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**• Digital computers perform a variety of
**

information-processing tasks. Among the basic

functions encountered are the various

arithmetic operations. The most basic

arithmetic operation, no doubt, is the addition

of two binary digits. This simple addition

consists of four possible elementary

operations, namely,

• 0+0=0

• 0+1=1

• 1+0=1

• 1+1=10

FOUR POSSIBLE ELEMENTARY OPERATION

• The first three operations produce a sum

whose length is one digit, but when both

augend and addend bits are equal to 1, the

binary sum consist of two digits. The higher

significant bit of this result is called carry.

When the augend and addend numbers

contain more significant digits, the carry

obtained from the addition of two bits is

added to the next higher-order pair of

significant bits.

HALF ADDERS

• From the verbal explanation of a half-adder,

we find that this circuit needs two binary

inputs and two binary outputs. The input

variable designate the augend and addend

bits; the output variables produce the sum

and carry. It is necessary to specify two output

variables because the result may consist of

two binary digits. We arbitrarily assign

symbols x and y to the two inputs and S (for

sum) and C (for carry) to the outputs.

x y C S

0 0 0 0

0 1 0 1

1 0 0 1

1 1 1 0

• The carry output is 0 unless both inputs are 1.

The S output represents the least significant

bit of the sum.

The simplified Boolean functions for the

two outputs can be obtained directly from the

truth table. The simplified sum of products

expressions are

• S = x’y + xy’

• C = xy

• They all achieve the same result as far as the

input-output behavior is concerned. They

illustrate the flexibility available to the

designer when implementing even a simple

combinational logic function.

x

y’

x

y

x’

y

s

c

x

y

x

y

x

y

s

c

a.

S = xy’ + x’y

C = xy

b.

S = (x + y)( x’ + y’)

C = xy

S

C

S

C

x’

y’

x

y

x

y

x’

y’

(c) S = ( C + x’ y’)’

C = xy

(d) S = ( x + y)( x’ + y’)

C = (x’ + y’)’

Full - Adder

A Full-adder is a combinational circuit that

forms the arithmetic sum o three input bits. It

consists of three inputs and two outputs. Two

of input, denoted by x and y, represent the

two significant bits to be added. The third

input, z, represents the carry from the

previous lower significant position. The two

outputs are designated by the symbols S for

sum and C for carry. The binary variable C

gives the output carry.

x y z C S

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 1

0 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 1

1 1

1 1

1

1 1 1

00 01 11 10

y

yz

X

0

1

x

z

00 01 11 10

y

yz

X

0

1 x

z

S=x’y’z + x’yz’ + xy’z + xyz

C= xy + xz + yz

x y z C S

0 0 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 1

0 1 0 0 1

0 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 0 1

1 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 1

S

x’

y’

z

x’

y

z’

x

y’

z’

x

y

z

C

x

y

x

z

y

z

Implementation of a full-adder in sum of products

END

- Ee177 Supplement 4Uploaded bystephen_562001
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