1.

Which of the following figures represents the
Haworth projection of the carbohydrate shown?
a)
b)
c)
d)
2. The definition of a carbohydrate requires that the smallest carbohydrate must
have this many carbon atoms:
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 5
3. Which of the following monosaccharides is a ketose?
a) glucose
O
CH
2
OH CH
2
OH
OH
OH
OH
O
CH
2
OH CH
2
OH
OH OH
OH
O
HOCH
2
OH OH
OH HOCH
2
O
CH
2
OH
OH
OH
OH
OH
C
C
C
C
C
OH
O
H H
OH
H HO
OH H
H H
C H OH
b) fructose
c) galactose
d) mannose
4. A monosaccharide is
a) a compound with one carbonyl group and two or more hydroxyl
groups
b) a compound with one hydroxyl group and two or more carbonyl
groups
c) an aromatic aldehyde
d) an aromatic ketone
5. Monosaccharides
a) do not display optical activity
b) do not have chiral carbons
c) can be represented by Fischer projection formulas
d) all of the above
6. The cyclic form of sugars
a) has one more chiral center (the anomeric carbon) than the open- chain
form
b) loses a chiral center compared to the open-chain form
c) is not usually found in nature
d) can have two possible forms, designated R and S
7. The term "diastereomer" refers to
a) mirror-image, nonsuperimposable stereoisomers
b) non-mirror-image, nonsuperimposable stereoisomers
c) stereoisomers with one or more double bonds
d) none of the above
8. Haworth projection formulas
a) are representations of the cyclic form of sugars
b) can show the distinction between the  and  anomers
c) both of the above
d) neither of the above
9. The only true sugar that does not contain a chiral carbon atom:
a) Glyceraldehyde
b) Dihydroxyacetone
c) Ribose
d) Glucose
e) Galactose
10. In a Fischer projection, which carbon determines whether the sugar is the D- or
the L-isomer?
a) highest numbered carbon atom
b) lowest numbered asymmetric carbon atom
c) lowest numbered carbon atom
d) highest numbered carbon atom
11. Mirror image stereoisomers are called by this name:
a) Anomers
b) Diastereoisomers
c) Enantiomers
d) Epimers
e) None of these is correct
12. Sugars, which differ in chirality only around only one carbon atom, are properly
called this:
a) Anomers
b) Diastereoisomers
c) Enantiomers
d) Epimers
e) None of these is correct
13. When sugars form ring structures, the additional chiral carbon is called this:
a) Anomeric
b) Diastereoisomers
c) Enantiomeric
d) Epimeric
e) None of these is correct
14. When monosaccharides are bonded together
a) one H
2
O molecule is lost for each new link formed
b) oligosaccharides are formed by combining a few monosaccharides
c) polysaccharides are formed by combining many monosaccharides
d) all of the above
15. Simple sugars still behave as reducing sugars when they form this structure:
a) Acetal
b) Ketal
c) Hemi-acetal
d) Both acetal and ketal
e) Both acetal and hemi-acetal
16. A glycosidic linkage is chemically
a) an ester
b) an aldehyde
c) a ketone
d) none of the above
Important Oligosaccharides
17. The sugar called maltose contains the following simple sugars:
a) Galactose
b) Glucose
c) Fructose
d) Both Galactose and Glucose
e) Both Glucose and Fructose
18. Lactose intolerance
a) arises from inability to metabolize the disaccharide lactose
b) depends on a deficiency of sucrose in the diet
c) is based on the composition of lactose, consisting glucose and fructose
in glycosidic linkage
d) arises because lactose is a dimer of galactose
19. Which of the following molecules is a disaccharide?
a) glucose
b) lactose
c) fructose
d) glucose
20. The following sugar is also called milk sugar:
a) Fructose
b) Glucose
c) Lactose
d) Sucrose
e) Maltose
21. The following sugar is also called fruit sugar:
a) Fructose
b) Glucose
c) Lactose
d) Sucrose
e) Maltose
22. The following sugar is also called blood sugar:
a) Fructose
b) Glucose
c) Lactose
d) Sucrose
e) Maltose
Polysaccharide Structures and Functions
23. Cell walls
a) occur in plants, animals, and bacteria
b) are found in plants and bacteria, but have different chemical
compositions
c) have the same chemical composition in plants and bacteria
d) have the same chemical composition in plants and animals
24. A major difference between amylose and amylopectin is that
a) amylose is connected by (1-4) bonds and amylopectin is connected
by (1-4) bonds.
b) amylose is branched and amylopectin is not.
c) amylopectin is branched and amylose is not.
d) each is composed different types of sugar residues.
25. In bacterial cell walls
a) polysaccharides form nonspecific mixtures with proteins
b) polysaccharides are hydrogen bonded together
c) peptides form crosslinks between polysaccharides
d) oligosaccharides form crosslinks between proteins
26. Glycogen is
a) polysaccharide storage polymer found in plants
b) a linear polysaccharide
c) a highly branched polysaccharide found in animals
d) a synthetic sugar substitute
27. There are two forms of starch:
a) amylose and glycogen, both of which are highly branched
polysaccharides
b) glycogen and chitin, both of which are linear polysaccharides
c) amylopectin and glycogen, both of which are linear polysaccharides
d) amylose, which is a linear polysaccharide, and amylopectin, which is
highly branched
28. Which of the following characteristics is not associated with cellulose?
a) linear polymer of glucose
b) the glycosidic linkage is (14)
c) hydrolysis is accomplished enzymatically by cellulase
d) mild acid is effective in the hydrolysis of cellulose
29. Chitin, which forms the exoskeletons of insects, is composed of
a) (1-4) linked N-acetylglucosamine residues
b) (1-4) linked N-acetylglucosamine residues
c) (1-4) linked glucose residues
d) (1-4) linked glucose residues
30. The blue color in a well-known test for the presence of starches is due to
a) the formation of crosslinks between molecules of starch, caused by
the addition of Cu
2+

