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STRAP FOOTINGS

STRAP #1
Design assumptions
1. Strap does not provide bearing
2. Strap is ridge enough to transfer moment from one footing to the other.
3. Soil bearing pressure = kN/m2
A B
DL DL
LL LL
P
a
P
b
LL LL
~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing A is
e = mm
= m
~the distance between footing reaction, L
L = mm
= m
~the eccentric moment is M = P
a
* e
= kNm
2.75 2.75
150 5700 150
100
3.05 3.05
430 430
850 850
6000
5700
420 420
1.524
1276 1276
1.525 2952 1.525
2952
2.952
1295
3048
1524
R
b
R
a
N
1
N
2
~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L
= kNm/m
~reaction at footing A , R
a
= P
a
+ V
Ra = kN
~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2
~required footing area of A = Ra/soil bearing capacity
= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2
~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing
e = mm
= m
~the distance between footing reaction, L
L = mm
= m
~the eccentric moment is M = P
b
* e
= kNm
~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L
= kNm/m
~reaction at footing B , R
b
= P
b
+ V
R
b
= kN
~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2
~required footing area of B = Rb/soil bearing capacity
= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2
STRAP
A B
3.05 2.75 8.388
3048
438.8
1289
100
12.89
2952
2.952
1295
438.8
1524
1.524
2.75 2.75
1289
100
12.89
3.05 2.75 8.388
3.05 3.05
~Factored column load of A = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk
= kN
~Factored column load of B = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk
= kN
~factored eccentric moment, M
ua
= P
a
* e ~M
ub
= P
b
* e
= kN = kN
~Factored shear, V
ua
= M/L ~V
ub
= M/L
= kN = kN
~Factored footing reaction at A = +
= kN
~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of A = /
= kN/m
~Factored footing reaction at B = +
= kN
~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of B = /
= kN/m
~Shear diagram
At point 1: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 2: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 3: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 4: V
u
= * -
= kN
~Moment diagram
At point 1: M
u
=
= kNm
At point 2: M
u
= kNm
At point 3: M
u
= kNm
At point 4: M
u
= kNm
1276
1276
1945 1945
3.05
634.3
658.7 658.7
1276 658.7
1276 658.7
1935
1935
1935
1935
-1086
634.3 3.048 1276
3.05
634.3
634.3 0.3 1276
-1086
634.3 3.048 1276
657
634.3 0.3 1276
1408.4
657
-184
-749.9
-813.1
wl
2

2

kN kN
LOAD DIAGRAM
(kN)
300 300
kN/m kN/m
SHEAR
DIAGRAM
MOMENT
DIAGRAM
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF STRAP FOOTING
~design footing strap as a reinforced concrete beam
~yield strenght of rebar = N/mm
2
~strenght of concrete = N/mm
2
1. Design footing strap
* assume x footing strap and the reinforcement is H 25
* top cover mm
* effective depth, d = mm
* depth to comression. rebar d' = mm
1276
2748
634.3 634.3
1276
2.90 2.90
410
25
375 1050
2748 -96
50
987.5
87.5
P
ua
P
ub
1
4
3 2
0
+657
+657
-1086
-1086
1
4
3
2
0
-184
+1408.4
-813.1
-749.9
(b) design flexural reinforcement
maximum factored moment at point 4, M
u
= kNm
(K) (K' )
k = M = > ==> compression bar is required
f
cu
* b * d
2
As' = (K -K' )f
cu
b d
2
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - kK' 0.87*f
y
*(d -d' )
0.9
= mm2
z = mm
As = k'f
cu
bd
2
+ As'
0.87*f
y
*z
= mm2
provide 12 H 25 = mm2
check area of steel provide 0.4% < 100A
s
A
c
100A
s
= ==> area of steel provide within the limit specified by code
