At the end of this Lesson the Trainee wi !e a!e to des"ri!e witho#t error Pi$in%
Filters strainers, pipe hangers; piping supports, and similar components belongs to a
category of equipment as piping auxiliaries the purposes of piping auxiliaries are as :
a. The protection of piping system from the harmful or undesirable effects of
impurities such as dirt and other foreign matters, (filters and strainers)
b. The protection of pipes and equipment from physical stresses caused by
excessive vibration and temperature changes.
trainers and filters are similar components that accomplish the same basic function,
removing solid contaminants. trainers typically contain screens made of metal or
!ire mesh, but other materials may be used. Filter typically use a cloth or heavy
paper element or element may be made of other materials.
The terms "filter# and "strainer# are often used interchangeably, because the
differences bet!een the t!o types of components are not al!ays clear cut. $ fe!
typical differences can be noted, but it should be remembered that there are
exceptions. Fig. %&' ( %&) sho!s the typical strainer screen and typical paper filter
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ ' *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
+i%& 4-'& T-$i"a Strainer S"reen&
+i%& 4-*& T-$i"a Pa$er +iter Ee.ent&
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ )
The material used by a filter or strainer to remove solid particles from a fluid is called
a medium. There are t!o basic types of mediums:&
'. urface mediums
). 6epth mediums
trainers typically use surface mediums, and filters typically use depth mediums. Fig.
%&9 sho!s the surface mediums and Fig. %&% sho!s the depth mediums.
+i%& 4-/& S#rfa"e .edi#.& +i%& 4-4& )e$th .edi#.&
Filters and strainers are rated according to the si:e of the smallest particles that they
can remove. ;ecause some of these particles are too small to be seen by the na<ed
eye, they are measured in terms of microns. The micron is the unit of measurement
that is generally used for measuring the si:e of extremely small particles. $s a point
of reference, a single grain of ordinary tables salt has a si:e of about '== microns.
Filter or strainer ratings are given in terms of the degree of filtration, and may be
given in t!o !ays:&
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1+20 % *$5+ 9 *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
'. $s a nominal rating !hich gives the smallest particle si:e that the filter !ill remove
>?@ of the time.
). $s an absolute rating, !hich gives the smallest si:e particle that the filter !ill
remove '==@ of the time. the nominal rating of strainers is seldom less than A
microns, but filters may remove particles less than ' micron in si:e.
The degree of filtration required of a filter or strainer is determined by the system in
!hich it is used. $ filter for a particular system must be able to remove particles that
are smaller than any critical openings in that system. For example, if a filter is need
to protect a fuel no::le that has an opening of =.='B inch (=.% mm), the filter must be
able to remove particles that are smaller than =.='B inch. $s a general rule, the filter
chosen should be able to remove particles one half the si:e of the opening.
Thus, to protect a fuel no::le !ith an opening of =.='B inch, the filter should be able
to remove particles that are =.==? inch (=.) mm) in si:e. The micron equivalent of
=.==? inch is approximately )== microns, so the filter should have a rating of )==
microns or less. $ filter used to ma<e sure that a liquid is <ept clear might need a
nominal rating of )A microns, !hile a filter used to remove a ha:e from a liquid might
require a '= micron nominal rating.
ystem that use filters and strainers can be either full&flo! systems or bypass&flo!
(also called partial&flo!) systems.
The filtering system sho!n in Fig. %&A is a full&flo! system because all of fluid
pumped from the reservoir passes through the filter. ince all the flo! passes
through the filter, the flo! !ould stop if the filter !ere to become clogged; the
equipment !ould not be lubricated, and it might burn up. To <eep this from
happening, the relief valve opens on an increase in pressure, bypassing the filter and
allo!ing unfiltered oil to flo! to the equipment.
ome full&flo! filters have built&in relief valves, as sho!n in Fig. %&B. -f such a filter
becomes clogged, pressure builds up inside the casting until the relief valve opens.
Chen the relief valve is open, the fluid that enters the filter moves directly from the
filter inlet to the filter outlet, !ithout passing through the filter element.
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*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ %
+i%& 4-1& T-$i"a f#-fow +iterin% S-ste.&
+i%& 4-3& +#-+ow +iter with a !#it-in Reief Va4e&
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ A *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
;oth full&flo! and by&pass filtering systems are found in modern industrial plants.
trainers can also be either full&flo! or bypass&flo!, but strainers are most often
found in full&flo! arrangements.
-n the filtering systems discussed thus far, the filter or strainer has been a single
components, !hat is called a simplex filter, or a simplex strainer. -f the screen or
element in a simplex unit has to be cleaned or replaced, the system that contains it
must be shut do!n until replacement is completed. To avoid this situation, duplex
filter (Fig. %&D) can be used.
