Road Developments in India

ABSTRACT
Road transport is vital to India's economy. It enables the country's transportation
sector to contribute 4.7 percent towards India’s gross domestic product, in comparison to
railways that contributed 1 percent, in 2009–2010. Road transport has not gained in
importance over the years despite significant barriers and inefficiencies in inter-state
freight and passenger movement compared to railways and air. The government of India
considers road network as critical to the country's development, social integration and
security needs of the country.
India's road network carries over 65 percent of its freight and about 85 percent of
passenger traffic.
In this report road development phases in India is described.








Road Developments in India

INTRODUCTION
India has a road network of over 4,689,842 kilometres (2,914,133 mi) in 2013, the
second largest road network in the world. At 0.66 km of roads per square kilometre of
land, the quantitative density of India's road network is similar to that of the United States
(0.65) and far higher than that of China (0.16) or Brazil (0.20). However, qualitatively
India's roads are a mix of modern highways and narrow, unpaved roads, and are being
improved. As of 2011, 54 percent – about 2.53 million kilometres – of Indian roads were
paved.
Adjusted for its large population, India has less than 3.8 kilometres of roads per
1000 people, including all its paved and unpaved roads. In terms of quality, all season, 4
or more lane highways, India has less than 0.07 kilometres of highways per 1000 people,
as of 2010. These are some of the lowest road and highway densities in the world. For
context, United States has 21 kilometres of roads per 1000 people, while France about 15
kilometres per 1000 people – predominantly paved and high quality in both cases. In
terms of all season, 4 or more lane highways, developed countries such as United States
and France have a highway density per 1000 people that is over 15 times as India.
India in its past did not allocate enough resources to build or maintain its road
network. This has changed since 1995, with major efforts currently underway to
modernize the country's road infrastructure.
Road Developments in India


NH76: Part of India's recently completed 4-lane Golden Quadrilateral highway network

NH75: Part of India's NS-EW Corridor highway network spanning 7000 kilometres
As of April 2014, India had completed and placed in use over 22,400 kilometres
of recently built 4 or 6-lane highways connecting many of its major manufacturing
centres, commercial and cultural centres. The rate of new highway construction across
India accelerated after 1999, but has slowed in recent years. Policy delays and regulatory
blocks reduced the rate of highway construction awards to just 500 kilometers of new
road projects in 2013. Major projects are being implemented under the National
Highways Development Project, a government initiative. Private builders and highway
operators are also implementing major projects - for example, the Yamuna
Expressway between Delhi and Agra was completed ahead of schedule and within
budget, while the KMP Expressway started in 2006 is far behind schedule, over budget
and incomplete.
Road Developments in India

According to 2009 estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to invest US$1.7
trillion on infrastructure projects before 2020 to meet its economic needs, a part of which
would be in upgrading India's road network. The Government of India is attempting to
promote foreign investment in road projects. Foreign participation in Indian road network
construction has attracted 45 international contractors and 40 design/engineering
consultants, with Malaysia, South Korea, United Kingdom and United States being the
largest players
For a country of India’s size, an efficient road network is necessary both for
national integration as well as for socio-economic development. The Government is also
planning to increase spends on road development substantially with funding already in
place based on a cess on fuel. Further, a large component of highways is to be developed
through public-private partnerships (PPPs).
Investment opportunities exist in a range of project being tendered by National
Highways Authority of India (NHAI), for implementing the National Highway
Development Project (NHDP).

National Highway Development Project (NHDP)
NHDP is a major initiative towards qualitative and quantitative enhancement of
National Highways (NH’s). NHDPs prime focus is on developing international standard
Roads with facilities for uninterrupted flow of traffic.
Funding of NHDP is from budgetary allocation of Govt., Cess, Loan assistance
from International funding agencies, Market borrowing as well as by Private sector
Road Developments in India

participation. There are 7 phases of the project and the total proposed investment in
NHDP is Rs. 2198 billion.
Indian road network is administered by various government authorities, given
India's federal form of government. The table below describes the regulating bodies.
Road classification Authority responsible
Total kilometres (as
of 2011)
National Highways
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways
(Central government)
92,851
State Highways
State governments (state's public works
department)
1,63,898
Major and other
district roads
Local governments, panchayats and
municipalities
17,05,706
Rural roads
Local governments, panchayats and
municipalities
27,49,805

Govt. Policy Initiatives in India
Indian infrastructure policy on roads permit duty free import of high capacity and
modern road construction equipments, complete tax holiday for any 10 consecutive years
out of 20 years.
Longer concession periods of up to 30 years are permitted as per the roads policy
of India. To attract private investment in the road sector, the Government has taken up
Road Developments in India

the policy initiative of providing capital grant of 40% of the project cost to enhance
viability, Foreign direct investment up to 100%, Easier external commercial borrowing
norms, 100% tax exemption in any consecutive 10 years out of 20 years. Build, Operate
& Transfer (BOT) project entrepreneurs are also allowed to collect and retain the
amounts from tolls on selected stretches.




