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**PII: S0141-0296(97)00165-4
**

Engineering Structures, Vol. 19, No. 10. pp. 811-821, 1997

(~ 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

All rights reserved. Printed in Great Britain

0141-0296/97 $17,(X) + 0.(X)

Mathematical model l i ng of the

ADAS energy dissipation device

_Arturo Tena-Colunga

Centro de lnvestigaci6n S{smica, AC, Carretera al Ajusco No 203, Col. H#roes de Padierna,

14200 M~xico, DF, Mexico

(Received August 1995," revised version accepted November 1996)

Numerical model l i ng of the added dampi ng and stiffness (ADAS)

energy dissipation device is of paramount i mportance when study-

ing the structural behavi our of bui l di ngs wi t h such components.

The ADAS devices are special nonpri smati c structural elements,

therefore, the definition of thei r stiffness and l oad-def ormat i on

curves using analytical models is not strai ghtforward. Up to now,

there is onl y one approxi mate method reported in the literature

that woul d al l ow one to define the elastic stiffness and the l oad-

deformati on curve of the ADAS device. This paper presents

another method to determi ne these data. The proposed procedure

treats the variation of the cross-section using the fl exi bi l i ty method.

Most of the resulting integrals are solved explicitly, closed-form

sol uti ons are then available. The proposed expressions were veri-

fied against direct derivation and numerical integration solutions.

The elastic stiffness and the strength of the ADAS devices com-

puted wi t h the closed-form sol uti ons are compared wi t h those

reported in the literature. Predicted hysteresis curves are compared

wi t h those obtained experi mental l y from shaking table tests.

© 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

Keywords: ADAS device, energy dissipation, mathematical model-

ling, nonpri smati c elements, fl exi bi l i ty method, stiffness

1. Introduction

The study and devel opment of special devices designed to

reduce the response of structural systems when subjected

to seismic loading hi s attracted the attention of many

researchers during the last decade. The patented added

dampi ng and stiffness ( ADAS) device is j ust one of these

special devices. An ADAS device is depicted in Fi gure 1.

It has been designed to help reduce the seismic response

of structures through its plastic deformation, which yields

a substantial increment of the hysteretic energy dissipated

in the structure. This additional hysteretic energy dissi-

pation due to the ADAS devices can also be understood as

an increment of t he-equi val ent internal dampi ng of the

structure.

Comprehensi ve experimental programs have been car-

ried out at the Universities of California at Berkeley ''2 and

Michigan 3. These studies have shown the effectiveness of

the devices in reducing the seismic response of 3D struc-

tural models. However, the use of ADAS devices in the

retrofit or design of building structures has been slow for

two main reasons. The first is related to building codes,

many of which do not yet have special provisions for the

F i g u r e 1 ADAS devi ce

design of structural systems with energy dissipation

devices. Thus, this novel technology is at a disadvantage

with respect to traditional structural systems. The second

is related to the procedures used to analyse and design

structures with ADAS devices, which are not common

knowledge, as these procedures are known only by a small

group of researchers and practicing engineers worldwide.

811

8 1 2 M a t h e m a t i c a l m o d e l l i n g o f A D A S e n e r g y d i s s i p a t i o n d e v i c e : A. T e n a - Co l u n g a

In addition, the royalties on the patent could substantially

increase the construction costs, particularly in countries

where labour costs are cheap.

Up to now, the numerical modelling of the stiffness and

nonlinear behaviour of the ADAS device has been prim-

arily based upon experimental data from tests of prototype

devices (scale 1:l), similar to those that will be used in the

structures. In fact, in the first three buildings in Mexi co

City retrofitted with these devices 4, the structural engineer

used the l oad- def or mat i on curves obtained experimentally

by the supplier of the ADAS device hardware. 5 Whittaker

et al. ~ have presented an analytical procedure to define the

l oad- def or mat i on curve of the ADAS device, assuming an

equivalent X-triangular-shaped geomet ry. Although the

method is simple, its results are limited if more rigorous

analyses are to be done. The use of a detailed finite element

mesh to model an ADAS device is reasonable to study the

behavi our of the device alone; however, it is not practical

for studying the nonlinear dynamic behavi our of multi-

storey structures with several ADAS devices. Recently, a

microscopic mechanist approach has been proposed for

metallic dampers 6 the applicability of which could be tested

for the ADAS device.

The present work outlines a procedure to define the glo-

bal element stiffness, the element capacities and the l oad-

deformation curves of the ADAS device based upon the

flexibility method and fundamental principles of mech-

anics. The method is compared with the analytical pro-

cedure and experimental data presented by Whittaker et al. J

to hal f its height (bl, . q=l/2). The l oad-deformat i on curve

in shear of the ADAS can be idealized as an elastic-

perfectly plastic curve ( Fi g u r e 3a) , or as a bilinear one

( Fi g u r e 3b) , as recommended in the literature 4. In the pro-

cedure by Whittaker et al.~, the yielding point is defined

from the proposed equivalent geometry.