+i%& 4-5& T-$i"a e4er t-$e )#$e6 Strainer&
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*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ B
Fig. %&?. ho!s the hand !heel operated duplex strainer.
+i%& 4-7& T-$i"a 8andwhee-o$erated )#$e6 Strainer&
Fig. %&> is a diagram of a typical <nife&edge filter and the t!o filter discs !ith a spacer.
The filter element is composed of a stac< of metal plates, or discs, separated by
spacers, and connected through the center to a handle at the top of the filter. There
may be as many as several hundred disc in a single filter. The spacers are all the
same thic<ness, so that the openings bet!een the discs !ill all be the same si:e.
The si:e of these openings determines the si:e of the particles that the filter can trap.
(.ost <nife&edge filters have nominal ratings as lo! as %= microns). ;ecause <nife&
edge filter can be cleaned !hile a system is in operation they can be used effectively
in system that operate continuously and should not be shut do!n, <nife&edge filter
are often found in lo! to medium temperature they may filter oil, air or !ater.
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1+20 % *$5+ D *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
+i%& 4-:& T-$i"a 9nife-Ed%e +iter ; +iter )is"s and S$a"ers&
.any different types of bac<!ash filters are available, but they all operate on the
same basic principle: flo! through the filter element can be reversed to dislodged
trapped particles and flush them from the filter. ;ac<!ash filters are commonly found
in !ater treatment systems.
2f ease of illustration, the dra!ing of the bac<!ash filter in Fig. %&'= only sho!s t!o
filter elements. .ost bac<!ash filters have more than t!o element & )= or more in
some cases &= and the filter may be as large as '= &'A feet in diameter.
Fig. %&'' sho!s the bac<!ash filter !ith sand as the filter medium and Fig. %&')
sho!s a filter !ith hydraulically operated. $utomatic bac< !ash system.
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*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ ?
+i%& 4-'(& Si.$ified )ia%ra. of a T-$i"a Ba"=wash +iter&
+i%& 4-''& Ba"=wash +iter with Sand as the +iter 0edi#.&
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ > *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
+i%& 4-'*& 8-dra#i"a- o$erated A#to.ati" Ba"=wash S-ste.&
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ '=
+i%& 4-'/& Ee"tri" 0otor O$erated A#to.ati" Ba"=wash +iter&
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ '' *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
The most common maintenance procedure of the strainers and filter is cleaning the
filter or replacing the filter cartridge. 2ther less frequent, maintenance tas<s may
includes replacement lapping the strainer valve seat and disc, or valve replacement.
$ duplex strainer is a strainer !ith t!o screens, either of !hich is capable of
accepting the full volume of fluid that must be strained. This arrangement provides
for isolating either screen so that it can be cleaned !ithout disrupting system
operations. Thus, the first step in cleaning a duplex strainer is to shift the screens so
that no flo! !ill pass through the screen that is to be cleaned.
The follo!ing steps comprise a typical procedure for removing, cleaning, and
reinstalling a strainer bas<et.
'. -solate the bas<et to be cleaned, using the hand!heels (or levers, if applicable) to
shift the bas<ets.
). Eent the strainer to be cleaned. (0ote: use caution !hen venting a strainer under
9. 2pen the drain valve for the strainer to be cleaned, if one is provided. (0ote that
the strainer in this example is not equipment !ith a drain valve.)
%. after any strongbac<s or retaining bolts have been removed, remove the strainer
A. Ta<e out and inspect the strainer bas<et.
B. -nspect the gas<et around the strainer opening; replace any gas<ets that are !orn
or damaged.
D. ,lean the bas<et, follo!ing procedures appropriate for the strainer and the fluid
that it handles.
?. 4eplace the bas<et
>. 4einstall the cover and secure the strongbac<s or retaining bolts.
'=. ,lose the drain valve, if one is provided.
''. 4otate the hand!heel for the inlet valve Fust enough to direct some flo! into the
strainer that has Fust been cleaned.(this step !ill remove any air that has been
trapped. -f the strainer is in line !ith a pump suction, the pump suction pressure
should be !atched carefully !henever the position of the strainer valves is
changed. -f the suction pressure drops suddenly !hile sifting strainers, this
indicates that air is entering the pump, and an immediate shift should be made
bac< to the strainer that !as in service. -f suction pressure continues to drop, the
pump should be turned off).
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*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ ')
'). ,lose the vent valve !hen fluid comes out of the vent. (this indicates that all air
has been purged from the pump).
