# ELSEVIER

PII: S0141-0296(97)00165-4
Engineering Structures, Vol. 19, No. 10. pp. 811-821, 1997
(~ 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd
0141-0296/97 \$17,(X) + 0.(X)
Mathematical model l i ng of the
_Arturo Tena-Colunga
Centro de lnvestigaci6n S{smica, AC, Carretera al Ajusco No 203, Col. H#roes de Padierna,
14200 M~xico, DF, Mexico
(Received August 1995," revised version accepted November 1996)
Numerical model l i ng of the added dampi ng and stiffness (ADAS)
energy dissipation device is of paramount i mportance when study-
ing the structural behavi our of bui l di ngs wi t h such components.
The ADAS devices are special nonpri smati c structural elements,
therefore, the definition of thei r stiffness and l oad-def ormat i on
curves using analytical models is not strai ghtforward. Up to now,
there is onl y one approxi mate method reported in the literature
that woul d al l ow one to define the elastic stiffness and the l oad-
deformati on curve of the ADAS device. This paper presents
another method to determi ne these data. The proposed procedure
treats the variation of the cross-section using the fl exi bi l i ty method.
Most of the resulting integrals are solved explicitly, closed-form
sol uti ons are then available. The proposed expressions were veri-
fied against direct derivation and numerical integration solutions.
The elastic stiffness and the strength of the ADAS devices com-
puted wi t h the closed-form sol uti ons are compared wi t h those
reported in the literature. Predicted hysteresis curves are compared
wi t h those obtained experi mental l y from shaking table tests.
Keywords: ADAS device, energy dissipation, mathematical model-
ling, nonpri smati c elements, fl exi bi l i ty method, stiffness
1. Introduction
The study and devel opment of special devices designed to
reduce the response of structural systems when subjected
dampi ng and stiffness ( ADAS) device is j ust one of these
special devices. An ADAS device is depicted in Fi gure 1.
It has been designed to help reduce the seismic response
of structures through its plastic deformation, which yields
a substantial increment of the hysteretic energy dissipated
in the structure. This additional hysteretic energy dissi-
pation due to the ADAS devices can also be understood as
an increment of t he-equi val ent internal dampi ng of the
structure.
Comprehensi ve experimental programs have been car-
ried out at the Universities of California at Berkeley ''2 and
Michigan 3. These studies have shown the effectiveness of
the devices in reducing the seismic response of 3D struc-
tural models. However, the use of ADAS devices in the
retrofit or design of building structures has been slow for
two main reasons. The first is related to building codes,
many of which do not yet have special provisions for the
F i g u r e 1 ADAS devi ce
design of structural systems with energy dissipation
devices. Thus, this novel technology is at a disadvantage
with respect to traditional structural systems. The second
is related to the procedures used to analyse and design
structures with ADAS devices, which are not common
knowledge, as these procedures are known only by a small
group of researchers and practicing engineers worldwide.
811
8 1 2 M a t h e m a t i c a l m o d e l l i n g o f A D A S e n e r g y d i s s i p a t i o n d e v i c e : A. T e n a - Co l u n g a
In addition, the royalties on the patent could substantially
increase the construction costs, particularly in countries
where labour costs are cheap.
Up to now, the numerical modelling of the stiffness and
nonlinear behaviour of the ADAS device has been prim-
arily based upon experimental data from tests of prototype
devices (scale 1:l), similar to those that will be used in the
structures. In fact, in the first three buildings in Mexi co
City retrofitted with these devices 4, the structural engineer
used the l oad- def or mat i on curves obtained experimentally
by the supplier of the ADAS device hardware. 5 Whittaker
et al. ~ have presented an analytical procedure to define the
l oad- def or mat i on curve of the ADAS device, assuming an
equivalent X-triangular-shaped geomet ry. Although the
method is simple, its results are limited if more rigorous
analyses are to be done. The use of a detailed finite element
mesh to model an ADAS device is reasonable to study the
behavi our of the device alone; however, it is not practical
for studying the nonlinear dynamic behavi our of multi-
storey structures with several ADAS devices. Recently, a
microscopic mechanist approach has been proposed for
metallic dampers 6 the applicability of which could be tested
The present work outlines a procedure to define the glo-
bal element stiffness, the element capacities and the l oad-
deformation curves of the ADAS device based upon the
flexibility method and fundamental principles of mech-
anics. The method is compared with the analytical pro-
cedure and experimental data presented by Whittaker et al. J
to hal f its height (bl, . q=l/2). The l oad-deformat i on curve
in shear of the ADAS can be idealized as an elastic-
perfectly plastic curve ( Fi g u r e 3a) , or as a bilinear one
( Fi g u r e 3b) , as recommended in the literature 4. In the pro-
cedure by Whittaker et al.~, the yielding point is defined
from the proposed equivalent geometry.