Whittaker et al. J do not specify the expression they used

to define the yielding displacements reported on their ana-

lytical studies. However, it seems that these displacements

were comput ed from the double integration of the average

plastic curvature

" =J J E L ( =)

(1)

where

b ( z . ) f

[~(z. )= 12 (2)

b(.: )t 2

Me d z ) = o ' , . Z , = ~ r , . 4 (3)

Therefore, according to the method proposed by Whit-

taker et a l J , the plastic yielding displacement of each equi-

valent X-shaped plate is

3 0 " ~ [2

a , ' : : - = 4 E , <4)

2. M e t h o d p r o p o s e d b y Wh i t t a k e r et al .

An idealization of the geomet ry of an ADAS device is

given in Fi g u r e 2a. Here, the layout of the ADAS is hour-

glass-shaped. These devices are made with tapered struc-

tural steel plates designed to work primarily in double cur-

vature, which makes their layout more efficient as these

elements yield al most entirely along their length.

Because of its particular tapered shape, the computation

of the stiffness and the plastic capacities of the ADAS

device are nontrivial. Whittaker et al. 1 proposed a simple

procedure to define the l oad-defl ect i on curve for the ADAS

devices, using an equivalent X-shaped idealization of the

plates ( Fi g u r e 2b) , which are inscribed inside the actual

profile of the ADAS. Their method is based on the follow-

ing assumptions: firstly, the X-plates are rigidly restrained

at their ends; secondly, the X-plates deform in double cur-

vature, antisymmetric about their midheight; and finally,

the equivalent width of the X-plates at their ends is equal

b b

1 1 e q

I t t - - t

. a) Hourglass idealization. b) Equivalent X-shaped

Fi gure2 Idealized geometri es for ADAS device

The plastic shear capacity of each equivalent X-plate of

the ADAS is comput ed from the equilibrium equation

based upon the yielding moment capacity of the plate

(equation (3)), this is

2Me, o-,.b.~q t 2

% = v; 'i ~ ~: = =

" l 21

(5)

Hence, the elastic shear stiffness of each equivalent X-plate

is calculated as

K e L = ~ l . ( 6 )

A p . ~

For an ADAS device composed of n plates and idealized

as proposed by Whittaker et al . , the plastic yielding dis-

pl acement is the one comput ed from equation (4), whereas

the plastic shear capacity and the elastic shear stiffness are

n times the ones comput ed from equations (5) and (6).

The procedure proposed by Whittaker et al. is a simple

approximation valid only for 2D modelling. Their equiva-

lent X-plate idealization is inscribed inside the nominal

shape of the ADAS, therefore, the comput ed shear capacity

# v dy 5dy

b) Bilmear ~Jeldizat~on

Commonl y used l oad- def or mat i on curves f or ADAS

,) Elslic-i~fc'fly-i/a~ic k l ~ l i ~ l i ~ l

Figure 3

device

Ma t h e ma t i c a l mo d e l l i n g o f ADAS e n e r g y d i s s i p a t i o n devi ce: A. Tena-Colunga 813

and stiffness is underestimated with respect to their theor-

etically ' exact' analytical values. In addition, the modelling

of the ADAS is based entirely on a shear criterion, neglect-

ing other effects that might be relevant, such as the impact

of axial forces and out-of-plane bending. It was observed,

from some test results, that axial torces can be an important

factor in the dynamic behaviour of the ADAS device when

subjected to large deformations ~'7'8, therefore, this effect

needs to be evaluated both analytically and experimentally.

A more rigorous procedure to model the ADAS devices

based upon the flexibility method is presented in Section 3.

The method is robust and can not only define the l oad-

deformation curve in shear of the ADAS, but can also

define an ADAS element model that can be implemented

in standard structural analysis or finite element computer

programs.

3. Pr opos e d anal yt i cal me t hod

3. I . S t i f f n e s s f o r m u l a t i o n

The stiffness matrix of an elastic nonprismatic element,

such as the plates that compose the ADAS device, can be

defined using the flexibility method. The hourglass shape

of each plate that composes the ADAS ( F i g u r e 2 a ) can be

approximated using exponential functions as

b ( : ) = b ~ e ..... 0 <~ .: : < - 112 ( 7 )

b ( z ) = b ~ e '"::-;/2> 112 <- z <~ 1 (8)

2 [ h, ~

: i ntb~) (9)

A regression analysis of the geometry of the ADAS

devices tested at the University of California at Berkeley

and reported by Whittaker e t al.L was conducted to obtain

the best lit for the proposed exponential functions. The

shape of the best exponential approximation is compared

with the measured ADAS device in F i g u r e 4 . The geometry

of the ADAS device is closely represented by the

exponential functions. The width of the device is slightly

underestimated near the fixed ends and at midspan. This

underestimation should not be critical because the curva-

imate

Figure 4 Shape o f ADAS dev i c e

tures on those regions are small, as computed and reported

by Whittaker e t a l . ~. The dimensions bL and be for the best

fit of the proposed exponential function are defined by

bl = 0.60• (10)

b : = 0.101 (11)

The basic flexibility matrices for a 2D and a 3D element

can be expressed as

f , ,

I l l = 0

0

. f i ,

0

0

I l l = o

0

0

o o ]

Y~__+ f 2 +

A : . & , j

0 0

y;: 0

0 .[~:+

0 0

0 -f,~

f~2 0

0 0 0

0 0 .f2.

0 :t:,5 0

,/~4 0 0

0 .L-~ 0

0 0 .~,~

(12)

(13)

where the terms of the flexibility matrix are given by

2 f u 2 dz

f " = E i o b,e .....

