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You are on page 1of 27

STRAP #1

Design assumptions

1. Strap does not provide bearing

2. Strap is ridge enough to transfer moment from one footing to the other.

3. Soil bearing pressure = kN/m2

A B

DL DL

LL LL

P

a

P

b

LL LL

~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing A is

e = mm

= m

~the distance between footing reaction, L

L = mm

= m

~the eccentric moment is M = P

a

* e

= kNm

2.75 2.75

150 5700 150

100

3.05 3.05

430 430

850 850

6000

5700

420 420

1.524

1276 1276

1.525 2952 1.525

2952

2.952

1295

3048

1524

R

b

R

a

N

1

N

2

~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L

= kNm/m

~reaction at footing A , R

a

= P

a

+ V

Ra = kN

~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2

~required footing area of A = Ra/soil bearing capacity

= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2

~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing

e = mm

= m

~the distance between footing reaction, L

L = mm

= m

~the eccentric moment is M = P

b

* e

= kNm

~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L

= kNm/m

~reaction at footing B , R

b

= P

b

+ V

R

b

= kN

~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2

~required footing area of B = Rb/soil bearing capacity

= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2

STRAP

A B

3.05 2.75 8.388

3048

438.8

1289

100

12.89

2952

2.952

1295

438.8

1524

1.524

2.75 2.75

1289

100

12.89

3.05 2.75 8.388

3.05 3.05

~Factored column load of A = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk

= kN

~Factored column load of B = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk

= kN

~factored eccentric moment, M

ua

= P

a

* e ~M

ub

= P

b

* e

= kN = kN

~Factored shear, V

ua

= M/L ~V

ub

= M/L

= kN = kN

~Factored footing reaction at A = +

= kN

~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of A = /

= kN/m

~Factored footing reaction at B = +

= kN

~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of B = /

= kN/m

~Shear diagram

At point 1: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 2: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 3: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 4: V

u

= * -

= kN

~Moment diagram

At point 1: M

u

=

= kNm

At point 2: M

u

= kNm

At point 3: M

u

= kNm

At point 4: M

u

= kNm

1276

1276

1945 1945

3.05

634.3

658.7 658.7

1276 658.7

1276 658.7

1935

1935

1935

1935

-1086

634.3 3.048 1276

3.05

634.3

634.3 0.3 1276

-1086

634.3 3.048 1276

657

634.3 0.3 1276

1408.4

657

-184

-749.9

-813.1

wl

2

2

kN kN

LOAD DIAGRAM

(kN)

300 300

kN/m kN/m

SHEAR

DIAGRAM

MOMENT

DIAGRAM

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF STRAP FOOTING

~design footing strap as a reinforced concrete beam

~yield strenght of rebar = N/mm

2

~strenght of concrete = N/mm

2

1. Design footing strap

* assume x footing strap and the reinforcement is H 25

* top cover mm

* effective depth, d = mm

* depth to comression. rebar d' = mm

1276

2748

634.3 634.3

1276

2.90 2.90

410

25

375 1050

2748 -96

50

987.5

87.5

P

ua

P

ub

1

4

3 2

0

+657

+657

-1086

-1086

1

4

3

2

0

-184

+1408.4

-813.1

-749.9

(b) design flexural reinforcement

maximum factored moment at point 4, M

u

= kNm

(K) (K' )

k = M = > ==> compression bar is required

f

cu

* b * d

2

As' = (K -K' )f

cu

b d

2

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - kK' 0.87*f

y

*(d -d' )

0.9

= mm2

z = mm

As = k'f

cu

bd

2

+ As'

0.87*f

y

*z

= mm2

provide 12 H 25 = mm2

check area of steel provide 0.4% < 100A

s

A

c

100A

s

= ==> area of steel provide within the limit specified by code

A

c

(a) check direct shear

from shear factored diagram, Vu

(max)

