 Sustancias minerales u orgánicas cuyas
propiedades químicas o físicas son útiles para la
 El amianto, el talco, la sílice, la sal, el grafito, el
potasio, la mica, la ilmenita y la wollastonita son
minerales industriales.
 Económicamente muy importantes (más
importantes que los metales por supuesto en
cuanto a su tonelaje pero también en cuanto a su
 Tendencias recientes: Especificaciones (pureza,
granulometría,…) cada vez más rigurosas (son
necesarios estudios mineralógicos detallados)
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Materiales rocosos utilizados en construcción.
Requieren poco o nada de transformación.
 En esta categoría se encuentra la caliza (cemento,
piedra ornamental), la arena y la grava (cimientos,
hormigón), la arcilla (ladrillos), así como el granito,
el mármol, la pizarra y el esquisto (piedra
 Ciertos materiales de construcción como la caliza y
la arcilla tienen también numerosas aplicaciones
industriales. La caliza, de donde se extrae la cal,
por ejemplo, es utilizada en la fabricación de papel
y en la lucha contra la polución del aire y el agua.
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Abrasivos (cuarzo, granate, diamante,…)
 Agregados gruesos (>5 mm, para construcción)
 Agregados finos (<5 mm, gravas, arenas, arcillas,…)
 para ladrillos (arcillas)
 para cemento (caliza+arcillas)
 para vidrio
 para aislantes, de poca transmisión acústica y
térmica (piedra pomes, vermiculita, diatomita)
 Piedras para construcción y ornamentales
 Yeso (para empastado)
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Feldespato
 " Crystalline silica"
 Diatomitas (sílice muy pura, ligera y porosa:
para filtros de aire, aditivos...)
 " Industrial Calcium Carbonate"
 Magnesita (refractarios)
 Celestina (pantallas de televisión)
 Minerales evaporíticos (Na, K, boratos, nitratos)
 Talco
 Pirofilita (refractario, cerámica)
 Caolín (porcelana y papel)
 Arcillas (ladrillos, tejas)
 Bentonita
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Feldspar is by far the most abundant
group of minerals in the earth's
crust, forming about 60% of
terrestrial rocks. The classification
of a wide range of rocks is based on
their feldspar content. Most
frequently, commercial feldspar is
mined from pegmatite, feldspatic
sands or aplite deposits. For some
applications, the ore has to undergo
processing in order to remove some
accessory minerals (quartz, mica,
etc.) while in other cases, their
presence is advantageous. The two
main properties that make feldspar
useful for industry are its alkali and
aluminium content. Main
applications include the ceramic and
glass industries.
www.ima-eu.org/en/publicatext.htm (en Fontboté 2003) Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 The main minerals included in this group are: quartz,
cristobalite and tridymite. Quartz is the most common
of them and, after feldspar, is the second most
abundant mineral on the Earth's surface. Crystalline
silica, basically in the form of quartz, has been mined
for thousands of years. It is really one of the building
blocks of ancient and current civilizations, being also
vital for modern technologies. Main applications
include glass production, foundry, ceramics, building
materials, etc. Crystalline silica has also acquired a
fundamental place in the emerging information
society, as the source of silicium.
www.ima-eu.org/en/publicatext.htm (en Fontboté 2003) Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Industrial Calcium Carbonate (CaCO
) is produced in
two ways: by extraction/milling of natural ore (Ground
Calcium Carbonate-GCC), and by chemical
precipitation (Precipitated Calcium Carbonate-PCC).
The suitable ore-bodies for producing GCC include
chalk, limestone, marble, and travertine. Sufficiently
pure ore-bodies are selected to allow direct
exploitation. PCC is produced as a by-product of
caustic soda synthesis or through a recarbonizing
process. Both GCC and PCC fit to high-level
specifications. Dolomite is a double carbonate of
calcium and magnesium. The main applications of
GCC, PCC and dolomite include paper, paints,
plastics, pharmaceuticals, etc.
www.ima-eu.org/en/publicatext.htm (en Fontboté 2003) Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Boron is obtained from boron
salts (i.e. borates). Large
deposits of borates minerals
include: trical, colemanite,
hydroboracite, kermite,
ulexite, and injoite. Borates
are used in hundreds of
products and processes in
ways that touch the lives of
almost everyone. Major uses
include glass production,
detergents, agriculture,
enamels, and ceramic glazes.
Apart from the industrial
aspect, boron is an essential
micronutrient, integral to a
plant's life cycle and, as it
becomes increasingly
obvious, essential to animal
life as well.
(en Fontboté 2003) Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Diatomaceous earth, the pinkish
white outcrop shown (near
Lovelock, Nevada), is a mineral of
algae origin. It represents the
accumulation of an enormous
number of fossil diatoms (single-
celled algae). It's also known as
diatomite or kieselguhr, and it's
referred to as white dirt by miners --
in bright sunlight it can be almost
as white as new snow. Diatomite
has several unique characteristics.
Because of its lightness, porosity,
and its honeycombed structure, it's
http://epod.usra.edu/archive/epodviewer.php3?oid=160608 (en Fontboté 2003)
an ideal filtering medium. In addition, it's inherently stable and devoid
of most trace elements. Thus, diatomite is ideal for use by processors
who have very high purity requirements such as the food, beverage
and pharmaceutical industries.
 There are many deposits of diatomaceous earth in the world, but only a
few of them are both pure enough and large enough to serve as a
source of raw material for the production of filter aids. Two of these
deposits are in Nevada and Oregon - among the finest in the world.
Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Talc is our planet's softest mineral. It is a
hydrated magnesium silicate that belongs
to the phyllosilicate family. Although all
talcs are lamellar, chemically inert,
organophylic and water-repellent to a
greater or lesser degree, no two talc are
quite the same. A talc's lamellarity for
instance depends upon the conditions that
prevailed during the formation of the
deposit. Small crystals provide a compact,
dense ore whilst large crystals come in
papery layers. Talc is always found in
combination with at least one other
mineral and the type and quantity of by-minerals is also a
distinguishing factor. The most common of these is chlorite which
is chemically and structurally very similar to talc. Dolomite and
magnesite are also often present. Each talc's unique properties
confer specific functions to a wide range of products and
processes including paint, polymers, paper, ceramics, animal
feed, rubber, roofing, fertilizers, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals.
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Kaolin is a purified white plastic
clay primarily composed of kaolinite
in association with small quantities
of other minerals such as feldspar,
mica and quartz. It is made up of a
loose aggregation of randomly
oriented stacks of kaolinite flakes.
Kaolin deposits are formed through
the alteration, or kaolinisation of
feldspar-rich rocks such as granite
or gneiss by hydrothermal and/or
weathering processes. The mineralogical and chemical
composition of the kaolin depends on the nature of the
parent rock and the type and degree of alteration. Kaolin
main applications include paper, in which it perfoms both
filling and coating functions, and ceramics. In this latter
application, it can account for as much as 60% of the recipe.
Other applications include paint, rubber, plastics,
pharmaceuticals, etc.
www.ima-eu.org/en/publicatext.htm (en Fontboté 2003) Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Bentonite is a plastic clay that
results from the insitu alteration of
volcanic ash, and consists
essentially of montmorillonite.
Bentonite presents strong
colloidal properties and increases
its volume several fold when in
contact with water, creating a
gelatinous and viscous
substance. The special properties
of bentonite (hydratation,
swelling, water absorption,
viscosity, thixotropy) make it a
very valuable clay for a wide
spectrum of uses, ranging from
heavy industrial pelletising and
foundry applications to consumer
products such as cat litter and
www.ima-eu.org/en/publicatext.htm (en Fontboté 2003) Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Asbesto (aislante, cancerígeno!)
 Wollastonita (substituto de asbesto, y uso en prótesis dentales)
 Grafito (refractario, lubricante, conductor-, electrodos-,
 Olivino (" slag conditioner" para disminuir el punto de fusión
durante la fabricación de aceros. Como contiene Si y Mg, la
cantidad de escoria (" slag" ) es menor que cuando se añade
sílice y magnesita)
 Perlita (riolita rica en H
O muy porosa, para aislantes)
 Fosfatos (abonos)
 Distena, sillimanita, andalusita (refractarios)
 Piedra pomes para la abrasión de los jeans
 Pizarra y esquisto para tallados
 Azufre nativo
 Trona (carbonato de Na)
 Ilmenita (recubrimientos de hornos, pero sobretodo como
fuente de TiO
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Perlite is not a trade name but a generic term for naturally occurring
silicious rock. The distinguishing feature which sets perlite apart from
other volcanic glasses is that when heated to a suitable point in its
softening range, it expands from four to twenty times its original
 This expansion is due to the presence of two to six percent combined
water in the crude perlite rock. When quickly heated to above 871°C,
the crude rock pops in a manner similar to popcorn as the combined
water vaporizes and creates countless tiny bubbles which account for
the amazing light weight and other exceptional physical properties of
expanded perlite.
 This expansion process also creates one of perlite's most
distinguishing characteristics: its white color. While the crude rock
may range from transparent light gray to glossy black, the color of
expanded perlite ranges from snowy white to grayish white. Density of
expanded perlite can be as little as 0.03! (32kg/m 3).
 Since perlite is a form of natural glass, it is classified as chemically
inert and has a pH of approximately 7.
(en Fontoboté 2003)
Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Filtration
 Horticulture
 High temperature insulation
 Cryogenic insulation
 Gypsum board
 Construction materials
 Lightweight refractories
 Coatings
 Stone washing
 Lightweight cement plasters
 Swimming pool base
 Built-up roofing
 Block fill
 Ceiling tiles
 Hydroponics
http://www.worldminerals.com/PerliteIndex.asp (en Fontboté 2003)
Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Boron
 Calcium (calcium carbonate)
 Chromium
 Cobalt (vitamin B12)
 Copper
 Gypsum (filler)
 Iodine
 Iron
 Magnesium
 Manganese
 Molybdenum
 Nickel
 Phosphate rock (phosphorus)
 Potash (potassium)
 Sand (silica)
 Selenium
 Silicon
 Sulfur
 Tin
 Titanium (titanium dioxide)
 Vanadium
 Zinc
Minerals and materials used
in dietary supplements
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Barite (barium lake)
 Aluminum (alumina)
 Bentonite
 Bismuth (bismuth oxychloride)
 Boron (boron nitride)
 Calcium (calcium carbonate/calcium lake)
 Chromium (e.g. chromium oxide, chromium
 Iron oxide pigment
 Kaolin
 Magnesium (e.g. magnesium carbonate,
magnesium stearate)
 Manganese (e.g. manganese oxide)
 Mica
 Salt
 Talc
 Tin (e.g. tin oxide)
 Titanium (titanium dioxide)
 Zinc (e.g. zinc oxide, zinc stearate)
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas
 Kaolin
 Lime (calcium carbonate)
 Sodium sulfate
 Talc
 Titanium (titanium
En Fontboté 2003 Geología de Yac. Minerales, S. Rosas