BEP/1314I

AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP

Faculty of Electrical & Electronics Engineering
BEE3133 Electrical Power Systems

LAB 1: Per Unit System in Transmission and Distribution
Mapping CO,PO,Domain : CO4,PO11,P5
CO4: Assemble and analyze the circuit of distribution and transmission systems.
PO11: Utilize techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice and
adaptable to industrial needs.
P5: Complex Overt Response

Learning Outcomes:

At the end of this experiment, students should be able to:
a) To demonstrate the principles of the commonly used radial system for low voltage
distribution networks.
b) To demonstrate the principles of ring distribution systems as used in low voltage
networks.

Experiment 1: Radial Distribution Systems
Introduction
Electricity suppliers normally use radial distribution in rural areas where the load is
randomly distributed, separated by areas with little or no habitation, and back up supplies
are normally not available. The length of feeder is typically limited to 500 m or less. In the
radial distribution system, feeders supplying the consumers are all fed from a central point
(the substation) as shown in Figure 1. There is no looping of the feeders.

Figure 1: Radial System of Feeders.



BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Procedure A: Simple Radial System
1) Connect the circuit as shown in Appendix A.
2) The 0 to 30 Vac supply (substation), the loads (6 lamps), and the feeder (6 resistors-
with variable connected in series).
3) Adjust the six variable resistors to give 26 Ω each by switching on the circuit and tuning
potentiometer to give minimum lamp brightness.
Note: A real 1 km length of feeder of 20 mm
2
cross-section gives approximately 1 Ω. The
variable resistors connected in series represent a feeder of approximately 156 km
length.
4) Adjust the 0 to 30 Vac supply to 30 Vac and observe the brightness of the lamp. Measure
and record the voltage across each lamp in Table 1.

Table 1: Lamp Voltages

Lamps Voltage (V)
Lamp 1
Lamp 2
Lamp 3
Lamp 4
Lamp 5
Lamp 6


Procedure B: Voltage and Current in a Radial System
1) Connect the circuit as shown in Appendix B.
2) Switch on and record the current and voltage across each lamp (all lamps must be in
circuit) and the voltage drop along each section of feeder (with respect to supply end).
Switch off the supply. Record the result in Table 2 below.

Table 2: Result for Procedure B

Circuit
Number
Lamp Feeder
Measured
Voltage (V)
Measured
Current (A)
Voltage Drop
(V)
1

2

3

4

5

6


BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Procedure C: Separate Feeders
Now consider the case where each lamp is feed by a separate feeder connected to the
supply. This can be represented on the trainer by connecting the lamp under consideration
to the return feeder via an ammeter leaving the link connector for the remainder of the
lamps unconnected. Appendix C shows the connection when the lamp 1 is fed through a
separate feeder.

1) Connect the circuit as shown in Appendix C.
2) Take the readings for the lamp current, lamp voltage and feeder voltage drop. Record
the result in Table 5. Repeat this step for each lamp.

Table 5: Separate Feeders

Circuit
Number
Lamp Feeder
Measured
Voltage (V)
Measured
Current (A)
Voltage Drop
(V)
1

2

3

4

5

6

























BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Experiment 2: Ring Distribution Systems
Introduction
This is commonly used in urban areas with high housing density. In such a system, LV cables
from neighbouring distribution substations are either looped together or are terminated
very close to one another where an interconnection of cables can be made. This system is
normally used when a high degree of reliability of load supply is required and back up
substations is made available. Figure 2 shows a schematic diagram for a ring distribution
network.

Figure 2: Ring Distribution Network.

Procedure A: Simple Ring System
1) Use the singe phase circuit of the Trainer and consider the two 0 to 30 Vac supplies
representing two substations.
2) Connect the power supply to the feeder from both ends as shown in Appendix D.
3) Adjust the six variable resistors to give 26 Ω each by switching on the circuit and tuning
potentiometer.
4) Switch the power on and observe the brightness of the lamp. Measure and record the
voltage across each lamp in Table 6 below.

