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:

Chap. 2 : Advanced 1-D Analytical Method

lectured by Donggeun Lee

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 1 / 16

Syllabus

Application of mathematica to fins

Bessel functions

3. Transient 1-D conduction

Superposition

Variation of parameters

Laplace transform method

Periodic boundary condutions

5. General Multi-D conduction

6. General Time-Dependent Conduction

4. 2-D Steady-state conduction

2-D Cartesian configurations

Superposition

2-D in cylindrical coordinates

Introduction of conduction

Thermal Properties

Governing equations & Fins

2. Advanced 1-D analytical methods

1. Preliminaries & review

Similarity

Separation of Variables

Problem definitions for 1D cartesian

Orthogonality

More transient problems

Using Mathematica

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 2 / 16

Contents

1. Application of Mathematica to fins

2. Bessel equations & their solution

3. Analytical methods

4. Homework #1, #2

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 3 / 16

Application of Mathematica to annular fin

Interpretation of each Mathematica code

Interpretation of each Mathematica code

, 0 T N r

r d

T d

r d

T d

r

2

2

2

= − +

0

x d

T d

, 1 ) a r ( T BC

1 r

= = =

=

begins all intrinsic functions & mathematical constants with upper case letters

- ex. BesselI[n,x] for I

n

(x), Sin[x] for sin(x), Pi for π, I for i=(-1)

1/2

- so you have to use lower case letters for all variables & parameters to avoid conflict

‘=‘ : assignment

“==‘ : condition of equality

variable “de” : assigned to represent the DE, “bc1” “bc2” assigned to BC

t’[r] = D[t[r],r] & t’’[r] = D[t[r],r,2]

1

st

line In[1]:=de=r t’’[r]+t’[r]-r n^2 t[r]==0;

2

nd

line bc1=t[a]==1;

3

rd

line bc2=t’[1]==0;

4

th

line soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[r],r]]

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 4 / 16

Application of Mathematica to annular fin

Vector in MM : {a,b,c} <-> 2x2 matrix : {{a,b},{c,d}}

element of a vector or matrix : expressed with double brace format

- {a,b,c}[[2]] implies 2

nd

element of a vector {a,b,c}, i.e., ‘b’

- {{a,b},{c,d}}[[2,1]] gives ‘c’

Replacement Rule

- f[a]/. a -> b : a is replaced by b, act within the command (or line) = f[b]

- D[t[r],r]/.r->0 = first computes t’[r] then replaces r with 0

4

th

line soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[r],r]]

soln denotes simplified solution returned by MM function of Dsolve

- DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[r],r] : t[r] -> f[r] : this doesn’t assign t[r] to the solution

t[.5] simply returns t[.5] like text

- if you want to get T(r=0.5), first replaces t[r] with functional form of the solution

, then replaces r with 0.5 : t[r] /. soln/.r->.5

ex. BesselK[-1,x_]->BesselK[1,x] : when x_ can have any value or form : K

-1

(a)=K

1

(a)

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 5 / 16

Application of Mathematica to annular fin

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 6 / 16

Application of Mathematica to annular fin

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 7 / 16

Application of Mathematica to annular fin

Further simplifying the solution & symbolizing it,

) N ( I ) Na ( K ) N ( K ) Na ( I

) N ( I ) r N ( K ) N ( K ) r N ( I

T

1 0 1 0

1 0 1 0

+

+

=

Using BC at r=1 is satisfied

) x ( K ) x ( K & ) x ( I ) x ( I

1

'

0 1

'

