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3D FEA of statnamic load test

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**ynote lecture: Three-dimensional finite element analysis of statnarnic load
**

test

Tirawat Boonyatee & Makoto Kimura

Kyoto University, Japan

Feng Zhang

GifLl Universiq, Japan

ABSTRACT In order to stud! the inechaiiisin of pile-soil interaction during statnamic loading. a FEM program is de-

veloped Since it ni l 1 also be applied to the statnamic test of piles in lateral direction. batter piles. group pile. and pile

raft foundation, the anal! sis SJ stem is formulated i n three-dimensional space Elasto-plastic model is used for the

ground material Joint element is also used for slip at the pile-soil interface The analysis program uses the direct inte-

gration scheine to solve the elasto-plastic anal!sis in time domain Laboratory tests of single piles are analjzed to iii-

vestigate the validit! of the developed program Firstly. the simulatioiis of static load test are done and compared \i7ith

the nieasurcd data from the tests Then. the simulatioiis of piles uiider statnamic are conducted uiider the same grouiid

coiidition Finall!. thc comparisons betu cen the static and statnamic responses of piles are discussed

1 INTRODUCTION

At present, the primary approach to investigating

pile behavior under statnamic loading is to make a

comparison between the results of full-scale stat-

namic and static load tests. Unfortunately, this cali-

bration method has an inherent problem in its testing

consistency, as was addressed by Amir & Amir

(1995). Under the uncertainty and complexity of the

target ground, the situation whereby any model can

be validated by calibrating statnamic load tests

against corresponding static load tests can be dem-

onstrated as follows:

1 I f a comparison is made of the results of tests on

the same pile, the tests have to be done in se-

quence. Therefore, the quality of the later tests

invariably deteriorates due to the induced residual

stresses from the former tests.

2 If a comparison is made between the results of

tests on different piles, significant samples should

be tested in order to achieve some degree of reli-

ability over the ground uncertainty.

lnstead of studying the data from the field tests, the

mechanism of the piles during statnamic loading can

be thoroughly investigated by the numerical analysis

approaches. Applying the fact that the system of in-

terest is axis-symmetry, Matsumoto (1998) applied a

2D-FEM program to analyze the behavior of a single

pile under vertical loading. Although a two-

dimensional analysis is simpler and the solution can

be found faster than with a three dimensional analy-

sis, it cannot be applied to a complex system such as

a pile-raft foundation or batter piles Moreover, it is

obvious for a horizontal loading case that the analy-

sis should be done in three-dimensional space

In order to develop a unified tool that can be ap-

plied for various types of problems, a three-

dimensional finite element analysis program called

DYSC (Dynamic and Static systems analysis Code)

is originally developed No-tension criteria and a

simple elasto-plastic model based on the Drucker-

Prager theory are applied as the yield functions for

the model ground An interface layer element is in-

serted at the interface between the pile and the soil

For the pile body, a linear elastic relation is used

since the applied force is lower than its yielding

point

It is thought that before applying the DYSC to the

simulation of piles, its fidelity should be checked by

a physical model For calibration purposes, a com-

parison of the analytical results to the laboratory test

results is preferred to the results from the field tests

The reasons are due to the complexity of the ground

and the qualities of the geotechnical parameters re-

quired for the analysis

In our previous study, a small-scale statnamic

loading device (3SLD-Mkl) was used to conduct

laboratory tests of piles under vertical loading (Ki-

mura et a1 1998) This device is used to conduct ex-

periments under a controllable environment Conse-

quently, guaranteeing that the series of tests are done

under the same conditions is possible Accompanied

with the data from those experiments, a comparison

563

between the simulation and the experiment is made

and reported in this paper.

2 DETAILS OF ANALYSIS

2.1 Inyzrt yaranieters

To determine the necessary parameters used in the

simulations of the statnamic load test, trial calcula-

tions are made. As shown in Figure 1, an analysis is

conducted in the half area of the pile-soil system.

