Miguel Ramos

Period 2

Chapter 1 Discussion Questions

1. Define Government:
 A government is the system by which a state or community is governed.

2. Explain the difference between the philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke:
 Locke believed that man was a social animal by nature while Hobbes believed
that man was not a social animal and that society would not exist were it not for
the power of the state. Locke, on the other hand, said the state exists to preserve
the natural rights of its citizens.

3. Describe Monarchy:
 A monarchy is a governmental system that has one person as the permanent head
of state until he or she dies or gives up his or her position. Typically, the position
of monarch is hereditary. The term is often used to refer to a system of
government, in which the monarch, such as a king or queen, has absolute
authority, but many monarchies are limited or constitutional monarchies in which
the monarch has restricted power and might even be mostly a figurehead rather
than a ruler.

4. Describe Oligarchy:
 An oligarchy is a form of government in which most of the political power
effectively rests with a small segment of society, typically the people who have
the most wealth, military strength, ruthlessness or political influence. Some
political theorists have argued that all societies are inevitably oligarchies,
regardless of their supposed political system.

5. Describe Democracy:
 Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens are meant to
participate equally – either directly or, through elected representatives, indirectly
– in the proposal, development and establishment of the laws by which their
society is run.

6. Describe Republic:
 A republic form of government is a government in which power lies in a group of
people who are representatives of the citizens of a country. They may or may not
be elected by their constituents.
7. Explain the Social Contract Theory:
 The idea of the social contract is one of the foundations of the American political
system. This is the belief that the state only exists to serve the will of the people,
and they are the source of all political power enjoyed by the state. They can
choose to give or withhold this power.

8. Define Conservative:
 Conservatives believe in personal responsibility, limited government, free
markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong national
defense. Believe the role of government should be to provide people the freedom
necessary to pursue their own goals. Conservative policies generally emphasize
empowerment of the individual to solve problems.

9. Define Liberal:
 Liberals believe in government action to achieve equal opportunity and equality
for all. It is the duty of the government to alleviate social ills and to protect civil
liberties and individual and human rights. Believe the role of the government
should be to guarantee that no one is in need. Liberal policies generally
emphasize the need for the government to solve problems.

10. Define Libertarian:
 Libertarianism is a political philosophy that upholds liberty as its principal
objective. Libertarians seek to maximize autonomy and freedom of choice,
emphasizing political freedom, voluntary association and the primacy of
individual judgment. While libertarians share skepticism of authority, they
diverge on the scope of their opposition to existing political and economic

11. Analyze the graph on p. 18 and answer the following question:
a. Explain how the allocation of governmental resources will be affected by the
increasing percentage of elderly in the population.

 The projected growth in elderly support is a concern. If the number of working
taxpayers relative to the number of older persons declines, inadequate public
resources and fewer adults will be available to provide informal care to older, less
able family members and friends. The anticipated increase in the number of the
elderly will have dramatic consequences for public health, the health-care
financing and delivery systems, informal caregiving, and pension systems.