desalination plant, evaporator tube bundle sheets are made from "u+A) 2e
alloy in a ratio of C& F G F %.
"opper alloy pipe is used for the bundles of an evaporator, see
Table ,+%.
Tube si:e diameter ,/.3 mDm O.=. ,3.& mDm O.=.
thickness ).& mDm )., mDm
length )/.) 0 )/.&
.umber of
3%,%), G,/*)
"u C& 33 Outer shell
.i )& %& "arbon steel
2e + , !nner clad
0n + , C& "u
Al + + )& .i
7lat material Tube #heet Tube #heet "u+.i clad
"u .i "u Al 2e carbon steel
C& )& C& G %
Ta"!e 2-.( E8a&orator T$"e Materia!s(
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There are many kinds of plastic pipe. "ommon types are polyvinyl chloride (7@")
tube, fiberglass re+inforced plastic (2<7) and others. 0aterial must be selected in
accordance with the conditions of use.
The use of 7@" piping is limited to temperatures less than G& ". Additionally, at 
temperatures lower than the free:ing temperature of water this pipe becomes very
brittle, and is likely to be broken by eternal shock. The epected temperature
conditions play an important part in choosing the correct pipe.
7@" pipe and fittings are available in the market+place Iust as steel pipe. (oints are
usually bonded or welded with 7@" material.
2<7 is a compound material made from thermoplastic such as polyester, epoy+resin,
phenoy resin, melamine resin, and glass fibre. The features of this plastic are its
strength, ease of being shaped and light weight.
BAO..A 7!7;#B are of a special constitution used specially for large si:e immersed
or buried sea water pipes. They consist of a sheet metal core, lined and coated with
The structure is shown in 2ig. ,+,.
,i%( 2-2( BONNA Pi&e(
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The purpose of this constitution is to protect from sea water andDor soil corrosion.
(oint connection is a problem.
))(* 0OSES
Aasically, hoses do not differ in any way from pipe and tubing. All three are used to
carry a variety of materials under a variety of circumstances. !n their construction and
in their advantages, however, hoses are different from pipes and tubing. The
outstanding advantage of hose is its fleibility +its ability to bend to meet the
re8uirements of numerous applications that cannot be met by rigid piping systems.
Hoses are used in the following cases.
). $n+loading of li8uid material e.g. oil tanker + to oil yard tank
chemical tanker + to chemical yard tank.
,. 7revention of piping vibrationF
e.g. F isolating compressor vibration
%. "ompressed air hose for various air guns.
'. Operational use for steam or waterF
e.g. F cleaning piping or e8uipment
/. #mall terminal connection of pressure pipesF
e.g.F pressure gauge connection
))() CO+ES AN+ SI;ES
). #tandards groups have devised standards and codes for hoses Iust as they have for
piping and tubing. #pecifications include working pressures, si:es, and material
re8uirements. As an eample, the working pressure of a hose is ordinarily limited to
,/- of one+fourth of the amount of pressure needed to burst the hose. !n other
words, a hose having a maimum rated working pressure of ,/& psi should not
rupture until )&&& psi has been reached, and possibly not then. !t is a safety
measure to protect personnel and e8uipment.
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,i%( 2-.( Co##on hose ter#ino!o%<( ,i%( 2-/( E=&anded end
,. Hose si:e is ordinarily rated by its !.=., and according to what is called the dash
system, or dash+numbering system. 0ost manufacturers of hose and fittings use the
dash system to identify both hose and fittings. To determine the si:e of a hose, Iust
convert the si:e into )3ths. As an eample, a K inch hose si:e becomes 'D)3ths of
an inch. The numerator (the top number) of the fraction is its dash si:e. A )K inch
si:e converts into ,&D)3ths, and so is identified as a +,& (dash ,&). Ay using the
dash numbering system a hose line can be matched to a tube or pipe with assurance
that the !.=. of both will be the same. This makes certain that the smooth flow of fluid
will not be interrupted. Hose si:es range from %D)3 inch to as much as ,' inches in
diameter. Ordinarily, the dimension given refers to the !.=. of the hose.
