DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

SUB NAME: METAL CUTTING & MACHINE TOOLS




















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UNIT-I: ELEMENTARY TREATMENT OF METAL CUTTING THEORY

1.1 Elements of cutting process: The basic elements of all machining operations

1. Work piece
2. Tool
3. Chip
These elements are displayed which represents the cutting action of a list in two
dimensional or orthogonal cutting.
1.2 Geometry of single point tool angles:
The Rake Angle:
The rake angle is always at the topside of the tool. The basic tool geometry is
determined by the rake angle of the tool.
Side Rake Angle:
It is the angle by which the face of the tool is inclined side ways. The side
rake angle and the back rake angle combine to form the effective rake angle. This is also
called true rake angle or resultant rake angle of the tool.
Relief angle:
Relief angles are provided to minimize physical interference or rubbing
contact with machined surface and the work piece. Relief angles are for the purpose of
helping to eliminate tool breakage and to increase tool life.
Side Cutting Edge Angle:
The side cutting edge angle of the tool has practically no effect on the value
of the cutting force or power consumed for a given depth of cut and feed. Large side
cutting edge angles are lightly to cause the tool to chatter.
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Lip angle:
It is also called cutting angle. It is the angle between the face and surface of the tool.
Nose angle:
It is the angle between side cutting edge and end cutting edge.

1.3. Chip formation:
The chip formation is when the tool advances in to the work piece; the metal in front of
the metal in front of the tool is severely stressed. The cutting tool produces internal shearing
action in the metal. The metal below the cutting edge yields and flows plastically in the form of
chip.
1.4 Types of chips:
Continuous chips (with out built up edge):
When the cutting tool moves towards the work piece, there occurs a plastic
deformation of the work piece and the metal is separated with out any discontinuity and it
moves like a ribbon.
The chip moves along the face of the tool. This mostly occurs while cutting a
ductile material. It is desirable to have smaller chip thickness and higher cutting speed in
order to get continuous chips. Lesser power is consumed while continuous chips are
produced.
Continuous chips (with built up edge):
When cutting a ductile metal, the compression of the metal is followed by the
high heat at the tool face. This in turns enables part of the removed metal to be welded in
to the tool. This is known as built up edge The weld metal is work hardened or strain
hardened. While the cutting process is continued some of built up edge may be combined
with the chip and pass along the tool face.
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Discontinuous chips:
This can be also be called as segmental chips. This is mostly occurs while
cutting brittle material such as cast iron or low ductile materials. Instead of shearing the
metal as it happens in the previous process, the metal is being fractured like segments of
fragments and they pass over the tool face.

1.5 Chip breakers:
A chip breaker is used to break the continuous chip into sections so that the chips
cannot tangle around the cutting tool. The simplest form of chip breaker is made by
grinding a groove on the tool face a few millimeters behind the cutting edge.

1.6 Mechanics of orthogonal cutting:
An analysis of the chip geometry and the force system found in the case of orthogonal
cutting accompanied by a type 2 chip has yielded a collection of useful equations which make
possible the study of actual machining operations in terms of basic mechanical quantities. The
shearing strain undergone by the metal during chip formation, and the velocities of shear and of
chip flow are among the geometrical quantities which can be quantitatively determined.








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1.7 Merchants force diagram:


Where
Ø = shear angle
Fs = shear force
Fc = vertical component
r = back rake angle
Draw a horizontal line and choose a point A conveniently. At A draw the vector F to
suitable scale at angle q from the merchants theory: 20+ Ø = 90
0
. Knowing θ and can be
evaluated. Draw the vector E at the angle (Ø-r) from the horizontal. Choose the centre of the
Merchants circle on the vector R at the angle such that it passes through the points A and B the
circle cuts the vector R extended at C produce A to meet the other end of the circle at E which m,
easures the vertical component of the cutting force Fv to the scale. Join Ec which is the
horizontal component Fc to the same scale. At A draw a vertical and vector F at an angle α
which meets the circle at D.Join CD which is equal to N and CB measures FN. Thus all the force
components can be readily obtained from the merchants circle
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1.8 cutting forces:
The forces acting on a single point cutting tool are of fundamental importance in
the design and of cutting and machine tools. For a conventional turning process the force
system.
1.9 cutting speed:
It is travel of a point on the cutting edge relative to the surface of cut in the unit
time in the process of accomplishing the primary cutting motion.
1.10 cutting feed:
Feed is the amount of material removed for each revolution or per pass of the tool
over the work piece. Feed is measured in units of length/revolution, length/pass,
length/tooth, length/time, or other appropriate unit for the particular process.
1.11 depth of cut:
Cutting speed and feed rate come together with depth of cut to determine the material
removal rate, which is the volume of work piece material (metal, wood, plastic, etc.) that
can be removed per time unit.
1.12 Tool life:
The length of time that a cutting tool can function properly before it begins to fail.
Tool wear is a time dependent process. As cutting proceeds, the amount of tool wear
increases gradually. But tool wear must not be allowed to go beyond a certain limit in
order to avoid tool failure.
1.13 coolants:
A coolant is a fluid which flows through or around a device to prevent it’s
overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or
dissipate it. An ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, non-
toxic, and chemically inert, neither causing nor promoting corrosion of the cooling
system.
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The different type of coolants
1. Carbon tetrachloride
2. Acetic acid
3. Turpentine
4. Kerosene

1.14 Tool materials:
The different type of tool materials
1. Carbon steels
2. Medium alloy steels
3. High speed steels
4. Cemented carbide tools




















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UNIT-II: ENGINE LATHE

2.1 Working principle of lathe:

The main function of a lathe is to remove metal from a piece of work to give it the
required shape and size. The lathe is used to machine cylindrical shapes. In a lathe work
piece is held and rotated about its axis. Generally single point cutting tool is used as the
cutting tool.

2.2 specifications of lathe:

1. The length between the centres
2. The length of bed
3. The height of the centre’s
4. The maximum diameter
5. The swing diameter of the bed
6. The swing diameter over carriage

2.3 Types of lathe:

1. Speed lathe:

Speed lathe consists of a bed, a head stock, a tail stock and a adjustable toolpost.As the
speed of the spindle is very high. It is called as speed lathe. The spindle is driven by a high
speed motor through belts. The speed of the lathe is used for wood turning for polishing a
work, and for metal spinning.

2. Engine lathe:

Engine lathe is the name applied to a traditional late-19th-century or 20th-century lathe with
automatic feed to the cutting tool, as opposed to early lathes which were used with hand-held
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tools, or lathes with manual feed only. The usage of "engine" here is in the mechanical-
device sense, not the prime-mover sense, as in the steam engines which were the standard
industrial power source for many years. The works would have one large steam engine which
would provide power to all the machines via a line shaft system of belts. Therefore early
engine lathes were generally 'cone heads', in that the spindle usually had attached to it a
multi-step pulley called a cone pulley designed to accept a flat belt. Different spindle speeds
could be obtained by moving the flat belt to different steps on the cone pulley. Cone-head
lathes usually had a countershaft (lay shaft) on the back side of the cone which could be
engaged to provide a lower set of speeds than was obtainable by direct belt drive. These
gears were called back gears. Larger lathes sometimes had two-speed back gears which
could be shifted to provide a still lower set of speeds.

3. Bench lathe:

It is very small size lathe. It is mounted on a work bench. It is used for small and precision
work. It is provided with all the parts and mechanisms as in an engine lathe. It performs all
the operations that can be done in an engine lathe.

4. Tool room lathe:

It is nothing but an engine lathe built up more accurately with certain extra attachments. it is
designed for more accurate and precision type of work. It has more range of speeds and
feeds. it is equipped with centres, steady rest, quick change gears, taper attachments, pump
for coolant etc.
5. Turret lathe and capstan lathe:
Turret lathes and capstan lathes are members of a class of lathes that are used for repetitive
production of duplicate parts (which by the nature of their cutting process are usually
interchangeable). It evolved from earlier lathes with the addition of the turret, which is an index
able tool holder that allows multiple cutting operations to be performed, each with a different
cutting tool, in easy, rapid succession, with no need for the operator to perform setup tasks in
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between (such as installing or uninstalling tools) nor to control the tool path. (The latter is due to
the tool path’s being controlled by the machine, either in jig-like fashion [via the mechanical
limits placed on it by the turret's slide and stops] or via IT-directed servomechanisms
[on computer numerical controlled (CNC) lathes].)

6. Semiautomatic lathe:
In this type of lathe some operations are performed manually and some by automatic means
they are used in mass production. Capstan and turret lathes are of this type. They may be
horizontal or vertical type. It has a turret head instead of tail stock in an engine lathe.
7. Automatic lathe:
These are mass production lathe. In this lathe, all operations and job handling movements are
done automatically. The changing of tools, speeds and feeds are also done automatically.
This lathe has two or more cam shafts. The camshafts carry many cams to change the speed,
feed and tool.
8. Special purpose lathe:
These lathes are specially designed to machine for specified operations only. They are meant
for a job which cannot be a accommodated or conveniently machined on a standard lathe.








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2.4 Lathe machine parts






1.BED

It is supported on broad box-section columns and is made of cast iron. Its upper surface is either
scraped or ground and the guiding and sliding surfaces are provided. The bed consists of two
heavy metal slides running lengthwise, with ways or V'sformed upon them. It is rigidly
supported by cross girths. The outer guide ways provide bearing and sliding surface for the
carriage, and the inner ways for the tailstock. Three major units mounted on bed are the
headstock, the tailstock, and the carriage.
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2. Headstock
It supports the main spindle in the bearings and aligns it properly. It also houses
Necessary transmission mechanism with speed changing levers to obtain different
Speeds cone pulley or gears or combination of both could be used to change speed
Of spindle.
The complete head stock consists of the headstock casting which is located on the
Ways of the bed at the lift side of the operator, the hollow spindle in which the live
Center is rigidly held by a taper and the necessary gears and mechanisms for obtaining
the various spindly speeds. The centerline of the headstock is parallel to the guide
Ways, in both horizontal and vertical planes. All the modern lathe employ all-geared
Headstock. However, where greater simplicity and low cost are the criteria, cone-drive
Headstock can be used. A geared headstock may be driven either direct from a line
Shaft or from an independent motor, the drive being transmitted to the constant
Speed main drive pulley. Headstock also incorporates the self-contained clutch and
Brake mechanism by which the pulley may be coupled to the starting in the headstock
As required.
3.Tailstock
It is movable casting located opposite to the headstock on the ways of the bed. It is
used for two purposes, (i) to support the other end of the work when being
machined, and (ii) to hold a tool for performing operations like drilling, reaming,
taping etc. it contains the dead centers the adjusting screw and the hand wheel. The
body of the tailstock is adjustable on the base which is mounted on the guide ways
of the bed and can be moved to and fro. The object of making the body adjustable on
the base is to provide means for lining up the center, carried in the moving spindle,
with the headstock center, or for offsetting this center to permit tapers to be turned.
Axial adjustment of the dead center in the movable spindle in the tailstock body is
provided for by means of a hand-wheel, which is attached to a screw engaging the
nuts in the rear of the movable spindle. It can be located by any position in the body
by means of a lever. The spindle is bored or ground to a taper gauge to take center
which may be of the fixed or revolving type
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4. Carriage:
It is located between the headstock and tailstock. It is fitted on the bed and slides
Along the bed guide ways and can be locked on the bed at any desired position by
Tightening the carriage lock screw. It can be moved manually with a hand wheel or
With power feed.
It consists of following 5 main parts
1) Saddle
2) Cross slide
3) Compound rest consisting of a swivel and top slide
4) Tool post
5) Apron.
5. Tool post
It is used to hold various cutting tool holders. The holders rest on a wedge which is
Shaped on the bottom to fit into a concave-shaped ring (segmental type), which
permits the height of the cutting edge to be adjusted by tilting the tool It is fixed on the top slide.
It gets its movement by the movement of the saddle, cross slide and top slide.