12[ ( u2 z2dz f f : ~dz ]

A 2 = E t 3 [ j . b , e ..... + ,/: b f " ' : ' ' , 2

+ 2 5 e d J o b, e ": + ,,+ t,~e ' " : : : i ' ~ '

f : ~ = E ~ L ) o b , e ~= + ,,,+ ~ 2 e " ~ i > 2 '

f66 = E t 3 o b , e '~: + b+e " ~: - n2,

I / 2

6 f ; / 2 d z

f 4 4 = G b d 3 .I o _ 192t . [ ' r r b ) e " : ~

e ' " - ~ tann/ /

~ b ~ ~ 2 t ]

,['+3 = E I L j ° b 3 e 3 . : + ,~ bi _ e 3 ' ' ( : : i / ~

[f"+- t , f ' d : ] + 2 5 E t h i e - : + M e ' " : ,/2,

0 112 -

(14)

15)

16)

17)

18)

19)

.f+5 = E t L j ° b - ~ e 3.= + .2 bi e3';'i:'-> (20)

1 2 ] ( U 2 d z ( ' dz ]

f " = n j o , , b~e " : + . , , 2 h i e ~':i: ' ~ ' ( 2 1 >

Because of the choice of exponential functions to

approximately define the geometry of the ADAS plates,

equations ( 14) - ( 17) and ( 19) - ( 21) can be explicitly inte-

grated using the fundamental principles of calculus and log-

arithmic algebra. Therefore, integrating these equations by

parts, taking limits and performing algebraic reductions, the

following closed-form solutions, the accuracies of which

8 1 4 Ma t h e ma t &a l mo d e l l i n g o f ADAS e n e r g y d i s s i p a t i o n devi ce: A. Tena- Col unga

ha ve be e n ver i f i ed by de r i va t i on and nume r i c a l i nt egr at i on,

ar e obt a i ne d

1 2 . [ l n [ b l / b 2 ) ] 2 )

E ; { 2 b , 1 ' [ b t ( l l

f ~

l n ( b ~ / b z ) [ b z \ 2 +

1 l n ( b J b 2 ) [ l n ( b , / b e ) ] 2 ( 2 2 )

+ 25Et b~ l n ( b J b 2 ) - 1

13 t 2 ( ( b ' ] 3 5 )

A.~ - e b { t l n ( b ~ / b 2 ) [ 9 [ l n ( b , l b z ) ] 2 \ \ b 2 / -

? , 1 3 2 }

+ \ b 2 / 31n( b~/ b2) 2 ( 23)

781 ( b , )

+ 2 5 E t b , l n ( b , / b z ) b 2 - 1

12 1 lZ ( : ~ z - 1 ) } ( 2 4 )

f26 = Et 3[ 2b,

l n ( b l l b z )

' 2 f ' ) }

f 6 6 = Et3 ; , l n ( b , / b z ) b 2 - 1 ( 2 5 )

2 F [ ( b , ] 3 ]

f~.s - Eb~t l n ( b , / b 2 ) [ \ b z ] - l ( 26)

4 , [ ( b , ) 3 ]

f_s5 - E b 3 t l n ( b , / b 2 ) k \ g z / - 1 ( 2 7 )

f ~' = E b d l n ( b d b z ) if2 - 1 ( 28)

Cl o s e d - f o r m s ol ut i ons f o r e qua t i on ( 1 8 ) ar e di f f i cul t t o

obt ai n, e v e n us i ng s peci al i zed s of t wa r e l i ke Ma t h e ma t i c a 9,

s o nume r i c a l i nt egr at i on ma y be e n f o r c e d her e. Two -

di me ns i ona l and t hr e e - di me ns i ona l el as t i c s t i f f nes s mat -

r i ces o f e a c h pl at e t hat c o mp o s e s t he ADAS e l e me nt can

be eas i l y de f i ne d f r o m t he f l exi bi l i t y t er ms c o mp u t e d above.

Th e el as t i c ma t r i x can be e x p r e s s e d as

[ k l , k 1 2 ]

[ K] = Lk21 k22

( 2 9 )

( 3 0 )

( 3 1 )

( 3 2 )

whe r e , f o r t he 2D case, t he el as t i c s ubma t r i c e s ar e

r.~ 0 0

rabx rl Ix

[

- r . ~ 0

[k12] = 0 - r ....

0 - - t a b ~

[ r ~ 0

[k22] = [ : r . ~

--rba x

0

r l z v

0

--rba x

r22.

and, f o r t he 3D s ol ut i on

[ k , ~ l =

[k,2l =

[k221 =

G, 0 0 0 0 0

0 r, .... 0 0 0 r,,;,,

0 0 r,.,, 0 -r,.., 0

0 0 0 r, 0 0

0 0 - r , , h, 0 r l l , 0

0 r,,~, 0 0 0 rl j ,

-r, , , 0 0 0 0

0 - r , .... 0 0 0

0 0 - r . . , 0 -rt,,,,

0 0 0 - r , 0

0 0 r,.,~ 0 rt >

0 - G~, 0 0 0

G, 0 0 0 0 0

0 r, .... 0 0 0 - r j ....