b) the reaction of the silver-ammonia complex ion with the hydroxyl
groups of the starch
c) the formation of a complex between iodine and amylose
d) none of the above
31. All of the following features are used to characterize the chemical structure of a
polysaccharide, except:
a) Sugar components
b) Solubility
c) Linkage between the sugars
d) Linear or branched
e) All of the above describe the structure of polysaccharides.
32. The most common biopolymer on earth is this carbohydrate:
a) Glucose
b) Cellulose
c) Starch
d) Chitin
e) None of these carbohydrates is very common.
33. Humans are not able to digest cellulose as a food source because:
a) Cellulose is very insoluble.
b) It is more important that the cellulose is used as fiber in our bodies.
c) We lack the enzyme to break the  linkage in the cellulose.
d) Cellulose is insoluble and we lack the enzyme to break the  linkage
in the cellulose.
e) All of these are reasons why we cannot digest cellulose.
34. A bacterial cell wall is composed of:
a) One type of polysaccharide and 2 different types of oligopeptides,
which are cross-linked.
b) One type of polysaccharide and 1 type of oligopeptide, arranged in 2
different directions.
c) One type of polysaccharide and an oligopeptide covalently bonded to
the cell membrane.
d) Two different polysaccharides and 1 type of oligopeptide, which are
cross-linked.
e) More than one of these statements is true.
Glycoproteins
35. Blood typing depends on
a) the nature of the oligosaccharide portion of glycoproteins on the
surface of red blood cells
b) the presence of a polysaccharide coating on red blood cells
c) the presence of a polysaccharide coating on white blood cells
d) the addition of sucrose to blood before storage
36. Glycoproteins
a) are involved in the metabolism of sugars
b) are proteins to which sugars are covalently bonded
c) occur in the bloodstream of diabetics
d) have not been found in nature, but have been synthesized in the
laboratory
37. The main difference, on the surface of a red blood cell, between the A-B-O
major blood groups depends on:
The choices are
1. The presence or absence of a certain protein sequence.
2. The presence or absence of a certain sugar.
3. The presence or absence of an acetyl group on a sugar.
The answer is
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) Both 2 and 3 explain the difference between blood groups A, B and O.
e) All of the above explain the difference between blood groups A, B
and O.
Chapter 17
38. In the glycolytic pathway ATP is synthesized by this method:
a) Substrate Phosphorylation
b) Oxidative Phosphorylation
c) Photophosphorylation
d) Both Substrate and Oxidative Phosphorylation are used during
glycolysis.
e) All of these methods are used during glycolysis.
39. The reactions of glycolysis occur in this eukaryotic cell compartment:
a) Cytoplasm
b) Mitochondrion
c) Nucleus
d) Both cytoplasm and mitochondria
e) Glycolysis occurs in all these cell compartments
40. The fate of pyruvate produced during glycolysis depends primarily on the
availability of:
a) NAD
+
to keep the pathway going.
b) Molecular oxygen.
c) ADP for conversion to ATP.
d) Coenzyme A for further metabolism of pyruvate.
e) Phosphoric acid for the synthesis of ATP.