Young's modulus of the pile is back calculated from

the flexural test results. Poisson's ratios for the pile

and the soil material are assumed to be 0.2 and

0.333, respectively. A parametric study has been

made to determine the Young's modulus of the

model ground. From various trial calculations and

comparisons with data from static load tests, a

Young's modulus of 4.9 MPa and a frictional angle

of 32 are selected as rational quantities for the

ground materials. The frictional angle of 32 for soil

gives the calculated ultimate load at more or less the

same level as the measured data. A Young's modulus

of 4.9 MPa controls the shape of the load-

displacement of the pile before failure. Using these

values, a satisfactory approximation for pile re-

sponse can be obtained. The load-displacement plot

from calculations and measured data is shown in

Figure 2.

0 1 2 3 3 5 6

D i sp 1 acein ent (in in)

Figure 2. Load-displacement relations from simulation and

experiment.

Table 1. Prouerties of materials

Sand Pile

Density (kg/m3) 1467 2150

Young's modulus (MPa) 4.90 5.00s 103

Poisson's ratio 0.333 0.200

Friction angle ( ) 32

Dilatmcy angle () 9

The properties of each material determined from an

inverse analysis are summarized in Table 1.

2.2 Pile-soil inteiface model

The Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is used for the

interaction between the pile and the soil. It states

that failure will take place if the magnitude of shear

stress (z) on the failure plane is equal to the value

given by the following relationship:

in which 1 1 denotes the absolute value, 0, is the

normal stress on the failure plane, and $0 and CO are

material constants for the pile-soil interface. In this

study, adhesion, or CO, is assumed to be zero. The

frictional angle of the pile-soil interface is assumed

to be 0.9 times the frictional angle of sand. Equation

(1) can be written in the form of yield fbnction F as

Figure 1. Analysis mesh.

564

F = jzl- CT, tan$o

If the material is sheared to the yield surface and the

associated flow rule is adopted, the rates of plastic

normal strain d&; and shear strain 7' are given by

which implies

(4)

Increments in shear displacement along the plane are

accompanied by increments in normal displacement.

The dilation of the shear plane will go unbound un-

der yielding. To avoid this unfavorable behavior, the

non-associated flow rule is adopted for the pile-soil

interface. By introducing dilatancy angle y, the

plastic potential function can be written as

I n this study, no dilation is assumed for the pile-soil

interface, i.e., w-+ 0.

3 SIMUL,ATION ON STATNAMIC LOAD TEST

After necessary parameters were back calculated

from the previous section, a dynamic FEM analysis

of a pile under Statnamic loading is done and com-

pared with the experiment results. The loading rate

dependency of the ground response is represented by

a constant damping parameter. In this simulation,

velocity and acceleration are calculated from the

displacement by the Newmark method. The stiffness

matrix (IQ the damping matrix (C), and the mass

matrix (A4) are calculated from the following equa-

tions:

K =J B' DBdd

1.01

(7)

0.0 0. 2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2

Di sp 1 acein eiit (m in )

Figure 3. Load-displacement relations from statiiaiiuc simula-

tion and experiment.

where N is a so-called shape function or displace-

ment interpolation function, R denotes a displace-

ment to the strain transformation fbnction, and 11 is a

strain to stress-strain transformation function. Pa-

rameter ,U is used to represent the damping constant

per volume of interested material in the same man-

ner as the density (p) is applied in the mass matrix.

Based on trial calculations, a damping constant of

3.9 MN/(m/s)/m3 (,U as defined in Equation (7)) is

used as the material constant for statnamic simula-

tions. The estimated load-displacement relation and

the test data are shown in Figure 3 . Note that the

initial displacement in statnamic load tests does not

conform to that in the static load tests. The initial

displacement in the statnamic load tests is a little bit

smaller than the corresponding value in the Static

load tests. This may contribute to the loading rate ef-

fect during the equipment installation process. To

correct this inconsistency, the load-displacement re-

lation (from the experiment) of the statnamic load

test is shifted to the right in order to match the 'true'

displacement in the static load tests.