Road Developments in India

HISTORY
The first evidence of road development in the Indian subcontinent can be traced
back to approximately 4000 BC from the ancient cities of Harrapa and Mohenjodaro of
the Indus Valley Civilization.
Ruling emperors and monarchs of ancient India had constructed numerous brick
roads in the cities. One of the most famous highways of medieval India was the Grand
Trunk Road. The Grand Trunk Road built by Sher Shah Suri 1540 to 1545, began
in Sonargaon near Dhaka in Bangladesh and ended at Peshawar in modern-day Pakistan.
In India, it linked several important cities from Kolkata in the east to Amritsar in
the west, while passing through the cities
of Patna, Varanasi, Kanpur, Agra, Delhi,Panipat, Pipli, Ambala, Rajpura, Ludhiana,
and Jalandhar.
The Grand Trunk Road - or GT Road - was the road used by Brigadier General
John Nicholson of the British Empire to quickly move his troops hundreds of kilometres
to Delhi in 1857. This road allowed him to lead the battle that ended the Indian Mutiny of
1857.
India inherited a poor road network infrastructure at the time of its independence
in 1947. Beyond that, between 1947 and 1988, India witnessed no new major projects,
and the roads were poorly maintainted. Predominantly all roads were single lane, and
most were unpaved. India had no expressways, and less than 200 kilometres of 4-lane
highways. In 1988, an autonomous entity called the National Highways Authority of
India was established in India by an Act of Parliament, and came into existence on 15
Road Developments in India

June 1989. The Act empowered this entity to develop, maintain and manage India's road
network through National Highways. However, even though the Authority was created in
1988, not much happened till India introduced widespread economic liberalisation in the
early 1990s. Since 1995, the authority has privatised road network development in India,
and by May 2014 delivered a statewise lengths of over 92,851 kilometres of National
Highways, of which 22,757 kilometres are 4-lane or 6-lane modern highways.













Road Developments in India

NATIONAL HIGHWAY NETWORK IN INDIA
The National Highways Development Project is a project to upgrade, rehabilitate
and widen major highways in India to a higher standard. The project was implemented in
1998 under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. "National Highways" account for
only about 2% of the total length of roads, but carry about 40% of the total traffic across
the length and breadth of the country. This project is managed by the National Highways
Authority of India (NHAI) under the Ministry of Road, Transport and Highways. The
NHAI has implemented US$ 71 billion for this project, as of 2006.

The Network of National Highways in India
Road Developments in India

Phases
The project is composed of the following phases:
 Phase I: The Golden Quadrilateral (GQ; 5,846 km) connecting the four major cities
of Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. This project connecting four metro cities,
would be 5,846 km (3,633 mi). Total cost of the project is Rs.300 billion (US$6.8
billion), funded largely by the government’s special petroleum product tax revenues
and government borrowing. In January 2012, India announced the four lane GQ
highway network as complete.
 Phase II: North-South and East-West corridors comprising national highways
connecting four extreme points of the country. The North-South and East-West
Corridor (NS-EW; 7,300 km) connecting Srinagar in the north to Kanyakumari in the
south, including spur from Salem to Kanyakumari (Via Coimbatore and Kochi)
and Silchar in the east to Porbandar in the west. Total length of the network is
7,300 km (4,500 mi). As of April 2012, 84.26% of the project had been completed
and 15.7% of the project work is currently at progress. It also includes Port
connectivity and other projects — 1,157 km (719 mi). The final completion date to
February 28, 2009 at a cost of Rs.350 billion (US$8 billion), with funding similar to
Phase I.
 Phase III: The government recently approved NHDP-III to upgrade 12,109 km
(7,524 mi)of national highways on a Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis, which
takes into account high-density traffic, connectivity of state capitals via NHDP Phase
Road Developments in India