41. Enzymes with the following name types are used in isomerization reactions:
a) Dehydrogenase
b) Kinase
c) Mutase
d) Phosphatase
e) None of these involve isomerization.
42. An enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from ATP to a substrate is usually
called
a) a kinase.
b) an isomerase.
c) a mutase.
d) a dehydrogenase.
43. The following type of enzyme is used in oxidation/reduction reactions:
a) Dehydrogenase
b) Isomerase
c) Kinase
d) Phosphatase
e) None of these are involved in oxidation or reduction.
44. Glycolysis
a) does not require O
2
to generate energy
b) requires O
2
to generate energy
c) is inhibited by O
2

d) rate is increased in the presence of O
2

45. In humans, pyruvate can be converted to
a) acetyl-CoA only
b) lactate only
c) ethanol only
d) acetyl-CoA and lactate
46. How many ATPs (per glucose) are made via substrate phosphorylations occur
during glycolysis?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 4
d) 6
e) 8
47. Which statement best characterizes the role of enzymes in glycolysis?
a) Several steps do not require enzymes
b) Several steps are catalyzed by a single multifunctional enzyme
c) One multifunctional enzyme catalyzes the whole pathway
d) Each step is catalyzed by a separate enzyme
48. How many different reactions in glycolysis produce or consume ATP?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 6
49. What is the net ATP yield from glucose during glycolysis?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4
e) 6
50. Approximately this many different enzymes are used during conversion of
glucose to pyruvate:
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20
e) 25
51. Approximately this many individual reactions occur during conversion of
glucose to pyruvate:
a) 5
b) 10
c) 15
d) 20
e) 25
Glucose to Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate
52. Which enzyme catalyzes a reaction that is a major control point for glycolysis?
a) Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
b) Enolase
c) Phosphofructokinase
d) Aldolase
53. Which enzyme catalyzes the reaction shown?

a) an epimerase
b) an isomerase
c) a mutase
d) a dehydrogenase
54. The phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate
a) is so strongly exergonic that it does not require a catalyst
b) is an exergonic reaction not coupled to any other reaction
c) is an endergonic reaction that takes place because it is coupled to the
exergonic hydrolysis of ATP
d) is an exergonic reaction that is coupled to the endergonic hydrolysis
of ATP
55. The step that commits the cell to metabolize glucose is catalyzed by
a) hexokinase
b) phosphoglucomutase
c) aldolase
H
O
OH
H
OH
H
OH H
OH
CH
2
OPO
3
2-
H
CH
2
OPO
3
2-
O
OH
CH
2
OH
H
OH
H
H
OH
d) phosphofructokinase
56. The isomerization of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to give glyceraldehyde 3-
phosphate
a) is catalyzed by the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase
b) requires several enzymes
c) requires coenzyme A
d) requires thiamine pyrophosphate
57. The enzyme glucokinase
a) phosphorylates a number of different sugars, including glucose,
fructose, and mannose
b) specifically phosphorylates glucose rather than other sugars
c) is the only kinase involved in glycolysis
d) none of the above
58. Which of the following exercise(s) allosteric control in the reaction of
phosphofructokinase?
a) ATP
b) fructose 2,6-bisphosphate
c) both of the above
d) neither of the above
59. Hexokinase does not undergo a distinct conformational change when it binds
glucose.
a) True
b) False
60. The function of the enzyme hexokinase is all of the following, except:
a) Provide a large G to get metabolism started.
b) Trap glucose within the cell through addition of a phosphate group.
c) Direct glucose toward breakdown, whether anaerobic or aerobic.
d) Both to provide a large G to get metabolism started and to trap
glucose within the cell through addition of a phosphate group.
e) All of these.
61. The equilibrium for the formation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate from
dihydroxyacetone phosphate is driven by:
a) The free energy change for the reaction is negative.
b) The product of the reaction is continuously consumed.
c) ATP is used to drive the reaction.
d) The equilibrium constant favors the reaction.
e) None of these drive this reaction.
62. The following enzyme catalyzes breaking fructose bis phosphate into two 3-
carbon units:
a) Aldolase
b) Enolase
c) An isomerase
d) A mutase
e) None of these enzymes carries out that reaction.
Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate to Pyruvate
63. Which group of small molecules best fit the boxes associated with the reaction
shown?

