MODULE 01

INTRODUCTION TO MECHATRONICS

1. Explain Mechatronics with neat diagram? (5 Mark)

 The word was invented by the Japanese engineer in 1969
 It is a combination of Mecha from Mechanisms and tronics from Electronics
 It is a integration of Mechanical Engineering with Electronics and intelligent
computer control in design and manufacturing of the products
 Mechatronics products have many mechanical functions replaces with electronic one.
 Results : Greater flexibility , Easy reprogramming and redesign ,ability to carry out
automated data collection and reporting
 It is not a fusing of mechanical and electronic systems, more than a control system
 Basic block diagram of mechatronics system is shown below







2. State examples for Mechatronics system ?
 Modern auto focus ,auto exposure camera
 To use the camera we need to do is point it at the subject and press the button
to take the picture
 Camera automatically pointing the object and adjust it aperture and shutter
speed to get a clear and sharp image
 There is no maual adjusting of focus or aperture is required

Example 2
Digital Actuator
Analogue
Actuator
Digital Sensor
Analogue
Sensor
Mechanical
Systems
Microprocessor system for
control


 Truck smart suspension
 The suspension adjust the eneven loading to maintain a level platform

3.Define Mechatronics ? (3 Marks)
Mechatronics relates to synergistic integration of mechanical engineering,
electronics and intelligent computer control for design and manufacture of
industrial products and process
4.Explain the evolution of Mechatronics ? (5 Marks)
Modern mechatronics systems evolved through several stages and can be
categorized into the following broad categories
1. Stand Alone Systems :- Examples : Washing machine , CD players, auto focus
camera etc
2. Systems with high level distributed sensor-microcontroller-actuator
relationships:-Example : Wire aircraft
3. Large factory systems :- also a distributed system but links a number of major
subsystems such as machine centers,robots for part handling ,automated
inspection stations etc
4. Systems that incorporates intelligent control or artificial intelligence:-
Example: Humanoid robots

5.Explain the steps involved in designing a process ? (12 marks)
The design process involving number of stages :



1.The need


The design process begins with a need from a customer or a client.This may be
identified by the market research being used to establish the need of potential
customer
2. Analysis of the problem
The first stage in developing a system is to find out the true nature of the problem ie
analysing it . It is not defining the problem accurately can lead to wasted time on
design
3. Preparation of a specification
A specification of requirements can be prepared here. This will state the problem ,any
constraints placed on the solution and criteria may used to judge the quality of the
design. With stating the problem all functions together with the desired specifications
may specified here.
4. Generation of possible solutions
It is conceptual stage. Outline solutions are prepared here ie approximate size , shape
,materials and cost .
5. Selection of a suitable solution
The various solutions are evaluated and the most suitable one selected. Evaluation
will often involve the presentation of a system by the model.
6. Production of a detailed design
The details of the selected design has now to be worked out .This might require the
production of prototypes in order to determine the optimum details of the design
7. Production of working drawing
The selected design is the translated into working drawing.


6. What is a SYSTEMS with example ?


 In designing mechatronics systems, one of the step involved is creation of a model of
the system so that prediction can be made regarding its behaviour when input occur.
 A system can be a block or a box, which has an input or out, no need to go through
the internal mechanism of the block, just checking the input output relations
 Modelling is used if we are representing a system with mathematical equations
 Example
Spring
Input is a force F and output is an extension X
Equation used is F=kX, where k is a constant


Input Force Output Extension

7. What is Modelling a Systems with example ?
 Response of any system to an input is not instantaneous
 Example 1:- For a spring system, the relation between input and output is
F=kX, describes the relation in only steady state condition.
 When a force is applied , initially oscillations will occur before it settle down(
shown in the below figure )
 The response of the systems are functions of time

Input Output
Force at t=0 Extension which
Changes with time




SPRING

SPRING



 Example 2 :- If we switch on a kettle ,it take some time for the water in the kettle
to reach boiling point.

 When a microprocessor controller gives a signal to the lens for focusing in an
automatic camera then it takes times before the lens reaches its position for correct
focusing
8. What are Connected Systems.Explain with examples ?
 Consider a series of interconnected blocks, each has a specific function
 Output of the first block will be the input of the second block

 Example :- CD Player


Signal related quantity
to be measured
Signal in suitable form
for display
Value of the
quantity
o Three inter connected blocks
o CD Desk which has an input of a CD and an output of electrical signal, an
amplifier which has an input of these electrical signal and an output of
bigger electrical signals and a speaker which has an input of electrical
signal and an output of sound
Amplified O/P
Input Electrical
CD Signal Signal


9. what is a MEASUREMENT SYSTEM?Explain with an example ?
 Measurement of systems has 3 basic elements






 Sensor :-
o Responds to the quantity being measured by giving as its output signal
which is related to quantity
Example: - A thermometer is a temperature sensor
Input: - Temperature
Output: - e.m.f. related to temperature value


 Signal conditioner :-

CD DESK

AMPLIFIER

LOUDSPEAKER
SENSOR SIGNAL
CONDITIONER
DISPLAY
Quantity being
measuremt


Signal related quantity
to be measured
Signal in suitable form
for display
Value of the
quantity
o Takes the signal from the sensor and manipulate it into a condition
which is suitable either for a display or a control system
o Example:- Output from a Thermocouple is a small em.f. and might fed
through an amplifier to obtain a bigger signal. Amplifier is the signal
conditioner
 Display System
o Output from the signal conditioner is displayed
o Example:- A pointer moving across a scale or a digital readout
Example:- A digital thermometer
 Input of temperature to a sensor ,probably a semiconductor diode