I and II, and connectivity to centres of economic importance. contracts have been
awarded for a 2,075 km (1,289 mi).
 Phase IV: The government is considering widening 20,000 km (12,000 mi) of
highway that were not part of Phase I, II, or III. Phase IV will convert existing single
lane highways into two lanes with paved shoulders. The plan will soon be presented
to the government for approval.
 Phase V: As road traffic increases over time, a number of four lane highways will
need to be upgraded/expanded to six lanes. The current plan calls for upgrade of
about 5,000 km (3,100 mi) of four-lane roads, although the government has not yet
identified the stretches.
 Phase VI: The government is working on constructing expressways that would
connect major commercial and industrial townships. It has already identified 400 km
(250 mi) of Vadodara (earlier Baroda)-Mumbai section that would connect to the
existing Vadodara (earlier Baroda)-Ahmedabad section. The World Bank is studying
this project. The project will be funded on BOT basis. The 334 km (208 mi)
Expressway between Chennai—Bangalore and 277 km (172 mi) Expressway
between Kolkata—Dhanbad has been identified and feasibility study and DPR
contract has been awarded by NHAI.
 Phase VII: This phase calls for improvements to city road networks by adding ring
roads to enable easier connectivity with national highways to important cities. In
addition, improvements will be made to stretches of national highways that require
Road Developments in India

additional flyovers and bypasses given population and housing growth along the
highways and increasing traffic. The government has not yet identified a firm
investment plan for this phase. The 19 km (12 mi) long Chennai Port—
Maduravoyal Elevated Expressway is being executed under this phase.
National Highways Development Project at a glance
NHDP
Phase
Particulars Length
Indicative Cost
(in cr)
NHDP-I
& II
Balance work of GQ and EW-
NS corridors
13,000 km (8,100 mi) 42,000
NHDP-III 4-laning 10,000 km (6,200 mi) 55,000
NHDP-IV 2-laning 20,000 km (12,000 mi) 25,000
NHDP-V 6-laning of selected stretches 5,000 km (3,100 mi) 17,500
NHDP-VI Development of expressways 1,000 km (620 mi) 15,000
NHDP-
VII
Ring Roads, Bypasses, Grade
Separators, Service Roads etc.
700 km (430 mi) 15,000

Total 45,000 km (28,000 mi)
1,69,500 (Revised
to 2,20,000)
Note: 1 crore= 10 million

Road Developments in India

Timeline of the National Highways Development Project
Priority
NHDP
Phase
Length
(km)
Status Approval Completion
1 Phase I
5,846 km
(3,633 mi)
Fully complete
December
2000
December
2006
2 Phase II
7,300 km
(4,500 mi)
Award in progress
December
2003
December
2009
3 Phase III A
4,000 km
(2,500 mi)
Already identified March 2005
December
2009
4 Phase V
6,500 km
(4,000 mi)
5700 km of GQ +
800 km to be identified
November
2005
December
2012
5 Phase III B
6,000 km
(3,700 mi)
Already identified March 2006
December
2012
6 Phase VII A
700 km
(430 mi)
Ring roads to be
identified
December
2006
December
2012
7 Phase IV A
5,000 km
(3,100 mi)
To be identified
December
2006
December
2012
8 Phase VII B

Ring roads to be
identified
December
2007
December
2013
9 Phase IV B
5,000 km
(3,100 mi)
To be identified
December
2007
December
2013
Road Developments in India

10 Phase VI A
400 km
(250 mi)
Already identified
December
2007
December
2014
11 Phase VII C

Ring roads to be
identified
December
2008
December
2014
12 Phase IV C
5,000 km
(3,100 mi)
To be identified
December
2008
December
2014
13 Phase VI B
600 km
(370 mi)
To be identified
December
2008
December
2015
14 Phase IV D
5,000 km
(3,100 mi)
To be identified
December
2009
December
2015

Financing of the National Highway Development Programme
Plans
The Indian Government has set ambitious plans for upgrading of the National
Highways in a phased manner in the years to come. The details are as follows:
 4-laning of 10,000 km (6,200 mi) (NHDP Phase- III) including 4,000 km (2,500 mi)
that has been already approved. An accelerated road development programme for the
North Eastern region.
 2-laning with paved shoulders of 20,000 km (12,000 mi) of National Highways under
NHDP Phase-IV.
Road Developments in India

 6-laning of GQ and some other selected stretches covering 6,500 km (4,000 mi)
under NHDP Phase-V.
 Development of 1,000 km (620 mi) of express ways under NHDP Phase-VI.
 Development of ring roads, bypasses, grade separators, service roads, etc. under
NHDP Phase-VII.














