# Conduction Heat Transfer

:
Chap. 2 : Advanced 1-D Analytical Method
lectured by Donggeun Lee
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 1 / 16
Syllabus
Application of mathematica to fins
Bessel functions
3. Transient 1-D conduction
Superposition
Variation of parameters
Laplace transform method
Periodic boundary condutions
5. General Multi-D conduction
6. General Time-Dependent Conduction
4. 2-D Steady-state conduction
2-D Cartesian configurations
Superposition
2-D in cylindrical coordinates
Introduction of conduction
Thermal Properties
Governing equations & Fins
2. Advanced 1-D analytical methods
1. Preliminaries & review
Similarity
Separation of Variables
Problem definitions for 1D cartesian
Orthogonality
More transient problems
Using Mathematica
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 2 / 16
Contents
1. Application of Mathematica to fins
2. Bessel equations & their solution
3. Analytical methods
4. Homework #1, #2
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 3 / 16
Application of Mathematica to annular fin
Interpretation of each Mathematica code
Interpretation of each Mathematica code
, 0 T N r
r d
T d
r d
T d
r
2
2
2
= − +
0
x d
T d
, 1 ) a r ( T BC
1 r
= = =
=
begins all intrinsic functions & mathematical constants with upper case letters
- ex. BesselI[n,x] for I
n
(x), Sin[x] for sin(x), Pi for π, I for i=(-1)
1/2
- so you have to use lower case letters for all variables & parameters to avoid conflict
‘=‘ : assignment
“==‘ : condition of equality
variable “de” : assigned to represent the DE, “bc1” “bc2” assigned to BC
t’[r] = D[t[r],r] & t’’[r] = D[t[r],r,2]
1
st
line In[1]:=de=r t’’[r]+t’[r]-r n^2 t[r]==0;
2
nd
line bc1=t[a]==1;
3
rd
line bc2=t’[1]==0;
4
th
line soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[r],r]]
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 4 / 16
Application of Mathematica to annular fin
Vector in MM : {a,b,c} <-> 2x2 matrix : {{a,b},{c,d}}
element of a vector or matrix : expressed with double brace format
- {a,b,c}[[2]] implies 2
nd
element of a vector {a,b,c}, i.e., ‘b’
- {{a,b},{c,d}}[[2,1]] gives ‘c’
Replacement Rule
- f[a]/. a -> b : a is replaced by b, act within the command (or line) = f[b]
- D[t[r],r]/.r->0 = first computes t’[r] then replaces r with 0
4
th
line soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[r],r]]
soln denotes simplified solution returned by MM function of Dsolve
- DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[r],r] : t[r] -> f[r] : this doesn’t assign t[r] to the solution
t[.5] simply returns t[.5] like text
- if you want to get T(r=0.5), first replaces t[r] with functional form of the solution
, then replaces r with 0.5 : t[r] /. soln/.r->.5
ex. BesselK[-1,x_]->BesselK[1,x] : when x_ can have any value or form : K
-1
(a)=K
1
(a)
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 5 / 16
Application of Mathematica to annular fin
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 6 / 16
Application of Mathematica to annular fin
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 7 / 16
Application of Mathematica to annular fin
Further simplifying the solution & symbolizing it,
) N ( I ) Na ( K ) N ( K ) Na ( I
) N ( I ) r N ( K ) N ( K ) r N ( I
T
1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0
+
+
=
Using BC at r=1 is satisfied
) x ( K ) x ( K & ) x ( I ) x ( I
1
'
0 1
'
0
− = =
) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K
) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K
N ) T T ( akb 2
r d
T d
r
) T T ( kbr 2
dr
dT
kA q
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1
B
a
2
B 1
r
B fin
1
+

− π =
− π
− = − =

heat flux from the fin = heat flux at the base
k / hr B
,
) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K
) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K
B
N
2 i
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1
i
=
+

= ε
) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K
) N ( K ) Na ( I ) N ( I ) Na ( K
) a 1 ( N
a 2
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 1
2
+

= η
2 1
r / r a =
kb
h r 2
N
2
2
=
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 8 / 16
Bessel functions
Bessel equation
0 u ) n x ( ' xu " u x
2 2 2
= − + +
) x ( BY ) x ( AJ ) x ( u
n n
+ =
Modified Bessel equation
0 u ) n x ( ' xu " u x
2 2 2
= + − +
) x ( BK ) x ( AI ) x ( u
n n
+ =
HW#1: redraw the figures
using MM
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 9 / 16
Features of Bessel functions
Asymptotic limit of Bessel functions

 π

π

π
>>
4 2
n
x cos
x
2
~ ) n x ( J
n
as x -> ∞, J
n
& Y
n
-> 0
as x -> 0,

 π

π

π
>>
4 2
n
x sin
x
2
~ ) n x ( Y
n
At far field, Bessel functions relates to trigonometric functions
0 n
2
x )! 1 n (
~ ) 1 x ( Y ), x ln(
2
~ ) 1 x ( Y ,
2
x
! n
1
~ ) 1 x ( J
n
n 0
n
n
> 