'9. 4eturn the hand!heels to their original positions.
trainers in systems operating under a negative pressure cannot be vented as
described above. -nstead, the vent valve is closed, and then both inlet and outlet
valves are opened slightly. $ny air in the strainer flo!s into the fluid system. To
minimi:e the quantity of air that gets into the system, the filter body should be filled
!ith fluid before the cover is reinstalled, if the body !as drained.
7&type strainers used in steam systems are normally cleaned by means of a
blo!do!n valve. /o!ever, it is possible for contaminants to become pac<ed do!n in
the strainer to the point !here blo!do!n cannot remove them. -f this happens, the
strainer to the point !here blo!do!n cannot remove them. -f this happens, the
strainer must be ta<en apart and cleaned.
Filters !ith bac< !ash system normally cleaned !ithout removing the bas<ets from
the casing. /o!ever it is possible for contamination to become pac<ed hardly in the
screen and by bac<!ashing it cannot remove them in this case the strainer must be
ta<en apart and cleaned or damaged bas<ets changed as follo!ing the instruction of
cleaning the duplex instructor.
The cleaning mechanism of a <nife&edge filter may be operated manually or by
means of a motor. -n manually operated models, the handle on top of the filter
should be turned at least one complete turn in both directions !henever cleaning is
desired. There is no danger in turning the handle too frequently, but experience !ill
indicate ho! often cleaning should be accomplished for a particular installation.
3sually, if the handle becomes difficult to rotate, it is not being turned often enough.
-f a <nife&edge filter becomes severely clogged, turning the handle may become
difficult, or even impossible. -f the handle can be turned only a small amount, it
should be rotated bac< and forth until the filter discs free themselves enough to allo!
one complete turn in each direction. -f the handle cannot be turned at all, it should
not be forced !ith a !rench or other tool. The filter should be removed and soa<ed in
a solvent recommended by the filter manufacturer until the discs can be turned easily.
-n some cases, it may be easier Fust to replace the entire disc assembly.
-n motor&driven <nife&edge filters, a motor drive continually rotates the discs past the
cleaner blades. The motor drive should be in operation !henever fluid is flo!ing
through the filter.
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ '9 *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
The purpose of these auxiliaries to protect the pipe and piping system from excessive
vibration and temperature changes. 0ot all these problems exist in every pipe. -n
some cases pipe do not heat up and cool do!n, and movement may not be a
problem. +xactly !hat stresses the pipe suffers determines the type of support
needed. 3sually supports are divided into t!o categories.
'. *ipe supports, !hich support pipes from underneath.
). *ipe hangers, !hich secure pipes from above.
Fig. %&'% sho!s the different types of underneath supports some of them fixed and
some them have !ith guided bloc< and guiding roller to allo! the pipe to move due to
the expansion.
+i%& 4-'4& )ifferent t-$es of #nderneath s#$$orts&
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*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ '%
*ipe hanger support pipes from the top a typical pipe hanger has three parts.
$n upper component, !hich is attached to a permanent fixture in Fig. %&'A sho!n the
upper component.
+i%& 4-'1& Pi$e 8an%er U$$er Co.$onents&
The intermediate components of pipe hanger connect the upper and lo!er
components. They are adFustable so they can be used to level and distribute the load
supported by the pipe hanger. Fig. %&'B sho!s a turn buc<le type intermediate
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1+20 % *$5+ 'A *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
+i%& 4-'3& Inter.ediate Co.$onents&
$ spring hanger is a rod and spring mechanism sho!n in fig. A&'D. This type of
hanger have the ability to absorb shoc<, but it can not maintain the constant force on
pipe system.
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ 'B
+i%& 4-'5& A S$rin% 8an%er&
-t maintains a constant force on a pipe system to balance the load and spring tension
regardless of the pipe angle.
$s the pipe expands and moves vertically, the constant support hanger adFusts to
provide a support force that is equal to the pipe load in every position. Fig. A&'?
sho!s a constant support hangers.
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ 'D *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
+i%& 4-'7& Constant S#$$ort 8an%er&
Fig. %&'> are designed to counterbalance forces that occur at terminal points bet!een
pipes and equipment. $s a pipe expands or contracts, it puts stress !here the pipe
and equipment Foin. *umps, compressors and similar equipment cannot be mounted
to allo! for enough movement to relieve this stress. /o!ever, if a positioning support
is mounted !here the stress occurs, it can produce a force that is equal to the stress
and opposite in direction. Then the force on the pipe from expansion or contraction
!ill be canceled out by the force on the pipe from the positioning support.
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ '?
+i%& 4-':& Positionin% S#$$ort&
*ositioning supports are controlled by any of three types of sensing units: mechanical,
electrical, or temperature sensors. These sensing units sense the amount of stress on
the pipe and equipment and automatically actuate the positioning support.