Whittaker et al. J do not specify the expression they used
to define the yielding displacements reported on their ana-
lytical studies. However, it seems that these displacements
were comput ed from the double integration of the average
plastic curvature
" =J J E L ( =)
(1)
where
b ( z . ) f
[~(z. )= 12 (2)
b(.: )t 2
Me d z ) = o ' , . Z , = ~ r , . 4 (3)
Therefore, according to the method proposed by Whit-
taker et a l J , the plastic yielding displacement of each equi-
valent X-shaped plate is
3 0 " ~ [2
a , ' : : - = 4 E , <4)
2. M e t h o d p r o p o s e d b y Wh i t t a k e r et al .
An idealization of the geomet ry of an ADAS device is
given in Fi g u r e 2a. Here, the layout of the ADAS is hour-
glass-shaped. These devices are made with tapered struc-
tural steel plates designed to work primarily in double cur-
vature, which makes their layout more efficient as these
elements yield al most entirely along their length.
Because of its particular tapered shape, the computation
of the stiffness and the plastic capacities of the ADAS
device are nontrivial. Whittaker et al. 1 proposed a simple
procedure to define the l oad-defl ect i on curve for the ADAS
devices, using an equivalent X-shaped idealization of the
plates ( Fi g u r e 2b) , which are inscribed inside the actual
profile of the ADAS. Their method is based on the follow-
ing assumptions: firstly, the X-plates are rigidly restrained
at their ends; secondly, the X-plates deform in double cur-
vature, antisymmetric about their midheight; and finally,
the equivalent width of the X-plates at their ends is equal
b b
1 1 e q
I t t - - t
. a) Hourglass idealization. b) Equivalent X-shaped
Fi gure2 Idealized geometri es for ADAS device
The plastic shear capacity of each equivalent X-plate of
the ADAS is comput ed from the equilibrium equation
based upon the yielding moment capacity of the plate
(equation (3)), this is
2Me, o-,.b.~q t 2
% = v; 'i ~ ~: = =
" l 21
(5)
Hence, the elastic shear stiffness of each equivalent X-plate
is calculated as
K e L = ~ l . ( 6 )
A p . ~
For an ADAS device composed of n plates and idealized
as proposed by Whittaker et al . , the plastic yielding dis-
pl acement is the one comput ed from equation (4), whereas
the plastic shear capacity and the elastic shear stiffness are
n times the ones comput ed from equations (5) and (6).
The procedure proposed by Whittaker et al. is a simple
approximation valid only for 2D modelling. Their equiva-
lent X-plate idealization is inscribed inside the nominal
shape of the ADAS, therefore, the comput ed shear capacity
# v dy 5dy
b) Bilmear ~Jeldizat~on
Commonl y used l oad- def or mat i on curves f or ADAS
,) Elslic-i~fc'fly-i/a~ic k l ~ l i ~ l i ~ l
Figure 3
device
Ma t h e ma t i c a l mo d e l l i n g o f ADAS e n e r g y d i s s i p a t i o n devi ce: A. Tena-Colunga 813
and stiffness is underestimated with respect to their theor-
etically ' exact' analytical values. In addition, the modelling
of the ADAS is based entirely on a shear criterion, neglect-
ing other effects that might be relevant, such as the impact
of axial forces and out-of-plane bending. It was observed,
from some test results, that axial torces can be an important
factor in the dynamic behaviour of the ADAS device when
subjected to large deformations ~'7'8, therefore, this effect
needs to be evaluated both analytically and experimentally.
A more rigorous procedure to model the ADAS devices
based upon the flexibility method is presented in Section 3.
The method is robust and can not only define the l oad-
deformation curve in shear of the ADAS, but can also
define an ADAS element model that can be implemented
in standard structural analysis or finite element computer
programs.
3. Pr opos e d anal yt i cal me t hod
3. I . S t i f f n e s s f o r m u l a t i o n
The stiffness matrix of an elastic nonprismatic element,
such as the plates that compose the ADAS device, can be
defined using the flexibility method. The hourglass shape
of each plate that composes the ADAS ( F i g u r e 2 a ) can be
approximated using exponential functions as
b ( : ) = b ~ e ..... 0 <~ .: : < - 112 ( 7 )
b ( z ) = b ~ e '"::-;/2> 112 <- z <~ 1 (8)
2 [ h, ~
: i ntb~) (9)
A regression analysis of the geometry of the ADAS
devices tested at the University of California at Berkeley
and reported by Whittaker e t al.L was conducted to obtain
the best lit for the proposed exponential functions. The
shape of the best exponential approximation is compared
with the measured ADAS device in F i g u r e 4 . The geometry
of the ADAS device is closely represented by the
exponential functions. The width of the device is slightly
underestimated near the fixed ends and at midspan. This
underestimation should not be critical because the curva-
imate
Figure 4 Shape o f ADAS dev i c e
tures on those regions are small, as computed and reported
by Whittaker e t a l . ~. The dimensions bL and be for the best
fit of the proposed exponential function are defined by
bl = 0.60• (10)
b : = 0.101 (11)
The basic flexibility matrices for a 2D and a 3D element
can be expressed as
f , ,
I l l = 0
0
. f i ,
0
0
I l l = o
0
0
o o ]
Y~__+ f 2 +
A : . & , j
0 0
y;: 0
0 .[~:+
0 0
0 -f,~
f~2 0
0 0 0
0 0 .f2.