Three types of tool posts care commonly used.
1) Ring and rocker tool post.
2) Quick change tool post
3) Square head tool
2.5 Operations performed in a engine lathe
1.Turning:
Turning is the most generally used operation in a lathe. In this the work held in the
spindle is rotated while the tool is fed past the work-piece in a direction parallel to
the axis of rotation. The surface thus generated is the cylindrical surface.


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2 Facing

Facing is an operation for generating flat surfaces in lathes as shown in fig.2.17. The
feed in this case is given in a direction perpendicular to the axis of revolution. The
tool used should thus have an approach angle suitable so that it would not interfere
with the work-piece during the tool feeding.
3.Knurling

Knurling is a metal working operation done in a lathe. In this a knurling tool having
the requisite serrations is forced ori the work-piece material, thus deforming the top
layers .This forms atop surface which is rough and provides a proper gripping surface.

4.Parting

Parting and grooving are similar operations. In this a flat nosed tool plunge cuts the
Work-piece with a feed in the direction perpendicular to the axis of revolution as
This operation is generally carried out for cutting off the part from the parent material. When the
tool goes beyond the center, the part would be severed. Other wise a rectangular groove would
be obtained. It is also possible in similar operations to use a special form of tool to obtain the
specific groove shape.
5. Drilling
Drilling is the operation of making cylindrical holes in to the solid material as shown
in Fig.2.20. A twist drill is held in the quill of the tailstock and is fed in to the
rotating work-piece by feeding the tailstock quill. Since the work-piece keeps rotating,
the axis of the hole is very well maintained, even when the drill enters at an angle
initially. The same operation can also be used for other hole making operations such
as center drilling counter sinking and counter boring. The operation is limited to
holes through the axis of rotating of the work-piece and from any of the ends.
.
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6.Boring

Boring is the operation of enlarging a hole already made by a single point boring
tool termed as boring bar as shown in Fig.2.21. The operation is somewhat similar
to the external turning operation. However, in view of the internal operation. The
tool used is less rigid compared to the turning tool and as a result it cannot withstand
the large cutting forces. Thus the process parameters used are some that lower
than those used for turning. Boring is used for generating an accurate hole with
good surface finish.
Fig.2.21.
2.6 work holding devices:
1. Three Jaw Self-Centering Chuck:
If your mission is to chuck up a cylindrical piece of material and get started making chips
quickly, the 3-jaw chuck is your tool of choice. They are possibly the lowest precision option for
holding your work piece because there are many ways for them to be off in terms of
concentricity with the axis of spindle rotation. Any little chip or dust between the jaws and work
piece or in the scroll mechanism will throw one off. Because they are so easy to use, they often
have a lot of wear.
2. 4-Jaw Chuck:
4-jaw chucks grip the work piece more tightly than a 3-jaw, which may yield benefits in
rigidity, especially for small parts. They also allow a part to be turned eccentrically (i.e. off
center), which is essential for making cams and similar kinds of parts. The other great use for a
4-jaw is holding non-cylindrical pieces that have to be turned. Since the jaws are individually
adjustable, you can make them fit a piece well. I have seen an amazing amount of work get done
on non-cylindrical pieces using a 4-jaw from machinists who don't have access to a mill.


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3. Collect chuck:
There are a variety of ways to get started with collets. One of the simplest is to purchase a
collect chuck. Slightly more involved is to use a nosepiece and drawbar setup. With a lever
operated collect closer, you can quickly pop parts in and out of the collect, which is a
tremendous productivity increase when making runs of identical parts. The logical conclusion to
all this is a pneumatic collect closer and bar feeder. In CNC applications, you can set up the
collect so bar is fed in, machined, and parted off as a continuous operation.

4. Work held between centres:
Long shafts are generally held between centres. Here a driving plate or catch plate is screwed
to the nose of the head stock spindle. The live centre is inserted in the head stock spindle. The
tail stock carries the dead centre.

2.7 Tool holding devices:
1. Straight cutter holder:

This is a simple tool holder constructed to take standard section tool bits. In this type
of holder the tool is held perpendicular to the shank. The tool is gripped in the holder by three set
screws. Different operations like turning facing, boring, counter boring etc. can be performed by
holding suitable tools in the tool holder. the straight cutter tool holder. Straight cutter holder.

2.Multiple cutter holder

The multiple cutter holde Can accommodate double tools in Its body. This feature enables
turning of two different diameters simultaneously. Turning and boring or turning and facing tools
can also be set in the holder to perform operations at a time. Capstan and turret lathe 3.9


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3. Knee tool holder

The knee tool holder is. It is useful for simultaneous turning And boring or turning and drilling
operations. The knee tool holder is bolted directly On the turret face.

4. Flange tool holder

The twist drills having Morse taper shanks are usually held in a socket, which is parallel out side,
but taper inside. These sockets are introduced in the bracket of a lange tool holder and clamped
to it by set screws.

5. Knurling tool holder

Knurling tool holder may be mounted on the turret face or on the tool posts of cross
Slide. The holder with knurls is mounted on the cross slide can perform knurling Operation on
any diameter work. a knurling tool holder, which is fitted on the turret face. The position of
knurls can be adjusted in a vertical planeto accommodate different diameters of work.

6 Form tool holder

The form tool holder is shown in the Fig.3.10. Two sets of form tool holders have been designed
for holding straight and circular form cutters. The usual procedure of holding a form tool holder
is on the cross slide. In the straight form tool holder the tool is mounted on a dovetail slide and
the height of the cutting edge may be adjusted by moving the tool within the slide. The height of
the circular form tool may be adjusted by rotating the circular cutter.





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2.8 Tool-Layout:

A tool-layout for a job is a predetermined plan prepared for the order and method of machining
operations necessary to produce a given job. For the preparation of a layout it is necessary to
have finished drawing, drawn to a proper scale, of the part to be produced. It is followed by an
operation sheet. The layout sketch shows the various tools filled into turret faces and on cross
slide in proper sequence. Accuracy and cost of machining depends on efficient layout. A
Typical layout for a capstan lathe is shown in Fig.



2.9 Principal Parts of Capstan and Turret Lathes:

The turret lathe has essentially the same parts as the engine lathe except the turret
and complex mechanism incorporated in it for making it suitable for mass production
work. Fig.3.1. illustrates the different parts of a capstan lathe and fig.3.2. Shows the
different parts of a turret lathe. The following are the principal parts of a capstan
and turret lathe.
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1.Bed

Bed is a long box like casting provided with accurate guide way upon which are mounted the
carriage and turret saddle. The bed is designed to ensure strength rigidity and alignment under
heavy duty services.

2. Head stock

The headstock is a large casting located at the left hand end of the bed. The headstock
of a capstan or turret lathe may be of the following types.
1) Step done pulley driven headstock
2) Direct electric motor driven headstock.
3) All geared headstock.
4) Preoptive or pre-selective headstock.

The headstock is heavier in construction in order to provide a wide range of
speeds (between 30 to 2000 rpm). Among four types of headstocks listed above, the
following two types are in common use.
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3. All Geared Type

A medium type of turret lathe is fitted with all geared headstock. It is very rigid in
construction. It provides a fairly wide range of speeds and is suitable for heavy
cutting operations. The various spindle speeds as well as forward and reverse movement,
are controlled by levers extending from the head.

4. Direct Electric Motor Driven Head Stock

It carries multi-speed electric motor to provide the required range of speeds. In this
type of headstock the spindle of the machine and the shaft of the motor are one and
the same. Any speed variation or reversal is effected by simply controlling the motor.
Three or four speeds are available and the machine is suitable for smaller diameter
of work-pieces rotated at high speeds.

5.Carriages and Chaser Saddle

There are two types of carriages designed and they are:
1) Conventional type carriage.
2) Side hung type carriage.
1) Convention type carriage

It carries a cross slide over it, on which are mounted two tool posts, one or. the
front and the other on the back. Both the tool posts are usually square tool post, in
which each is capable of holding four tools at a time. By means of a handle
provided at the top of the tool post the same can be indexed equally (through 90°)
each time to bring one tool, one after the other in the require position.

2) Side hung type carriage
The side hung type carriage is generally designed for heavy-duty turret lathes. They
are fitted with heavy-duty turret lathes where the saddle slides on the top and the
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bottom guide ways and on the front of the lathe bed. This design facilitates
swinging of larger diameter of work pieces without interference by the cross slide.

4 Turret Saddle and Auxiliary Slides

In a capstan lathe, the turret saddle bridges the gap between two bed ways. The top face of the
saddle is accurately machined to provide bearing surfaces for the auxiliary slide. The saddle may
be adjusted on lathe bed ways and clamped at the desired position. The hexagonal turret is
mounted on the auxiliary slide. In a turret lathe, the turret is directly mounted on the top of the
saddle and any movement of the turret is effected by the movement of the saddle.


5 Turret

The turret is a hexagonal shaped tool holder intended for holding six or more tools. Each face of
the turret is accurately machined. At the center of each face, accurately machined and bored
holes are provided for accommodating the shanks of different tool holders. At the centre of the
turret and on the top of it, there is a clamping lever, which locks the turret ont he saddle. The
movement of the turret may be effected by hand or power.

.6 Stops

Six stop bars are provided on the saddle, which restrict the movement of each tool mounted on
each face of the turret to be faced to a predetermined amount for duplicating work pieces. After
one operation is completed as the turret is brought back away from the spindle nose; the turret
indexes automatically by a mechanism incorporated on the bed and in turret saddle, so that the
tool mounted on the next face is aligned to the work.




