Application of Stress-Wave Theory to Piles, Niyama & Beim (eds) 0 2000 Balkema, Rotterdam, ISBN 90 5809 150 3

ynote lecture: Three-dimensional finite element analysis of statnarnic load
Tirawat Boonyatee & Makoto Kimura
Kyoto University, Japan
Feng Zhang
GifLl Universiq, Japan
ABSTRACT In order to stud! the inechaiiisin of pile-soil interaction during statnamic loading. a FEM program is de-
veloped Since it ni l 1 also be applied to the statnamic test of piles in lateral direction. batter piles. group pile. and pile
raft foundation, the anal! sis SJ stem is formulated i n three-dimensional space Elasto-plastic model is used for the
ground material Joint element is also used for slip at the pile-soil interface The analysis program uses the direct inte-
gration scheine to solve the elasto-plastic anal!sis in time domain Laboratory tests of single piles are analjzed to iii-
vestigate the validit! of the developed program Firstly. the simulatioiis of static load test are done and compared \i7ith
the nieasurcd data from the tests Then. the simulatioiis of piles uiider statnamic are conducted uiider the same grouiid
coiidition Finall!. thc comparisons betu cen the static and statnamic responses of piles are discussed
At present, the primary approach to investigating
pile behavior under statnamic loading is to make a
comparison between the results of full-scale stat-
namic and static load tests. Unfortunately, this cali-
bration method has an inherent problem in its testing
consistency, as was addressed by Amir & Amir
(1995). Under the uncertainty and complexity of the
target ground, the situation whereby any model can
be validated by calibrating statnamic load tests
against corresponding static load tests can be dem-
onstrated as follows:
1 I f a comparison is made of the results of tests on
the same pile, the tests have to be done in se-
quence. Therefore, the quality of the later tests
invariably deteriorates due to the induced residual
stresses from the former tests.
2 If a comparison is made between the results of
tests on different piles, significant samples should
be tested in order to achieve some degree of reli-
ability over the ground uncertainty.
lnstead of studying the data from the field tests, the
mechanism of the piles during statnamic loading can
be thoroughly investigated by the numerical analysis
approaches. Applying the fact that the system of in-
terest is axis-symmetry, Matsumoto (1998) applied a
2D-FEM program to analyze the behavior of a single
pile under vertical loading. Although a two-
dimensional analysis is simpler and the solution can
be found faster than with a three dimensional analy-
sis, it cannot be applied to a complex system such as
a pile-raft foundation or batter piles Moreover, it is
obvious for a horizontal loading case that the analy-
sis should be done in three-dimensional space
In order to develop a unified tool that can be ap-
plied for various types of problems, a three-
dimensional finite element analysis program called
DYSC (Dynamic and Static systems analysis Code)
is originally developed No-tension criteria and a
simple elasto-plastic model based on the Drucker-
Prager theory are applied as the yield functions for
the model ground An interface layer element is in-
serted at the interface between the pile and the soil
For the pile body, a linear elastic relation is used
since the applied force is lower than its yielding
It is thought that before applying the DYSC to the
simulation of piles, its fidelity should be checked by
a physical model For calibration purposes, a com-
parison of the analytical results to the laboratory test
results is preferred to the results from the field tests
The reasons are due to the complexity of the ground
and the qualities of the geotechnical parameters re-
quired for the analysis
In our previous study, a small-scale statnamic
loading device (3SLD-Mkl) was used to conduct
laboratory tests of piles under vertical loading (Ki-
mura et a1 1998) This device is used to conduct ex-
periments under a controllable environment Conse-
quently, guaranteeing that the series of tests are done
under the same conditions is possible Accompanied
with the data from those experiments, a comparison
between the simulation and the experiment is made
and reported in this paper.
2.1 Inyzrt yaranieters
To determine the necessary parameters used in the
simulations of the statnamic load test, trial calcula-
tions are made. As shown in Figure 1, an analysis is
conducted in the half area of the pile-soil system.
