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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),

ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME


Er. S. Thirougnaname
, S. Segaran

Project Engineer, Pondicherry Tourism Development Corporation, Puducherry, India.

Civil Engineer, Puducherry, India


Experimental investigation was carried out to establish the feasibility of unprocessed stone
dust as fine aggregate in place of river sand which has become a scarcity now-a-days, by casting
cube and determining the compressive strength for the two grades of concrete M15 and M20. The
result obtained are compared with conventional concrete. It is concluded that compressive strength at
28 days of unprocessed stone dust used as fine aggregate in concrete gives 35% higher strength for
M15 and 4% for M20 grade concrete when compared to the reference concrete. The split tensile
strength of unprocessed stone dust concrete is 2.98 N/mm
and 3.25 N/mm
for M15 and M20 grade
respectively where as the reference concrete is 2.58 N/mm
and 3.18 N/mm
only. This investigation
has demonstrated that the unprocessed stone dust is equally good as fine aggregate like river sand
and hence can be used in making concrete.

Keywords: Concrete, Stone Dust, Workability, Properties of Stone Dust Concrete.


Ever since, the introduction of Ordinary Portland Cement [OPC] there is a continuous
demand for concrete, whose price has also gone up considerably due to raise in the cost of its
constituent raw materials over the years.
Rapid industrialization due to the implementation of successive Five Year Plans have
contributed to the accumulation of industrial wastes and by-products which pose disposal and
environmental problems and causing health hazards. On the other hand, the social commitment of
providing Shelter for All is becoming a distant even for those with an assured decent income,
leaving along other segments of people in lower economic level.

ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)
ISSN 0976 6316(Online)
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME

To overcome the above problems, studies have been initiated in the use of non-conventional
materials for partial replacement of cement by fly ash in concrete; Conversion of agricultural wastes
like saw-dust, cork granules, rice-husk, coconut pith into some useful building materials, etc.
Industrial by-products which were once disposed-off as a waste material are finding ever increasing
use in the construction industry. These industrial wastes have been mainly used for quite sometime
as fillers in roads and embankments. But at present, they are used in the manufacture of cementitious
materials and light weight aggregates etc. Besides the above advantages, savings in energy utilization
of industrial wastes in the manufacture of cement and aggregates are of a very special significance in
the Indian context of power deficit and starvation. Apart from the binder materials, alternate
materials for the other constituents of concrete like, pebbles (well rounded aggregate) as coarse
aggregate [CA] and crushed stone dust as fine aggregate [FA] are possible. However, studies on the
latter are very limited and rare.
At present CA is mostly obtained from hard broken granite stones and the by-product is
Crusher Dust or Stone Dust. It is also referred to as Manufactured Sand. According to
ASTM : C 144-87, it is the product obtained by crushing stone, gravel or air-colled iron blast furnace
slag, specially processed to assure suitable particle shape as well as gradation.
Although the specifications for sand (fine aggregate) to be used in mortar and concrete do
permit the use of crushed stone dust, there appears to be a general hesitation amongst the field
engineers, regarding its use, even in those areas where crushed stone dust is available almost free of
cost in abundance. The general tendency is to use river sand only, even if it has to be brought from
long distances.
However, the potential use of manufactured sand as FA in concrete has not been fully
exploited, in practice. Studies on the strength characteristics of concrete using stone dust as fine
aggregate after removing the fines to confirm to IS gradation (passing 150 microns) have revealed
the above characteristics are comparable with the conventional concrete.
However the effect of the materials (less than 150 microns) on the strength of concrete and
mortar need to be ascertained. If there is a possibility of using unprocessed stone dust in the above,
there will be further saving in the effort involved in processing and there will be a complete solution
to the disposal problems.


Sand mining is banned by various states in India, and with the increasing demand for river
sand for construction works, the Civil Engineers, have expressed the need to promote use of
manufactured sand in the construction industry. As per report, manufactured sand is widely used all
around the world because of its consistent gradation and zero impurity
One of the earliest investigations on the suitability of manufacture sand for making quality
concrete was carried out by Ghosh and other
at Central Road Research Institute [CRRI], New Delhi.
They carried out the various tests on the physical properties of manufactured sand obtained from a
few sources in U.P. to determine their suitability as a FA. Mortar making property, compression
strength, flexural, abrasion loss, drying shrinkage and bond strength of concrete were determined for
all the samples and concluded that manufactured sand can be confidently used as FA to produce
quality concrete. However, split tensile strength tests and durability studies were not conducted to
determine the relative performance of manufactured sand concrete.
Malhotra and Canette
studies the performance of concrete, incorporating limestone dust
(obtained from limestone quarries after crushing operations) as a partial replacement for natural sand
in concrete. Three series of concrete mixes with w/c ratio 0.70, 0.53 and 0.40 respectively,
incorporating lime stone dust from 5-20% were prepared by direct replacement on an equivalent
mass of recombined sand basis. The properties of fresh concrete i.e. slump, unit weight and air
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME

content (%) were determined. Compressive strength, freezing and thawing, drying and shrinkage,
creep were determined for hardened concrete. They have concluded that incorporation of upto 10%
limestone dust as a partial replacement for FA in concrete with w/c = 0.70 and 5% limestone dust in
concrete with w/c = 0.53 does not significantly affect the properties of fresh and hardened concrete.
However, there is considerable loss in slump, irrespective of w/c ratios, if lime stone dust is in excess
of 10%.
Nagaraj and Lahida Banu
used manufactured sand and pebbles as FA and CA in concrete
and used the method of re-proportioning concrete to obtain M65 concrete and has concluded that the
above combination of CA and FA can be used with confidence in concrete.
studied the water requirements and compressive strength of cement mortar using
manufactured sand as FA, with FM ranging from 0.50 to 2.0 and 75% and 100% flow of mortar.
Based on the above extensive experimental investigations, he had concluded that the strength of
mortar with manufactured sand is higher than that of the corresponding mix with cement (sand)
mortar. He has recommended the use of manufactured sand for mortar and has cautioned the removal
of excessive proportions of very fine particles.
Studies were carried out at Pondicherry Engineering Collage, Puduchery
for using
manufactured sand as FA in concrete and its compressive, flexural and split tensile strengths; sand
abrasion; elastic modulus; mortar making properties and durability test under various acidic and
alkaline mediums were determined and the performance compared with conventional concrete for
M15 and M20 concretes. The size of manufacture sand used in the above study was restricted to 4.75
mm to 150 microns i.e. the size range presented in IS specification. From the studies, it is concluded
that the manufactured sand can be used in the concrete effectively by replacing normal river sand.
Sieve analysis of the raw samples revealed that the fine materials content (i.e. less than 150 microns)
was at the maximum 10% and it was generally between 5 - 10%. Being the case it would be of
interest to study the properties of concrete and mortar using the raw sample as such in the above.
The suitability of Crushed Granite Fine (CGF) to replace river sand in concrete production
for use in rigid pavement was investigated by Manasseh
. Slump, compressive strength and indirect
tensile strength tests were performed on fresh and hardened concrete. The 28 day peak compressive
and indirect tensile strength values of 40.70 N/mm
and 2.30 N/mm
respectively, were obtained
with the partial replacement of river sand with 20 per cent CGF, as against values of 35.00 N/mm

and 1.75 N/mm
obtained with the use of river sand as fine aggregate. Based on economic analysis
and results of tests, river sand replaced with 20 per cent CGF is recommended for use in the
production of concrete for use in rigid pavement. Conservation of river sand in addition to better
ways of disposing wastes from the quarry sites are some of the merits of using CGF.
The investigation carried out by Nagabhushana and Sharada Bai
studied the properties of
mortar and concrete in which Crushed Rock Powder (CRP) was used as a partial and full
replacement for natural sand. For mortar, CRP is replaced at percentages of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100.
The strength properties of concrete were investigated by replacing natural sand by CRP at
replacement level of 20, 30, and 40 per cents.
Aggrarwal et al.
have carried out experimental investigations to study the effect of use of
bottom ash as a replacement of fine aggregate. Different strength properties were studied and it
consisted of compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength. The strength
development for various percentages of 0-50 replacement of fine aggregates with bottom ash can
easily be equated to the strength development of normal concrete at various ages.
presented the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the
mechanical properties of concrete mixtures in which fine aggregate i.e., sand was partially replaced
with Class F fly ash. Sand was replaced in five percentages. i.e., 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 of class F fly
ash by weight. Tests were performed for the evaluation of properties of fresh concrete. Compressive
strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were determined at 7,
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME