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7. Pilot Bar

Pilot bar or an over arm support is another feature of this lathe. Pilot bar is provided
at the top of the headstock, engages in a hole provided in knee type tool holders and
thus gives rigidity and piloting to the tool for accurate working. For heavy cuts this
is essentially needed.

8 Collet Operating Lever

It is the lever on the headstock by which collet may be operated in holding the work
piece.



2.10 Automatic Lathes

The term automation is derived from the word automatic. Automatic means self-acting
or self-regulating. Automatic plays an important role in increasing production in a machine shop
Basically automatic are engine lathes designed for large quantity production.

2.10.1Automatics

Automatic machines are those in which both the work piece handling and the metal
cutting operation are performed automatically. Such machines have a fully automatic
working cycle repeated to produce duplicate parts without the participation of machine
operator. In automatic machines operations right from feeding and clamping of a
work piece to machining it to the required size and shape and even in spection are
done automatically following a particular sequence to suit the given work. This is
achieved by using cams, stops settings, trip dogs and other mechanical movements
of the machine. All that the operator has to do during the operation is to inspect a
few pieces after regular interval and plot the readings in order to study the trend of
the dimensions and there by determining the setting of the machine. Numerically
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controlled machines transfer machines and automatic bar machines may be examples
of automatics.

2.10.2 Semi-Automatics
These are usually turning machines adopted to chuck work. In these machines, the
Movements of work-piece or tools are automatically controlled but the work has to
be loaded in to and removed from the chuck at the beginning and end of each cycle of
Operations. The operator has to cheek the size of the work piece being machined.
The machining cycle is automatic but the direct participation of the operator is
Required to start each subsequent cycle, of operations.

2.11 Principle of Working of an Automatic Lathe

Automatic lathe is the logical development of a capstan lathe. It is sometimes called
automatic turret lathe. A simple plan view showing the principle of operation of an
automatic turret lathe is shown in fig.


Working:

In automatic machines specially manufactured plate cams are used to operate the
tool slide and turret slide. The turret slide cam is called as lead cam. These are
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Manufactured from circular discs and are machined to the required profile. The each
tool slide carries one tool only and the turret carries six tools but only one turret
station is in operation at a time. Therefore the slide cams have a single lobe and the
lead cam will have as many lobes as the number of turret stations being used. The
radial throw (lift) of each cam lobe is equivalent to the required length of travel of
the tool for which it is designed. The feed of each tool is also controlled by the rate
of lift of the cam lobe. The turret indexes automatically one or two station as per the
requirement.

2.12 Classification of Automatic Lathes

1. Horizontal spindle Automatic lathes

2. Vertical spindle automatic lathe

(a) Semi automatic lathe
(i) Single spindle
(ii) Multi spindle

Automatic bar machines are employed for the manufacture use of high quality
fastenings (screws, nuts and studs), bushings, shafts, rings, rollers, handles and
other parts usually made of bar or pipe stock. The machining accuracy obtained by
these automated machines depends on the type of machine and cutting tool employed.
Multiple spindle machines may have from two to eight spindles. Their production
capacity is higher than that of single spindle machines but their machining accuracy
is somewhat lower. The rate of production of a multiple spindle automatic is less
than that of the corresponding number of single spindle automatic machines. The
production capacity of a four spindle machine for example may be about two and a
half to three times more than that of a single spindle machine.

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2.13 The typical operations carried out on automatic lathes are:

1) Centering
2)Turning cylindrical, tapered and formed surfaces

3) Drilling

4) Boring

5) Reaming

6) Spot facing

7) Knurling

8) Thread cutting

9) Facing

10) Cutting-off








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UNIT-III :Shaping, slotting and planning machines

3.1Shaping Machines:
Introduction:
The shaper is a machine tool having a reciprocating cutting tool of the lathe type, which
takes a straight line cut. It is primarily intended to produce flat surfaces. These surfaces
may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. The main significance of this machine lies in its
greater flexibility on account of ease in work holding, quick adjustment and use of tools of
relatively simple design. In the light of above fact it is almost an indispensable machine in tool
rooms die making shops and general repair shops for the production of a few identical shapes of
jobs. It can also be adopted for producing curved and irregular surfaces.

3.2 Working Principle
The working principle of a shaper is illustrated in the Fig



Working Principle of a Shaper
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On a shaper the job is usually fixed in a vice on the machine table. The tool is held in the tool
post, mounted on the ram of the machine. As the ram reciprocates to and for the cutting tool cuts
the material in forward stroke only except in case of cuts shaper, in which the tool cuts in
backward stroke of the ram. The other stroke in
both the cases remains idle, as there is no cutting action in this stroke and hence termed as
strokes.

3.3Types of Shapers

Shapers are classified in a number of ways depending upon the general features of design or the
purpose for which they are intended. Shapers are classified under the following headings.
1) According to the type of mechanism used for giving reciprocating motion to
the ram
(a) Crank type (b) Geared type (c) Hydraulic type
2) According to the position and travel of ram
(a) Horizontal type (b) Vertical type (c) Traveling head type
3) According to the type of design of the table:
(a) Standard shaper (b) universal shaper
4) According to the type of cutting stroke
(a) Push type (b) Draw type

1. Crank Shaper

This is the most common type of shaper in which a single point cutting tool is given' a
Reciprocating motion equal to the length of the stroke desired while the work is clamped in
position on an adjustable table. In construction, the crank shaper employs a crank
Mechanism to change circular motion of a large gear called "bull gear" incorporated in the
machine to reciprocating motion of the ram. The bull gear receives power either from an
individual motor or from an overhead line shaft if it is a belt driven shaper.


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3 Geared type

The reciprocating motion of the ram in some type of shaper is effected by means of a rack and
pinion. The rack teeth, which are cut directly below the ram, mesh with a spur gear. The pinion
meshing with the rack is driven by a gear train. The speed and the direction in which the machine
will traverse depend on the number of gears in the gear train. This type of shaper is not very
widely used.

4 Hydraulic Shaper

In a hydraulic shaper reciprocating movement of the ram is obtained by hydraulic power.Oil
under high pressure is pumped in to the operating cylinder fitted with a piston. The endof the
piston rod is connected to the ram. The high-pressure oil first acts on one side of thepiston and
then on the other causing the piston to reciprocate and the motion is transmittedto the ram. The
piston speed is changed by varying the amount of liquid delivered by thepump. One of the most
important advantages of this type of shaper is that the cutting speedand force of the ram drive are
constant.

4.Horizontal Shaper

In a horizontal shaper, the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a horizontal axis. Horizontal
shapers are mainly used to produce flat surfaces.

5. Vertical Shaper

In a vertical shaper, the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis. In some of the
vertical machines provision is made to allow adjustment of the ram to an angle of about
10degrees from the vertical position. Vertical shapers may be crank driven, rack driven,
screwdriver or hydraulic power driven. The work table of a vertical shaper can be given cross,
longitudinal, and rotary movement. The tool used on a vertical shaper is entirely different from
that used on a horizontal shaper. Vertical shapers are very convenient for machining internal
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surfaces, keyways, slots or grooves; large internal and external gears may also be machined by
indexing arrangement of the rotary table. There are vertical shapers, which are specially designed
for machining internal keyways. They are then called keys eaters.

6 Travelling Head Shaper

In a travelling head shaper, the ram carrying the tool while it reciprocates moves
Crosswise to give the required feed. Heavy and unwieldy jobs, which are very difficult to
hold on the table of standard shaper and fed past the tool are, held static on the basement of the
machine while the ram reciprocates and supplies the feeding movements.

7 Standard or Plain Shaper

A shaper is termed as standard or plain when the table has only two movements, vertical and
horizontal, to give the feed. The table may or may not be supported at the outer end.

8.Universal Shaper

In a universal shaper in addition to the two movements provided on the table of a standard
shaper, the table can be swiveled about an axis parallel to the ram ways, and the upper portion of
the table can be tilted about a second horizontal axis perpendicular to the first axis. As the work
mounted on the table can be adjusted in different planes, the machine is most suitable for
different types of work and is given the name "universal". A universal shaper is mostly used in
tool room work.






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3.4 Principal Parts shaper machine
1.Base

The base is the necessary bed or support required for all machine tools. The base
may be rigidly bolted to the floor of the shop or on the bench according to the size of
the machine. It is so designed that it can take up the entire load of the machine and
the forces set up by the cutting tool over the work. It is made of cast iron to resist
vibration and take up high compressive load.

2 Column

The column is a box like casting mounted upon the base. It encloses the ram driving
mechanism. Two accurately machined guide ways are provided on the top of the
column on which the ram reciprocates. The front vertical face of the column contains
levers, handles, etc, for operating the machine.
Table support
2) Table
3) Clapper box
4) Apron clamping blots
5) Down feed hand wheel
6) Swivel base degree graduations
7) Position of stroke adjustment hand wheel
8) Ram block locking handle
9) Ram
10) Column
11) Driving pulley
12) Base
13) Feed disc
14) Pawl mechanism
15) Elevating screw.

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3 Cross rail

The cross rail is mounted on the front vertical guide ways of the column. It has two
parallel guide ways on its top in the vertical plane that are perpendicular to the ram
axis. The table may be raised or lowered to accommodate different sizes of jobs by
rotating an elevating screw which causes the cross rail to slide up and down on the
vertical face of the column. A horizontal cross feed screw which is fitted within the
cross rail and parallel to the top guide ways of the cross rail actuates the table to
move in a crosswise direction.

3 Saddle

The saddle is mounted on the crossrail which holds the table firmly on its top.
Crosswise movement of the saddle by rotating the cross feed screw by hand or
power causes the table to move sideways.

5 Table

The table, which is bolted to the saddle receives cross wise and vertical movements
from the saddle and crossrail. It is a box like casting having T-slots both on the top
and sides for clamping the work. In a universal shaper the table may be swiveled on
a horizontal axis and the upper part of the table may be tilted up or down. In a
heavier type shaper, the front face of the table is clamped with a table support to
make it more rigid.