Road Developments in India

GOLDEN QUADRILATERAL SCHEME
The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting many of the major
industrial, agricultural and cultural centres of India. A quadrilateral of sorts is formed by
connecting Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, and hence its name. Other cities among
the top metropolises namely Pune, Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Kanpur, Surat at north
and Bengaluru (mainly connects north-west and minimal parts of south-east
regions), Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam & Bhubaneswar at south are also connected by the
network.
The largest highway project in India and the fifth longest in the world, started by
NDA Government led by Mr Atal Bihari Vajpayee it is the first phase of the National
Highways Development Project (NHDP), and consists of building 5,846 km (3,633 mi)
four/six lane express highways at a cost of 600 billion (US$10 billion). The project was
launched in 2001 by Atal Bihari Vajpayee under the NDA government, and was planned
to complete in January, 2012.
The vast majority of the Golden Quadrilateral (GQ) is not access controlled,
although safety features such as guardrails, shoulders, and high-visibility signs are in use.
The GQ project is managed by the National Highways Authority of India(NHAI) under
the Ministry of Road, Transport and Highways. The Mumbai-Pune Expressway, the
first controlled-access toll road to be built in India is a part of the GQ Project though not
funded by NHAI, and separate from the main highway. Infrastructure Leasing &
Financial Services (IL&FS) has been one of the major contributors to the infrastructural
development activity in the GQ project.
Road Developments in India


Golden Quadrilateral Highway map of India with the Golden Quadrilateral highlighted in
solid blue colour



Road Developments in India


Route information
Maintained by NHAI
Length: 5,846 km (3,633 mi)
Delhi – Kolkata
Length: 1,453 km (903 mi)
Major
junctions:
NH 2
Delhi – Mumbai
Length: 1,419 km (882 mi)
Major
junctions:
NH 8, NH 79A, NH 79, NH 76
Mumbai – Chennai
Length: 1,290 km (800 mi)
Major
junctions:
NH 4, NH 7, NH 46
Kolkata – Chennai
Length: 1,684 km (1,046 mi)
Major
junctions:
NH 6, NH 60, NH 5


Road Developments in India

History and costs
Then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee laid the foundation stone for the
project on 6 January 1999.
In January 2012, India announced the four lane GQ highway network as
complete.
India's government had initially estimated that the Golden Quadrilateral project
would cost 600 billion (US$10 billion) at 1999 prices. However, the highway has been
built under-budget. As of August 2011, cost incurred by Indian government was about
half of initial estimate, at 308.58 billion (US$5.1 billion). The eight contracts in
progress, as of August 2011, were worth 16.34 billion(US$270 million).
In September 2009, it was announced that the existing four-laned highways would
be converted into six-lane highways. The expansion project was reported at various
stages to be behind schedule, mainly due to land acquisition constraints and disputes with
contractors which had to be re-negotiated.
Sections of NH 2, NH 5 and NH 8 have nowbeen prioritized for further widening
to six lanes under DBFO (Design, Build, Finance, Operate) pattern and more sections
would be six-laned in the near future. On NH 8 Six lanes work is completed
fromVadodara to Surat and now the highway is 6 lanes wide.
The Hosur-Krishnagiri stretch of the Bangalore-Chennai stretch is being
expanded from four lanes to six lanes by Reliance Infrastructure.

Road Developments in India

Economic benefits
The projected economic benefits of the GQ project are -
1. Establishing faster transport networks between major cities and ports.
2. Providing an impetus to smoother movement of products and people within India.
3. Enabling industrial and job development in smaller towns through access to
markets.
4. Providing opportunities for farmers, through better transportation of produce from
the agricultural hinterland to major cities and ports for export, through lesser
wastage and spoils.
5. Driving economic growth directly, through construction as well as through
indirect demand for cement, steel and other construction materials.
6. Giving an impetus to Truck transport throughout India.