A
c
(a) check direct shear
from shear factored diagram, Vu
(max)
= kN
v = V =
N/mm
2
< 0.8 f
cu
BS8110 - table 3.8,3.9
b*d
= N/mm
2
< =======> OK
BS8110
100A
s
= from table 3.9
b*d
v
c
=
0.72 - v
c
= 1.5-1.439
0.72-0.8 1.5-2
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
2. Design footing for colum A
assume h = mm
0.1541 0.156
-55.23
771
1408.4
1.591
5130.58
5890
1.496
1086
1.5 0.72
1.591 v
c
2.932
2.932 4.00
0.735
1050
450
0.735 2 0.8
dia. bar = 25 mm
d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar
d = mm
~reaction at footing A , R
a
= P
a
+ V
Ra = kN
use x = kN/m
2
earth pressure = = kN/m
net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g
F
~at column face = kN/m
2
shear stress, v
c
= N
col. Perimeter x d
= < 0.8 f
cu
( )
punching shear
critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)
= mm
area within perimeter = (400+3h)
2
- (4-pi)(1.5h)
2
= mm2
punching shear force V = -
= kN
punching shear stress v = V
perimeter x d
= N/mm2 < 0.8 f
cu
( )
100A
s
= = BS8110
bd from table 3.9
v
c
=
0.34 - v
c
= 0.15-0.158
0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
362.5
1289 153.7
8.388
153.7
1289
2.75 3.05 8.388
2671388.2
138.5 8.388 2.67
138.5
2.963 3.578
5550
2750 362.5
0.15 0.34
792.1
0.394 3.578
100 1608 0.161
0.161 v
c
0.347 0.25 0.4
0.347
450
(b) bending reinforcement
at column face which is the critical section
M = Fl
= x x x
= kNm
the location of zero shear ia at
X = 1.575*335/(335+402)
= m from inside face of column
M
u
= 0.156f
cu
bd
2
= kNm > kNm
k = M = <
f
cu
* b * d
2
compression bar is not required
A
s
= M
0.87 f
y
z
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k
0.9
z = mm
A
s
=
mm
2
provide H As = mm
2
or H16 @ 150 c/c
100A
s
= > 0.13 as required by code
b*h
~check on shear stress
earth pressure = = kN/m
v = V = N/mm
2
< N/mm
2
bd
therefore section is adequate in shear.
3. Design footing for colum B
assume h = mm
dia. bar = 25 mm
d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar
0.358
108.3
0.716
1409 108.3
153.7 2.75 0.716
8 16 1608
0.161
0.0000210 0.156
281.6
1078
0.347
450
1289 153.7
8.388
0.154
d = mm
~reaction at footing B , R
b
= P
b
+ V
R
b
= kN
use x = kN/m
2
earth pressure = = kN/m
net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g
F
~at column face = kN/m
2
shear stress, v
c
= N
col. Perimeter x d
= < 0.8 f
cu
N/mm
2
punching shear
critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)
= mm
area within perimeter = (400+3h)
2
- (4-pi)(1.5h)
2
= mm
2
punching shear force V = -
= kN
punching shear stress v = V
perimeter x d
=
N/mm
2
< 0.8 f
cu
( )
100A
s
= = BS8110
bd from table 3.9
v
c
=
0.34 - v
c
= 0.15-0.158
0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
(b) bending reinforcement
at column face which is the critical section
M = Fl
= x x x
362.5
1289
153.7
8.388
153.7
138.5
2.75 3.05 8.388
1289
138.5 8.388 2.67
792.10
2.963 3.578
5550
2671388.2
0.394 3.578
100 1608 0.161
0.161 v
c
0.347 0.25 0.4
2750 362.5
0.15 0.34
0.347
450
153.7 2.75 0.716 0.358
= kNm
the location of zero shear ia at
X = 1.575*335/(335+402)
= m from inside face of column
M
u
= 0.156f
cu
bd
2
= kNm > kNm
k = M = <
f
cu
* b * d
2
compression bar is not required
A
s
= M
0.87 f
y
z
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k
0.9
z = mm
A
s
=
mm
2
provide H As = mm
2
or H16 @ 150 c/c
100A
s
= > 0.13 as required by code
b*h
~check on shear stress
earth pressure = = kN/m
v = V = N/mm
2
< N/mm
2
bd
therefore section is adequate in shear.