0

− = =

) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K

) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K

N ) T T ( akb 2

r d

T d

r

) T T ( kbr 2

dr

dT

kA q

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1

B

a

2

B 1

r

B fin

1

+

−

− π =

− π

− = − =

∞

∞

heat flux from the fin = heat flux at the base

k / hr B

,

) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K

) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K

B

N

2 i

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1

i

=

+

−

= ε

) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K

) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K

) a 1 ( N

a 2

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1

2

+

−

−

= η

2 1

r / r a =

kb

h r 2

N

2

2

=

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 8 / 16

Bessel functions

Bessel equation

0 u ) n x ( ' xu " u x

2 2 2

= − + +

) x ( BY ) x ( AJ ) x ( u

n n

+ =

Modified Bessel equation

0 u ) n x ( ' xu " u x

2 2 2

= + − +

) x ( BK ) x ( AI ) x ( u

n n

+ =

HW#1: redraw the figures

using MM

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 9 / 16

Features of Bessel functions

Asymptotic limit of Bessel functions

π

−

π

−

π

>>

4 2

n

x cos

x

2

~ ) n x ( J

n

as x -> ∞, J

n

& Y

n

-> 0

as x -> 0,

π

−

π

−

π

>>

4 2

n

x sin

x

2

~ ) n x ( Y

n

At far field, Bessel functions relates to trigonometric functions

0 n

2

x )! 1 n (

~ ) 1 x ( Y ), x ln(

2

~ ) 1 x ( Y ,

2

x

! n

1

~ ) 1 x ( J

n

n 0

n

n

>

π

−

− <<

π

<<

<<

−

( ) x exp

x 2

1

~ ) n x ( I

n

π

>>

( ) x exp

x 2

1

~ ) n x ( K

n

−

π

>>

0 n

2

x

2

)! 1 n (

~ ) 1 x ( K ), x ln( ~ ) 1 x ( K ,

2

x

! n

1

~ ) 1 x ( I

n

n 0

n

n

>

−

− << − <<

<<

−

C represents J, Y or any linear combination of the two

) x ( C ) x ( C

x

n 2

) x ( C

1 n n 1 n − +

− =

( ) ) x ( C

x

n

) x ( C ) x ( C ) x ( C

2

1

) x ( C

dx

d

n 1 n 1 n 1 n n

+ − = − =

+ + −

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 10 / 16

Useful Integral relationships

C & D represents J, Y or any linear combination of the two

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 11 / 16

Useful Integral relationships

C

n

= I

n

, (-1)

n

K

n

, or any linear combination

) x ( C ) x ( C

x

n 2

) x ( C

1 n n 1 n − +

+ − =

( ) ) x ( C

x

n

) x ( C ) x ( C ) x ( C

2

1

) x ( C

dx

d

n 1 n 1 n 1 n n

+ = + =

+ + −

Integral formulae for modified Bessel functions

) x ( xI dx ) x ( xI

1 0

=

∫

) x ( xK dx ) x ( xK

1 0

− =

∫

) x ( I dx ) x ( I

0 1

=

∫

) x ( K dx ) x ( K

0 1

− =

∫

General Bessel equation

0 u ] n C A x ) A 2 1 ( B x B x D C [ ' u ] Bx 2 x ) A 2 1 [( " u x

2 2 2 2 2 C 2 2 2 2 2

= − + − − + + − − +

Solution = )] Dx ( Y C ) Dx ( J C [ e x

C

n 2

C

n 1

Bx A

+

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 12 / 16

Examples

for annular fin

0 T N r ' T r " T r

2 2 2

= − +

0 u ] n C A x ) A 2 1 ( B x B x D C [ ' u ] Bx 2 x ) A 2 1 [( " u x

2 2 2 2 2 C 2 2 2 2 2

= − + − − + + − − +

)] Dx ( Y C ) Dx ( J C [ e x

C

n 2

C

n 1

Bx A

+

Solution =

) r N ( K C ) r N ( I C T

0 2 0 1

+ =

Since A = B = 0, n = 0, C = 1, D

2

= -N

2

& since N is imaginary -> replace J & Y with I & K

0 T N x ' T x " T x

2 2

= − +

for triangular fin

Since A = B = 0, n = 0, C = 1/2, D

2

= -4N

2

& since N is imaginary -> replace J & Y with I & K

) x N 2 ( K C ) x N 2 ( I C T

2 / 1

0 2

2 / 1

0 1

+ =

BC

1 T , 1 x at

0 ' T , 0 x at

= =

= =

: since K

0

(x->0) is singular, for T to be finite, C

2

= 0

So, this condition (at x=0) is not needed

) N 2 ( I

) x N 2 ( I

T

0

2 / 1

0

=

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 13 / 16

For the 2

nd

case, due to unspecified

BC2, the solution has integration constant C[2] product with K

0

function

so, C[2] is zeroed out by a replacement operation

Compare the example with Mathematica

BC

1 T , 1 x at

0 ' T , 0 x at

= =

= =

: since K

0

(x->0) is singular, for T to be finite, C

2

= 0

So, this condition (at x=0) is not needed

0 T N x ' T x " T x

2 2

= − +

for triangular fin

) N 2 ( I

) x N 2 ( I

T

0

2 / 1

0

=

If you use two BCs for MM formulation, you’ll face a trouble with the BC at x=0

, because of the singularity in K

0

.

• Two methods : 1) use a Limit function or 2) leave bc1 initially unspecified.

1) In[1]:=

de=x^2 t’’[x]+x t’[x]-x n^2 t[x]==0;

bc1=Limit[x^2 D[t[x],x],x->0]==0;

bc2=t[1]==1;

soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[x],x]

2) In[1]:=

de=x^2 t’’[x]+x t’[x]-x n^2 t[x]==0;

bc2=t[1]==1;

soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[x],x]

Out[3]:= ~~~

In[3]:=

soln=Simplify[soln /.C[2]->0 /. (n^2)^(1/2)->n]

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 14 / 16

HW #2

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 15 / 16

HW #2

Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 16 / 16

HW #2

Select three exercises among 6

Due date : Apr. 18

Problems for Mid Term Exam will be chosen

from the homework exercises

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