0 :t:,5 0
,/~4 0 0
0 .L-~ 0
0 0 .~,~
(12)
(13)
where the terms of the flexibility matrix are given by
2 f u 2 dz
f " = E i o b,e .....
12[ ( u2 z2dz f f : ~dz ]
A 2 = E t 3 [ j . b , e ..... + ,/: b f " ' : ' ' , 2
+ 2 5 e d J o b, e ": + ,,+ t,~e ' " : : : i ' ~ '
f : ~ = E ~ L ) o b , e ~= + ,,,+ ~ 2 e " ~ i > 2 '
f66 = E t 3 o b , e '~: + b+e " ~: - n2,
I / 2
6 f ; / 2 d z
f 4 4 = G b d 3 .I o _ 192t . [ ' r r b ) e " : ~
e ' " - ~ tann/ /
~ b ~ ~ 2 t ]
,['+3 = E I L j ° b 3 e 3 . : + ,~ bi _ e 3 ' ' ( : : i / ~
[f"+- t , f ' d : ] + 2 5 E t h i e - : + M e ' " : ,/2,
0 112 -
(14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
.f+5 = E t L j ° b - ~ e 3.= + .2 bi e3';'i:'-> (20)
1 2 ] ( U 2 d z ( ' dz ]
f " = n j o , , b~e " : + . , , 2 h i e ~':i: ' ~ ' ( 2 1 >
Because of the choice of exponential functions to
approximately define the geometry of the ADAS plates,
equations ( 14) - ( 17) and ( 19) - ( 21) can be explicitly inte-
grated using the fundamental principles of calculus and log-
arithmic algebra. Therefore, integrating these equations by
parts, taking limits and performing algebraic reductions, the
following closed-form solutions, the accuracies of which
8 1 4 Ma t h e ma t &a l mo d e l l i n g o f ADAS e n e r g y d i s s i p a t i o n devi ce: A. Tena- Col unga
ha ve be e n ver i f i ed by de r i va t i on and nume r i c a l i nt egr at i on,
ar e obt a i ne d
1 2 . [ l n [ b l / b 2 ) ] 2 )
E ; { 2 b , 1 ' [ b t ( l l
f ~
l n ( b ~ / b z ) [ b z \ 2 +
1 l n ( b J b 2 ) [ l n ( b , / b e ) ] 2 ( 2 2 )
+ 25Et b~ l n ( b J b 2 ) - 1
13 t 2 ( ( b ' ] 3 5 )
A.~ - e b { t l n ( b ~ / b 2 ) [ 9 [ l n ( b , l b z ) ] 2 \ \ b 2 / -
? , 1 3 2 }
+ \ b 2 / 31n( b~/ b2) 2 ( 23)
781 ( b , )
+ 2 5 E t b , l n ( b , / b z ) b 2 - 1
12 1 lZ ( : ~ z - 1 ) } ( 2 4 )
f26 = Et 3[ 2b,
l n ( b l l b z )
' 2 f ' ) }
f 6 6 = Et3 ; , l n ( b , / b z ) b 2 - 1 ( 2 5 )
2 F [ ( b , ] 3 ]
f~.s - Eb~t l n ( b , / b 2 ) [ \ b z ] - l ( 26)
4 , [ ( b , ) 3 ]
f_s5 - E b 3 t l n ( b , / b 2 ) k \ g z / - 1 ( 2 7 )
f ~' = E b d l n ( b d b z ) if2 - 1 ( 28)
Cl o s e d - f o r m s ol ut i ons f o r e qua t i on ( 1 8 ) ar e di f f i cul t t o
obt ai n, e v e n us i ng s peci al i zed s of t wa r e l i ke Ma t h e ma t i c a 9,
s o nume r i c a l i nt egr at i on ma y be e n f o r c e d her e. Two -
di me ns i ona l and t hr e e - di me ns i ona l el as t i c s t i f f nes s mat -
r i ces o f e a c h pl at e t hat c o mp o s e s t he ADAS e l e me nt can
be eas i l y de f i ne d f r o m t he f l exi bi l i t y t er ms c o mp u t e d above.
Th e el as t i c ma t r i x can be e x p r e s s e d as
[ k l , k 1 2 ]
[ K] = Lk21 k22
( 2 9 )
( 3 0 )
( 3 1 )
( 3 2 )
whe r e , f o r t he 2D case, t he el as t i c s ubma t r i c e s ar e
r.~ 0 0
rabx rl Ix
[
- r . ~ 0
[k12] = 0 - r ....
0 - - t a b ~
[ r ~ 0
[k22] = [ : r . ~
--rba x
0
r l z v
0
--rba x
r22.
and, f o r t he 3D s ol ut i on
[ k , ~ l =
[k,2l =
[k221 =
G, 0 0 0 0 0
0 r, .... 0 0 0 r,,;,,
0 0 r,.,, 0 -r,.., 0
0 0 0 r, 0 0
0 0 - r , , h, 0 r l l , 0
0 r,,~, 0 0 0 rl j ,
-r, , , 0 0 0 0
0 - r , .... 0 0 0
0 0 - r . . , 0 -rt,,,,
0 0 0 - r , 0
0 0 r,.,~ 0 rt >
0 - G~, 0 0 0
G, 0 0 0 0 0
0 r, .... 0 0 0 - r j ....