0.0001560 0.156
281.6
1078
108.3
0.716
1409 108.3
0.347
1289 153.7
8.388
0.154
8 16 1608
0.161
STRAP FOOTINGS
STRAP #3
Design assumptions
1. Strap does not provide bearing
2. Strap is ridge enough to transfer moment from one footing to the other.
3. Soil bearing pressure = kN/m2
A B
DL DL
LL LL
P
a
P
b
LL LL
~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing A is
e = mm
= m
~the distance between footing reaction, L
L = mm
= m
~the eccentric moment is M = P
a
* e
= kNm
~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L
= kNm/m
3.35 3.35
150 5700 150
100
3.05 3.05
525 525
1050 1050
6096
5796
525 525
1.524
1575 1575
1.525 3048 1.525
3048
3.048
1600
3048
1524
525
R
b
R
a
N
1
N
2
~reaction at footing A , R
a
= P
a
+ V
Ra = kN
~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2
~required footing area of A = Ra/soil bearing capacity
= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2
~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing
e = mm
= m
~the distance between footing reaction, L
L = mm
= m
~the eccentric moment is M = P
b
* e
= kNm
~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L
= kNm/m
~reaction at footing B , R
b
= P
b
+ V
R
b
= kN
~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2
~required footing area of B = Rb/soil bearing capacity
= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2
STRAP
A B
~Factored column load of A = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk
= kN
~Factored column load of B = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk
= kN
~factored eccentric moment, M
ua
= P
a
* e ~M
ub
= P
b
* e
3.05 3.35 10.22
3048
1575
100
15.75
3048
3.048
1600
525
1524
1.524
3.35 3.35
1575
100
15.75
3.05 3.35 10.22
1575
1575
3.05 3.05
= kN = kN
~Factored shear, V
ua
= M/L ~V
ub
= M/L
= kN = kN
~Factored footing reaction at A = +
= kN
~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of A = /
= kN/m
~Factored footing reaction at B = +
= kN
~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of B = /
= kN/m
~Shear diagram
At point 1: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 2: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 3: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 4: V
u
= * -
= kN
~Moment diagram
At point 1: M
u
=
= kNm
At point 2: M
u
= kNm
At point 3: M
u
= kNm
At point 4: M
u
= kNm

kN kN
LOAD DIAGRAM
(kN)
300 300
2400 2400
3.05
774.6
787.5 787.5
1575 787.5
1575 787.5
2363
2363
2363
2363
-1343
774.6 3.048 1575
3.05
774.6
774.6 0.3 1575
-1343
774.6 3.048 1575
786
774.6 0.3 1575
1706.7
1575
786
-228
-964.7
2748
1575
2.90 2.90
2748 0
-964.69
P
ua
P
ub
wl
2

2
kN/m kN/m
SHEAR
DIAGRAM
MOMENT
DIAGRAM
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF STRAP FOOTING
~design footing strap as a reinforced concrete beam
~yield strenght of rebar = N/mm
2
~strenght of concrete = N/mm
2
1. Design footing strap
* assume x footing strap and the reinforcement is H 25
* top cover mm
* effective depth, d = mm
* depth to comression. rebar d' = mm
(b) design flexural reinforcement
maximum factored moment at point 4, M
u
= kNm
(K) (K' )
k = M = > ==> compression bar is required
f
cu
* b * d
2
As' = (K -K' )f
cu
b d
2
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - kK' 0.87*f
y
*(d -d' )
0.9
= mm2
z = mm
As = k'f
cu
bd
2
+ As'
0.87*f
y
*z
774.6 774.6
410
25
375 1050
0.1867 0.156
873.9
697.5
50
987.5
87.5
1706.7
1
4
3 2
0
+786
+786
-1343
-1343
1
4
3
2
0
-228
+1706.7
-964.69
-964.7
= mm2
provide 14 H 25 = mm2
check area of steel provide 0.4% < 100A
s
A
c
100A
s