0 0 r,,,,, 0 r~,,,,, 0

0 0 0 r i 0 0

0 0 rt.,,.. 0 r=. 0

0 - r , .... 0 0 0 r22 •

0

rba •

0

0

0

r l 2t

(33)

(34)

(35)

For bot h t he 2D and 3D f or mul a t i ons , cl ear l y

[k21 ] = [kl2] T ( 36)

Ea c h t er m o f t he el ast i c s t i f f nes s mat r i ces can be c om-

put ed e xpl i c i t l y f r o m equat i ons ( 2 2 ) - ( 2 8 ) as f ol l ows

1

r .... f t t ( 3 7 )

1

ri =f 44 ( 3 8 )

det~ = f2ff66 - f26 ( 39)

f 2 2

r, , ~ = dei , ( 40)

f 2 J - f,_2

rl2, = ( 41)

det~

' 2

J 6J - 2f 2J + f22

r 22, = " = r t , , ( 4 2 )

det~

r ~ + r2z ~ + 2 q z , f66

- ( 4 3 )

r ...... = 12 -- deL~

r l l ~ + r l z~ r 2 z ~ + r l z t

r,,b, = ) = ~ = r~,,,., ( 4 4 )

dety = f3~.s5 - ~ 5 ( 4 5 )

f _ .

r . b, = d e t v ( 46)

f 35l - f~3 ( 47)

r~2y - dety

f5512 -- 2f~51 +f33

r =y = deq, = r t b' ( 4 8 )

Mathematical modelling of ADAS energy dissipation device: A. Tena-Colunga 815

r t l v + r22y + 2r12v f s s

r . , . . = 1~ . . . . . . . . dety (49)

r l l v + r l Tv r22v + r l 2v

r,,,,,. = [ " = - " l : = r,,,,y (50)

p~L+ = cr,,tb 2 (59)

p ~ L = cr, t b2 (60)

For the plastic moment capacity in the x-direction of the

plate

2D and 3D elastic stiffness matrices of each plate that

composes an ADAS element, taking into account their tap-

ered shape, are completely defined by these equations.

Because the proposed methodology is based on the flexi-

bility method, suitable nonlinear formulations can be

implemented by introducing lumped plasticity models

(zero-length generalized plastic hinges) at the ends of the

ADAS elements accounting for interaction among axial,

torsional and biaxial bending effects, as presented by Pow-

ell and Chen m, to formulate 2D and 3D nonlinear ADAS

elements. Therefore, 2D and 3D nonlinear ADAS elements

can be readily set up into the most popular software used

by practicing engineers and researchers.

3 . 2 . C a p a c i t y f o r m u l a t i o n

The average plastic moments, shear and axial capacities and

twisting moments of each plate that composes an ADAS

element can be computed as

°"t2 (bl - - b 2 ) (61)

- PL

For the shear strength in the x-direction of the plate

- P L O' v/ 2

V~,.< = 2/ (b, - be) (62)

For the plastic moment capacity in the v-direction of the

plate

O'~,l

i f 4 ; , P L 1191 ` ( b ~ - b ~ ) ( 6 3 )

81n ( ) b;

For the shear strength in the y-direction of the plate

2o-t f, 2

P ~ " = i b t e " ~ d : {51)

o

M~,~ = 4i . bi e ":dz + b2e "~ "2}dz (52)

I/2

4 ; { I I ' }

- P L

V;,, = - a b i e (~;dz + a b2 e ' ~ tl2~dz 153)

o It2

M;v = 4/ /L> b~e a~dz + .,,2 b2e ~ dz (54)

-m. - 2a 2 e 2":dz + 2a b~e2~("-' 2~dz (55)

v ; , , = 4 i " ~ , , I , ,

I/2

2Tv ( f l t 2 1 3 b l e ~z [ 1921 [Trble-~z,, ]

= , - tJ t ( , - v ' - - t - - 2 7 - ) ) < l z J (56)

Integrating these equations, taking limits and doing some

algebraic reductions, closed-form solutions are obtained.

For the plastic axial capacity in tension

(bl -- b2)

- P L

P,+ = ~yt . . . . . . . . (57)

For the plastic capacity in compression

(bl - b2)

- P L

P f,_ = ~r,t . . . . . . . (58)

- P L O' vl

V~,,, = 21 (b{ - b 2) (64)

Due to the complexity of its integral, a closed-form sol-

ution was not obtained for the plastic twisting moment.

However, the following reduced form was obtained for

numerical integration

T[,e.t. = r , t 2 128r,.t 3 f,12 (rrb, e~ i ~]

{D T ) ,> a . . t 2 ,

In b2

(65)

In equations (51 ) - ( 65) , o~. is the yield strength in tension

of the ADAS steel plate, ~, is the ultimate compressive

strength of the ADAS steel plate taking into account slen-

derness and/ or buckling effects and ry is the shear yield

strength of the ADAS steel plate.

3 . 3 . A p p r o x i m a t e 2 D n o n l i n e a r m o d e l l i n g o f A D A S

u s i n g a v a i l a b l e s o f t w a r e

Most researchers and practicing engineers worldwide are

using software such as the original DRAIN-2D ~, DRAIN-

2DX ~z and ANSR 13, to idealize equivalent ADAS elements,

in 2D problems, using nonlinear prismatic elements avail-

able in their libraries. Therefore, for such modelling, the

definition of the l oad-deformat i on curve is very important.

The 2D l oad-deformat i on curve of the ADAS element

( F i g u r e 3 ) can be defined with the proposed method as

follows. The elastic shear stiffness of each ADAS plate is

defined by equation (43), that is

However, one should note that the plastic axial capacity of

the ADAS plate might not depend on the geometry of the

entire plate, but rather on that of the throat alone. Lacking

experimental data that would allow us to define the axial

strength in tension and compression of an ADAS plate, they

could be conservatively estimated as

f66 (66)

Kt , L = G, = - detx

The average plastic moment capacity and shear strength

are defined by equations (61) and (62). Therefore, the yield

displacement of the ADAS device is computed as

8 1 6 Mat hemat i cal model l i ng of ADAS ener gy di ssi pat i on devi ce: A. Tena-Col unga

(67)

A,P L _

• Kp L

Thus, the load-deformation curve of an ADAS device is

fully defined with equations (62), (66) and (67) under the

proposed method. For an ADAS device composed of n

plates, the yielding displacement is the one computed from

equation (67), whereas the plastic shear capacity and the

elastic shear stiffness are n times those computed from

equations (62) and (66).