6 Ram
The ram is the reciprocating member of the shaper. This is semi-cylindrical in from and
heavily ribbed inside to make it more rigid. It slides on the accurately machined dovetail
guideways on the top of the column and is connected to the reciprocating mechanism
contained within the column. It houses a screwed shaft for altering the position of
the ram with respect to the work and holds the tool head at the extreme forward end.
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7 Tool head
The tool head of a shaper holds the tool rigidly provides vertical and angular feed movement of
the tool and allows the tool to have an automatic relief during its return stroke. The vertical slide
of the tool head swivel base, which is held on acicular seat on the ram. The swivel base is in
degrees, so that the vertical slide may be set perpendicular to the work surface or at any desired
angle. By rotating the down feed screw handle, the vertical slide carrying the tool executes down
feed or angular feed movement while machining vertical or angular surface. The amount of
feed or depth of cut may be adjusted by micrometer dial on the top of the down feed screw.
Apron consisting of clapper box, clapper block and tool post is clamped upon the vertical slide
by a screw. By releasing the clamping screw the apron may be Swiveled upon the apron swivel
pin either towards left or towards right with respect to the vertical slide. This arrangement is
necessary to provide relief to the tool while making vertical or angular cuts. The two vertical
walls on the apron called clapper box houses the clapper block, which is connected to it by
means of a hinge pin. The tool post is mounted upon the clapper block on the forward cutting
stroke the
clapper block fits securely to the clapper box to make a rigid tool support on the return stroke a
slight frictional drag of the tool on the work lifts the block out of the clapper box a sufficient
amount preventing the tool cutting edge from dragging and consequent wear. The work surface
is also prevented from any damage due to dragging. Fig.9.3 illustrates the tool head of a shaper.

1) Down feed screw micrometer dial 2) Down feed screw
3) Vertical slide 4) Apron 5) Apron clamping bolt
6) Clapper block 7) Tool post 8) Washer
9) Apron swivel pin 10) Swivel base.

3.5 Shaper Size and Specification

The size of shapers is classified according to the maximum length of stroke. Push-cut
shapers can accept work sizes from 102-to 915 mm. Pull-cut shapers are made for
Tool head of a shaper
Shaping Machines 9.7
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work reguirments up to 1.82 m.
The maximum cross-feed distance is generally equivalent.
The maximum ram stroke, distance. Therefore, a shaper with a 406mm maximum
stroke, for example, is capable of machining a part with a plane surface that measures
at least 406 mm x 406 mm square.
9.5.1 Specifications of a shaper
Maximum ram stroke 700mm
Maximum tool overhang 840 mm
Distance between table surface and ram Maximum 400mm
Minimum 80 mm
Dimensions of table working surface 700 mm x 450 mm
Maximum travel of table Horizontal 700 mm
Vertical 320 mm
Horizontal feed per double stroke 0.25-5 mm
Principal movement motor power 7 kW
Overall dimensions 2785 x 1750 x 1780 mm.

3.6 Shaper Driving Mechanism

In a shaper, rotary movement of the drive is converted into reciprocating movement by the
mechanism contained within the column of the machine. The ram holding the tool gets the
reciprocating movement. In a standard shaper the metal is removed in the forward stroke and the
return stroke is idle. The time taken by idle stroke is merely waste and should be minimized as
far as possible. This can achieved by making the shaper to complete its return stroke quicker than
the forward one. Thus the shaper mechanism should be so designed to perform the cutting stroke
at a comparatively shower speed than the return stroke and this mechanism is known as quick
return mechanism.

The reciprocating movement of the ram and the quick return mechanism of the
Machine are usually obtained by any one of the following.

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1) Crank and slotted lever mechanism
2) Whit-worth quick return mechanism
3) Hydraulic shaper mechanism
3.6.1 Crank and Slotted Lever Mechanism
The crank and slotted lever mechanism is shown in the Fig.9.4. It consists of slotted link called
rocker arm. The rocker arm is pivoted at its bottom end which forms the fulcrum. At its upper it
carries another short link which is attached to the ram block(B). The ram block (B) can be
clamped at the desired position by hand lever (L). The rocker arm is provided with a sliding
block (QJ in which the crank pin (P) revolves. The sliding block can freely slide in the slot
provided in the rocker arm. At the back of the rocker arm a large gear wheel known as bull gear
is provided. The motion of the power is transmitted to the bull gear through a pinion, which
receives its motion from an individual motor or overhead line shaft through speed control
mechanism. slotted disc (D), carrying a T-slot is fitted to the bull gear at its front, the crank pin
P' is fitted in this slot and can be moved to any desired piston along the slot by means of the
bevel gears (BJ and (B2) and adjusting screw (S). The bevel gears (B2) is concentric with the
bull gear and the other bevel gear (BJ is attached to the lead screw (S) at its one ends as shown in
the Fig. The axes of bevel gears (BJ and (B2) area right angles to each other and called as miter
gears. Fig.
Crank and slotted lever mechanism
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As the bull gear rotates causing the crank pin (P) to rotate, the sliding block (Q)
fastened to the crank pin (P) will rotate on the crank pin circle and at the same time
will move up and down the slot in the rocker arm giving it rocking movement which
makes the rocked arm to swing about the fulcrum. Thus in turn the rocker arm
moves the ram.




3.6.2 Principle of Quick Return Mechanism

The principle of quick return mechanism is illustrated in Fig.9.5. When the link is in the position
OQ2, the ram will be at the extreme backward position of the stroke and when it is at OQ2, it has
reached the extreme forward position. Therefore the forward cutting stroke takes place when the
crank rotates through the angle Pa, K P2,and the return stroke takes place when the crank rotates
through the angle P2, L PrIt is very clear that the angle P , KP2 made by the cutting stroke
(forward stroke) is greater than the angle P2, LP] made by the return stroke. The angular velocity
of the crank pin is constant. Therefore the return stroke is completed within a shorter time than
the cutting stroke for which it is known as quick return motion. The ratio between these two
angles, and hence between the corresponding times is approximately 3:2

The stroke length is varied by varying the distance between the bull gear center (A)and the crank
pin (P). By rotating the bull gears (B2) and (BJ the screwed shaft is rotated which moves the
sliding block and hence the crank pin, towards or away the bull gear center depending upon the
stroke length is required to be reduced or increased as shown in the shown in the Fig.9.6 (a) and
(b).





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With Worth Quick Return – Mechanism

The line diagram of a whit worth quick return mechanism is shown in the Fig.9.7.In this
mechanism the bull gear is mounted on a large fixed pin (A) upon which it is free to rotate. The
slotted link (SOQ) is pivoted eccentrically upon the fixed pin at'O'. The crank pin (P) is fitted, on
the face of the bull gear and on the top of which the sliding block (S) is mounted. The sliding
block (S) fits into the slot of the link. At the end of the slotted link SOQ, a connecting rod QR is
connected by a pin Q. The ram (R) is connected to the other end of the connecting rod. When the
bull gear rotates at a constant speed the crank pin (P) with the sliding block (S) will cause the
slotted link to rotate about the point O with variable angular velocity. The pin (Q)fitted on the
other end of the slotted link SOQ will rotate in a circle and the rotary motion of the pin Q will be
converted into reciprocating movement of the ram similar to the crank slotted link mechanism.
The axis of reciprocation of the ram passes through the pin O and is normal to the line AO.





Fig. Whit-worth quick return mechanism




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If the crank (AP) rotates counter clockwise and when the crank pin (P) is at the position (PJ the
ram will be at !:he extreme back ward position but when the pin isat the position P2 the ram will
be at the extreme forward position. Thus when the crank pin (P) travels from Pl to P2 in counter
clock wise direction the ram performs the return stroke and when it is from P2 to P1 it performs
the cutting stroke. As the angular velocity of the crank pin is uniform, the time taken by the
crank pin (P) to travel through the angle P2 LP: is greater than the time taken to move through
the angle P MP . Thus the quick return motion is obtained.


3.7 Shaper Operations

A shaper is a versatile machine tool primarily designed to generate a flat surface by
a single point cutting tool. But it may also be used to perform many other operations.
The different operations, which a shaper can perform, are as follows:
1) Machining horizontal surface
2) Machining vertical surface
3) Machining angular surface
4) Cutting slots, grooves, and key ways
5) Machining irregular surface
6) Machining splines or cutting gears.

1 Machining horizontal surface

Fig.9.19 illustrates machining horizontal surface on a work piece. A shaper is mostly used to
machine a flat, true surface on a work-piece held in a vise or other holding devices. After the
work is properly held on the table, a planning tool is set in the tool post with minimum overhang.
The table is raised till there is a clearance of 25 to 30mm between the tool and the work-piece.
The length and position of stroke are then adjusted. The length of stroke should be nearly 20mm
longer than the work and the position of stroke is so adjusted that the tool begins to move from a
distance of 12 to15 mm before the beginning of the cut and continues to move 5 to 8mm after the
end of the cut proper cutting speed and feed is then adjusted. Short, strokes should be given with
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high speed while long strokes with slow speed. Both roughing and finishing cuts are performed
to complete the job. For roughing cut speed is decreased but feed and depth of cut is increased.
Depth of cut is adjusted by micrometer dial. The depth of cut for roughing work usually ranges
from 1.5 to 3mm, while for finishing work it ranges from 0.075 to 0.200 mm. Feed is adjusted
about one half the width of the cutting edge of the tool so that each cut will over lap the last cut
giving a smooth surface finish.

2 Machining vertical surface

Machining vertical surface on a work-piece. A vertical cut is made while machining the end of a
work-piece, squaring up a block or cutting Machining shoulder. The work is mounted in the vise
or directly on the table and the surface to be machined is carefully aligned with the axis of the
ram. A side-cutting tool is set on the tool post and the position and length of stroke is adjusted.
The vertical slides set exactly at zero position and the apron is swiveled in a direction away from
the surface being cut. This is necessary to enable the tool to move upwards and away from the
work during return stroke. This prevents the side of the tool from dragging on the planed vertical
surface during return stroke. The down feed is given by rotating the down feed screw by hand.
The feed is about 0.25mm given at the end of the each return stroke. Both roughing and finishing
cuts are performed to complete the job.

3 Machining surface angular

Machining of an angular surface on a work-piece. An angular cut is made at any angle other
than a right angle to the horizontal or to the vertical plane. The work is set on the table and the
vertical slide of the tool head is swiveled to the required angle either towards left or towards
right form the vertical position. The apron is then further swiveled away from the work so that
the tool will clear the work during return stroke. The down feed is given by rotating the down
feed screw. Angular surface can also be machined in a universal shaper by using a universal vise
without swiveling the tool head.


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4 Cutting slots and keyways

With suitable tools a shaper can very conveniently machine slots or grooves on work or cut
external keyways on shafts and internal keyways on pulleys or gears. For cutting slots or
keyways a square nose tool similar to a parting tool is selected.Fig.9.22 illustrates cutting of
external keyways and Fig.9.23 shows cutting of internal keyways in a shaper. External keyways
are cut on a shaft by first drilling a hole at the blind end of the keyway. The diameter of the holes
should be0.5 to 0.8mmOversize than the width of the keyways and the depth should be about
1.55mmlarger than the depth of keyway. This is necessary to leave a clearance on the tool at the
end of the stroke. The length and position of stroke is carefully adjusted so that the stroke will
terminate exactly at the clearance hole. The speed is reduced while cutting keyway. Internal
keyways are cut by holding the tool on a special tool holder so that the tool post will not hit
against the work at the end of the stroke. The clapper block is locked in the clapper box to
prevent the tool from lifting during return stroke. Lubrication is necessary on the work to prevent
the cutting edge of the tool from wear due to dragging.