Route
Only National Highways are used in the Golden Quadrilateral. The four legs use the
following National Highways:
 Delhi – Kolkata: NH 2
 Delhi – Mumbai: NH 8 (Delhi – Kishangarh), NH 79A (Ajmer bypass), NH
79(Nasirabad – Chittaurgarh), NH 76 (Chittaurgarh – Udaipur), NH 8 (Udaipur –
Mumbai)
Road Developments in India

 Mumbai – Chennai: NH 4 (Mumbai – Bangalore), NH 7 (Bangalore –
Krishnagiri),NH 46 (Krishnagiri – Walajapet), NH 4 (Walajapet – Chennai)
 Kolkata – Chennai: NH 6 (Kolkata – Kharagpur), NH 60 (Kharagpur – Balasore),NH
5 (Balasore – Chennai)
Important cities connected by Golden Quadrilateral highway[edit]
Delhi – Kolkata Kolkata – Chennai Chennai – Mumbai Mumbai – Delhi
 Delhi
 Faridabad
 Mathura
 Agra
 Firozabad
 Etawah
 Kanpur
 Sagar
 Fatehpur district
 Allahabad
 Varanasi
 Chandauli
 Mohania
 Kudra
 Sasaram
 Dehri
 Aurangabad
 Dhanbad
 Asansol
 Durgapur
 Bardhaman
 Kolkata
 Kolkata
 Kharagpur
 Balasore
 Cuttack
 Bhubaneshwar
 Berhampur
 Srikakulam
 Vizianagaram
 Visakhapatnam
 Tuni
 Rajahmundry
 Tadepalligudem
 Eluru
 Vijayawada
 Guntur
 Ongole
 Kavali
 Nellore
 Gudur
 Gummidipoondi
 Chennai
 Chennai
 Sriperumbudur
 Kanchipuram
 Walajapet
 Ranipet
 Vellore
 Ambur
 Vaniyambadi
 Krishnagiri
 Hosur
 Bangalore
 Tumkur
 Chitradurga
 Davangere
 Ranebennur
 Hubli-Dharwad
 Belgaum
 Kolhapur
 Sangli-Miraj
 Karad
 Satara
 Pune
 Panvel
 Mumbai
 Mumbai
 Silvassa
 Vapi
 Valsad
 Navsari
 Surat
 Bharuch
 Vadodara
 Ahmedabad
 Gandhinagar
 Udaipur
 Chittaurgarh
 Ajmer
 Jaipur
 Gurgaon
 Delhi


Road Developments in India

Current status
No. Segment
Length
Completed
Total Length
Percent
Completed (%)
As of
(date)
Source
1.
Delhi-
Kolkata
1,453 km
(903 mi)
1,453 km
(903 mi)
100
31 August
2011
[8]
2.
Chennai-
Mumbai
1,290 km
(800 mi)
1,290 km
(800 mi)
100
31 August
2011
[9]
3.
Kolkata-
Chennai
1,684 km
(1,046 mi)
1,684 km
(1,046 mi)
100
31 May
2013
[10]
4.
Mumbai-
Delhi
1,419 km
(882 mi)
1,419 km
(882 mi)
100
31 August
2011
[11]

Total
5,846 km
(3,633 mi)
5,846 km
(3,633 mi)
100
31 May
2013
[12]
Govt. of India declares "Golden Quadrilateral" complete - Jan 7th 2012

The length of Golden Quadrilateral in each State
The completed Golden Quadrilateral will pass through 13 States of India:
 Andhra Pradesh – 1,014 km (630 mi)
 Uttar Pradesh – 756 km (470 mi)
 Rajasthan – 725 km (450 mi)
 Karnataka – 623 km (387 mi)
Road Developments in India

 Maharashtra – 487 km (303 mi)
 Gujarat – 485 km (301 mi)
 Odisha – 440 km (270 mi)
 West Bengal – 406 km (252 mi)
 Tamil Nadu – 342 km (213 mi)
 Bihar – 204 km (127 mi)
 Jharkhand – 192 km (119 mi)
 Haryana – 152 km (94 mi)
 Delhi – 25 km (16 mi)
 Total – 5,846 km (3,633 mi)










Road Developments in India

PRADHAN MANTRI GRAM SADAK YOJNA (PMGSY)

4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 Rural Road Connectivity is not only a key component of Rural Development by
promoting access to economic and social services and thereby generating
increased agricultural incomes and productive employment opportunities in India,
it is also as a result, a key ingredient in ensuring sustainable poverty reduction.
Notwithstanding the efforts made, over the years, at the State and Central levels,
through different Programmes, about 40% of the Habitations in the country are
still not connected by All-weather roads. It is well known that even where
connectivity has been provided, the roads constructed are of such quality (due to
poor construction or maintenance) that they cannot always be categorised as All-
weather roads.
4.1.2 With a view to redressing the situation, Government have launched the Pradhan
Gram Sadak Yojana on 25th December, 2000 to provide all-weather access to
unconnected habitations. The Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) is a
100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme. 50% of the Cess on High Speed Diesel
(HSD) is earmarked for this Programme.