3.4. Compari son bet ween met hod used by Whi t t aker et

al. J and experi ment al data

The proposed method is compared with the procedure used

by Whittaker et al.J as outlined before to define the load-

deformation curve in shear of some ADAS devices tested

at the University of California at Berkeley. The dimensions

of the tested ADAS devices were, according to the notation

in Fi gure 2, bl = 8.59 cm (3.38"), b2 = 1.52 cm (0.6"), t =

0.64 cm (0.25") and / = 12.70 cm (5.0"). The equivalent

width at the ends of the ADAS according to the method

used by Whittaker et al. is b~,,q = 6.35 cm (2.5"). The

dimensions b~ and b2 given by the proposed exponential

approximation are b~ = 7.62 cm (3.0") and bt = 1.27 cm

(0.5"). The ADAS plates were made with A-36 structural

steel. Coupon tests revealed an effective yielding strength

o- 2, = 289.9 MPa (42 ksi) and an elastic modulus E, =

207 099.3 MPa (30000 ksi) ]. ADAS devices composed of

four, six and seven plates were tested. The parameters of

the load-deformation curve in shear of the ADAS obtained

experimentally and those obtained using the proposed

method and Whittaker's method are summarized in Tabl e 1.

It can be observed from Table 1 that the proposed formu-

lation and that proposed by Whittaker et al. have an excel-

lent correlation with the experimental results for the shear

strength, with overshooting in tile range 2-6.4%. Both

methods predicted practically the same shear strength

values. As expected, the yield displacement computed with

the proposed method and the one used by Whittaker et al.

are also similar, because both methods assume that the

ADAS plates are perfectly fixed at their ends. The differ-

ence in the predicted yield displacements is attributed to

the fact that the proposed exponential approximation is

stiffer than the equivalent triangle of Whittaker et al., as

the plate width along the height of the proposed formulation

is slightly higher. The correlation of both models with

experimental results is poor because, in practice, reproduc-

ing a perfect fixed-end condition for the ADAS in the lab-

oratory and in the field is almost impossible. The ADAS

devices tested in the laboratory experienced some rotations

and sliding ]. For the ADAS elements reported in Table 1,

the difference in the yield displacements with respect to

those computed for the fixed-end condition goes from 20%

to 64% for the proposed exponential approximation and

from 11% to 52% for the Whittaker et al. method. There-

fore, the equivalent elastic stiffnesses computed from

experimental data are smaller than those computed analyti-

cally with either method. This problem in the formal math-

ematical formulation can be corrected by adding flexibility

to the proposed formulation with translational and

rotational springs with constants based on a statistical

analysis of the experimental data of tested ADAS elements.

Also, it could be fixed by allowing rotational degrees of

freedom at the end nodes of the elements representing the

ADAS device when using standard software for nonlinear

dynamic analysis ~ ~.

3.5. Compari son with shaki ng table test results

In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed lbr-

mulation, a DRAIN-2DX model for the 3D, ADAS-3 shak-

ing table building model tested at the University of Califor-

nia at Berkeley ~ was prepared. The ADAS-3 building is

composed of two identical braced frames, but only one

frame was considered ( Fi gure 5) in the analytical studies,

as torsional responses were minimal during the shaking

table tests, as was suggested from analysing the experi-

mental data ~. The ADAS-3 test model has a total of six

ADAS devices (three for each frame, one ADAS per

storey): two seven-plate A DA S (ADAS nos 1 and 2) in the

first storey, two six-plate ADAS (ADAS nos 3 and 4) in

the second storey and two four-plate ADAS (ADAS nos 5

and 6) in the third storey. Properties of these ADAS devices

are those reported as 'experimental' in Table 1. The total

storey masses and the measured and computed strengths of

the remaining structural elements as reported in Whittaker

et al.~ were considered in the analytical studies and are

summarized in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. It can be

deduced by comparing Tables I and 3 that the columns,

beams and braces have much more strength than the ADAS

devices; thus, the nonlinear action should be concentrated

in the energy dissipation devices, as wanted in the shaking

table tests.

A 2D A DA S element was developed for DRAIN-2DX

by modifying an existing prismatic beam-column element;

that is, the elastic stiffness formulation and the yield

capacities were set up as outlined in previous sections,

whereas the original nonlinear lbrmulation for steel mem-

bers was used.

Two different frame layouts for model ADAS-3 were

evaluated to study the sensitivity of the structural response

Table 1 Compari son of parameters of l oad- def or mat i on curve in shear of ADAS obtai ned experi ment al l y versus analytical methods

(units: kips, in, kips/in (KN, cm, KN/cm)

ADAS

No. of

plates

Experi mental testing Whittaker et al. Proposed method

V~oAS ~oAS K~As ~oAs a~As K~oAs ~ A s , ~ As K~As

4 2. 50 0. 12 20. 83 2. 63 0. 11 23. 91 2. 63 0. 10 26. 57

(11.13) (0.30) (36.53) (11.69) (0.27) (43.84) (11.69) (0.25) (46.59)

6 3.70 0.16 23.13 3.94 0.11 35.82 3.94 0.10 39.85

(16.48) (0.41) (40.55) (17.54) (0.27) (65.75) (17.54) (0.25) (69.88)

7 4.50 0.16 28.12 4.60 0.11 41.82 4.60 0.10 49.49

(20.04) (0.41) (49.32) (20.46) (0.27) (76.71) (20.46) (0,25) (81.53)

Mat hemat i cal model l i ng of ADAS ener gy di ssi pat i on devi ce: A. Tena-Col unga

8 1 7

xs//5(8)

i

~ 1 6 16 ~ .