= kN

v = V =

N/mm

2

< 0.8 f

cu

BS8110 - table 3.8,3.9

b*d

= N/mm

2

< =======> OK

BS8110

100A

s

= from table 3.9

b*d

v

c

=

0.72 - v

c

= 1.5-1.439

0.72-0.8 1.5-2

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

2. Design footing for colum A

assume h = mm

0.1541 0.156

-55.23

771

1408.4

1.591

5130.58

5890

1.496

1086

1.5 0.72

1.591 v

c

2.932

2.932 4.00

0.735

1050

450

0.735 2 0.8

dia. bar = 25 mm

d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar

d = mm

~reaction at footing A , R

a

= P

a

+ V

Ra = kN

use x = kN/m

2

earth pressure = = kN/m

net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g

F

~at column face = kN/m

2

shear stress, v

c

= N

col. Perimeter x d

= < 0.8 f

cu

( )

punching shear

critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)

= mm

area within perimeter = (400+3h)

2

- (4-pi)(1.5h)

2

= mm2

punching shear force V = -

= kN

punching shear stress v = V

perimeter x d

= N/mm2 < 0.8 f

cu

( )

100A

s

= = BS8110

bd from table 3.9

v

c

=

0.34 - v

c

= 0.15-0.158

0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

362.5

1289 153.7

8.388

153.7

1289

2.75 3.05 8.388

2671388.2

138.5 8.388 2.67

138.5

2.963 3.578

5550

2750 362.5

0.15 0.34

792.1

0.394 3.578

100 1608 0.161

0.161 v

c

0.347 0.25 0.4

0.347

450

(b) bending reinforcement

at column face which is the critical section

M = Fl

= x x x

= kNm

the location of zero shear ia at

X = 1.575*335/(335+402)

= m from inside face of column

M

u

= 0.156f

cu

bd

2

= kNm > kNm

k = M = <

f

cu

* b * d

2

compression bar is not required

A

s

= M

0.87 f

y

z

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k

0.9

z = mm

A

s

=

mm

2

provide H As = mm

2

or H16 @ 150 c/c

100A

s

= > 0.13 as required by code

b*h

~check on shear stress

earth pressure = = kN/m

v = V = N/mm

2

< N/mm

2

bd

therefore section is adequate in shear.

3. Design footing for colum B

assume h = mm

dia. bar = 25 mm

d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar

0.358

108.3

0.716

1409 108.3

153.7 2.75 0.716

8 16 1608

0.161

0.0000210 0.156

281.6

1078

0.347

450

1289 153.7

8.388

0.154

d = mm

~reaction at footing B , R

b

= P

b

+ V

R

b

= kN

use x = kN/m

2

earth pressure = = kN/m

net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g

F

~at column face = kN/m

2

shear stress, v

c

= N

col. Perimeter x d

= < 0.8 f

cu

N/mm

2

punching shear

critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)

= mm

area within perimeter = (400+3h)

2

- (4-pi)(1.5h)

2

= mm

2

punching shear force V = -

= kN

punching shear stress v = V

perimeter x d

=

N/mm

2

< 0.8 f

cu

( )

100A

s

= = BS8110

bd from table 3.9

v

c

=

0.34 - v

c

= 0.15-0.158

0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

(b) bending reinforcement

at column face which is the critical section

M = Fl

= x x x

362.5

1289

153.7

8.388

153.7

138.5

2.75 3.05 8.388

1289

138.5 8.388 2.67

792.10

2.963 3.578

5550

2671388.2

0.394 3.578

100 1608 0.161

0.161 v

c

0.347 0.25 0.4

2750 362.5

0.15 0.34

0.347

450

153.7 2.75 0.716 0.358

= kNm

the location of zero shear ia at

X = 1.575*335/(335+402)

= m from inside face of column

M

u

= 0.156f

cu

bd

2

= kNm > kNm

k = M = <

f

cu

* b * d

2

compression bar is not required

A

s

= M

0.87 f

y

z

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k

0.9

z = mm

A

s

=

mm

2

provide H As = mm

2

or H16 @ 150 c/c

100A

s

= > 0.13 as required by code

b*h

~check on shear stress

earth pressure = = kN/m

v = V = N/mm

2

< N/mm

2

bd

therefore section is adequate in shear.