0 0 r,,,,, 0 r~,,,,, 0
0 0 0 r i 0 0
0 0 rt.,,.. 0 r=. 0
0 - r , .... 0 0 0 r22 •
0
rba •
0
0
0
r l 2t
(33)
(34)
(35)
For bot h t he 2D and 3D f or mul a t i ons , cl ear l y
[k21 ] = [kl2] T ( 36)
Ea c h t er m o f t he el ast i c s t i f f nes s mat r i ces can be c om-
put ed e xpl i c i t l y f r o m equat i ons ( 2 2 ) - ( 2 8 ) as f ol l ows
1
r .... f t t ( 3 7 )
1
ri =f 44 ( 3 8 )
det~ = f2ff66 - f26 ( 39)
f 2 2
r, , ~ = dei , ( 40)
f 2 J - f,_2
rl2, = ( 41)
det~
' 2
J 6J - 2f 2J + f22
r 22, = " = r t , , ( 4 2 )
det~
r ~ + r2z ~ + 2 q z , f66
- ( 4 3 )
r ...... = 12 -- deL~
r l l ~ + r l z~ r 2 z ~ + r l z t
r,,b, = ) = ~ = r~,,,., ( 4 4 )
dety = f3~.s5 - ~ 5 ( 4 5 )
f _ .
r . b, = d e t v ( 46)
f 35l - f~3 ( 47)
r~2y - dety
f5512 -- 2f~51 +f33
r =y = deq, = r t b' ( 4 8 )
Mathematical modelling of ADAS energy dissipation device: A. Tena-Colunga 815
r t l v + r22y + 2r12v f s s
r . , . . = 1~ . . . . . . . . dety (49)
r l l v + r l Tv r22v + r l 2v
r,,,,,. = [ " = - " l : = r,,,,y (50)
p~L+ = cr,,tb 2 (59)
p ~ L = cr, t b2 (60)
For the plastic moment capacity in the x-direction of the
plate
2D and 3D elastic stiffness matrices of each plate that
composes an ADAS element, taking into account their tap-
ered shape, are completely defined by these equations.
Because the proposed methodology is based on the flexi-
bility method, suitable nonlinear formulations can be
implemented by introducing lumped plasticity models
(zero-length generalized plastic hinges) at the ends of the
ADAS elements accounting for interaction among axial,
torsional and biaxial bending effects, as presented by Pow-
ell and Chen m, to formulate 2D and 3D nonlinear ADAS
elements. Therefore, 2D and 3D nonlinear ADAS elements
can be readily set up into the most popular software used
by practicing engineers and researchers.
3 . 2 . C a p a c i t y f o r m u l a t i o n
The average plastic moments, shear and axial capacities and
twisting moments of each plate that composes an ADAS
element can be computed as
°"t2 (bl - - b 2 ) (61)
- PL
For the shear strength in the x-direction of the plate
- P L O' v/ 2
V~,.< = 2/ (b, - be) (62)
For the plastic moment capacity in the v-direction of the
plate
O'~,l
i f 4 ; , P L 1191 ` ( b ~ - b ~ ) ( 6 3 )
81n ( ) b;
For the shear strength in the y-direction of the plate
2o-t f, 2
P ~ " = i b t e " ~ d : {51)
o
M~,~ = 4i . bi e ":dz + b2e "~ "2}dz (52)
I/2
4 ; { I I ' }
- P L
V;,, = - a b i e (~;dz + a b2 e ' ~ tl2~dz 153)
o It2
M;v = 4/ /L> b~e a~dz + .,,2 b2e ~ dz (54)
-m. - 2a 2 e 2":dz + 2a b~e2~("-' 2~dz (55)
v ; , , = 4 i " ~ , , I , ,
I/2
2Tv ( f l t 2 1 3 b l e ~z [ 1921 [Trble-~z,, ]
= , - tJ t ( , - v ' - - t - - 2 7 - ) ) < l z J (56)
Integrating these equations, taking limits and doing some
algebraic reductions, closed-form solutions are obtained.
For the plastic axial capacity in tension
(bl -- b2)
- P L
P,+ = ~yt . . . . . . . . (57)
For the plastic capacity in compression
(bl - b2)
- P L
P f,_ = ~r,t . . . . . . . (58)
- P L O' vl
V~,,, = 21 (b{ - b 2) (64)
Due to the complexity of its integral, a closed-form sol-
ution was not obtained for the plastic twisting moment.
However, the following reduced form was obtained for
numerical integration
T[,e.t. = r , t 2 128r,.t 3 f,12 (rrb, e~ i ~]
{D T ) ,> a . . t 2 ,
In b2
(65)
In equations (51 ) - ( 65) , o~. is the yield strength in tension
of the ADAS steel plate, ~, is the ultimate compressive
strength of the ADAS steel plate taking into account slen-
derness and/ or buckling effects and ry is the shear yield
strength of the ADAS steel plate.