 Potential difference across the sensor , at a constant current ,a measure of the
temperature
 This potential difference is amplified by an operational amplifier
 Amplified signal is of the form to be displayed
10. What is a CONTROL SYSTEMS?
 A control system can be used to:
o Control some variables to some particular value eg:-a central heating system
where the temperature is controlled variable to a particular value
o Control the sequence of events eg:-a washing machine where when the dials
are set to a particular washing cycle ie sequence of events, appropriate to that
type of clothing
o Control whether an event occur or not ,eg:-a safety lock on a machine where it
cannot be operated until the guard is in position
SENSOR SIGNAL
CONDITIONER
DISPLAY
Quantity
being
measuremt
Temperature Potential Difference Bigger voltage



11. What is a FEED BACK ?
Consider the example of a control system, your body temperature; unless you are ill,
remains almost constant regardless the environment is hot or cold. To maintain this
temperature your body has a inbuilt temperature control system. If your temperature increases
above normal you sweat, decreases you shever.Both these mechanisms are to keep the body
temperature back to normal. The control system maintains the temperature constancy. System
has an input from sensors which tell what the temperature is and then compare this data with
what the temperature should be and provide the appropriate response in order to maintain the
required temperature. This is an example of feedback control systems.

Required Temperature
Body Temperature

Feed back of a data about actual temperature
Usually feedback control system has a thermostat or a controller which automatically
switches the controller off or on according to the difference between the set and actual
temperature.
12. Differentiate with example ,Open and Closed Loop Systems ?
 There are mainly two type of control systems
o Open Loop Control System
o Closed Loop Control System
 Example :- Room Heater
o Consider a room heater with 1kW and 2kW heating switch
o Open Loop System
 Switch on the 1kW switch
 The room will heat upto 1kW
 If the climatic conditions changes then too heater will heat upto 1kW
 There is no effect of the room condition
 If the temperature increase or decrease , all the cases it will produce
same output
o Closed Loop System
 System contains a thermostat
Body Temperature control
system


 According to the room temperature changes thermostat sense the
difference
 Produce output according to the set temperature
 In this there is a feedback



13. With neat diagram explain the operation of Automatic Washing Machine ?
 The operations are ordered in a time or event driven sequence
 Controls are obtained with the help of set of relays or cam operated switches
 Washing machine is an example for Sequential Control
 A number of operations are carried out in a sequence
 These may include
o Pre Wash Cycle :- A wash in cold water
o Main Wash Cycle :- A wash in hot water
o Rinse Cycle :- Rinsed with cold water in number of times
o Spinning to remove water from the clothes
 A prewash involve opening a valve to fill the machine drum to the required level
 Closing the valve
 Switching ON the drum motor to rotate the drum for a specific time
 Operate the pump to empty water
 This operating sequence is called Program


















 For prewash cycle ,electrically operated valve is opened when a current is supplied
and switch off when it ceases
 This valve allow cold water into the drum for a period of time predetermined
 Microprocessors are used to operate switches
 A sensor is used to sense the water level in the drum

14. With neat diagram explain the working of a DIGITAL CAMERA AND
AUTOFOCUS ?
 A basic system used with less expensive camera in open loop system



CLOCK -
Input
Program




Control
Unit
PUMP
VALVE
MOTOR
HEATER


WASHING
MACHINE
DRUM
IR Pulse Sent Out
Return IR sent
out

Micro
Processor
Signal
Conditionin
g
Motor
Lens
position
Shutter button press




 When the photographer presses the shutter button , a transducer on front camera send
pulses of IR light towards the subject of the photograph
 The IR pulses bounces off the subject and reflected back to the camera where the
transducer pick them up.
 For each metre the subject is distance from the camera, the round trip is about 6ms
 The time difference between the output and the return pulse is fed to microprocessor
 This has a set of values stored in the memory
 Output rotates the lens housing and moves the lens to a position where the object is in
focus
 Maximum limit for this camera is 10m
 If the distance is higher than 10m microprocessor output goes high and lens moves to
infinity settings



 The above system is used in expensive cameras involves triangulation
 Pulse of infrared radiation are sent out and the reflected signals are not received by
the same transducer
 The receiver has a mask across it
 The microprocessor gives an output which causes lens to move and simultaneously
the mass to move across the transducer
 The mask contains a slot which is move across the face of the transducer
 The movement of lens and the slot continues until the return pulses are able to pass
through the slot and impact on the transducer


 Output of the transducer leads to microprocessor to stop the movement of the lens ,so
give the in focus position
14. Explain with neat diagram working of a ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ?

 The engine management system of a car is responsible for managing the ignition and
fuelling requirements of the engine
 For a four stroke combustion engine, there are several cylinders
 Each of which has a piston connected to a common crankshaft and each carries a four
stroke operation sequence shown below




 When the piston moves down, the valve opens and the air-fuel mixture is drawn into
the cylinder
 When the piston moves up, valve closes and air-fuel mixture is compressed
 When the piston is near to top of the cylinder the spark plug ignites the mixture with a
resulting expansion of hot gases, causes piston to move back down and cycle repeated
 Piston of each cylinders are connected to common crankshaft and their power stroke
occur at different times so that there is continuous power for rotating the crankshaft
 Power and speed of the engine are controlled by varying the ignition timing and the
fuel-air mixture
 Modern car engines are done this by a microprocessor


 Basic elements are shown below




 For ignition timing , crankshaft drives a distributor which makes electrical contact for
each spark plug in turn and a timing wheel
 Timing wheel generate pulses to indicate the crankshaft position
 Microprocessor then adjust the timing at which high voltage pulses are sent to the
distributor so that they occur at right moment of time