14, 28, 56, 91 and 365 days. Test results indicated significant improvement in the strength properties
of plain concrete by the inclusion of fly ash as partial replacement of fine aggregate (sand), and could
be effectively used in Structural Concrete.
Kondraivendhan et al.
explored the possibility of making concrete using pond ash as partial
replacement of river sand in producing M20 and M40 grade concrete. The pond ash replacement
levels were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per cent. The compressive strength of different grades of concrete
was evaluated at 7, 28, 56 and 90 days by testing cubical specimens. The results were compared with
the control concrete.
Nataraja et al.
investigated the possibility of utilizing Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
(GBFS) as a sand substitute in cement mortar, in order to reduce environment problems related to
aggregate mining and waste disposal. In this investigation, cement mortar mix 1:3 and GBFS at 0,
25, 50, 75 and 100 per cent replacement to natural sand for constant w/c ratio of 0.5 was considered.
The work was extended to 100 per cent replacements of natural sand with GBFS for w/c ratios of 0.4
and 0.6. The flow characteristics of the various mixes and their compressive strengths at various ages
were studied. From this study, it was observed that GBFS could be utilized partially as alternative
construction material for natural sand in mortar applications. Reduction in workability expressed as
flow could be compensated by adding suitable percentage of super plasticizer.
studies the feasibility of local soil instead of river sand in making
concrete as fine aggregate in producing M25 grade concrete. A nominal mix of 1:1:2 and M25 grade
was adopted. The soil cube yielded a compressive strength of 28 N/mm
while sand cube yielded
35.75 N/mm
. The split tensile strength of soil concrete was 2.387 N/mm
. For conventional
concrete, the same value was 3.607 N/mm
. The modulus of rupture values were 8.1 N/mm
for soil
concrete and 6.96 N/mm
for sand concrete. It was concluded that the properties of local soil was as
good as the regular river sand and it can be used as fine aggregate in the production of concrete.


The crusher plants located in and around Puducherry are the sources for crushed stone dust
(manufactured sand). The stone dust of granite origin collected from Thiruvakkarai crusher plant,
Vanur, Tamil Nadu was taken for this investigation. At present the dust is used as a filler material in
making bituminous top for roads and the rate of production of dust is about 20-25% of total quantity.
Only small amounts of these wastes have been used in road making and in the manufactured of
building materials such as, light weight aggregate bricks and autoclaved blocks.
Laboratory investigations are carried out on the stone dust obtained form the crusher plant
and the results are compared with the existing IS Standards to decide on their suitability as FA in
concrete. It was proposed to use of unprocessed stone dust in making of concrete as a substitute for
river sand. First gradation of the stone dust and river and were determined by conducting size
analyzing as per IS. 383. The result of sieve analysis and various physical property are given in table
1 and 2 for stone dust and river sand. The design mix M15 and M20 were adopted according to IS.
456. The Workability tests, compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of
elasticity and abrasion resistance test of concrete made of stone dust and river sand were determined
by appropriate testing.

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME

Table 1: Sieve Analysis of Stone dust (Raw Sample) and River Sand
Stone Dust River Sand (Reference)
% Passing
% Passing
1 10 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 100
2 4.75 8 8 0.8 99.2 20 20 2.0 98
3 2.36 82 90 9.0 91 100 120 12.0 88
4 1.18 204 294 29.4 70.6 124 244 24.4 75.6
5 0.600 162 456 45.6 54.4 180 424 42.4 57.6
6 0.300 285 741 74.1 25.9 340 764 76.4 23.6
7 0.150 138 879 87.9 12.1 170 934 93.4 6.6
8 <0.150 121 1000 100 0 66 1000 100 0

Table 2: Physical test of Stone dust and river sand
SI. No Water
absorption on
SSD basis (%)
Bulk sp. Gravity
on SSD basis
Unit wt.
1 5.5 2.600 1.500 20% Reference
2 3.7 2.564 1.810 24% Stone dust


The specific gravity of river sand was 2.600 where as for stone dust it was 2.564. The
fineness modulus for river sand was 2.502 whereas for stone dust it was 2.468 (sieves ranging from
4.75mm 150 microns). From the above it was found that both the given river sand and stone dust
having similar properties.
The result of the various workability tests are given in table 3 and 4 for stone dust concrete
and conventional concrete for w/c ratios, ranging between 0.45 - 0.65.

Table 3: Workability tests on Stone Dust

Slump (mm) Flow Table (%) V-B Time (secs.) Compaction
M15 M20 M15 M20 M15 M20 M15 M20
0.45 0 0 0 0 25 20 0.76 0.73
0.50 0 0 0 4 23 17 0.81 0.76
0.55 0 0 0 20 19 13 0.84 0.79
0.60 10 0 12 28 15 10 0.86 0.84
0.65 20 10 28 44 12 8 0.87 0.86

Table 4: Workability tests on Reference Concrete


Slump (mm) Flow Table (%) V-B Time (secs.) Compaction
M15 M20 M15 M20 M15 M20 M15 M20
0.45 0 0 24 32 14 12 0.72 0.78
0.50 0 0 30 39 12 10 0.74 0.81
0.55 20 20 42 48 10 8 0.78 0.83
0.60 30 40 66 64 9 7 0.81 0.85
0.65 60 65 68 68 7 5 0.82 0.88
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME

Slump is observed only for w/c exceeding 0.60 for M15 grade and for w/c exceeding 0.65 for
M20 grade whereas for conventional concrete slump values are observed for w/c 0.55 onwards.
Slump value at the high w/c ratio (0.65) is only one-third and about one -sixth for M15 and M20
grades concrete when compared to conventional concrete. Result of compaction factor, flow table
and V-B time tests of constant stone dust concretes of M15 & M20 grades, are consistent with the
results of conventional concretes of the same grades with regard to the trend in the results.
Cube compressive strength of reference and stone dust concretes for M15 and M20 are given
in Table 6. From the above result it can be seen that the compressive strength at 28 days of stone dust
gives the higher compressive strength, which is 35% and 4% higher then the reference concrete
strength for M15 and M20 grade concrete respectively.

Table 5: Compressive Strength Test of Different Concretes


Average Compressive Strength (N/mm

7 days 14 days 28 days 56 days
1 Reference 15.53 21.07 23.00 26.33 1:1.87:3.63 0.575
2 Stone dust 21.03 29.33 31.20 32.20 1:1.84:3.55 0.575
3 Reference 23.57 27.93 31.20 34.47 1:1.53:3.10 0.500
4 Stone dust 24.00 30.20 32.20 36.33 1:1.51:3.12 0.500

The result of cylinder strength, Split tensile and flexural strength of stone dust concretes are
given in Table 7 has the same trend as that of the cube compressive strength for all grades of
concrete. Further, the ratio of cylinder to cube compressive strength bears a constant ratio irrespective
of the grades and the ratio is within the limits prescribed for conventional concretes.
The split tensile strength of stone dust is higher than reference concrete by 15.50% and
2.20% for M15 and M20 grades, whereas the flexural strength is higher by 35.09% and 18.26% for
the corresponding grades. Comparing the cube compressive strength, split tensile strength and
flexural strength, it is seen that the increase in flexural strength over the reference concrete is the
highest. This is due to the greater angularity of stone dust which offers a layer bonding surface
between the cement paste and fine aggregate.

Table 6: Cylindrical Compressive Strength, Tensile and Flexural Strength Test

SI. No

strength (N/mm
Average split
tensile strength
Average flexural
strength (N/mm
M15 M20 M15 M20 M15 M20
1 Reference 16.22 21.84 2.58 3.18 2.62 3.67
2 Stone dust 21.87 24.33 2.98 3.25 3.55 4.34

The result of Ec and Abrasion resistance test for various concretes are given in the Table 8.
From the results, it is found that the Ec for stone dust concrete is slightly less (5 to 15%) than that of
the reference concrete. The abrasion loss of stone dust concretes are less than that of reference
concrete ( 5 to 20%).

International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME

Table 7: Modulus of Elasticity and Abrasion resistance test

SI. No

Elastic Modulus
Abrasion Resistance test (%
M15 M20 M15 M20
1 Reference 2.29 x 10
3.5 x 10
0.40 0.20
2 Stone dust 1.94 x 10
3.3 x 10
0.32 0.19


Following conclusions are arrived at based on the experimental investigations carried out in
this study:

1. In general, workability of stone dust concretes are less than that of conventional concrete for
identical grades and water cement ratios.
2. Stone dust obtained form various sources in and around Puducherry satisfies the requirement as
specified in IS standards.
3. Stone dust concrete (using the raw sample) has equal or slightly higher strength than reference
concrete for M15 and M20 grades considered in this study.
4. There is no difference in the quantity of materials required between both the types of concrete.
Inspite of this, there will be a tremendous advantage from environmental and ecological
considerations (in the long run) due to the use of stone dust concrete, irrespective of the use of
stone dust in the raw form or processed from i.e. removing the fines which pass through 150
microns to bring the sample within the gradation limits specified in IS code. However it should
ensured that too much of fine materials are not present. An upper limit of 20% (for materials
150 microns) seems to be desirable to attribute the desired strength and durability.


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partial replacement for sand, ACI Journal, May-June 1985, pp. 363-371.
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 108-115 IAEME

9. Aggarwal, P., Aggarwal, Y., and Gupta, S.M., (2007), Effect of bottom ash as replacement
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International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 6, 2013,
pp. 17 - 30, ISSN Print: 0976 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 6316.


Er. S. Thirougnaname, M.Tech., MIE., MISTE., FIAH., MIWWA., AMISE., MIT Arb., MICI.,
Project Engineer, Pondicherry Tourism Development Corporation,
Puducherry, India.