3 . 3 . A p p r o x i m a t e 2 D n o n l i n e a r m o d e l l i n g o f A D A S
u s i n g a v a i l a b l e s o f t w a r e
Most researchers and practicing engineers worldwide are
using software such as the original DRAIN-2D ~, DRAIN-
2DX ~z and ANSR 13, to idealize equivalent ADAS elements,
in 2D problems, using nonlinear prismatic elements avail-
able in their libraries. Therefore, for such modelling, the
definition of the l oad-deformat i on curve is very important.
( F i g u r e 3 ) can be defined with the proposed method as
follows. The elastic shear stiffness of each ADAS plate is
defined by equation (43), that is
However, one should note that the plastic axial capacity of
the ADAS plate might not depend on the geometry of the
entire plate, but rather on that of the throat alone. Lacking
experimental data that would allow us to define the axial
strength in tension and compression of an ADAS plate, they
could be conservatively estimated as
f66 (66)
Kt , L = G, = - detx
The average plastic moment capacity and shear strength
are defined by equations (61) and (62). Therefore, the yield
displacement of the ADAS device is computed as
8 1 6 Mat hemat i cal model l i ng of ADAS ener gy di ssi pat i on devi ce: A. Tena-Col unga
(67)
A,P L _
• Kp L
fully defined with equations (62), (66) and (67) under the
proposed method. For an ADAS device composed of n
plates, the yielding displacement is the one computed from
equation (67), whereas the plastic shear capacity and the
elastic shear stiffness are n times those computed from
equations (62) and (66).
3.4. Compari son bet ween met hod used by Whi t t aker et
al. J and experi ment al data
The proposed method is compared with the procedure used
by Whittaker et al.J as outlined before to define the load-
deformation curve in shear of some ADAS devices tested
at the University of California at Berkeley. The dimensions
of the tested ADAS devices were, according to the notation
in Fi gure 2, bl = 8.59 cm (3.38"), b2 = 1.52 cm (0.6"), t =
0.64 cm (0.25") and / = 12.70 cm (5.0"). The equivalent
width at the ends of the ADAS according to the method
used by Whittaker et al. is b~,,q = 6.35 cm (2.5"). The
dimensions b~ and b2 given by the proposed exponential
approximation are b~ = 7.62 cm (3.0") and bt = 1.27 cm
steel. Coupon tests revealed an effective yielding strength
o- 2, = 289.9 MPa (42 ksi) and an elastic modulus E, =
207 099.3 MPa (30000 ksi) ]. ADAS devices composed of
four, six and seven plates were tested. The parameters of
experimentally and those obtained using the proposed
method and Whittaker's method are summarized in Tabl e 1.
It can be observed from Table 1 that the proposed formu-
lation and that proposed by Whittaker et al. have an excel-
lent correlation with the experimental results for the shear
strength, with overshooting in tile range 2-6.4%. Both
methods predicted practically the same shear strength
values. As expected, the yield displacement computed with
the proposed method and the one used by Whittaker et al.
are also similar, because both methods assume that the
ADAS plates are perfectly fixed at their ends. The differ-
ence in the predicted yield displacements is attributed to
the fact that the proposed exponential approximation is
stiffer than the equivalent triangle of Whittaker et al., as
the plate width along the height of the proposed formulation
is slightly higher. The correlation of both models with
experimental results is poor because, in practice, reproduc-
ing a perfect fixed-end condition for the ADAS in the lab-
oratory and in the field is almost impossible. The ADAS
devices tested in the laboratory experienced some rotations
and sliding ]. For the ADAS elements reported in Table 1,
the difference in the yield displacements with respect to
those computed for the fixed-end condition goes from 20%
to 64% for the proposed exponential approximation and
from 11% to 52% for the Whittaker et al. method. There-
fore, the equivalent elastic stiffnesses computed from
experimental data are smaller than those computed analyti-
cally with either method. This problem in the formal math-
ematical formulation can be corrected by adding flexibility
to the proposed formulation with translational and
rotational springs with constants based on a statistical
analysis of the experimental data of tested ADAS elements.
Also, it could be fixed by allowing rotational degrees of
freedom at the end nodes of the elements representing the
ADAS device when using standard software for nonlinear
dynamic analysis ~ ~.
3.5. Compari son with shaki ng table test results
In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed lbr-
mulation, a DRAIN-2DX model for the 3D, ADAS-3 shak-
ing table building model tested at the University of Califor-
nia at Berkeley ~ was prepared. The ADAS-3 building is
composed of two identical braced frames, but only one
frame was considered ( Fi gure 5) in the analytical studies,
as torsional responses were minimal during the shaking
table tests, as was suggested from analysing the experi-
mental data ~. The ADAS-3 test model has a total of six
storey): two seven-plate A DA S (ADAS nos 1 and 2) in the
and 6) in the third storey. Properties of these ADAS devices
are those reported as 'experimental' in Table 1. The total
storey masses and the measured and computed strengths of
the remaining structural elements as reported in Whittaker
et al.~ were considered in the analytical studies and are
summarized in Tables 2 and 3, respectively. It can be
deduced by comparing Tables I and 3 that the columns,
beams and braces have much more strength than the ADAS
devices; thus, the nonlinear action should be concentrated
in the energy dissipation devices, as wanted in the shaking
table tests.