Table 6: Lamp Voltages

Lamps Voltage (V)
Lamp 1
Lamp 2
Lamp 3
Lamp 4
Lamp 5
Lamp 6


BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Procedure B: Voltage and Current in a Ring System
1) Connect the circuit as shown in Appendix E.
2) Switch on and record the current and voltage across the Lamp 1 and the voltage across
the Resistor (feeder) 1. Switch the power off.
3) Use a link to connect Lamp 1 to the return feeder. Switch the power on and repeat the
current and voltage measurements of Lamp 2 and Resistor 2.
4) Record the result in Table 7 below.

Table 7: Voltage and Current Measurements

Circuit
Number
Lamp Feeder
Measured
Voltage (V)
Measured
Current (A)
Voltage Drop
(V)
1

2

3

4

5

6




























BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Results and Discussions.

Experiment 1: Radial Distribution System

Procedure A: Simple Radial System
1) Draw the circuit diagram obtained from the connection in Appendix A.

2) Observe and explain the brightness of each lamp.

3) Explain why the lamp brightness decreases as the distance from supply increases.

Procedure B: Voltage and Current in a Radial System
1) Draw the circuit diagram obtained from the connection in Appendix B

2) From the current readings obtained, use Kirchhoff’s current nodal law and calculate the
current flowing in each feeder.

3) Calculate the voltage drop across each feeder. Record the results from (1) and (2) into
Table 3 below. Show your hand calculation.

Table 3: Calculated and Measured Currents and Voltages

Resistor
Number
Calculated
Current
Calculated
Voltage
Drop
Measured
Voltage
Drop
Error
1

2

3

4

5

6


4) Compare the calculated and measured voltages.

5) Using the results in Table 3, apply Kirchhoff’s law and calculate the voltage across each
lamp. Record your calculation into Table 4. Compare the calculated and measured
voltages.









BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP

Table 4: Lamp Voltages

Lamp
Number
Calculated
Voltage
Measured
Voltage
Error
1

2

3

4

5

6


6) Draw the relationship between the resistor number (feeder) and the voltage drop
across the resistor.

7) Considering each resistor to represent 26 km of a feeder of 20 mm
2
cross-sectional area,
plot the voltage drop profile for the feeder represent by the six variable resistors. The
voltage profile is the relationship between the total drops against the feeder length
measured from the substation.

8) Explain the relationship obtained.

Procedure C: Separate Feeders
1) Draw the circuit diagram obtained from the connection in Appendix C

2) Compare the voltage across each lamp and the feeder voltage drop in this case with
corresponding values when one feeder was used to supply the six lamps (Procedure B).
Explain the comparison.

3) Draw the relationship between the resistor number (feeder) and the voltage drop
across the resistor.

4) Explain the relationship obtained.













BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Experiment 2: Ring Distribution System

Procedure A: Simple Ring System
1) Draw the circuit diagram obtained from the connection in Appendix D.

2) Observe and explain the brightness of each lamp.

3) Compare the lamp voltage with corresponding value obtained in the experiments for a
radial distribution network.


Procedure B: Voltage and Current in a Ring System
1) Draw the circuit diagram obtained from the connection in Appendix E.

2) Compare the measured lamp voltage, current and resistor voltage with the
corresponding measured values for the radial feeder from Experiment 1. Explain the
difference.

3) Use the current measurements taken in Table 7, apply Kirchhoff’s current law and
calculate the current flowing in each resistor.

4) Compare the current flowing in each resistor with the corresponding values calculated
for the radial feeder in Experiment 1. Explain the difference.

5) Plot the voltage drop profile for the variable resistors and compare with the
corresponding profile for a radial system. Explain the difference (if any).

6) Which of the two distribution systems offer a higher load voltage and lower feeder
voltage drop? Explain the reason.





















BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP

Appendix A: Connection for Experiment 1 – Procedure A

BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP

Appendix B: Connection for Experiment 1 – Procedure B


BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP

Appendix C: Connection for Experiment 1 – Procedure C

BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Appendix D: Connection for Experiment 2 – Procedure A

BEP/1314I
AMIR IZZANI MOHAMED @ FKEE UMP
Appendix E: Connection for Experiment 2 – Procedure B