0.0001560 0.156

281.6

1078

108.3

0.716

1409 108.3

0.347

1289 153.7

8.388

0.154

8 16 1608

0.161

STRAP FOOTINGS

STRAP #3

Design assumptions

1. Strap does not provide bearing

2. Strap is ridge enough to transfer moment from one footing to the other.

3. Soil bearing pressure = kN/m2

A B

DL DL

LL LL

P

a

P

b

LL LL

~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing A is

e = mm

= m

~the distance between footing reaction, L

L = mm

= m

~the eccentric moment is M = P

a

* e

= kNm

~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L

= kNm/m

3.35 3.35

150 5700 150

100

3.05 3.05

525 525

1050 1050

6096

5796

525 525

1.524

1575 1575

1.525 3048 1.525

3048

3.048

1600

3048

1524

525

R

b

R

a

N

1

N

2

~reaction at footing A , R

a

= P

a

+ V

Ra = kN

~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2

~required footing area of A = Ra/soil bearing capacity

= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2

~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing

e = mm

= m

~the distance between footing reaction, L

L = mm

= m

~the eccentric moment is M = P

b

* e

= kNm

~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L

= kNm/m

~reaction at footing B , R

b

= P

b

+ V

R

b

= kN

~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2

~required footing area of B = Rb/soil bearing capacity

= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2

STRAP

A B

~Factored column load of A = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk

= kN

~Factored column load of B = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk

= kN

~factored eccentric moment, M

ua

= P

a

* e ~M

ub

= P

b

* e

3.05 3.35 10.22

3048

1575

100

15.75

3048

3.048

1600

525

1524

1.524

3.35 3.35

1575

100

15.75

3.05 3.35 10.22

1575

1575

3.05 3.05

= kN = kN

~Factored shear, V

ua

= M/L ~V

ub

= M/L

= kN = kN

~Factored footing reaction at A = +

= kN

~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of A = /

= kN/m

~Factored footing reaction at B = +

= kN

~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of B = /

= kN/m

~Shear diagram

At point 1: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 2: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 3: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 4: V

u

= * -

= kN

~Moment diagram

At point 1: M

u

=

= kNm

At point 2: M

u

= kNm

At point 3: M

u

= kNm

At point 4: M

u

= kNm

kN kN

LOAD DIAGRAM

(kN)

300 300

2400 2400

3.05

774.6

787.5 787.5

1575 787.5

1575 787.5

2363

2363

2363

2363

-1343

774.6 3.048 1575

3.05

774.6

774.6 0.3 1575

-1343

774.6 3.048 1575

786

774.6 0.3 1575

1706.7

1575

786

-228

-964.7

2748

1575

2.90 2.90

2748 0

-964.69

P

ua

P

ub

wl

2

2

kN/m kN/m

SHEAR

DIAGRAM

MOMENT

DIAGRAM

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF STRAP FOOTING

~design footing strap as a reinforced concrete beam

~yield strenght of rebar = N/mm

2

~strenght of concrete = N/mm

2

1. Design footing strap

* assume x footing strap and the reinforcement is H 25

* top cover mm

* effective depth, d = mm

* depth to comression. rebar d' = mm

(b) design flexural reinforcement

maximum factored moment at point 4, M

u

= kNm

(K) (K' )

k = M = > ==> compression bar is required

f

cu

* b * d

2

As' = (K -K' )f

cu

b d

2

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - kK' 0.87*f

y

*(d -d' )

0.9

= mm2

z = mm

As = k'f

cu

bd

2

+ As'

0.87*f

y

*z

774.6 774.6

410

25

375 1050

0.1867 0.156

873.9

697.5

50

987.5

87.5

1706.7

1

4

3 2

0

+786

+786

-1343

-1343

1

4

3

2

0

-228

+1706.7

-964.69

-964.7

= mm2

provide 14 H 25 = mm2

check area of steel provide 0.4% < 100A

s

A

c

100A

s

= ==> area of steel provide within the limit specified by code

A

c

(a) check direct shear

from shear factored diagram, Vu

(max)

= kN

v = V =

N/mm

2

< 0.8 f

cu

BS8110 - table 3.8,3.9

b*d

= N/mm

2

< =======> OK

BS8110

100A

s

= from table 3.9

b*d

v

c

=

0.72 - v

c

= 1.5-1.439

0.72-0.8 1.5-2

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

2. Design footing for colum A

assume h = mm

dia. bar = 25 mm

d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar

d = mm

~reaction at footing A , R

a

= P

a

+ V

Ra = kN

use x = kN/m

2

earth pressure = = kN/m

net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g

F

~at column face = kN/m

2

shear stress, v

c

= N

col. Perimeter x d

= < 0.8 f

cu

( )