I I I

1 4 4

80

ADdS //5(8)

T - r 5

6 4

T5

64 208

a) A c t u a l l a y o u t ( m o d e l s M A L )

I 5

144

b ) S i mp l i f i e d l a y o u t ( mo d e l s MSL)

Figure 5 Layouts for ADAS-3, shaking table test structure (dimensions in inches)

Table 2 Measured weights for ADAS-3 shaking table structure

(units: kips (KN))

Floor Total structural weight Idealized frame weight

3 31. 10 ( 138. 51) 15.55 (69. 26)

2 31.80 ( 141.63) 15.90 (70.81)

1 32.10 (142.97) 16.05 (71.48)

Total 95.00 (423.11 ) 47.50 (211.55)

to geometric differences: firstly, the actual layout of the

tested frame (Figure 5a) where the bottom beam that sup-

ports the ADAS devices is supported by the diagonal brac-

ing is included in the modelling (MAL frames) and; sec-

ondly, a simplified model (Figure 5b), where only the

chevron bracing is modelled and this bracing is directly

connected to the ADAS devices (MSL frames).

For both ADAS-3 frame models (MAL and MSL), the

ADAS devices were modelled as follows: (1) using the

proposed formulation for 2D ADAS elements, including

interaction between bending moments and axial forces. The

lateral stiffnesses and shear capacities are those reported in

Table 1 (PRO models). (2) Using the proposed formulation

as outlined in (1), but correcting the stiffness coefficients

using a penalty method to match the lateral stiffnesses

reported as ' experimental' in Table 1 (PROEX models).

The nominal shear capacities were not modified. (3) Mod-

elling the ADAS devices as equivalent prismatic beam-

columns with no interaction between bending moments and

axial loads, using the model proposed by Whittaker et al.

(WBAT models). A 5% postyielding stiffness was con-

sidered for the ADAS devices as this value has been sug-

gested for the modelling of ADAS devices for buildings

retrofitted with such devices -~. Finally, the boundary con-

ditions of the ADAS devices were also evaluated for the

modelling proposed in ( 1 ) and (3), that is, for those models,

the ADAS were modelled assuming that the rotational

degree of freedom of those nodes connecting the ADAS

devices was; firstly, fixed; and, secondly, free to rotate.

The natural periods for the different models described

above are summarized in Table 4, where they are compared

with the measured natural periods obtained from free

vibration and white noise tests ~. It can be observed that

there is no substantial difference between the natural per-

iods for the MAL and MSL models when the same ADAS

Table 3 Strength properties of structural elements of model frames ADAS-3

Property Beams (W6 x12) Columns W15 x 16) Bracing (4" x 4" x ~")

F;,, ksi ( MPa) 45. 9 (329. 4) 45. 9 (329. 4) 53.7 (385. 4)

F u , ksi ( MPa) 45. 9 (329. 4) 45. 9 (329. 4) 39.7 (284. 7), 42.7 (306. 4)

Py, kips (KN) 126 (561. 2) 216 (962. 0) 208.1 (926. 8)

P,, kips ( KN) 126 (561. 2) 216 (962. 0) 153.8 (685. 0), 165.6 (737. 5)

M~ kips-in ( KN- cm) 333 ( 3767) 392 (4434) - -

M~ kips-in ( KN- cm) 378 ( 4726) 441 ( 4989) - -

8 1 8 Mat hemat i cal model l i ng of ADAS energy di ssi pati on device: A. Tena-Colunga

Table 4 Fundament al per i ods f or di f f er ent ADAS-3 model s

Model T( s)

Exper i ment al model , f ree vi br at i on t est 0.470

Exper i ment al model , whi t e noi se t est 0.480

MAL-PRO model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.404

MSL-PRO model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.394

MSL-PRO model , ADAS f ree t o r ot at e 0.578

MAL-PROEX model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.474

MSL-PROEX model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.465

MAL-WBAT model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.412

MSL-WBAT model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.403

MSL-WBAT model , ADAS f ree t o r ot at e 0.602

idealization is considered, although the MAL models have

closer correlations with the experimental data. For practical

purposes, the MSL models are accurate enough• Also, the

natural periods obtained experimentally are within the pre-

dicted period range for models MSL-PRO and MSL-

WBAT when the ADAS devices are fixed or free to rotate.

In addition, the natural period is closely predicted when the

ADAS devices are modelled under the proposed idealiz-

ation when the stiffness coefficients are corrected to match

the lateral stiffnesses reported as ' experi ment al ' in Table 1

( MAL- PROEX and MSL- PROEX models). Therefore, the

ADAS devices are clearly not compl et el y restrained at their

ends or free to rotate; thus, it would be very helpful in the

actual mathematical formulation of the ADAS to modi fy

the stiffness coefficients based upon statistical analyses of

the experimental data of tested ADAS elements, as is done

in the MAL- PROEX and MSL- PROEX models.