5 Machining Irregular Surface
A shaper can also produce a contoured surface i.e. a convex or concave surface or a combination
of any of the above surfaces. To produce a small contoured surface a forming tool is used. If the
curve is sufficiently large power. Cross feed in conjunction with manual down feed is so adjusted
that the tool will trace the required contour. If the contour has too many ups and downs both the
feeds are operated by hand. A round nose tool is selected for machining irregular surfaces.
Fig.9.24. Machining irregular For a shallow cut the apron may be set verticalsurfacebut it the
curve is quite sharp, the apron is swiveled towards right or left away from the surface to be cut.
Fig. Shows machining of concave surface using a round nosetool.9.10.6 Machining Spines or
Cutting Gears By using an index centre illustrated inFig.9.18, a gear or equally spaced spline
maybe cut. The work is mounted between two centersand a spline is cut similar to the cutting of
a keyway. After the first spline is cut, the work is rotated through a predetermined amount by
using the index plate and index pin. The periphery of a gear blank is divided, and equally spaced
grooves are cut using an index plate having proper hole circles, while cutting gear formed tool is
used
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Slotting Machines

3.8. Introduction

The slotting machine falls under the category of reciprocating type of machine tool similar to a
shaper or a planer. It operates almost on the same principle as that of shaper. The major
difference between a slotter and shaper is that in a slotter the ram holding the tool reciprocates in
a vertical axis, whereas in a shaper the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a horizontal axis. A
vertical shaper and a slotter are almost similar to each other as regards to their construction,
operation, and use. The only difference being, in the case of a vertical shaper, the ram holding
the tool may also reciprocate at an angle to the horizontal table in addition to the vertical stroke.
The ram can be swivelled not more than 5° to the vertical. The slotter is used for cutting grooves,
key ways and slots of various shapes, for making regular and irregular surfaces both internal and
external, for handling large and awkward work pieces, for cutting internal or external gears and
many other operations which cannot be conveniently machine in any other machined tool
described before. The slotting machine was developed by Brunei in the year 1800 much earlier
than a shaper was invented.

3.9Types of Slotting Machine

There are mainly two classes of slotter.
1) Puncher slotter
2) Precision slotter

3.9.1Puncher Slotter

The puncher slotter is a heavy, rigid machine designed for removal of large amount of metal
from large forging or castings. The length of a puncher slotter is sufficiently large. It may be as
long as 1800 to 2000 mm. The puncher slotter ram is usually driven by a spiral pinion meshing
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with the rack teeth cut on the underside of the ram. The pinion is driven by a variable speed
reversible electric motor similar to that of a planer. The feed is also controlled by electrical gears.

3.9.2Precision Slotter

The precision slotter is a lighter machine and is operated at high speeds. The machine is designed
to take light cuts giving accurate finish. Using special jigs, the machine can handle a number of
identical works on a production basis. The precision machines are also used for general-purpose
work and are usually fitted with whit worth quick return mechanism.
3.10 Slotter Size
The size of a slotter like that of a shaper is specified by the maximum length of stroke of the ram,
expressed in mm. The size of a general purpose or precisions otter usually ranges form 80 to 900
mm. To specify a slotter correctly the diameter of the table in mm, amount of cross and
longitudinal travel of the table expressed in mm, number of speeds and feeds available h.p.of the
motor, floor space required etc. should also be stated.

3.11 Slotting Machine Parts

The different parts of a slotting machine are:

1) Base
2) Column
3) Saddle
4) Cross-slide
5) Rotating table
6) Ram and tool head assembly
7) Ram drive mechanism
8) Feed mechanism


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1 Base or Bed

The base is rigidly built to take up all the cutting forces and entire load of the machine. The top
of the bed is accurately finished to provide guide ways on which the saddle is mounted. The
guide ways are perpendicular to the column face.

2. Column

The column is the vertical member, which is cast integral with the base and houses driving
mechanism of the ram and feeding mechanism. The front vertical face of the column is
accurately finished for providing ways on which the ram reciprocates.

3.Saddle

The saddle is mounted upon the guide ways and may be moved toward or away from the column
either by power or manual control to supply longitudinal feed to the work. The top face of the
saddle is accurately finished to provide guide ways for the cross-slide. These guide ways are
perpendicular to the guide ways on the base. Fig. Slotting machine

5 Cross-Slide:

The cross-slide is mounted upon the guide ways of the saddle and may be move parallel to the
face of the column. The movement of the slide may be control either by hand or power to supply
cross-feed.

5. Rotary Table

The rotary table is a circular table which is mounted on the top of the cross-slide. The table may
be rotated by rotating a worm which meshes with a worm gear connected to the underside of the
table. The rotation of the table may be effected either by hand or power. In some machines the
table is graduated in degrees that enables the table to be rotated for indexing or dividing the
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periphery of a job in equal number of parts. T-slots are cut on the top face of the table for
holding the work by different clamping devices. The rotary table enables a circular or contoured
surface to be -generated on the work piece.

6. Ram and Tool head Assembly
The ram is the reciprocating member of the machine mounted on the guide-ways of the column.
It supports the tool at its bottom end on a tool head. A slot is cut on the Slotting Machines body
of the ram for changing the position of stroke. In some machines, special type of tool holders are
provided to relieve the tool during its return stroke.

7.Ram Drive Mechanism
A slotter removes metal during downward cutting stroke only where as during upward return
stroke no metal is removed. To reduce the idle return time, quick return mechanism is
incorporated in the machine. The usual types of ram drive mechanisms are:
1) Whit wroth quick return mechanism
2) Variable speed reversible motor drive mechanism
3) Hydraulic drive mechanism.
.

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1.The whit wroth quick return mechanism :

It is most widely used in a medium sized Slotting machine for driving the ram. As shown in
Fig.10.2, the bull gear 7 located at the back of the machine receives its motion from the pinion
11, which is driven by an electric motor. The gear 7 is mounted on a fixed pin or hub 9 attached
to the machine frame. The driving plate 8 is mounted on the shaft 6, which passes through
the fixed hub 9. The shaft 6 is placed eccentrically with respect to the bull gear centre. A crank
pin is mounted on the face of the bull gear, which holds a slide block 10. The slide block 10 is
fitted within a radial rotates, the crank pin and the slide block 10 rotate in a chalet path, hut
owing to the eccentricity of the hull and the driving plate 8, the slide block 10 rotates and slides
within the slot of the driving plate 8 is transmitted to the disc 5 which is attached to the end of
the shaft 6.A radial T-slot is cut on the face of the disc 5. The position of the pin fitted within the
T-slot may be altered with respect to the centre of the disc 5 and then clamped atone end of the
connecting rod. The other end of the connecting rod is attached to the ram I by a clamping bolt 2.
The rotation of the disc 5 is converted into reciprocating movement of the ram by the connecting
rod and the pin eccentrically mounted on the disc5.The principle of the quick return mechanism
can be understood from the line diagram shown in Fig.10.3. A and B are the fixed centers of the
bull gear 7 and the driving plate 8 as shown in the Fig.10.2. The crank pin and slide block 4
rotate in acicular path at a constant speed rotating the plate 8 about B. This causes the driving
disc 5 attached to the shaft 6 to rotate. The pin 3 on the disc rotates in circular path about the
fixed point B. The length of the ram is equal to twice the throw of eccentricity, which is equal to
2x3B. From the diagram 10.3 it is clear that when the block4 is in the position C, the ram is at
the maximum upward position of the stroke and when it is at D, the maximum downward
position of the ram has been reached. Thus if the bull gear rotates in anti clockwise direction,
when the block 4 rotates through an angle CAD, the down ward cutting stroke is performed,
whereas when the block rotates through an angle DAC, the return stroke completed. As the block
4 rotates at a constant speed the rotation of the crank pin through an angle CAD during the
cutting stroke takes longer time than rotation through an angle DAC during the return stroke.
Thus the quick return motion is obtained. The cutting time and return time is related.

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The length of stroke of the ram can be varied by altering the position of pin 3 with respect
to the centre B, i.e. the centre of the disc 5. Further the position of the pin 3with respect to the
disc centre, greater will the throw of eccentricity and longer will be the stroke length. The
position of stroke of the ram be adjusted by releasing the nut 2 and then by altering the position
of the connecting rod clamping bolt within the slot provided on the body of the ram. After setting
the position, the nut is tightened again As the ram moves in a vertical axis, the weight of the ram
is counterbalanced by a weight 4 attached to the back of the ram and is pivoted at a point 3. This
results even and jerk free movement of the ram in cutting and return stroke.

3.Electrical and Hydraulic Drive
Large machines are driven by variable voltage reversible motor. The hydraulic drive is adapted
in machines used in precision or tool-room work. In a hydraulic drive, the vibration is minimized
resulting improved surface finish. Feed mechanism
In a slotter, the feed is given by the table. A slotting machine table may have three
types of feed movements:
1) Longitudinal
2) Cross
3) Circular
If the table is fed perpendicular to the column toward or away from its face, the feed movement
is termed as longitudinal. If the table is fed parallel to the face of the column the feed movement
is termed as cross. If the table is rotated on the vertical axis, the feed movement is termed as
circular. Like a shaper or a planer, the feed move-ment of a slotter is intermittent and supplied at
the beginning of the cutting stroke, the feed movement may by supplied either by hand or power.
The hand feed is supplied by rotating the individual feed screws. The power feed mechanism is
showninFig.10.4.Slotting Machines groove and moves up and down only during a very small
part of revolution of the bull gear. The cam groove may be so cut that the movement of the lever
3 will take place only at the beginning of the cutting stroke. Fig. Shows the cam groove cut on a
bull gear. The rocking movement of the lever 3 is transmitted to the ratchet and pawl mechanism
6 and 8, so that the ratchet8 will move in one direction only during this short period of time. The
ratchet wheel is mounted on a feed shaft, which may be engaged with cross, longitudinal, or
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rotary feed screws individually or together to impart power feed movement to the table. Fig..
Cam groove on bull gear.

3.13 Work Holding Devices
The work is held on a slotter table by a vise, T-bolts and clamps or by special fixtures-bolts and
clamps are used for holding most of the work on the table. Before clamping Pieces are placed
below the work so as to allow the tool to complete the cut without touching the table. Fixtures
are used for holding repetitive work.