a b c
a) ATP ADP H
2
O
b) NADH NAD
+
P
i

c) NAD
+
NADH H
2
O
d) NAD
+
NADH P
i

64. What kind of enzyme catalyzes the reaction shown?

a) an epimerase
b) an isomerase
c) a mutase
d) a dehydrogenase
65. Which enzyme catalyzes reaction the reaction shown?

a) enolase
b) pyruvate dehydrogenase
a b
c
C
C
CH
2
OPO
3
2-
OH H
O H
C
C
CH
2
OPO
3
2-
OH H
OPO
3
2-
O
a b
c
C
C
CH
2
OPO
3
2-
OH H
O H
C
C
CH
2
OPO
3
2-
OH H
OPO
3
2-
O
ADP ATP
C
C
O
-
O
O
CH
3
C
C
CH
2
OPO
3
2-
O
-
O
c) pyruvate kinase
d) phosphoglycerate mutase
66. Enolase catalyzes this reaction:
a) Breaking fructose bis phosphate into two 3-carbon units.
b) Dehydration of 2-phosphoglyceric acid.
c) Conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate.
d) Conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate.
e) None of these reactions involve this enzyme.
67. In the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1,3-
bisphosphoglycerate
a) an alcohol group is phosphorylated
b) an alcohol is oxidized to an aldehyde
c) an alcohol is oxidized to a carboxylic acid
d) an aldehyde is oxidized to a carboxylic acid

68. Anaerobic metabolism can occur in all these organisms or cells, except:
a) Yeast
b) Red blood cells
c) Muscle tissue that is working very fast
d) Lactobacillus in milk
e) Anaerobic metabolism can occur in all of these.
69. During anaerobic metabolism in yeast, the carbons of glucose end up in this
molecule:
a) CO
2

b) Ethanol
c) Lactic acid
d) Both CO
2
and ethanol
e) All of these.

SA questions Ch 16
What is unique about the structure of sugars?
Sugars contain one or more chiral centers. Configurations of the possible stereoisomers can
be represented by Fischer projections.
What are reducing sugars and how can they be detected in the lab experiment?
Acts as a reducing agent
How is glycogen related to starch?
Starch is found in plants while glycogen is found in animals. They differ from eachother in
the degree of branching in the polymer structure.


How are carbohydrates important in the immune response?
Glycoproteins can play a role in the recognition sites of antigens. In glycoproteins,
carbohydrate residues are covalently linked to the polypeptide chain. An example of this is
the ABO blood group.
Ch 17
Discuss the role of glycolysis in energy harvesting metabolism
It is the first step in glucose metabolism.
Discuss the importance of isomerization of glucose into Fructose
Glucose phosphate isomerase is responsible for the conversion of glucose 6 phosphate to
fructose 6 phosphate. Allowing the reaction to continue with phosphorylation of fructose
What are the control points in the glycolytic pathway?
There are 3 control points in the glycolytic pathway:
Beginning conversion of glucose to glucose 6 phosphate
Committed step  production of fructose 1,6 biphospate
3
rd
conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate
What is the energy yield from glycolysis?
The net energy yield from glycolysis is 2 ATP, 2NADH and 2 pyruvate molecules for
further energy production.