A 2D A DA S element was developed for DRAIN-2DX
by modifying an existing prismatic beam-column element;
that is, the elastic stiffness formulation and the yield
capacities were set up as outlined in previous sections,
whereas the original nonlinear lbrmulation for steel mem-
bers was used.
Two different frame layouts for model ADAS-3 were
evaluated to study the sensitivity of the structural response
Table 1 Compari son of parameters of l oad- def or mat i on curve in shear of ADAS obtai ned experi ment al l y versus analytical methods
(units: kips, in, kips/in (KN, cm, KN/cm)
No. of
plates
Experi mental testing Whittaker et al. Proposed method
V~oAS ~oAS K~As ~oAs a~As K~oAs ~ A s , ~ As K~As
4 2. 50 0. 12 20. 83 2. 63 0. 11 23. 91 2. 63 0. 10 26. 57
(11.13) (0.30) (36.53) (11.69) (0.27) (43.84) (11.69) (0.25) (46.59)
6 3.70 0.16 23.13 3.94 0.11 35.82 3.94 0.10 39.85
(16.48) (0.41) (40.55) (17.54) (0.27) (65.75) (17.54) (0.25) (69.88)
7 4.50 0.16 28.12 4.60 0.11 41.82 4.60 0.10 49.49
(20.04) (0.41) (49.32) (20.46) (0.27) (76.71) (20.46) (0,25) (81.53)
Mat hemat i cal model l i ng of ADAS ener gy di ssi pat i on devi ce: A. Tena-Col unga
8 1 7
xs//5(8)
i
~ 1 6 16 ~ .
I I I
1 4 4
80
T - r 5
6 4
T5
64 208
a) A c t u a l l a y o u t ( m o d e l s M A L )
I 5
144
b ) S i mp l i f i e d l a y o u t ( mo d e l s MSL)
Figure 5 Layouts for ADAS-3, shaking table test structure (dimensions in inches)
Table 2 Measured weights for ADAS-3 shaking table structure
(units: kips (KN))
Floor Total structural weight Idealized frame weight
3 31. 10 ( 138. 51) 15.55 (69. 26)
2 31.80 ( 141.63) 15.90 (70.81)
1 32.10 (142.97) 16.05 (71.48)
Total 95.00 (423.11 ) 47.50 (211.55)
to geometric differences: firstly, the actual layout of the
tested frame (Figure 5a) where the bottom beam that sup-
ports the ADAS devices is supported by the diagonal brac-
ing is included in the modelling (MAL frames) and; sec-
ondly, a simplified model (Figure 5b), where only the
chevron bracing is modelled and this bracing is directly
connected to the ADAS devices (MSL frames).
For both ADAS-3 frame models (MAL and MSL), the
ADAS devices were modelled as follows: (1) using the
proposed formulation for 2D ADAS elements, including
interaction between bending moments and axial forces. The
lateral stiffnesses and shear capacities are those reported in
Table 1 (PRO models). (2) Using the proposed formulation
as outlined in (1), but correcting the stiffness coefficients
using a penalty method to match the lateral stiffnesses
reported as ' experimental' in Table 1 (PROEX models).
The nominal shear capacities were not modified. (3) Mod-
elling the ADAS devices as equivalent prismatic beam-
columns with no interaction between bending moments and
axial loads, using the model proposed by Whittaker et al.
(WBAT models). A 5% postyielding stiffness was con-
sidered for the ADAS devices as this value has been sug-
gested for the modelling of ADAS devices for buildings
retrofitted with such devices -~. Finally, the boundary con-
ditions of the ADAS devices were also evaluated for the
modelling proposed in ( 1 ) and (3), that is, for those models,
the ADAS were modelled assuming that the rotational
degree of freedom of those nodes connecting the ADAS
devices was; firstly, fixed; and, secondly, free to rotate.