Young's modulus of the pile is back calculated from
the flexural test results. Poisson's ratios for the pile
and the soil material are assumed to be 0.2 and
0.333, respectively. A parametric study has been
made to determine the Young's modulus of the
model ground. From various trial calculations and
comparisons with data from static load tests, a
Young's modulus of 4.9 MPa and a frictional angle
of 32 are selected as rational quantities for the
ground materials. The frictional angle of 32 for soil
gives the calculated ultimate load at more or less the
same level as the measured data. A Young's modulus
of 4.9 MPa controls the shape of the load-
displacement of the pile before failure. Using these
values, a satisfactory approximation for pile re-
sponse can be obtained. The load-displacement plot
from calculations and measured data is shown in
Figure 2.
0 1 2 3 3 5 6
D i sp 1 acein ent (in in)
Figure 2. Load-displacement relations from simulation and
Table 1. Prouerties of materials
Sand Pile
Density (kg/m3) 1467 2150
Young's modulus (MPa) 4.90 5.00s 103
Poisson's ratio 0.333 0.200
Friction angle ( ) 32
Dilatmcy angle () 9
The properties of each material determined from an
inverse analysis are summarized in Table 1.
2.2 Pile-soil inteiface model
The Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion is used for the
interaction between the pile and the soil. It states
that failure will take place if the magnitude of shear
stress (z) on the failure plane is equal to the value
given by the following relationship:
in which 1 1 denotes the absolute value, 0, is the
normal stress on the failure plane, and $0 and CO are
material constants for the pile-soil interface. In this
study, adhesion, or CO, is assumed to be zero. The
frictional angle of the pile-soil interface is assumed
to be 0.9 times the frictional angle of sand. Equation
(1) can be written in the form of yield fbnction F as
Figure 1. Analysis mesh.
F = jzl- CT, tan$o
If the material is sheared to the yield surface and the
associated flow rule is adopted, the rates of plastic
normal strain d&; and shear strain 7' are given by
which implies
Increments in shear displacement along the plane are
accompanied by increments in normal displacement.
The dilation of the shear plane will go unbound un-
der yielding. To avoid this unfavorable behavior, the
non-associated flow rule is adopted for the pile-soil
interface. By introducing dilatancy angle y, the
plastic potential function can be written as
I n this study, no dilation is assumed for the pile-soil
interface, i.e., w-+ 0.
After necessary parameters were back calculated
from the previous section, a dynamic FEM analysis
of a pile under Statnamic loading is done and com-
pared with the experiment results. The loading rate
dependency of the ground response is represented by
a constant damping parameter. In this simulation,
velocity and acceleration are calculated from the
displacement by the Newmark method. The stiffness
matrix (IQ the damping matrix (C), and the mass
matrix (A4) are calculated from the following equa-
K =J B' DBdd
0.0 0. 2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Di sp 1 acein eiit (m in )
Figure 3. Load-displacement relations from statiiaiiuc simula-
tion and experiment.
where N is a so-called shape function or displace-
ment interpolation function, R denotes a displace-
ment to the strain transformation fbnction, and 11 is a
strain to stress-strain transformation function. Pa-
rameter ,U is used to represent the damping constant
per volume of interested material in the same man-
ner as the density (p) is applied in the mass matrix.
Based on trial calculations, a damping constant of
3.9 MN/(m/s)/m3 (,U as defined in Equation (7)) is
used as the material constant for statnamic simula-
tions. The estimated load-displacement relation and
the test data are shown in Figure 3 . Note that the
initial displacement in statnamic load tests does not
conform to that in the static load tests. The initial
displacement in the statnamic load tests is a little bit
smaller than the corresponding value in the Static
load tests. This may contribute to the loading rate ef-
fect during the equipment installation process. To
correct this inconsistency, the load-displacement re-
lation (from the experiment) of the statnamic load
test is shifted to the right in order to match the 'true'
displacement in the static load tests.