The most common lo!er components for pipe hangers are pipe rings and pipe
clamps (Fig. %&)=). -n most cases, pipe rings are slipped over pipes before piping
systems are assembled. *ipe clamps are generally used for heavier pipe
assemblies. *ipe saddles and pipe rollers, as previously described for pipe supports,
are also used as lo!er components for pipe hangers.
+i%& 4-*(& Pi$e rin% ?A@ and Pi$e Ca.$ ?B@
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ '> *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
The pipe hanger discussed in the last section support pipes !hile providing for
normal pipe movement, !hen the movement of pipe great, shoc<s intensity minimum
upto including earthqua<es, for that case needs special type of pipe hangers li<e
snuber or soc< arrestors. The general purpose of snubbers, is to limit the movement
of pipes during maFor disturbances to piping and equipment. $ snuber can be a (')
/ydraulic ()) .echanical.
$ hydraulic snubber !hich !or<s very smoothly and can absorb the slo!ly soc< to a
sudden shoc<. nubber designs vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Fig. %&)'
sho!s a typical hydraulic snubber design.
+i%& 4-*'& T-$i"a 8-dra#i" Sn#!!er&
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ )=
.echanical snubbers perform the same function as hydraulic snubbers, but they use
mechanical components instead of hydraulic fluid to dampen shoc<s. Fig. %&)) is a
cross&sectional vie! of atypical mechanical snubber.
+i%& 4-**& T-$i"a 0e"hani"a Sn#!!er&
+ven though pipe hangers and piping support are very reliable, they should be
inspected routinely to ma<e sure that they are <eeping pipes in place and providing
adequate support. $ny parts that have become loose should be retightened or
1ea<ing Foints and bent or sagging pipes could be indications of improper pipe
support. /o!ever, these conditions may also be caused by abuse, such as someone
standing on a pipe. The cause should be determined, and the necessary corrective
action should be ta<en.
-n most cases, the pipe hanger lo!er component attaches directly to the pipe.
/o!ever, in situations !here vibration or movement is severe, a canvas or rubber
protective material may be placed bet!een the support or hanger and pipe. Chere
applicable, this protective material should be chec<ed as part of routine inspections.
-f it is !orn out, it should be replaced.
.echanical snubbers are generally very reliable and require very little maintenance.
pecial precautions may be required !hen they are installed in a system that uses
sea !ater or strong chemicals or in an environment !ith excess moisture or spray. -n
these environments, corrosion can be a problem. ,overing the snubber tube !ith a
bello!s !ill help prevent excessive corrosion.
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ )' *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T
$ hydraulic snubber is also a very reliable device, but hydraulic snubbers should be
chec<ed routinely to ma<e sure that the reservoir contains a sufficient amount of fluid.
-f fluid needs to be added, the manufacturerGs instruction manual should be consulted
to determine the type and grade of fluid to be used. -nsufficient fluid in the reservoir
usually indicates a lea< some!here in the snubber. The area !here the piston
penetrates the casing should be chec<ed carefully, because the seals in that area are
the most li<ely places for lea<s to occur.
The purpose of expansion Foints and expansion loops is to allo! pipes to expand and
contract normally as systems heat up and cool do!n. They also reduce vibration
transmitted through pipe. Fig. %&)9 sho!s a one&piece rubber expansion Foint,
normally that used in lo! temperature and pressure piping system. These type of
expansion Foint are also called bello!s expansion Foint the belo! may a rubber, or
metallic according to the temperature requirements.
+i%& 4-*/& One-Pie"e +e6i!e E6$ansion Joint&
Fig. %&)% sho!s a t!o piece sliding expansion Foint maintenance of t!o pieces
expansion Foints include inFecting grease into the pac<ing gland several times a year
to ma<e sure that the sliding sleeve is able to move easily. The sleeve should also be
chec<ed occasionally for pilling and corrosion.
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
*-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83*.+0T 1+20 % *$5+ ))
+i%& 4-*4& Two-$ie"e Sidin% E6$ansion Aoint&
$n expansion loop (Fig. %&)A) is an arrangement in !hich the pipe itself is made into a
long loop. The loop moves bac< and forth as the pipe expands and contracts to
compensate for the pipe movement. +xpansion loops generally move more than
other types of piping, so their hangers and supports are subFected to more stress.
This consideration should be <ept in mind !hen piping systems are inspected.
+i%& 4-*1& E6$ansion Loo$s&
*+,-F-, .+,/$0-,$1 ,234+ F24 +05-0++4
1+20 % *$5+ )9 *-*+ ,2.*20+0T $06 $0,-1-$47 +83-*.+0T