Road Developments in India

4.2. Programme Objectives
4.2.1 The primary objective of the PMGSY is to provide Connectivity, by way of an
All-weather Road (with necessary culverts and cross-drainage structures, which is
operable throughout the year), to the eligible unconnected Habitations in the rural
areas, in such a way that all Unconnected Habitations with a population of 1000
persons and above are covered in three years (2000-2003) and all Unconnected
Habitations with a population of 500 persons and above by the end of the Tenth
Plan Period (2007). In respect of the Hill States (North-East, Sikkim, Himachal
Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttaranchal) and the Desert Areas (as identified in
the Desert Development Programme) as well as the Tribal (Schedule V) areas, the
objective would be to connect Habitations with a population of 250 persons and
above.
4.2.2 The PMGSY will permit the Upgradation (to prescribed standards) of the existing
roads in those Districts where all the eligible Habitations of the designated
population size (refer Para 2.1 above) have been provided all-weather road
connectivity. However, it must be noted that Upgradation is not central to the
Programme and cannot exceed 20% of the State’s allocation as long as eligible
Unconnected Habitations in the State still exist. In Upgradation works, priority
should be given to Through Routes of the Rural Core Network, which carry more
traffic (see Para 3.7 below)

Road Developments in India


4.3. Guiding Principles of PMGSY and Definitions
4.3.1 The spirit and the objective of the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY)
is to provide good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected Habitations. A
habitation which was earlier provided all-weather connectivity would not be
eligible even if the present condition of the road is bad.
4.3.2 The unit for this Programme is a Habitation and not a Revenue village or a
Panchayat. A Habitation is a cluster of population, living in an area, the location
of which does not change over time. Desam, Dhanis, Tolas, Majras, Hamlets etc.
are commonly used terminology to describe the Habitations.
4.3.3 An Unconnected Habitation is one with a population of designated size (refer to
Para 2.1 above) located at a distance of at least 500 metres or more (1.5 km of
path distance in case of Hills) from an All-weather road or a connected
Habitation.
4.3.4 Para 2.1 above refers to Population size of Habitations. The population, as
recorded in the Census 2001, shall be the basis for determining the population size
of the Habitation. The population of all Habitations within a radius of 500 metres
(1.5 km. of path distance in case of Hills) may be clubbed together for the purpose
of determining the population size. This cluster approach would enable provision
of connectivity to a larger number of Habitations, particularly in the Hill /
mountainous areas.
Road Developments in India

4.3.5 The eligible Unconnected Habitations are to be connected to nearby Habitations
already connected by an All-weather road or to another existing All-weather road
so that services (educational, health, marketing facilities etc.), which are not
available in the unconnected Habitation, become available to the residents.
4.3.6 A Core Network is that minimal Network of roads (routes)that is essential to
provide Basic access to essential social and economic services to all eligible
habitations in the selected areas through at least a single all-weather road
connectivity.
4.3.7 A Core Network comprises of Through Routes and Link Routes. Through routes
are the ones which collect traffic from several link roads or a long chain of
Habitations and lead it to Marketing centres either directly or through the higher
category roads i.e., the District Roads or the State or National Highway. Link
Routes are the roads connecting a single Habitation or a group of Habitations to
Through Routes or District Roads leading to Market Centres. Link routes
generally have dead ends terminating on a Habitation, while Through Routes arise
from the confluence of two or more Link Routes and emerge on to a major Road
or to a Market Centre.
4.3.8 It should be ensured that each road work that is taken up under the PMGSY is part
of the Core Network. While keeping the objective of Connectivity in view,
preference should be given to those roads which also incidentally serve other
Habitations. In other words, without compromising the basic objective (covering
1000+ Habitations first and 500+ Habitations next and 250+ Habitations where
Road Developments in India