1.856

6606.19

6872

1.745

1343

1.5 0.72

1.856 v

c

3.626

3.626 4.00

0.777

1050

450

362.5

0.777 2 0.8

1575 187.8

8.388

187.8

1575

2.75 3.05 8.388

172.7

3.621 3.578

punching shear

critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)

= mm

area within perimeter = (400+3h)

2

- (4-pi)(1.5h)

2

= mm2

punching shear force V = -

= kN

punching shear stress v = V

perimeter x d

= N/mm2 < 0.8 f

cu

( )

100A

s

= = < BS8110

bd from table 3.9

v

c

=

0.34 - v

c

= 0.15-0.158

0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

(b) bending reinforcement

at column face which is the critical section

M = Fl

= x x x

= kNm

the location of zero shear ia at

X = 1.575*335/(335+402)

= m from inside face of column

M

u

= 0.156f

cu

bd

2

= kNm > kNm

k = M = <

f

cu

* b * d

2

compression bar is not required

A

s

= M

0.87 f

y

z

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k

0.15

2671388.2

172.7 8.388 2.67

5550

3350 362.5

0.15 0.34

987.2

0.491 3.578

100 1608 0.132

0.358

0.132 v

c

0.340 0.25 0.4

161.2

0.716

1717 161.2

0.329

450

187.8 3.35 0.716

0.0000210 0.156

0.9

z = mm

A

s

=

mm

2

provide H As = mm

2

or H16 @ 150 c/c

100A

s

= > 0.13 as required by code

b*h

~check on shear stress

earth pressure = = kN/m

v = V = N/mm

2

< N/mm

2

bd

therefore section is adequate in shear.

3. Design footing for colum B

assume h = mm

dia. bar = 25 mm

d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar

d = mm

~reaction at footing B , R

b

= P

b

+ V

R

b

= kN

use x = kN/m

2

earth pressure = = kN/m

net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g

F

~at column face = kN/m

2

shear stress, v

c

= N

col. Perimeter x d

= < 0.8 f

cu

N/mm

2

punching shear

critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)

= mm

area within perimeter = (400+3h)

2

- (4-pi)(1.5h)

2

= mm

2

punching shear force V = -

= kN

8 16 1608

0.132

281.6

1605

0.34

450

362.5

1575

1575 187.8

8.388

0.155

187.8

8.388

187.8

172.7

2.75 3.05 8.388

1575

172.7 8.388 2.67

987.18

3.621 3.578

5550

2671388.2

punching shear stress v = V

perimeter x d

=

N/mm

2

< 0.8 f

cu

( )

100A

s

= = < BS8110

bd from table 3.9

v

c

=

0.34 - v

c

= 0.15-0.158

0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

(b) bending reinforcement

at column face which is the critical section

M = Fl

= x x x

= kNm

the location of zero shear ia at

X = 1.575*335/(335+402)

= m from inside face of column

M

u

= 0.156f

cu

bd

2

= kNm > kNm

k = M = <

f

cu

* b * d

2

compression bar is not required

A

s

= M

0.87 f

y

z

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k

0.9

z = mm

A

s

=

mm

2

provide H As = mm

2

or H16 @ 150 c/c

100A

s

= > 0.13 as required by code

b*h

0.491 3.578

100 1608 0.132 0.15

0.132 v

c

0.340 0.25 0.4

3350 362.5

0.15 0.34

0.329

450

187.8 3.35 0.716 0.358

8 16 1608

0.132

0.0001560 0.156

281.6

1605

161.2

0.716

1717 161.2

~check on shear stress

earth pressure = = kN/m

v = V = N/mm

2

< N/mm

2

bd

therefore section is adequate in shear.