The ADAS-3 models where the ADAS devices are

assumed to be fixed at their ends (MAL-PRO, MSL-PRO,

MAL- PROEX, MSL-PROEX, MAL- WBAT and MSL-

WBAT model s) were subjected to the 1940 E1 Centro N-

S acceleration record scaled for a peak ground acceleration

of 0.33 g (Figure 6), as was done in actual shaking table

tests ] . It is worth noting that the record used in this study

is not the same as that used in the shaking table at Berkeley

because that record was not available at the time of con-

ducting the present study. The ADAS hysteresis curves

obtained experimentally for the ADAS-3 El Centro-33 test

are shown in Figure 7. The comput ed hysteresis curves for

the different MAL and MSL models are depicted in Figures

8 and 9, respectively. It can be observed from these test

results that the actual postyield stiffness of the ADAS

devices (Figure 7) are higher than the 5% assumed in the

analytical models (Figures 8 and 9). The models where the

ADAS are idealized as proposed in this paper (PRO and

PROEX, Figures 8 and 9) have slightly closer correlations

with the experimental data (Figure 7) than those for WBAT

models (Figures 8 and 9). There is no significant difference

between the ADAS hysteresis curves computed for MAL

(Figure 8) and MSL (Figure 9) models, thus, for practical

purposes, the MSL modelling could be used for more com-

plex frames as this modelling requires fewer elements

and nodes.

The different analytical models reproduce the ADAS

hysteresis curves reasonably well, taking into account that

the main purpose of these analyses was to investigate the

reliability of analytical models in predicting the response

of experimental structures based exclusively on practical

assumptions suggested in the literature. Closer correlations

could have been obtained if the modelling of each ADAS

device (initial stiffness, postyield stiffness, hardening, etc.)

had been based on a closer inspection of the shaking table

data (Figure 7). However, this academic exercise was con-

sidered of marginal value as the most common case in

structural practice is to design structures without knowing,

a priori, the actual response of the structural system when

subjected to dynamic loading. Therefore, it is more helpful

to know how good the predictions based on analytical mod-

els are when they are compared with measured responses•

4 . C o n c l u s i o n s

A new formulation for the 2D and 3D numerical modelling

of an ADAS element has been presented. Cl osed-form sol-

utions for the definition of most of the terms of the elastic

matrices have been obtained. Nonlinear ADAS elements

can be developed using the proposed method with a suitable

nonlinear formulation, for example, introducing lumped

plasticity models at the ends of the ADAS elements

accounting for interaction among axial, torsional and

0 . 4 0

0 . 2 0

"~ o . o o

, ¢ - 0 . 2 0

- 0 . 4 0

0 . 4 0

0 . 2 0

o . o o

r ~

<~ - 0 . 2 0

- 0 . 4 0

t~ 1~ l ~ h l k , ~ l . , ~ , l | 1 9 4 0 E 1 C e n t r o , N - S i

t -

• v l r y " 1 1 1 1 ~ l l ? m , ' , , - ' " '," . . . . . . . . .

0 tO 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 60

d ~ El C e n t r o - 3 3 , N - S

t = J ~ [ = i ~ J I , ~ , ~ i J , , , I , , l , ~ ,

0 tO 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0

TI ME ( s )

=1

r~

i

60

1.0

0 . 5

0 . 0

1 . 0

0 . 5

0.0

' " ' ..... I ..... ' " ' 1 " ~ ' " ' ~ ' 1 ~ ' " " ' r ~

0 1 2 3 4

0 1 2 3 4

P E m O D ( s )

Figure 6 1940 El Cent ro accel erat i on records

Mathematical modelling of ADAS energy dissipation device: A. Tena-Colunga 819

S h e a r ( k i p s )

: i

o -

D i s p l a c e m e n t ( i n c h )

S h e a r ( k i p s )

B

A D A S

- 4

- 0

S h e a r ( k i p s )

A D A S ~ 2

0 . . . . - -

- 4

- 8

Fi gur e 7

-2 -i 0 1

D i s p l a c e m e n t ( i n c h )

S h e a r ( k i p s )

8 . . . . . . . . . . . .

- , I

-0

A D A S # 5

. . . . . 1 _ _ _ L . . . . . . .

- 1 0 1 2 - 1 1 2

D i s p l a c e m e n t ( i n c h ) I) i s p l a c e m e n t (i.el~)

S h e a r ( k i p s )

B

A D A

4

0 - - - - -

- 4

- 8 ~ - - - -

-2 -i 0

D i s p l a c e m e n t

S h e a r ( k i p s

- 4

- B

ADAS hysteresi s f or ADAS-3, El Centro-33 shaki ng t abl e tests (f rom Whi t t aker et al. 1)

1

( i n c h )

A D A S # 6

--I 0 I

Di spl acement (i nch)

6

Ld)AS # 1,m-

~" - 4

o

- 6

- 2 - 1 0 1 2

8

kI)kS # 1,2 ;

2

- 2 - 1 0 1 2

A

Fi gur e 8

Mode l MAL-PR0][](

- 1 0 1

Model MAL- PR0

I , _ _ 1 , i

- 2 - 1 0 1

Model MAL-WBAT

/

, _ _ ~ , L

- 2 - 1 0 1

A ( i n )

2

t

- 2

- 2

, J

! !