= ==> area of steel provide within the limit specified by code
A
c
(a) check direct shear
from shear factored diagram, Vu
(max)
= kN
v = V =
N/mm
2
< 0.8 f
cu
BS8110 - table 3.8,3.9
b*d
= N/mm
2
< =======> OK
BS8110
100A
s
= from table 3.9
b*d
v
c
=
0.72 - v
c
= 1.5-1.439
0.72-0.8 1.5-2
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
2. Design footing for colum A
assume h = mm
dia. bar = 25 mm
d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar
d = mm
~reaction at footing A , R
a
= P
a
+ V
Ra = kN
use x = kN/m
2
earth pressure = = kN/m
net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g
F
~at column face = kN/m
2
shear stress, v
c
= N
col. Perimeter x d
= < 0.8 f
cu
( )
1.856
6606.19
6872
1.745
1343
1.5 0.72
1.856 v
c
3.626
3.626 4.00
0.777
1050
450
362.5
0.777 2 0.8
1575 187.8
8.388
187.8
1575
2.75 3.05 8.388
172.7
3.621 3.578
punching shear
critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)
= mm
area within perimeter = (400+3h)
2
- (4-pi)(1.5h)
2
= mm2
punching shear force V = -
= kN
punching shear stress v = V
perimeter x d
= N/mm2 < 0.8 f
cu
( )
100A
s
= = < BS8110
bd from table 3.9
v
c
=
0.34 - v
c
= 0.15-0.158
0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
(b) bending reinforcement
at column face which is the critical section
M = Fl
= x x x
= kNm
the location of zero shear ia at
X = 1.575*335/(335+402)
= m from inside face of column
M
u
= 0.156f
cu
bd
2
= kNm > kNm
k = M = <
f
cu
* b * d
2
compression bar is not required
A
s
= M
0.87 f
y
z
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k
0.15
2671388.2
172.7 8.388 2.67
5550
3350 362.5
0.15 0.34
987.2
0.491 3.578
100 1608 0.132
0.358
0.132 v
c
0.340 0.25 0.4
161.2
0.716
1717 161.2
0.329
450
187.8 3.35 0.716
0.0000210 0.156
0.9
z = mm
A
s
=
mm
2
provide H As = mm
2
or H16 @ 150 c/c
100A
s
= > 0.13 as required by code
b*h
~check on shear stress
earth pressure = = kN/m
v = V = N/mm
2
< N/mm
2
bd
therefore section is adequate in shear.
3. Design footing for colum B
assume h = mm
dia. bar = 25 mm
d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar
d = mm
~reaction at footing B , R
b
= P
b
+ V
R
b
= kN
use x = kN/m
2
earth pressure = = kN/m
net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g
F
~at column face = kN/m
2
shear stress, v
c
= N
col. Perimeter x d
= < 0.8 f
cu
N/mm
2
punching shear
critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)
= mm
area within perimeter = (400+3h)
2
- (4-pi)(1.5h)
2
= mm
2
punching shear force V = -
= kN
8 16 1608
0.132
281.6
1605
0.34
450
362.5
1575
1575 187.8
8.388
0.155
187.8
8.388
187.8
172.7
2.75 3.05 8.388
1575
172.7 8.388 2.67
987.18
3.621 3.578
5550
2671388.2
punching shear stress v = V
perimeter x d
=
N/mm
2
< 0.8 f
cu
( )
100A
s
= = < BS8110
bd from table 3.9
v
c
=
0.34 - v
c
= 0.15-0.158
0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
(b) bending reinforcement
at column face which is the critical section
M = Fl
= x x x
= kNm
the location of zero shear ia at
X = 1.575*335/(335+402)
= m from inside face of column
M
u
= 0.156f
cu
bd
2
= kNm > kNm
k = M = <
f
cu
* b * d
2
compression bar is not required
A
s
= M
0.87 f
y
z
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k
0.9
z = mm
A
s
=
mm
2
provide H As = mm
2
or H16 @ 150 c/c
100A
s
= > 0.13 as required by code
b*h
0.491 3.578
100 1608 0.132 0.15
0.132 v
c
0.340 0.25 0.4
3350 362.5
0.15 0.34
0.329
450
187.8 3.35 0.716 0.358
8 16 1608
0.132
0.0001560 0.156
281.6
1605
161.2
0.716
1717 161.2
~check on shear stress
earth pressure = = kN/m
v = V = N/mm
2
< N/mm
2
bd
therefore section is adequate in shear.