eligible, last), preference should be given to those roads which serve a larger
population. For this purpose, while Habitations within a distance of 500 metres
from the road is considered as connected in case of plain areas, this distance
should be 1.5 km (of path length) in respect of Hills.
4.3.9 The PMGSY shall cover only the rural areas. Urban roads are excluded from the
purview of this Programme. Even in the rural areas, PMGSY covers only
the Rural Roads i.e., Roads that were formerly classified as ‘Other District Roads’
(ODR) and ‘Village Roads’ (VR). Other District Roads (ODR) are roads serving
rural areas of production and providing them with outlet to market centres, taluka
(tehsil) headquarters, Block headquarters or other main roads. Village Roads (VR)
are roads connecting villages / Habitation or groups of Habitation with each other
and to the nearest road of a higher category. Major District Roads, State
Highways and National Highways cannot be covered under the PMGSY, even if
they happen to be in rural areas. This applies to New Connectivity roads as well
as Upgradation works.
4.3.10 The PMGSY envisages only single road Connectivity to be provided. If a
Habitation is already connected by way of an All-weather road, then no new work
can be taken up under the PMGSY for that habitation.
4.3.11 Provision of connectivity to unconnected Habitations would be termed as New
Connectivity. Since the purpose of PMGSY inter alia is to provide farm to market
access, new connectivity may involve ‘new construction’ where the link to the
habitation is missing and additionally, if required, ‘upgradation’ where an
Road Developments in India

intermediate link in its present condition cannot function as an all-weather road
(see Para 3.12 below)
4.3.12 Upgradation, when permitted (refer Para 2.2 and 3.11 above) would typically
involve building the base and surface courses of an existing road to desired
technical specifications and / or improving the geometrics of the road, as required
in accordance with traffic condition. (see also Para 3.14 below)
3.13 The primary focus of the PMGSY is to provide All-weather road connectivity to
the eligible unconnected Habitations. An All-weather road is one which is
negotiable in all seasons of the year. This implies that the road-bed is drained
effectively (by adequate cross-drainage structures such as culverts, minor bridges
and causeways), but this does not necessarily imply that it should be paved or
surfaced or black-topped. Interruptions to traffic as per permitted frequency and
duration may be allowed.
3.14 There may be roads which are Fair-weather roads. In other words, they are
fordable only during the dry season, because of lack of Cross Drainage (CD)
works. Conversion of such roads to All-weather roads through provision of CD
works would be treated as upgradation. It must be noted that on all the road works
of the PMGSY, provision of necessary CD works is considered an essential
element
4.3.15 PMGSY does not permit repairs to Black-topped or Cement Roads, even if the
surface condition is bad.
Road Developments in India

4.3.16 The Rural Roads constructed under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana will
be in accordance with the provision of the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) as given
in the Rural Roads Manual (IRC:SP20:2002). In case of Hill Roads, for matters
not covered by the Rural Roads Manual, provisions of Hills Roads Manual
(IRC:SP:48) may apply.

5.4 Planning for Rural Roads
5.4.1 Proper planning is imperative to achieve the objectives of the Programme in a
systematic and cost effective manner. The Manual for the Preparation of District
Rural Roads Plan and the Core Network, shall be treated as part of the Guidelines
and would stand amended to the extent modified by the present Guidelines. The
Manual lays down the various steps in the planning process and the role of
different Agencies including the Intermediate Panchayat, the District Panchayat as
well as the State Level Standing Committee. In the identification of the Core
Network, the priorities of elected representatives, including MPs and MLAs, are
expected to be duly taken into account and given full consideration. The Rural
Roads Plan and the Core Network would constitute the basis for all planning
exercises under the PMGSY.
5.4.2 The District Rural Roads Plan would indicate the entire existing road network
system in the District and also clearly identify the proposed roads for providing
connectivity to Unconnected Habitations, in an economic and efficient manner in
Road Developments in India