The natural periods for the different models described
above are summarized in Table 4, where they are compared
with the measured natural periods obtained from free
vibration and white noise tests ~. It can be observed that
there is no substantial difference between the natural per-
iods for the MAL and MSL models when the same ADAS
Table 3 Strength properties of structural elements of model frames ADAS-3
Property Beams (W6 x12) Columns W15 x 16) Bracing (4" x 4" x ~")
F;,, ksi ( MPa) 45. 9 (329. 4) 45. 9 (329. 4) 53.7 (385. 4)
F u , ksi ( MPa) 45. 9 (329. 4) 45. 9 (329. 4) 39.7 (284. 7), 42.7 (306. 4)
Py, kips (KN) 126 (561. 2) 216 (962. 0) 208.1 (926. 8)
P,, kips ( KN) 126 (561. 2) 216 (962. 0) 153.8 (685. 0), 165.6 (737. 5)
M~ kips-in ( KN- cm) 333 ( 3767) 392 (4434) - -
M~ kips-in ( KN- cm) 378 ( 4726) 441 ( 4989) - -
8 1 8 Mat hemat i cal model l i ng of ADAS energy di ssi pati on device: A. Tena-Colunga
Table 4 Fundament al per i ods f or di f f er ent ADAS-3 model s
Model T( s)
Exper i ment al model , f ree vi br at i on t est 0.470
Exper i ment al model , whi t e noi se t est 0.480
MAL-PRO model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.404
MSL-PRO model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.394
MSL-PRO model , ADAS f ree t o r ot at e 0.578
MAL-PROEX model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.474
MSL-PROEX model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.465
MAL-WBAT model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.412
MSL-WBAT model , ADAS rest rai ned f r om r ot at i on 0.403
MSL-WBAT model , ADAS f ree t o r ot at e 0.602
idealization is considered, although the MAL models have
closer correlations with the experimental data. For practical
purposes, the MSL models are accurate enough• Also, the
natural periods obtained experimentally are within the pre-
dicted period range for models MSL-PRO and MSL-
WBAT when the ADAS devices are fixed or free to rotate.
In addition, the natural period is closely predicted when the
ADAS devices are modelled under the proposed idealiz-
ation when the stiffness coefficients are corrected to match
the lateral stiffnesses reported as ' experi ment al ' in Table 1
( MAL- PROEX and MSL- PROEX models). Therefore, the
ADAS devices are clearly not compl et el y restrained at their
ends or free to rotate; thus, it would be very helpful in the
actual mathematical formulation of the ADAS to modi fy
the stiffness coefficients based upon statistical analyses of
the experimental data of tested ADAS elements, as is done
in the MAL- PROEX and MSL- PROEX models.
assumed to be fixed at their ends (MAL-PRO, MSL-PRO,
MAL- PROEX, MSL-PROEX, MAL- WBAT and MSL-
WBAT model s) were subjected to the 1940 E1 Centro N-
S acceleration record scaled for a peak ground acceleration
of 0.33 g (Figure 6), as was done in actual shaking table
tests ] . It is worth noting that the record used in this study
is not the same as that used in the shaking table at Berkeley
because that record was not available at the time of con-
ducting the present study. The ADAS hysteresis curves
obtained experimentally for the ADAS-3 El Centro-33 test
are shown in Figure 7. The comput ed hysteresis curves for
the different MAL and MSL models are depicted in Figures
8 and 9, respectively. It can be observed from these test
results that the actual postyield stiffness of the ADAS
devices (Figure 7) are higher than the 5% assumed in the
analytical models (Figures 8 and 9). The models where the
ADAS are idealized as proposed in this paper (PRO and
PROEX, Figures 8 and 9) have slightly closer correlations
with the experimental data (Figure 7) than those for WBAT
models (Figures 8 and 9). There is no significant difference
between the ADAS hysteresis curves computed for MAL
(Figure 8) and MSL (Figure 9) models, thus, for practical
purposes, the MSL modelling could be used for more com-
plex frames as this modelling requires fewer elements
and nodes.
The different analytical models reproduce the ADAS
hysteresis curves reasonably well, taking into account that
the main purpose of these analyses was to investigate the
reliability of analytical models in predicting the response
of experimental structures based exclusively on practical
assumptions suggested in the literature. Closer correlations
could have been obtained if the modelling of each ADAS
device (initial stiffness, postyield stiffness, hardening, etc.)
had been based on a closer inspection of the shaking table
data (Figure 7). However, this academic exercise was con-
sidered of marginal value as the most common case in
structural practice is to design structures without knowing,
a priori, the actual response of the structural system when
to know how good the predictions based on analytical mod-
els are when they are compared with measured responses•
4 . C o n c l u s i o n s
A new formulation for the 2D and 3D numerical modelling
of an ADAS element has been presented. Cl osed-form sol-
utions for the definition of most of the terms of the elastic
matrices have been obtained. Nonlinear ADAS elements
can be developed using the proposed method with a suitable
nonlinear formulation, for example, introducing lumped
plasticity models at the ends of the ADAS elements
accounting for interaction among axial, torsional and
0 . 4 0
0 . 2 0
"~ o . o o
, ¢ - 0 . 2 0
- 0 . 4 0
0 . 4 0
0 . 2 0
o . o o
r ~
<~ - 0 . 2 0
- 0 . 4 0
t~ 1~ l ~ h l k , ~ l . , ~ , l | 1 9 4 0 E 1 C e n t r o , N - S i
t -
• v l r y " 1 1 1 1 ~ l l ? m , ' , , - ' " '," . . . . . . . . .