0.34
1575 187.8
8.388
0.155
STRAP FOOTINGS
STRAP #3a
Design assumptions
1. Strap does not provide bearing
2. Strap is ridge enough to transfer moment from one footing to the other.
3. Soil bearing pressure = kN/m2
A B
DL DL
LL LL
P
a
P
b
LL LL
~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing A is
e = mm
= m
~the distance between footing reaction, L
L = mm
= m
~the eccentric moment is M = P
a
* e
= kNm
~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L
= kNm/m
3.05 3.05
150 5700 150
100
3.05 3.05
525 525
1050 1050
6096
5796
525 525
1.524
1575 1575
1.525 3048 1.525
3048
3.048
1600
3048
1524
525
R
b
R
a
N
1
N
2
5706/STRAP#3/19
~reaction at footing A , R
a
= P
a
+ V
Ra = kN
~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2
~required footing area of A = Ra/soil bearing capacity
= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2
~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing
e = mm
= m
~the distance between footing reaction, L
L = mm
= m
~the eccentric moment is M = P
b
* e
= kNm
~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L
= kNm/m
~reaction at footing B , R
b
= P
b
+ V
R
b
= kN
~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2
~required footing area of B = Rb/soil bearing capacity
= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2
STRAP
A B
~Factored column load of A = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk
= kN
~Factored column load of B = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk
= kN
~factored eccentric moment, M
ua
= P
a
* e ~M
ub
= P
b
* e
3.05 3.05 9.303
3048
1575
100
15.75
3048
3.048
1600
525
1524
1.524
3.05 3.05
1575
100
15.75
3.05 3.05 9.303
1575
1575
3.05 3.05
5706/STRAP#3/20
= kN = kN
~Factored shear, V
ua
= M/L ~V
ub
= M/L
= kN = kN
~Factored footing reaction at A = +
= kN
~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of A = /
= kN/m
~Factored footing reaction at B = +
= kN
~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of B = /
= kN/m
~Shear diagram
At point 1: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 2: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 3: V
u
= * -
= kN
At point 4: V
u
= * -
= kN
~Moment diagram
At point 1: M
u
=
= kNm
At point 2: M
u
= kNm
At point 3: M
u
= kNm
At point 4: M
u
= kNm

2400 2400
3.05
774.6
787.5 787.5
1575 787.5
1575 787.5
2363
2363
2363
2363
-1343
774.6 3.048 1575
3.05
774.6
774.6 0.3 1575
-1343
774.6 3.048 1575
786
774.6 0.3 1575
1706.7
786
-228
-964.7
-964.69
wl
2

2
5706/STRAP#3/21
kN kN
LOAD DIAGRAM
(kN)
300 300
kN/m kN/m
SHEAR
DIAGRAM
MOMENT
DIAGRAM
REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF STRAP FOOTING
~design footing strap as a reinforced concrete beam
~yield strenght of rebar = N/mm
2
~strenght of concrete = N/mm
2
1. Design footing strap
* assume x footing strap and the reinforcement is H 25
* top cover mm
* effective depth, d = mm
* depth to comression. rebar d' = mm
(b) design flexural reinforcement
maximum factored moment at point 4, M
u
= kNm
(K) (K' )
1575
2748
774.6 774.6
1575
2.90 2.90
410
25
375 1050
2748 0
50
987.5
87.5
1706.7
P
ua
P
ub
1
4
3 2
0
+786
+786
-1343
-1343
1
4
3
2
0
-228
+1706.7
-964.69
-964.7
5706/STRAP#3/22
k = M = > ==> compression bar is required
f
cu
* b * d
2
As' = (K -K' )f
cu
b d
2
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - kK' 0.87*f
y
*(d -d' )
0.9
= mm2
z = mm
As = k'f
cu
bd
2
+ As'
0.87*f
y
*z
= mm2
provide 14 H 25 = mm2
check area of steel provide 0.4% < 100A
s
A
c
100A
s
= ==> area of steel provide within the limit specified by code
A
c
(a) check direct shear
from shear factored diagram, Vu
(max)
= kN
v = V =
N/mm
2
< 0.8 f
cu