The distributions of displacement along a pile under
static loading are shown by Figure 4. At the peak
load, the elastic contraction represented by the dif-
ference in settlement between the pile head and the
toe is about 0.05 mm. When compared to the overall
settlement, this contraction is about 5% of the pile
head settlement. The distribution of axial force along
the pile is shown in Figure 5. The application of load
is sustained almost totally by friction resistance,
with only a small amount of force being transmitted
to the pile tip. The ratio of the end bearing resistance
to the shaft resistance is about 1 :4.5.
() 0 0 2 0 -4 0 0 0 8 1 0
D 1 s p lacem en t ( m m)
Figure 4 Distnbdion of displaccnient along pile under static
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 3% -100
Load (N)
Figurc 5. Distribution of axial forcc along pilc undcr slalic
Figurc 6 Vanation III vclocitj of pilc licad <and toe along tiiiic
St3t.k s tatnarfl k:
150 N - 0 - 150 N
+ 250 N - 0 - 250 1
+400N - 0 - 400N
+ 450 N - H - 450 N
~"' "1' ""1"""' "I ""' I ""' I ' ' "' I ' ""I '
The pile velocitv versus time relation is shown in
Figure 6. At the maximum displacement, the veloc-
ity of the pile head is equal to zero. At the same
time, the velocity of the pile tip is almost identical to
that of the pile head. This implies that the pile be-
haves as a rigid body at the unloading point. Axial
force distributions of the pile during statnamic
loading as well as a comparison with those of the
static load test are shown in Figure 7. At the same
applied load level, the axial force distributions of the
two cases are almost identical. There are no sub-
stantial changes in load sustained by the pile tip. In-
creases in capacity mainly contributed to the shaft
resistance. The effect of a stress wave is not ob-
served in this analysis.
When compared to field tests that have the inherent
problem of ground uncertainty, the model tests pre-
sented here show the possibility for conducting Stat-
namic load tests under one uniform condition. Only
by this approach can the data be interpreted on ab-
solutely the same basis. Based on the results pre-
sented here, the following conclusions can be sum-
1 The finite element analysis (DYSC) shows that
the elastic contraction of the pile is relatively
small. This value represents about 5% of the total
displacement. From the load distribution plot, the
applied load is mainly supported by shaft friction.
The model pile is thought to be a friction pile.
The ratio of shaft resistance to end bearing resis-
tance is about 1:4.5.
2 Velocities of the pile head and the pile tip are al-
most identical and equal zero at the unloading
point. This supports the assumption that a pile
moves as a rigid body at the unloading point.
3 The axial force distribution from the statnamic
load test is almost similar to that from the static
load test. The stress wave effect, as in dynamic
load tests, is not observed in the present. This im-
plies that in the statnamic load test, the pile is
loaded in the same manner as in the static load
At present, the horizontal load tests on group piles
have been conducted and reported elsewhere (Ki-
mura et al., 1999). The improvement on DYSC in
order to simulate the piles under lateral loading is
under operating.
Amir. J M and Aniir. E I 1995 A Lumped-Parameter Model
for Statnanvc Testing ProL of the 1" Iiit 'I ,Stntiianiic &i ~ i i -
iiar, I i7iicoiiver pp 221-230
Matsuiiioto. T 1998 FEM anal!sis of Statnainic test on open-
elided steel pipe pile pro^ oftlze Td Iiit 'I StatiiamiL Seiiii-
I?W, Ibkvo, pre-printed volunie Balkerna
Kiniura. M . Boonjatee, T & Yoshida. A 1998 Expenmental
stud! of Statnainic load test b! air-pressure based loading
apparatus ~ r o c of the 21' ~ ~ i i t ' ~ StntmniiiL Seiviiiar, 70Iil0,
pre-priiited volutiie Balkenia
Kimura. M . Boonlatee, T & Yoshida. A 1999 Evperinicntal
Stud! of Lateral Statnaiiuc Load tests on Group Piles I ' i m
oftlie J '" Iiit ' I Colif oii Deep Foiiiidatroii I+actice 111 or-
prat i ng PILEX-ILK '99, Singapore pp 263-27 1