I I

- 1 0 1 2

- 1 0 1

2 - 2 - 1 0 1 2

A ( i . )

ADAS hysteresi s f or di f f erent ADAS-3, MAL f r ame model s when subj ected t o EL Centro-33 accel erati on record

820 Mathematical modelling of ADAS energy dissipation device: A. Tena-Colunga

8

1,2 I

Model MSL-PROEX

- 2 - 1 0 1 2

A

2 - 2 - 1 0 1 2 - 2 - 1

Model MSL-PRO

&DAS ~ 5, 6

- 2 - 1 0 1

Model MSL-WBAT

i

0 1 2

L ~ L

2 2 - 2

i

I

- I 0 1 2

ADAS # 3, 4

J

- 2 - 1 0 1 2

A ( i . )

M)AS N 5, 6

- 2 - 1

J

I

1

A i . )

Figure 9 ADAS hysteresi s f or di f f erent ADAS-3, MSL f rame model s when subj ected t o El Centro-33 accel erati on record

biaxial bending effects, as presented by others. The pro-

posed method was compared with other methods presented

in the literature and with experimental data. The proposed

method correlates well with experimental data in the esti-

mat e of the shear strength of the ADAS device. However,

the proposed method underestimates the yield displacement

of the ADAS with respect to experimental results, as the

perfect fixed-end condition assumed in the analytical

method cannot be reproduced in the field when the ADAS

plates experience sliding and rotations. The lack of

rotational fixity and the axial load effects need to be evalu-

ated experimentally in more detail. To i mprove the pro-

posed method, translational and rotational springs can be

added by using a penalty method in the formal mathemati-

cal formulation. A statistical analysis of the available

experimental data on the ADAS would be very helpful in

defining the constants of the springs needed to improve the

proposed analytical model. This was illustrated when the

shaking table results of the ADAS-3 model were compared

with the different formulations presented in this paper.

The proposed method could be very helpful for prelimi-

nary design of ADAS elements for buildings, and for ana-

lytical studies on the nonlinear dynamic behavi our of struc-

tures designed or retrofitted with such devices. This was

shown by compari ng the hysteresis curves for the ADAS

devices of the ADAS-3 shaking table model with those

based upon the proposed formulation, where it was found

that the correlation was reasonable, even though no effort

had been made to obtain a ' perfect mat ch' by further ana-

lysing the test data (curve-fitting techniques). With the pro-

posed analytical method, designers can not only quantify

the desired mechanical characteristics of the energy dissi-

pators, but can also estimate the sizes of the ADAS devices

that a particular structure requires to improve its dynamic

performance. Then, they can j udge not only if their solution

is theoretically correct, but if it can be built.

Acknowledgments

The present study was part of a research project carried out

at Centro de Investigaci6n Sfsmica regarding the applica-

bility of passive energy-dissipation devices in the retrofit

and design of building structures in Mexico City. The fin-

ancial support of Secretarfa General de Obras of

Departamento del Distrito Federal is gratefully acknowl-

edged. The critical reviews and helpful comment s on the

original manuscript by Javier Alonso, Enrique Del Valle,

Luis Esteva and Eduardo Miranda are gratefully acknowl-

edged.

References

1 Whittaker, A. S., Bertero, V. V., Al onso, L. J. and Thompson, C. L.

' Eart hquake si mul at or testing of steel plate added dampi ng and stiff-

ness el ement s' , Report UCB/EERC-89/02, Earthquake Engi neeri ng

Research Center, Uni versi t y of California at Berkeley, 1989

2 Whittaker, A. S., Bertero, V. V., Thompson, C. L. and AIonso, L. J.

' Sei smi c testing of steel plate energy dissipation devi ces' , Earthquake

Spectra 1991, 7 (4), 563 606

3 Ber gman, S. and Goel, S. "Evaluation of cyclic testing of steel-plate

devi ces for added dampi ng and st i ffness' , Report UMCE 87-10,

Depart ment of Civil Engi neeri ng, University of Mi chi gan, 1987

4 Mart fnez-Romero, E. ' Experi ences on the use of suppl ement ary

energy dissipators on building st ruct ures' , Earthquake Spectra 1993,

9 (3), 581- 626

Mathematical modelling of ADAS energy dissipation device: A. Tena-Colunga 821

5 Martinez-Romero, E. Personal communication, 1993

6 Dargush, G. F. and Soong, T. T. "Behavior of metallic plate dampers

in seismic passive energy dissipation syst ems' , Earthquake Spectra

1995, 11 (4), 545-568

7 Miranda, E. Personal communication, 1993

8 Alonso, L. J. Personal communication, 1995

9 Wolfram, S. Mathematica: a system for doing mathematics by com-

puter (2nd edn). Addison-Wesley, New York, 1992

10 Powell, G. H. and Chen, P. F. ' 3D beam-column el ement with gen-

eralized plastic hi nges' , J. Engng Mech., ASCE 1986, 112 (7),

627-641

11 Kanaan, A. and Powell, G. H. ' DRAIN-2D: general purpose com-

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Report UCB/ EERC-73/ 06, Earthquake Engineering Research Center,

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12 Prakash, V., Powell, G. H. and Filippou, F. C. ' DRAIN-2DX: base

programe user gui de' , Report UCB/ SEMM-92/ 29, Department of

Civil Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 1992

13 Mondkar, D. P. and Powell, G. H. ' ANSR 1 : general purpose program

for analysis of nonlinear structural response' , Report UCB/ EERC-

75/37, Earthquake Engineering Research Center. University of Cali-

fornia at Berkeley, 1975

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