0.34

1575 187.8

8.388

0.155

STRAP FOOTINGS

STRAP #3a

Design assumptions

1. Strap does not provide bearing

2. Strap is ridge enough to transfer moment from one footing to the other.

3. Soil bearing pressure = kN/m2

A B

DL DL

LL LL

P

a

P

b

LL LL

~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing A is

e = mm

= m

~the distance between footing reaction, L

L = mm

= m

~the eccentric moment is M = P

a

* e

= kNm

~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L

= kNm/m

3.05 3.05

150 5700 150

100

3.05 3.05

525 525

1050 1050

6096

5796

525 525

1.524

1575 1575

1.525 3048 1.525

3048

3.048

1600

3048

1524

525

R

b

R

a

N

1

N

2

5706/STRAP#3/19

~reaction at footing A , R

a

= P

a

+ V

Ra = kN

~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2

~required footing area of A = Ra/soil bearing capacity

= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2

~assume a footing width of mm, the eccentricity of footing

e = mm

= m

~the distance between footing reaction, L

L = mm

= m

~the eccentric moment is M = P

b

* e

= kNm

~the shear produced by M is, V = M/L

= kNm/m

~reaction at footing B , R

b

= P

b

+ V

R

b

= kN

~soil bearing capacity = kN/m2

~required footing area of B = Rb/soil bearing capacity

= kN/m2

use x = kN/m2

STRAP

A B

~Factored column load of A = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk

= kN

~Factored column load of B = 1.4*gk+1.6*qk

= kN

~factored eccentric moment, M

ua

= P

a

* e ~M

ub

= P

b

* e

3.05 3.05 9.303

3048

1575

100

15.75

3048

3.048

1600

525

1524

1.524

3.05 3.05

1575

100

15.75

3.05 3.05 9.303

1575

1575

3.05 3.05

5706/STRAP#3/20

= kN = kN

~Factored shear, V

ua

= M/L ~V

ub

= M/L

= kN = kN

~Factored footing reaction at A = +

= kN

~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of A = /

= kN/m

~Factored footing reaction at B = +

= kN

~Factored footing pressure per linear foot of B = /

= kN/m

~Shear diagram

At point 1: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 2: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 3: V

u

= * -

= kN

At point 4: V

u

= * -

= kN

~Moment diagram

At point 1: M

u

=

= kNm

At point 2: M

u

= kNm

At point 3: M

u

= kNm

At point 4: M

u

= kNm

2400 2400

3.05

774.6

787.5 787.5

1575 787.5

1575 787.5

2363

2363

2363

2363

-1343

774.6 3.048 1575

3.05

774.6

774.6 0.3 1575

-1343

774.6 3.048 1575

786

774.6 0.3 1575

1706.7

786

-228

-964.7

-964.69

wl

2

2

5706/STRAP#3/21

kN kN

LOAD DIAGRAM

(kN)

300 300

kN/m kN/m

SHEAR

DIAGRAM

MOMENT

DIAGRAM

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN OF STRAP FOOTING

~design footing strap as a reinforced concrete beam

~yield strenght of rebar = N/mm

2

~strenght of concrete = N/mm

2

1. Design footing strap

* assume x footing strap and the reinforcement is H 25

* top cover mm

* effective depth, d = mm

* depth to comression. rebar d' = mm

(b) design flexural reinforcement

maximum factored moment at point 4, M

u

= kNm

(K) (K' )

1575

2748

774.6 774.6

1575

2.90 2.90

410

25

375 1050

2748 0

50

987.5

87.5

1706.7

P

ua

P

ub

1

4

3 2

0

+786

+786

-1343

-1343

1

4

3

2

0

-228

+1706.7

-964.69

-964.7

5706/STRAP#3/22

k = M = > ==> compression bar is required

f

cu

* b * d

2

As' = (K -K' )f

cu

b d

2

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - kK' 0.87*f

y

*(d -d' )

0.9

= mm2

z = mm

As = k'f

cu

bd

2

+ As'

0.87*f

y

*z

= mm2

provide 14 H 25 = mm2

check area of steel provide 0.4% < 100A

s

A

c

100A

s

= ==> area of steel provide within the limit specified by code

A

c

(a) check direct shear

from shear factored diagram, Vu

(max)

= kN

v = V =

N/mm

2

< 0.8 f

cu

BS8110 - table 3.8,3.9

b*d

= N/mm

2

< =======> OK

BS8110

100A

s

= from table 3.9

b*d

v

c

=

0.72 - v

c

= 1.5-1.439

0.72-0.8 1.5-2

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

2. Design footing for colum A

assume h = mm

dia. bar = 25 mm

d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar

d = mm

~reaction at footing A , R

a

= P

a

+ V

Ra = kN

use x = kN/m

2

0.1867 0.156

873.9

697.5

1.856

6606.19

6872

1.745

1343

1.5 0.72

1.856 v

c

3.626

3.626 4.00

0.777

1050

450

362.5

0.777 2 0.8

1575

3.05 3.05 9.303

5706/STRAP#3/23

earth pressure = = kN/m

net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g

F

~at column face = kN/m

2

shear stress, v

c

= N

col. Perimeter x d

= < 0.8 f

cu

( )

punching shear

critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)