terms of cost and utility. The Core Network will identify the roads required to
assure each eligible Habitation with a Basic Access (single all-weather road
connectivity) to essential social and economic services. Accordingly, the Core
Network would consist of some of the existing roads as well as all the roads
proposed for new construction under the PMGSY.
5.4.3 In proposing the new links under the District Rural Roads Plan, it would be first
necessary to indicate the weightage for various services. The District Panchayat
shall be the competent authority to select the set of socio-economic /
infrastructure variables best suited for the District, categorise them and accord
relative weightages to them. This would be communicated to all concerned before
commencing the preparation of the District Rural Roads Plan.
5.4.4 The Plan would first be prepared at the Block level, in accordance with the
directions contained in the Manual and the priorities spelt out by the District
Panchayat. In short, the existing road network would be drawn up, unconnected
Habitations identified and the roads required to connect these unconnected
Habitations prepared. This shall constitute the Block Level Master Plan.
5.4.5 Once this exercise is completed, the Core Network for the Block is identified, by
making best use of the existing and proposed road facilities in such a manner that
all the eligible Habitations are assured of a Basic access. It must be ensured that
every eligible Habitation is within 500 metres (1.5 km of Path length in the Hills)
of a connected Habitation or an All-weather road (either existing or planned). In
drawing up the proposed road links, the requirements of the people must be taken
Road Developments in India

into account, through the socio-economic/infrastructure values (Road Index)
suitably weighted (see Para 4.3) and the alignment having the higher Road Index
ought to be considered for selection.
5.4.6 The Block level Master Plan and the Core Network are then placed before the
Intermediate Panchayat for consideration and approval of the Core Network. They
are simultaneously sent, along with the list of all unconnected Habitations to the
Members of Parliament and MLAs, for their comments, if any. After approval by
the Intermediate Panchayat, the Plans would be placed before the District
Panchayat for its approval. It will be incumbent on the District Panchayat to
ensure that the suggestions given by the Members of Parliament are given full
consideration within the framework of these Guidelines. Once approved by the
District Panchayat, a copy of the Core Network would be sent to the State-level
Agency as well as the National Rural Roads Development Agency. No road work
may be proposed under the PMGSY for New Connectivity or Upgradation (where
permitted) unless it forms part of the Core Network.


Road Developments in India

5.5 Funding and Allocation
5.5.1 Once the Core Network is prepared, it is possible to estimate the length of roads
for New Connectivity as well as Upgradation for every District. States may, each
year, distribute the State’s Allocation among the Districts giving 80% on the basis
of road length required for providing connectivity to Unconnected Habitations
and 20% on the basis of road length requiring Upgradation under the PMGSY.
The District-wise allocation of funds would also be communicated to the Ministry
/ NRRDA / and STA every year by the State Government.
5.5.2 In making the District-wise allocation, the road lengths already taken up under the
PMGSY or any other Programme may be excluded (even if the road works are
still under execution). The figures of new construction length will thus keep on
changing every year till such time as all Unconnected Habitations (of the eligible
population size) have been covered in the District.
5.5.3 In addition to the allocation to the States, a special allocation of upto 5% of the
annual allocation from the Rural Roads share of the Diesel Cess will be made for:
i. Districts sharing borders with Pakistan and China (in coordination with Ministry
of Home Affairs)
ii. Districts sharing borders with Myanmar, Bangladesh and Nepal (in coordination
with Ministry of Home Affairs)
iii. Left Wing Extremists areas in the Districts identified by the Ministry of Home
Affairs
Road Developments in India


CONCLUSION
India has one of the largest road networks in the world (over 3 million km at
present). For the purpose of management and administration, roads in India are divided
into the following five categories:
1. National Highways (NH)
2. State Highways (SH)
3. Major District Roads (MDR)
4. Other District Roads (ODR)
5. Village Roads (VR)
The National Highways are intended to facilitate medium and long distance inter-
city passenger and freight traffic across the country. The State Highways are supposed to
carry the traffic along major centers within the State. Other District Roads and Village
Roads provide villages accessibility to meet their social needs as also the means to
transport agriculture produce from village to nearby markets. Major District Roads
provide the secondary function of linkage between main roads and rural roads.
This seminar describes the road developments in the Indian continent.



Road Developments in India


REFERENCES
1. "PMGSY Scheme and Guidelines: Introduction" Ministry of Rural Development,
Government of India, No. P-12025/8/2001-RC (Pt)
2. "PMGSY Scheme and Guidelines: Programme Objectives". Ministry of Rural
Development, Government of India, No. P-12025/8/2001-RC.
3. "National Highways Development Project Maps, NDHP Project Phase – I, II &
III". Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India. September
2011.
4. Jump up to:
a

b

c

d
"National Highway Development Project NHDP)". NHAI,
Ministry of Roads Transport, Govt of India. January 2012.
5. Highway developers face policy speed breakers Business Standard (3 February
2014)
6. Road Sector in India; Ajeet K Choudhary, Deepak Dangayach, Indian Institute of
Management, Ahmedabad