0 tO 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 60
d ~ El C e n t r o - 3 3 , N - S
t = J ~ [ = i ~ J I , ~ , ~ i J , , , I , , l , ~ ,
0 tO 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0
TI ME ( s )
=1
r~
i
60
1.0
0 . 5
0 . 0
1 . 0
0 . 5
0.0
' " ' ..... I ..... ' " ' 1 " ~ ' " ' ~ ' 1 ~ ' " " ' r ~
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2 3 4
P E m O D ( s )
Figure 6 1940 El Cent ro accel erat i on records
Mathematical modelling of ADAS energy dissipation device: A. Tena-Colunga 819
S h e a r ( k i p s )
: i
o -
D i s p l a c e m e n t ( i n c h )
S h e a r ( k i p s )
B
A D A S
- 4
- 0
S h e a r ( k i p s )
A D A S ~ 2
0 . . . . - -
- 4
- 8
Fi gur e 7
-2 -i 0 1
D i s p l a c e m e n t ( i n c h )
S h e a r ( k i p s )
8 . . . . . . . . . . . .
- , I
-0
A D A S # 5
. . . . . 1 _ _ _ L . . . . . . .
- 1 0 1 2 - 1 1 2
D i s p l a c e m e n t ( i n c h ) I) i s p l a c e m e n t (i.el~)
S h e a r ( k i p s )
B
A D A
4
0 - - - - -
- 4
- 8 ~ - - - -
-2 -i 0
D i s p l a c e m e n t
S h e a r ( k i p s
- 4
- B
ADAS hysteresi s f or ADAS-3, El Centro-33 shaki ng t abl e tests (f rom Whi t t aker et al. 1)
1
( i n c h )
A D A S # 6
--I 0 I
Di spl acement (i nch)
6
Ld)AS # 1,m-
~" - 4
o
- 6
- 2 - 1 0 1 2
8
kI)kS # 1,2 ;
2
- 2 - 1 0 1 2
A
Fi gur e 8
Mode l MAL-PR0][](
- 1 0 1
Model MAL- PR0
I , _ _ 1 , i
- 2 - 1 0 1
Model MAL-WBAT
/
, _ _ ~ , L
- 2 - 1 0 1
A ( i n )
2
t
- 2
- 2
, J
! !
I I
- 1 0 1 2
- 1 0 1
2 - 2 - 1 0 1 2
A ( i . )
ADAS hysteresi s f or di f f erent ADAS-3, MAL f r ame model s when subj ected t o EL Centro-33 accel erati on record
820 Mathematical modelling of ADAS energy dissipation device: A. Tena-Colunga
8
1,2 I
Model MSL-PROEX
- 2 - 1 0 1 2
A
2 - 2 - 1 0 1 2 - 2 - 1
Model MSL-PRO
&DAS ~ 5, 6
- 2 - 1 0 1
Model MSL-WBAT
i
0 1 2
L ~ L
2 2 - 2
i
I
- I 0 1 2
J
- 2 - 1 0 1 2
A ( i . )
M)AS N 5, 6
- 2 - 1
J
I
1
A i . )
Figure 9 ADAS hysteresi s f or di f f erent ADAS-3, MSL f rame model s when subj ected t o El Centro-33 accel erati on record
biaxial bending effects, as presented by others. The pro-
posed method was compared with other methods presented
in the literature and with experimental data. The proposed
method correlates well with experimental data in the esti-
mat e of the shear strength of the ADAS device. However,
the proposed method underestimates the yield displacement
of the ADAS with respect to experimental results, as the
perfect fixed-end condition assumed in the analytical
method cannot be reproduced in the field when the ADAS
plates experience sliding and rotations. The lack of
rotational fixity and the axial load effects need to be evalu-
ated experimentally in more detail. To i mprove the pro-
posed method, translational and rotational springs can be
added by using a penalty method in the formal mathemati-
cal formulation. A statistical analysis of the available
defining the constants of the springs needed to improve the
proposed analytical model. This was illustrated when the
shaking table results of the ADAS-3 model were compared
with the different formulations presented in this paper.
The proposed method could be very helpful for prelimi-
nary design of ADAS elements for buildings, and for ana-
lytical studies on the nonlinear dynamic behavi our of struc-
tures designed or retrofitted with such devices. This was
shown by compari ng the hysteresis curves for the ADAS
devices of the ADAS-3 shaking table model with those
based upon the proposed formulation, where it was found
that the correlation was reasonable, even though no effort
had been made to obtain a ' perfect mat ch' by further ana-
lysing the test data (curve-fitting techniques). With the pro-
posed analytical method, designers can not only quantify
the desired mechanical characteristics of the energy dissi-
pators, but can also estimate the sizes of the ADAS devices
that a particular structure requires to improve its dynamic
performance. Then, they can j udge not only if their solution
is theoretically correct, but if it can be built.
Acknowledgments
The present study was part of a research project carried out
at Centro de Investigaci6n Sfsmica regarding the applica-
bility of passive energy-dissipation devices in the retrofit
and design of building structures in Mexico City. The fin-
ancial support of Secretarfa General de Obras of
Departamento del Distrito Federal is gratefully acknowl-
edged. The critical reviews and helpful comment s on the
original manuscript by Javier Alonso, Enrique Del Valle,
Luis Esteva and Eduardo Miranda are gratefully acknowl-
edged.
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