3.12 Slotter operations

The operations performed in a slotter are
1) Machining flat surface
2) Machining cylindrical surface
3) Machining irregular surface and ram machining
4) Machining slots, keyways and grooves.

1 .Machining Flat Surface

The external and internal flat surfaces may be generated on a work piece easily in a slotting
machine. The work to be machined is supported on parallel strips so that the tool will have
clearance with the table when it is at the extreme downward position of the stroke. The work is
then clamped properly on the table and the position and the length of stroke is adjusted. A
clearance of 20 to 25mm is left before the beginning of cutting stroke, so that the feeding
movement may take place during this ideal part of the stroke. The table is clamped to prevent
any longitudinal or rotary travel and the cut is started from one end of the work. The cross feed is
supplied at the beginning of each cutting stroke and the work is completed by using roughing and
a finishing tool. While machining an internal surface, a hole is drilled in the work piece through
which the slotting tool may pass during the first cutting stroke. A second surface parallel to the
first machined surface can be completed without disturbing the setting by simply rotating the
table through 180° and adjusting the position of the saddle. A surface perpendicular to the first
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machined surface may be completed by rotating the table by 90° and adjusting the position of the
saddle and cross slide.

2 Machining Circular Surface

The external and internal surface of a cylinder can also be machined in a slotting machine. The
work is placed centrally on the rotary table and packing pieces and clamps are to hold the work
securely on the table. The tool is set radically on the work and necessary adjustments of the
machine and the tool are made. The saddle is clamped in its position and the machine is started.
While machining, the feeding is done by the rotary table feed screw which rotates the table
through a small are at the beginning of each cutting stroke.

3 Machining Irregular Surfaces or Cams

The work is set on the table and necessary adjustments of the tool and the machine are made as
detailed in other operations. By combining cross, longitudinal and rotary feed movements of the
table any contoured surface can be machined on a work piece,

4. Machining Grooves or Key ways:

Internal and external grooves are cut very conveniently on a slotting machine. A slotter is
specially intended for cutting internal grooves which are difficult to produce in other machines.
External or internal gear teeth can also be machined in a slotter by cutting equally spaced
grooves on the periphery of the work. The indexing or dividing the periphery of the work is done
by the graduations on the rotary table.

3.13 Cutting speed, feed and Depth of cut
1 .Cutting Speed
Similar to a shaper, the cutting speed of a slotter is defined by the rate with which the metal is
removed during downward cutting stroke and is expressed in meters per minute.

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2 Feed
Feed is the movement of the work per double stroke expressed in mm.

3 Depth of Cut
Depth of cut is the perpendicular distance measured between the machined surface and un
machined surface expressed in mm.

3.14 Planning Machines

3.15 Introduction

A planer is a machine having reciprocating work and fixed tool. The work traverses the tool and
feeds over at the end of each stroke the tool is clamped in the tool holder and the work on the
table.Fig.11.1 shows the working principle of a planer. The type of work is very similar to that
done on a shaper except that a plane is adopted to much large work. The cuts are all plain
surfaces, but they may be horizontal, vertical or at any angle. Both the planer and shaper employ
single-point cutting tools for machining. The planer is very heavy in construction and had long
table travel. It can take multi-cuts at various places in a single stroke, because it can
accommodate more than one tool holding stations. It is also possible to machine large number of
smaller parts by setting them properly on the table usually, two tool heads are mounted on the
overhead cross rail and one each on either of the column. Like all reciprocating machine tools,
the planer is quipped with a clapper box to raise the tool on the return stroke.




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Fig. Working principle of planer
3.16 Planer Size

The size of a planer is determined by the maximum length of material the tool can machine in
one stroke. It includes the table size, (length and width) and its distance from the rail. Other
details are also mentioned to complete the specifications like type of drive, type of speed
reduction, power input, cutting to return stroke ratio etc.

3.18 Principle Parts of a Planer

The principle parts of a planer are as
follows:








Bed
It is a very strong and robust structure. It is made of cast iron. Cross ribs are provided to make it
more strong and stable. The length of the bed is usually-twice the length of the table, so that the
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table may have complete stroke on the bed surface. For, supporting and permitting the table to
reciprocate in constrained form, ways are provided on the top of the bed. Mechanisms for driving
the table are accommodated inside the bed.

Table

The table is supported on the bed ways. T-slots are provided through out the length of the table
for tightening the work-piece by T-bolts. A trough is provided at either end of the table to collect
chips. Adjustable dogs are provided at aside of the table, which operate some mechanism for
reversing the table automatically at the end of each the stroke. Some arrangements are also made
to avoid the running away of the moving, loaded table. The table is usually cast in one piece;
long table, may be cast in several pieces and bolted together.

Column or Uprights

A planer has to columns one at each side of the bed at its centre and opposite to each other. The
columns support a horizontal cross rail across the length of the bed. The cross rail may slide up
or down on the columns and may be clamped in any position. Within the body of the columns,
the vertical feed shaft, elevating screw for cross rail, end feed bar, etc. are accommodated within
the body of the columns. The column may also support a tool head for side machining.

Cross-Rail

It is supported horizontally by the two vertical column at the centre of the bed and across it. The
cross rail may be operated manually, hydraulically;. It may be clamped horizontally in any
position on the columns. It carries tool heads usually two in number. For feeding the tool, the
feed screws are enclosed in the cross rail.




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Tool Head

Usually two tool heads are mounted on the horizontal cross rail and one on each column. The
tool head carries a tool post to hold the cutting tool. The tool post is hinged on the tool head for
lifting the tool in the return stroke. The tool may be adjusted at an angle also, if desired.

Control

The controls for governing the various actions of different parts of a planer are provided in a
centralized panel. From this central location the operator is able to obtain very close control of
all cutting tools. These controls are start, stop, automatic cut, automatic return, speed reduce, etc
.
3.19 Classification of Planer

According to the general construction the planers are of five types:
1) Double housing planer
2) Open-side planer
3) Universal planer
4) Pit type planer
5) Edge or plate planer.
Each of the above types may very according to the method of drive as follows:
1) Gear drive
2) Hydraulic drive
3) Screw drive
4) Belt drive
5) Variable-speed motor drive
6) Crank drive.
Gear driven planers are generally used in the workshops. They have several times more inertia
force to over come than the hydraulic drive planers. Overcoming inertia consumes energy and
with rapid short strokes, the difference is power consumption in noticeable hydraulic drives are
highly satisfactory for planers. Advantages of hydraulic drives are uniform cutting pressure,
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quick table reversal, rapid means of varying the stroke and less noise in operation. Screw drive is
employed principally on plate planers. Belt drive is the oldest system in which the power is taken
from an overhead line shaft. Crank drive is found only on some small planers.

1 Double Housing Planer

It consists of a long heavy base on which the table or platen is reciprocated. The upright housing
is located at the side of the base near the centre to support the cross rail. The cross rail supports
the tool heads. The tool maybe feed manually or by power in either a vertical or a crosswise
direction. The motor drive usually at onside of the planer near the centre, and the drive
mechanism is located under the table. The controls for operation are all at the upright housing
The stroke length of the table is controlled by the adjustable dogs at the side of the bed. The
accuracy of the planer depends upon the rigidity and the manner in which the bed ways are
machined.
Specifications (Fig.)
Planning width 1G 00 m in
Length 4000-1200mm
Height 1600mm
Clamping surface of table 1400 x 4000 - 1200 mm
Vertical movement of the nead Slide 350 mm
Speeds (working) 4-18-28 m/min
Main drive motor 22 kw.

2 Open-Side Planer

The open side planer has housing on one side only. It is hydraulically driven and used to handle
wide work. It can be equipped with duplicating attachments for machining irregular surfaces. On
one side of the table, a master form is mounted so that as the tracer moves over the surface, the
cutting tool is moved accordingly. Such device are usually hydraulically operated and are similar
in operation to duplicating units used on other machine tools.

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3 Universal Planer

The universal planer has two-edged tool pivoted in the fixed holder, which cuts on both forward
and reverse strokes. As the total engages the work, it pivots slightly and is held against the block
during the cut. At the end of the stroke the other cutting edge is brought into position in the
someway, which is somewhat longer than the first, so that it will yield the proper depth cut on
the return stroke. The two tools may also be pivoted for two-way planning. The common use for
this type of tooling is the cutting of slots in machine tables.

6 Pit-Type Planer

It is very heavy and huge in construction. If differs from an ordinary planer in that the bed is
stationary and the tool is move over the work. The work piece up to 12m long and 5m wide may
easily be machined on this planer. The cross-rail is mounted with two ram-type hands equipped
with double clapper block tool holders for two-waylaying. Two reversing housing supporting the
cross-rail, slide on ways and are screw- driven from an enclosed worm drive at one end of the
bed. All feeds are automatic reversible, and can be operated at both ends of the planning stroke.

7.Plate or Edge Planer

It is special type of planer deviced for fabrication of heavy steel plates for pressure vessels armor
plate. It may have the plate with capacity up to 15m. On one side of the housing the plate is
clamped to the long bed. The carriage holding the cutting tool is supported on the heavy ways of
the planer. The carriage carrying the tools and operator is moved along the work by the large
screw drive. The size of the plates that can be edge-machined is limited by the width and height
of the machine opening but there is no limit to the length, the plate may extended behind the
machine.




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3.20 Quick Return Mechanism:

Like shaper, a planer is also provided with quick return mechanism Fig. shows fast and
loose pulleys type quick return mechanism for a planer. In this mechanism, the belt shifting fork
is connected to the dogs fitted at end of the stroke in the planer bed. These automatically shift the
belt from pulley P to P2 at the end of every stroke. When the belt is on pulley the motion is
transmitted to the rack through gears A, B, C and D, and is thus the speed is very much reduced.
Thus it constitutes cutting stroke. When the belt is on pulley P1( the motion is transmitted to rack
through gears E and D. in this case the motion is transmitted without any reduction, therefore it
constitutes stroke. Note that the pulley P: is fixed on the shaft. Pulley P2 is fixed on the sleeve
but floating on the shaft. The pulley between Pa and P2 is free on the shaft. The quick return
motion also obtained by D.C. reversible motor or by hydraulic system.
The speed of the D.C reversible motor can be changed very quickly from full forward
to full backward. The reversal is instantaneous. At the end of the stroke, the trip dog’s
changeover the supply to the motor and it moves accordingly. This method is most commonly
usedon modern because it gives a wide range of table speed and a more responsible control. The
hydraulic drive for planer is exactly similar to that of shaper. Most of the modern, planers used
hydraulic drive.