= mm

area within perimeter = (400+3h)

2

- (4-pi)(1.5h)

2

= mm2

punching shear force V = -

= kN

punching shear stress v = V

perimeter x d

= N/mm2 < 0.8 f

cu

( )

100A

s

= = < BS8110

bd from table 3.9

v

c

=

0.34 - v

c

= 0.15-0.158

0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

(b) bending reinforcement

at column face which is the critical section

M = Fl

= x x x

= kNm

the location of zero shear ia at

1575 169.3

9.303

169.3

2671388.2

154.2 9.303 2.67

154.2

3.621 3.578

5550

1023

0.508 3.578

100 1608 0.145 0.15

0.145 v

c

0.340 0.25 0.4

3050 362.5

0.15 0.34

0.337

450

169.3 3.05 0.716 0.358

132.3

5706/STRAP#3/24

X = 1.575*335/(335+402)

= m from inside face of column

M

u

= 0.156f

cu

bd

2

= kNm > kNm

k = M = <

f

cu

* b * d

2

compression bar is not required

A

s

= M

0.87 f

y

z

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k

0.9

z = mm

A

s

=

mm

2

provide H As = mm

2

or H16 @ 150 c/c

100A

s

= > 0.13 as required by code

b*h

~check on shear stress

earth pressure = = kN/m

v = V = N/mm

2

< N/mm

2

bd

therefore section is adequate in shear.

3. Design footing for colum B

assume h = mm

dia. bar = 25 mm

d = 600 - cover -dia. main bar - dia. secondary bar

d = mm

~reaction at footing B , R

b

= P

b

+ V

R

b

= kN

use x = kN/m

2

earth pressure = = kN/m

net upward pressure = - h x 24 x g

F

~at column face = kN/m

2

0.0000210 0.156

281.6

1317

0.716

1563 132.3

1575 169.3

9.303

0.153

8 16 1608

0.145

3.05 3.05 9.303

1575

0.34

450

362.5

1575

169.3

9.303

169.3

154.2

5706/STRAP#3/25

shear stress, v

c

= N

col. Perimeter x d

= < 0.8 f

cu

N/mm

2

punching shear

critical perimeter = column perimeter + 8(1.5d)

= mm

area within perimeter = (400+3h)

2

- (4-pi)(1.5h)

2

= mm

2

punching shear force V = -

= kN

punching shear stress v = V

perimeter x d

=

N/mm

2

< 0.8 f

cu

( )

100A

s

= = < BS8110

bd from table 3.9

v

c

=

0.34 - v

c

= 0.15-0.158

0.34-0.4 0.15-0.25

v

c

=

from table 3.9 BS 8110, this ultimate shear stress is not excessive, therefore h

h = will be suitable

(b) bending reinforcement

at column face which is the critical section

M = Fl

= x x x

= kNm

the location of zero shear ia at

X = 1.575*335/(335+402)

= m from inside face of column

M

u

= 0.156f

cu

bd

2

= kNm > kNm

k = M = <

f

cu

* b * d

2

compression bar is not required

A

s

= M

3.621 3.578

5550

2671388.2

100 1608 0.145 0.15

154.2 9.303 2.67

v

c

0.340 0.25 0.4

3050 362.5

0.15 0.34

132.3

0.716

1563 132.3

0.337

450

169.3 3.05 0.716

0.0001560 0.156

1022.66

0.358

0.145

0.508 3.578

5706/STRAP#3/26

0.87 f

y

z

lever arm, z = d 0.5 + 0.25 - k

0.9

z = mm

A

s

=

mm

2

provide H As = mm

2

or H16 @ 150 c/c

100A

s

= > 0.13 as required by code

b*h

~check on shear stress

earth pressure = = kN/m

v = V = N/mm

2

< N/mm

2

bd

therefore section is adequate in shear.

8 16 1608

0.145

281.6

1317

0.34

1575 169.3

9.303

0.153

5706/STRAP#3/27

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