Hose can be classified in several waysF by material, by type of service (hydraulic,
acid+resistant), by pressure, and by type of construction. 2or convenience, however,
you may consider hoses to be one of three typesF
). .on+metallic.
,. .on+metallic, reinforced.
%. 0etallic.
!n most cases, terminology is the same for each type with eceptions mentioned as
they occur.
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0any non+metallic materials are used to make hose for eample, plastic like teflon,
polyethylene, nylon dacron and many others in table ,+' there are some materials
these temperature limit and uses.
Ta"!e 2-/(
HO#;# A.=
4!0!T# A774!"AT!O.
=acron 2leible at very low
temperature as
+,), " 
2or carrying li8uified gas in cryogenic
Teflon +// " upto ,%, "   2or abrasive fluids
.ylon .ormal temp As air hose and large for ventilation
.eoprene coated cotton
2or light duty
.eoprene coated glass
2or portable heaters and for hot fumes and
air upto dia ,' inch
7ure gum 2or acid, chemicals etc
.atural late $se in hospital with pharmaceticals blood
and intervenes situations and in
#ilicone +/G " upto ,%, "   2or etreme temperature and chemicals
reaction situation. !t is also use as Iet
starter hose for gas turbine
<einforcing is a way to increase hose strength and resistance to pressure. Hoses
used todays usually have a tube (made of some form of rubber or ligning such as
plastic) surrounded by a carcass and cover as you saw in 2ig. ,+/. The carcass is
usually braided. The type of braiding used is determined by the re8uirements of the
application. 2ig. ,+3 shows the most common types of reinforced non+metallic hoses
and differences in their construction.
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,i%( 2-1( T<&i'a! 'onstr$'tion of reinfor'ed non-#eta!!i' hose(
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2ig. ,+3. shows the construction of a bron:e braided, fleible all+metal hose which
has a tube of corrugated bron:e. The tube is covered with the woven bron:e braid
for protection against vibration and to provide increased resistance to pressure.
0etal hoses are also available in steel aluminum monel, stainless steel and other
corrosion resistance metals.
,i%( 2-2( Constr$'tion of a Meta!i' hose(
). One of the factors governing hose selection is the amount of pressure which it
will be re8uired to carry. !n one of the classification methods used, pressure
falls in any of three general groupsF ()) low pressure, no more than ,/& psiJ
(,) medium pressure, which ranges from ,/& to %&&& psiJ and, (%) high
pressure, between %&&& and 3&&& psi, and even beyond.
,. 5ithin those ranges, some manufacturers make further distinction, such as
Bvery highB and Bsuper highB. Aut a hose that is rated as Blow pressureB wonLt
automatically be useful at ,&& psi. !t is not as simple as that. !t may, in fact,
be built for pressures not to eceed '& or /& psi. 5hen replacing sections of
hose, you should use the same type and pressure+rating as used for the
original hose. This precaution is especially important when you are working
with hoses in high+pressure applications.
%. A related consideration is the @A"$$0 <AT!.6 of a hose. @acuum or
suction that a hose can carry before it begins to collapse. A common eample
of this is an ordinary drinking straw, which, because it has a low vacuum
rating, collapses 8uickly when too much suction is applied.
'. !n some applications, both the working pressure and vacuum rating of the
hose are important. A good eample is the common automobile radiator
hose, where the upper hose operates under pressure, but the lower hose
operates under vacuum. #uch applications are not otherwise common,
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/. Temperature has a definite effect on hose operation. Although most low+
pressure and medium pressure hoses can safely handle temperatures of up
to ),) " (,/& 2), low+pressure hose shouldnLt be used for hot air above  
G) " ()3& 2), or for hot oil above *, " ()*& 2).    
3. $sually these consideration are taken into account when the hose is selected
originally. They should present no difficulties to you. (ust be sure you use the
right hose for the Iob.
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