4 COMPARISON BETWEEN COMPUTED

STATIC AND STATNAMIC LOADING

RESULTS

The distributions of displacement along a pile under

static loading are shown by Figure 4. At the peak

load, the elastic contraction represented by the dif-

ference in settlement between the pile head and the

toe is about 0.05 mm. When compared to the overall

settlement, this contraction is about 5% of the pile

head settlement. The distribution of axial force along

the pile is shown in Figure 5. The application of load

is sustained almost totally by friction resistance,

with only a small amount of force being transmitted

to the pile tip. The ratio of the end bearing resistance

to the shaft resistance is about 1 :4.5.

565

() 0 0 2 0 -4 0 0 0 8 1 0

D 1 s p lacem en t ( m m)

Figure 4 Distnbdion of displaccnient along pile under static

loading

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 3% -100

Load (N)

Figurc 5. Distribution of axial forcc along pilc undcr slalic

loading.

Figurc 6 Vanation III vclocitj of pilc licad <and toe along tiiiic

St3t.k s tatnarfl k:

150 N - 0 - 150 N

+ 250 N - 0 - 250 1

+400N - 0 - 400N

+ 450 N - H - 450 N

~"' "1' ""1"""' "I ""' I ""' I ' ' "' I ' ""I '

The pile velocitv versus time relation is shown in

Figure 6. At the maximum displacement, the veloc-

ity of the pile head is equal to zero. At the same

time, the velocity of the pile tip is almost identical to

that of the pile head. This implies that the pile be-

haves as a rigid body at the unloading point. Axial

force distributions of the pile during statnamic

loading as well as a comparison with those of the

static load test are shown in Figure 7. At the same

applied load level, the axial force distributions of the

two cases are almost identical. There are no sub-

stantial changes in load sustained by the pile tip. In-

creases in capacity mainly contributed to the shaft

resistance. The effect of a stress wave is not ob-

served in this analysis.

5 CONCLUSIOK

When compared to field tests that have the inherent

problem of ground uncertainty, the model tests pre-

sented here show the possibility for conducting Stat-

namic load tests under one uniform condition. Only

by this approach can the data be interpreted on ab-

solutely the same basis. Based on the results pre-

sented here, the following conclusions can be sum-

marized:

1 The finite element analysis (DYSC) shows that

the elastic contraction of the pile is relatively

small. This value represents about 5% of the total

displacement. From the load distribution plot, the

applied load is mainly supported by shaft friction.

The model pile is thought to be a friction pile.

566

The ratio of shaft resistance to end bearing resis-

tance is about 1:4.5.

2 Velocities of the pile head and the pile tip are al-

most identical and equal zero at the unloading

point. This supports the assumption that a pile

moves as a rigid body at the unloading point.

3 The axial force distribution from the statnamic

load test is almost similar to that from the static

load test. The stress wave effect, as in dynamic

load tests, is not observed in the present. This im-

plies that in the statnamic load test, the pile is

loaded in the same manner as in the static load

test.

At present, the horizontal load tests on group piles

have been conducted and reported elsewhere (Ki-

mura et al., 1999). The improvement on DYSC in

order to simulate the piles under lateral loading is

under operating.

REFERENCES

Amir. J M and Aniir. E I 1995 A Lumped-Parameter Model

for Statnanvc Testing ProL of the 1" Iiit 'I ,Stntiianiic &i ~ i i -

iiar, I i7iicoiiver pp 221-230

Matsuiiioto. T 1998 FEM anal!sis of Statnainic test on open-

elided steel pipe pile pro^ oftlze Td Iiit 'I StatiiamiL Seiiii-

I?W, Ibkvo, pre-printed volunie Balkerna

Kiniura. M . Boonjatee, T & Yoshida. A 1998 Expenmental

stud! of Statnainic load test b! air-pressure based loading

apparatus ~ r o c of the 21' ~ ~ i i t ' ~ StntmniiiL Seiviiiar, 70Iil0,

pre-priiited volutiie Balkenia

Kimura. M . Boonlatee, T & Yoshida. A 1999 Evperinicntal

Stud! of Lateral Statnaiiuc Load tests on Group Piles I ' i m

oftlie J '" Iiit ' I Colif oii Deep Foiiiidatroii I+actice 111 or-

prat i ng PILEX-ILK '99, Singapore pp 263-27 1

567

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