3.21 Feed Mechanism
In a planer the feed is provided intermittently and at the end of the return stroke similar to a
Shaping machine. The feed of a planer, both down feed and cross feed, is given by the tool. The
cross feed is given while machining horizontal surface on a work mounted on the table. The tool
which is clamped on the tool head slides on the cross rail by a pre determined amount at the end
of each return stroke of the table to give the necessary cross feed. The down feed is applied while
machining a vertical or angular surface by rotating the down feed screw of the tool head.
The power feed may be applied by the following methods.
1) By frication disc.
2) By electrical drive.


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3.21.1 Feed Mechanism by Friction Disc

But in a planer as the length of the stroke of the table is quite long, the bull gear will make a
large number of revolutions in the forward cutting stroke and the same number of revolutions in
the return stroke. By friction feed disc, only part of the revolution of the bull gear is used to
operate the feed gearing at the end of the return stroke, and during the rest of the period, the feed
mechanism remains inoperative.
shown in Fig
. The feed disc consists of two parts having a cylindrical opening, which encloses the
flange connected to the shaft. Leather washers are placed between the flange and the disc
openings and the blots are then frightened. A flexible connection is now made between the shaft
and the feed disc through leather washers.Fig.11.5 shows the end view of the feed disc showing
the driving mechanism of the feed screws. A t-slot is cut radially on the face of the feed disc
within which a black is fitted. B rotating the knurled knob the position of the block with respect
to the centre may be changed. A pin connected to the driving disc projects beyond the disc body.
When the cross feed shaft starts rotating during forward cutting stroke the motion is transmitted
to the disc by the flange shown in Fig. and the disc starts rotating. The motion of
the disc is limited by the projecting pin hitting against a fixed pin fitted upon the machine frame.
Thus when the disc rotates through a part of the revolution, the flange connected to the shaft
continues to rotate within the disc slipping over the leather washers throughout the cutting
stroke. When the table is reversed and the shaft starts rotating in the opposite direction on the
disc rotates through the same part of the revolution in the opposite direction due to the pin hitting
against a second fixed pin mounted upon the machine frame. Thus when the planer table
reciprocates, the disc rotates through apart of the revolution in one direction at the beginning of
cutting stroke and again it rotates through the same part of the revolution in the opposite direction
atthebeginning of return stroke. This rotary movement of the disc is transmitted to the rack
through the connecting rod and a pinion mounted upon the shaft, which meshes with the rack,
receives.



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3.22 Planer machines rotary movement:
Big gear is free on the shaft. A double pawl is pinned on the face of the gear and any one
end of the pawl may be pushed into the tooth space of the gear. When the left hand end of the
pawl is pushed within the gear, the upward movement of the rack will cause the pinion to rotate
in the clockwise direction and the motion is communicated to the gear through the pawl and gear
will rotate in the clockwise direction. When the rack will be moving downward, the pinion will
rotate in the anti-clock wise direction and no motion will be transmitted to the gear, as the bevel
edge of the pawl will slip over the teeth of pinion. Thus the gear will rotate through apart of the
revolution in one direction only during a complete double stroke of the table and it may be so
arranged that the gear will operate during the beginning of cutting stroke only. Gear may be
made to mesh with two sliding gear sand mounted upon the down feed shaft and cross feed shaft
contained within the cross rail. Feed shafts separately or together. The direction of feed
movement may be reversed by changing the position of double pawl. Amount of fed movement
may be varied by shitting the position of block with respect to the centre. Feed is increased when
the block is shifted away from the centre. The stroke length of the rack is increased due to the
greater throw of eccentricity of the block and the two gears and ultimately rotate through a
greater amount.

3.23 Electrical Feed Movement
Modern planers, which are equipped with electrical, drive used a separate motor to operate the
feed mechanism. The motor is energized simultaneously with the table reversing mechanism and
rotates through a definite part of revolution. The revolution of the motor may be half or one
revolution only. At the appropriate time, the electrical control trips off the supply of electrical
current and the motor is stopped by dynamic braking.
3.24 Planer Operations
The common operations performed in planer are:
1) Planing flat horizontal surfaces.
2) Planing vertical surfaces.
3) Planing at an angle and machining dovetails.
4) Planing curved surfaces.
5) Planing slots and grooves.
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1 Planing Horizontal Surface

While machining horizontal surface, the work is given a reciprocating movement along with the
table and the tool is feed cross wise to complete the cut. Both the railheads may be used for
simultaneous removal of the metal from two cutting edges. The work is supported properly on
the table. Proper planing tool is selected the depth of cut speed and feed are adjusted and the
work is finished to the required dimension by taking roughing and finishing cuts.

3.Planing Vertical Surface

The vertical surface of the work is planed by adjusting the saddle horizontal along the cross rail
until the tool is in a position to give the required depth of cut. The vertical slide is adjusted
perpendicular to the planer table and the apron is swiveled a direction so that the tool will swing
clear out of the machined surface during the return stroke. The down feed is given by rotating the
down feed screw.

4.Planing Angular Surface

The tool head is swivelled to the required angle and the apron is then further swivelled away
from the work to give relief to the tool cutting edge during the return stroke. By rotating the
down feed screw the tool is fed at an angle to the planer table.

5.Planing Formed Surface

Simple method of planing a concave surface with the aid of a special fixture consisting of a
radius arm and a bracket. The bracket is connected to the cross number attached to the two
housings. One end of the radius arm is pivoted on the bracket and the other end to the vertical
slide of the tool head. The down feed screw of the tool head is removed while planing the cross
feed is engaged which causes the saddle to traverse the cross rail and the tool which is guided by
the radius arm planes a concave surface. The radius of concave surface is dependent upon the

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3.25 Cutting Speed, Feed and Depth of cut

1 Cutting Speed

As in shaper the cutting speed of a planer is the rate at which the metal is removed during
forward cutting stroke. This is expressed in m/min.

2 Feed

The feed in a planing machine is the distance the tool head travels at the beginning of each
cutting stroke expressed in mm per double stroke.

3 Depth of cut

It is the thickness of metal removed in one cut and is measured by the perpendicular distance
between the machined and non-machined surface expressed in mm.

3.26 Machining Time

If the cutting speed, feed , length of cutting stroke, breadth of the job and number of the double
strokes per minute for a planer operation are known, the machining time required for one
complete cut may be calculated by using the formula. The ratio of cutting time to return time
usually varies from 2:1 to 4:1.

3.26 Planer Tools
The tools used in planer and shaper work are of the same general type as those used on a lathe
but are heavier in construction. Forged tools maybe used, but the tool holders with removable
bits are generally used for heavy work on large machines. Fig. shows some of the cutting tool
shapers for planer operations. They are usually tipped Fig... Left hand dovetail end with high-
speed steel, cast alloy or carbide cutting roughing tool inserts. High-speed steel or cast alloy are
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Commonly used in heavy roughing cuts and carbides for secondary roughing and
finishing.Cuttingangles for tools depend on the type of tool used and the material being cut. They
are similar to angles used on other single point tools, but the end clearance needs not exceed 4
degrees.

Fig.. Cutting tool shapers for planar operation
















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UNIT-IV: DRILLING AND BORING MACHINES

4.1 Introduction:

Making holes in the materials is one of the most common operations. This operation is called
Drilling, which consists of originating holes in variety materials, by rotary and axial movements
of tool called Drill. The machines used for this operation are called Drilling Machines. Drilling
tools are available in varying dimensions and may either be twist drill or straight drill. Usually,
in drilling operation the drill rotates and is fed axially into the work held on the machine.

4.2 Construction of a Drilling Machine:
Drilling is probably the most economic method of producing holes into the solids. The
machines, which are capable of rotating the drills, feed the drills into the work to produce or to
enlarge the holes.
Consist of the following important parts.
a) Base; b) Column; c) Drill Head; d) Table; and e) Spindle drive and feed mechanism.

(a)Base:-

It is a cast iron heavy solid body or little bit hallow body carrying bolts to be grouted on
the floor. It carries a vertical column and a motor on the side of the base. In the heavy machines,
the base and table may become the same. In such cases, the base and table are heavy and rigid
and usually used for heavy work. The base may also support pulleys and motor for spindle
driving.

(b)Column:-

It is a vertical column of cast iron (round or box section) and supports the tableland
head or arm. It is very heavy (little bit hollow) and rigid and should be able to withstand the
entire load of cutting process. The head or arm can move vertically up and down along the
column on rack teeth cut on the face of the column with the help of hand wheel. The box section
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column had got the accurate guide ways on which the table can go up and down for vertical
adjustment.

(c)Drill Head:-

Usually, the head is mounted on the column and is housing the spindle driving and
feeding mechanisms. In universal and radial drilling machines, the head is mounted on a radial
arm extending over the base and can move along the guide ways provided on the arm. The head
or arm can move up or down according to the job, and can
be locked at desired position.

(d)Table:-
It is heavy casting of round or rectangular shape. For quick and accurate clamping-slots
are cut on the table face. Table can move up and down to accommodate variety of work sizes.
Further , other work holding devices ( vices and jigs ) can also be clamped on the table. The table
movement can be locked in any position.

(e)Spindle drive and feed mechanism-

These mechanisms are housed in the drill head. Basically, it consists of (I) spindle, (ii)
spindle rotation and (iii) feed mechanism.
Spindle
It is a vertical shaft which can hold the drill (tool) firmly. The tower end of the spindle
carries a morse taper hole with a slot at its end for accommodating taper shank drill and tang of
the drill, with the help of a key, the drill can be pushed down through the slot, to take the drill out
.Sometimes for holding smaller diameter drills, Morse taper socket or chuck is provided on the
spindle. The spindle gets the motion from motor or pulleys through bevel gears and is able to
rotate at desired speeds.



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spindle rotation
It in a non rotating sleeve carrying rack- teeth at its outer surface. The sleeve can be
moved up and down by rotating a pinion with the help of hand wheel which meshes the rack
teeth. The spindle is provided with multiple speed driving mechanism. This mechanism may be
constituting of step cone pulley drive; step cone pulley drive with one or more back gears; or
complete gear driving mechanism. Modern heavy duty machines are generally carrying motor
mounted on the frame. The multiple speeds may be obtained by sliding gears and sliding clutch.

The feed mechanism
consists of vertical movement of the drill into the work, and This movement may be
controlled by hand or power, the automatic feed is applied while drilling lager diameter holes, so
that the cutting pressure can be maintained uniform, cross slot.