BS8110 - table 3.8,3.9
b*d
= N/mm
2
< =======> OK
BS8110
100A
s
= from table 3.9
b*d
v
c
=
0.72 - v
c
= 1.5-1.439
0.72-0.8 1.5-2
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
2. Design footing for colum A
assume h = mm
dia. bar = 25 mm
d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar
d = mm
~reaction at footing A , R
a
= P
a
+ V
Ra = kN
use x = kN/m
2
0.1867 0.156
873.9
697.5
1.856
6606.19
6872
1.745
1343
1.5 0.72
1.856 v
c
3.626
3.626 4.00
0.777
1050
450
362.5
0.777 2 0.8
1575
3.05 3.05 9.303
5706/STRAP#3/23
earth pressure = = kN/m
net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g
F
~at column face = kN/m
2
shear stress, v
c
= N
col. Perimeter x d
= < 0.8 f
cu
( )
punching shear
critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)
= mm
area within perimeter = (400+3h)
2
- (4-pi)(1.5h)
2
= mm2
punching shear force V = -
= kN
punching shear stress v = V
perimeter x d
= N/mm2 < 0.8 f
cu
( )
100A
s
= = < BS8110
bd from table 3.9
v
c
=
0.34 - v
c
= 0.15-0.158
0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
(b) bending reinforcement
at column face which is the critical section
M = Fl
= x x x
= kNm
the location of zero shear ia at
1575 169.3
9.303
169.3
2671388.2
154.2 9.303 2.67
154.2
3.621 3.578
5550
1023
0.508 3.578
100 1608 0.145 0.15
0.145 v
c
0.340 0.25 0.4
3050 362.5
0.15 0.34
0.337
450
169.3 3.05 0.716 0.358
132.3
5706/STRAP#3/24
X = 1.575*335/(335+402)
= m from inside face of column
M
u
= 0.156f
cu
bd
2
= kNm > kNm
k = M = <
f
cu
* b * d
2
compression bar is not required
A
s
= M
0.87 f
y
z
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k
0.9
z = mm
A
s
=
mm
2
provide H As = mm
2
or H16 @ 150 c/c
100A
s
= > 0.13 as required by code
b*h
~check on shear stress
earth pressure = = kN/m
v = V = N/mm
2
< N/mm
2
bd
therefore section is adequate in shear.
3. Design footing for colum B
assume h = mm
dia. bar = 25 mm
d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar
d = mm
~reaction at footing B , R
b
= P
b
+ V
R
b
= kN
use x = kN/m
2
earth pressure = = kN/m
net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g
F
~at column face = kN/m
2
0.0000210 0.156
281.6
1317
0.716
1563 132.3
1575 169.3
9.303
0.153
8 16 1608
0.145
3.05 3.05 9.303
1575
0.34
450
362.5
1575
169.3
9.303
169.3
154.2
5706/STRAP#3/25
shear stress, v
c
= N
col. Perimeter x d
= < 0.8 f
cu
N/mm
2
punching shear
critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)
= mm
area within perimeter = (400+3h)
2
- (4-pi)(1.5h)
2
= mm
2
punching shear force V = -
= kN
punching shear stress v = V
perimeter x d
=
N/mm
2
< 0.8 f
cu
( )
100A
s
= = < BS8110
bd from table 3.9
v
c
=
0.34 - v
c
= 0.15-0.158
0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25
v
c
=
from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h
h = will be suitable
(b) bending reinforcement
at column face which is the critical section
M = Fl
= x x x
= kNm
the location of zero shear ia at
X = 1.575*335/(335+402)
= m from inside face of column
M
u
= 0.156f
cu
bd
2
= kNm > kNm
k = M = <
f
cu
* b * d
2
compression bar is not required
A
s
= M
3.621 3.578
5550
2671388.2
100 1608 0.145 0.15
154.2 9.303 2.67
v
c
0.340 0.25 0.4
3050 362.5
0.15 0.34
132.3
0.716
1563 132.3
0.337
450
169.3 3.05 0.716
0.0001560 0.156
1022.66
0.358
0.145
0.508 3.578
5706/STRAP#3/26
0.87 f
y
z
lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k
0.9
z = mm
A
s
=
mm
2
provide H As = mm
2
or H16 @ 150 c/c
100A
s
= > 0.13 as required by code
b*h
~check on shear stress
earth pressure = = kN/m
v = V = N/mm
2
< N/mm
2
bd
therefore section is adequate in shear.
8 16 1608
0.145
281.6
1317
0.34
1575 169.3
9.303
0.153
5706/STRAP#3/27