π

− <<
π
<< 

<<

( ) x exp
x 2
1
~ ) n x ( I
n
π
>>
( ) x exp
x 2
1
~ ) n x ( K
n

π
>>
0 n
2
x
2
)! 1 n (
~ ) 1 x ( K ), x ln( ~ ) 1 x ( K ,
2
x
! n
1
~ ) 1 x ( I
n
n 0
n
n
> 

 −
− << − << 

<<

C represents J, Y or any linear combination of the two
) x ( C ) x ( C
x
n 2
) x ( C
1 n n 1 n − +
− =
( ) ) x ( C
x
n
) x ( C ) x ( C ) x ( C
2
1
) x ( C
dx
d
n 1 n 1 n 1 n n
+ − = − =
+ + −
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 10 / 16
Useful Integral relationships
C & D represents J, Y or any linear combination of the two
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 11 / 16
Useful Integral relationships
C
n
= I
n
, (-1)
n
K
n
, or any linear combination
) x ( C ) x ( C
x
n 2
) x ( C
1 n n 1 n − +
+ − =
( ) ) x ( C
x
n
) x ( C ) x ( C ) x ( C
2
1
) x ( C
dx
d
n 1 n 1 n 1 n n
+ = + =
+ + −
Integral formulae for modified Bessel functions
) x ( xI dx ) x ( xI
1 0
=

) x ( xK dx ) x ( xK
1 0
− =

) x ( I dx ) x ( I
0 1
=

) x ( K dx ) x ( K
0 1
− =

General Bessel equation
0 u ] n C A x ) A 2 1 ( B x B x D C [ ' u ] Bx 2 x ) A 2 1 [( " u x
2 2 2 2 2 C 2 2 2 2 2
= − + − − + + − − +
Solution = )] Dx ( Y C ) Dx ( J C [ e x
C
n 2
C
n 1
Bx A
+
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 12 / 16
Examples
for annular fin
0 T N r ' T r " T r
2 2 2
= − +
0 u ] n C A x ) A 2 1 ( B x B x D C [ ' u ] Bx 2 x ) A 2 1 [( " u x
2 2 2 2 2 C 2 2 2 2 2
= − + − − + + − − +
)] Dx ( Y C ) Dx ( J C [ e x
C
n 2
C
n 1
Bx A
+
Solution =
) r N ( K C ) r N ( I C T
0 2 0 1
+ =
Since A = B = 0, n = 0, C = 1, D
2
= -N
2
& since N is imaginary -> replace J & Y with I & K
0 T N x ' T x " T x
2 2
= − +
for triangular fin
Since A = B = 0, n = 0, C = 1/2, D
2
= -4N
2
& since N is imaginary -> replace J & Y with I & K
) x N 2 ( K C ) x N 2 ( I C T
2 / 1
0 2
2 / 1
0 1
+ =
BC
1 T , 1 x at
0 ' T , 0 x at
= =
= =
: since K
0
(x->0) is singular, for T to be finite, C
2
= 0
So, this condition (at x=0) is not needed
) N 2 ( I
) x N 2 ( I
T
0
2 / 1
0
=
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 13 / 16
For the 2
nd
case, due to unspecified
BC2, the solution has integration constant C[2] product with K
0
function
so, C[2] is zeroed out by a replacement operation
Compare the example with Mathematica
BC
1 T , 1 x at
0 ' T , 0 x at
= =
= =
: since K
0
(x->0) is singular, for T to be finite, C
2
= 0
So, this condition (at x=0) is not needed
0 T N x ' T x " T x
2 2
= − +
for triangular fin
) N 2 ( I
) x N 2 ( I
T
0
2 / 1
0
=
If you use two BCs for MM formulation, you’ll face a trouble with the BC at x=0
, because of the singularity in K
0
.
• Two methods : 1) use a Limit function or 2) leave bc1 initially unspecified.
1) In[1]:=
de=x^2 t’’[x]+x t’[x]-x n^2 t[x]==0;
bc1=Limit[x^2 D[t[x],x],x->0]==0;
bc2=t[1]==1;
soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[x],x]
2) In[1]:=
de=x^2 t’’[x]+x t’[x]-x n^2 t[x]==0;
bc2=t[1]==1;
soln=Simplify[DSolve[{de,bc1,bc2},t[x],x]
Out[3]:= ~~~
In[3]:=
soln=Simplify[soln /.C[2]->0 /. (n^2)^(1/2)->n]
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 14 / 16
HW #2
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 15 / 16
HW #2
Mar. 27, 2006 Class: Conduction Heat Transfer 16 / 16
HW #2
Select three exercises among 6
Due date : Apr. 18
Problems for Mid Term Exam will be chosen
from the homework exercises