4.3 TOOL HOLDING DEVICES:

The basic purpose of all tool- holders is to make the tool run true with the tapered hole in
the machine spindle. The different methods. Used for holding tools in a drill spindle are:
Directly holding drill - Morse standard taper (1:20)
It is bored into the spindle and can receive the taper shank of the drill. The shank is always
forced into the standard tapered hole and is gripped by friction. To ensure positive drive, a cross
slot is provided in the tapered hole in which the tang of the drill shank is fitted. If the tapered
shank is smaller than the tapered hole, a taper shank socket or sleeve with inside and outside
tapers is used. A wedge is to be used to push the tool out of the socket. Usually, the standard
taper can receive only one size of shank.
Drill chucks:
The chucks are usually used to hold smaller size of drills. The sleeve and socket are there,
but they can hold only one size of shank in it, whereas the chuck can hold a wide variety of drill
sizes. One can use three jaw chuck of smaller size, but quick-change chuck is also available and
is used for production work. This chuck is used for locating a series of tools one after another
without stopping the spindle. This reduces the machining time considerably.

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Floating driver:
When a reamer or a tap is to be used in the previously drilled hole, then a floating tool
holder is used to compensate for out of alignment of drill spindle with work hole and allows self
alignment of the tool with the work hole. The two ends of alignment.

4.4 WORK HOLDING DEVICES:

In the drilling process, the work-piece must be clamped rigidly to the table by bolts and
traps; otherwise the drill will rotate the work also because the process exerts severe torque on the
work. This may ultimately cause injuries to the operator. The most common types of work
holding devices used are discussed here. Most of the students are advised to consult
Figures for details.

T- Bolts and Clamps-
T-Bolts and clamps are the most common ways of clamping the Work. T- Bolts can easily
suit the T-slots on the table of the machine.

V-Blocks-
V-Blocks make good and stable support to the round work pieces. However, one can use
two or three v-blocks of similar type for locating and supporting the long round jobs.
C-clamps
It is used to clamp the work in the v-blocks.

Vises —
These are the most commonly used devices for holding the work between the jaws. These
vises are usually bolted in the T-slots provided in the table. This arrangement gives a very firm
and rigid hold to the work of any shape and size. Sometimes, the universal vise is also used,
where the base of vise can also be swiveled at any angle. While clamping the work, some
support must be provided under the work.


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Chucks –
Three jaw chuck or four jaw chuck used on lathe machine can also be mounted on the work
table base of the machine with the jaws up to hold the work for drilling in proper position.

Positioning Table –

It is a table mounted on a saddle of the base of a drill press or radial drill to position the
work piece under the spindle. The table and saddle can be located by lead screw, and dials to any
desired position under the spindle.
Angle Plates –

They are usually used when two holes are to be made perpendicular to each other and the
work would maintain accuracy.

Drilling Jigs –

These are not only hold and locate the work piece, but also guide the drilling tool, when the
work piece is located and clamped in a jig, it means the work piece is fully restricted from all six
degrees of freedom (A freedom in space has six degrees of freedom three axes and three by
rotation). Such a restriction is obtained if the work piece is held against three points in one plane;
two points in second plane; and one in a third plane, with the planes mutually perpendicular to
each other. But full restriction may not be required always. The important feature of a jig is that
it provides the locating surfaces or points against which all work pieces of one type can precisely
be located. For guiding drills or reamers, bushes irremovable bushings properly hardened and
tempered are used, jigs are always economical for locating holes to be made in work pieces in
large quantities.





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4.5 DRILLING OPERTIONS

Different types of operations can be performed by the rotating tool and feeding it sown against
the work and they are listed here:
i) Drilling ; ii) Core drilling ; iii) step - drilling ; iv) Boring ;
v) Counter boring ; vi) Counter sinking ; vii) Reaming ; viii) Tapping.

Drilling:-
It is the easiest way to produce or to enlarge a cylindrical hole into the solids. The
cylindrical holes are produced by removing metal by rotating edges of a cutting tool (drill).To
carry out this operation, the centre of hole is located first on the work piece, and then with the
help of centre punch, the centre is indented. The drill point should coincide with the indented
centre. In normal practice the drill does not produce an accurate cylindrical hole in the work -
piece and also may not make hole exactly on the centre. The internal surface of the so produced
hole is also comparatively rough. The hole is always oversized. The reasons may be the
vibrations caused in the machine spindle and it is very difficult to locate the drill at the hole
centre since does not have a point but an edge.

Core Drilling –
Sometimes the drilled holes are to be enlarged and this is a common practice. A hole of
large diameter is never drilled at the first instance. A hole of 25mm dia should be made after
drilling hole of 10 - 15 mm dia. So enlarging the drilled hole is called core drilling or counter
drilling.

Step drilling –
When a hole of two or more dia meters is made by rotating drill, then thisoperation is
called step drilling.




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Boring-

Basically, boring is an operation of enlarging a cylindrical hole, sometimes with the
implication of producing a more accurate hole from size, surface and location view points, than
by drilling. Boring operation can be performed on boring machine, lathe machine, milling
machine and drilling machine. On drilling machine, the drilled hole is enlarged by means of an
adjustable cutting tool having only one cutting edge. Sometimes, it becomes essential because
the drill of that size is not available or the hole size to be obtained is not standard one and
availability of a drill is out of question. Drilling with one cutting edge becomes essential under
such circumstances. This operation brings the hole into a more accurate size with good internal
surface finish. Roundness of the hole is improved and the location of the hole is more
accurate.The tool consists of a boring bar having tapered shank to fit into the drill spindle. A
single point too! is inserted into the boring bar and the diameter of boring bar with tool is
adjusted to the required size. Thus the boring bar with tool point is allowed to rotate to cut into a
previously undersized drilled hole to bring the hole into the desired accurate size.

Counter - boring : -

It is an operation of enlarging a hole to a limited depth. If the depth is shallow for the seat
of a nut head or a screw head, stud head etc., then such a counter boring is called spot facing. It
is essential for a counter bore (tool for counter boring) to provided with a pilot to guide it into
position and keep it steady during cutting. The pilot is an extension beyond the end of the cutting
edges. The counter bores are made with straight or tapered shank to fit in the drill spindle. The
cutting edges may be straight or spiral teeth. Usually counter boring speed is always kept less
than that of drilling operation.

Counter - sinking: -
It is the operation of making a cone shaped enlargement at the mouth of a drilled hole, for
the purpose of providing a seat for the head of a countersunk screw (flat head screw), a bearing
surface in the work for a lathe centre ora recess in which the end of a rivet may be spread.
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For large holes a counter sink provided with a pilot to fit the previously drilled hole is necessary
in order to keep the drill true and to prevent chatter. This operation may loosely be called as
chamfering.

Reaming: -
It is an operation to produce an already drilled hole into an accurate sized hole with good
surface finish. The tool used for this operation is called reamer which has multiple cutting edges.
Reamer by itself can not cut a hole. The reamer is fitted into the drilling machine spindle which
runs at almost half the speed of drilling operation and the reamer should be fed automatically.
The stock removal is very small.

Tapping : -
It is an internal thread cutting operation. The tool employed is called tap which can be
mounted on the drilling machine spindle and should run at very slow speed. However, this
operation can also be performed by hand. A tap is like a bolt having very accurate threads
hardened and ground. To perform this operation, an undersized hole is to be drilled and then the
tap is screwed into the hole where it removes metal and cuts internal threads. For a tap
size, a hole of 0.8 times the tap size should be drilled into the work and then screw the tap. This
is a thumb rule which is reasonably accurate for most of the cases. Tap drill size = out side
diameter of the tap X 0.8There are some additional operations also that can also be performed on
this machine such a slapping, grinding etc. both the operations are finishing operations and
performed on already drilled holes which are hardened (heat treatment operation to make a
surface hardened). Such already drilled holes can be brought to accurate size with very good
finish.





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4.6 Boring machines:
Boring is an operation of enlarging a hole. Boring a small hole in a small work piece can be done
in a lathe. Boring either a small or large hole is done easily and efficiently in a boring machine.
4.7 Types of boring machines:
1. Horizontal boring machine
2. Vertical boring machine
3. Fine boring machine
4. Jig boring machine
5. Deep hole drilling machine
Fine Boring machine:
Fine boring machines are designed to bore holes rapidly and accurately. Cemented carbide and
diamond tipped single point tools are used in this machine. These tools are operated at a very
high speed. This machine is provided with accurate guide ways fine threaded feed screws and
gear box for different speeds. this machine produces very accurate holes with a fine surface
finish.
Jig boring machine:
Jig boring machines are specially designed machines. It is used for accurately locating and
boring of holes in jigs, fixtures and other operations. This is two types
1. Single vertical column type
2. Planer type



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1. Single vertical column type
Is is vertical machine type. It consists of the following parts
Bed:
Bed is a box type, rigid and main supporting member. It supports the saddle and table at the
front and a vertical column at the back.
Column:
It is a hollow vertical structure. It carries vertical guide ways. The spindle head moves up and
down along the ways. It houses the counter weights for balancing the spindle head.
Spindle head:
It slides in front of the column. It is adjusted vertically by means of rack and pinion
mechanism. It carries quill drive gear box and feed geras box for the spindle. An indicator device
is provided on the measure the bring depth accurately.
Table and saddle:
The saddle is mounted on the base. It is to give cross feed to the work. The table is mounted
over the saddle. It can be move to and at right angles to the movement of the saddle. The table
and saddle carry clamping and measurement reading mechanisms. Power for the movement of
table and saddle.
2.Planer type machine:
It has two vertical columns at the two sides of the table and is mounted on the base. A cross
rail bringing the two vertical column carries the spindle head. The location of the holes is done
by the table movement in longitudinal direction and by the spindle movement is cross wise
direction.

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3.Deep hole drilling machine:
This is special type of machine. It is used to bore up to boring depth of 8 metres.The long bed
of machine sup ports work holding head,carring,work supports and boring bar Spindle head. The
work held in the chuck is supported by the work supports. The carriage supports the end of the
work and the revolving hollow boring bar. A hollow head carring one or more tungsten carbide
tools, it is fitted to the end of boring bar. The tungsten carbide tools are arranged to cover the
entire radius of the hole.
4.8 Boring operations:
Facing:
This is operation is done to machine off a relatively small uneven surface to make it plane
and smooth to act as a seat for some other part. The methods of performing this operation on
centre, capstan and turret lathes.
Counter boring:
By counter boring mean enlargement of diameter of a hole for certain depth only. Ordinary
flat cullers can be effectively used to counter bore the previously bored large holes.
Countersinking:
It means providing a conical recess at the end of a hole it make a seat for the countersunk
head of a mating component. Usually fasters, like rivets and screws,etc.
Trepanning:
It is operation which is done when a very large hole is to made in this metal or when a very
deep and large hole is to be made in a soild work piece.
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