- OSU-UML Sensors Magazine 2008
- PATIENT MONITORING SYSTEM AND TRACKING (RPMST) BASED ON RFID
- Operations Control in XT Tankhouses
- Presentation 1
- 4-a3
- Potencia Tags Rfidswc Ab
- Rfid
- Nano Guardian Data Sheet
- ijsrp-may-2012-82
- 04b6fb06-5d4d-4adf-947f-e0598959eec7-160821192700
- Rfid
- IRJET-IoT Based Smart Traffic Density Alarming Indicator
- Context Aware in IOT (1st Submission)
- Session One
- Fujisaki 2015
- Kathrein 80010685V01 [MTC48]
- BS006
- Antennas
- Power Management System for Hi-Ways With Vehicle Arrival Based Lamp Controlling
- All EWM Tcodes
- K 80010308v01.pdf
- SOW - GIS
- 123-121_Main-catalogue-110517_EN
- 80010664
- RF_TRACKER_WIMAX_20131016.xls
- HE200
- CMT-CP300
- Bluetooth
- Business Plan
- supply chain project.pdf
- Doc1
- LNEE Paper Template
- 11036166
- 04497920
- SCZ Notification
- 18CPW-Fed
- Complex
- New Microsoft Word Document
- FDTD_Ref
- Handout English
- 10
- Www Sevenforums Com Tutorials 433-Disk-check
- TWhertel August 2003
- TWhertel August 2003
- 01552133
- 287-764-2-PB
- Comparative Study of Micro-Strip Patch Line Feed Antenna Coaxial Feed Antenna Designed Using Genetic Algorithms-libre
- 01552133
- appliedelectronicsengineering_blogspot_in_2013_08_inset_fed.pdf
- Samar as 2004
- Uy p 1121200713307 c 6 g
- pdf1
- Samaras2004.pdf
- MTT October 2008
- Appendices
- BP1p1
- 06407704
- LNEE Paper Template
- 01331895
- f 1220112612

**20–23, 2011 1071
**

Simpliﬁed Design Approach of Rectangular Spiral Antenna for UHF

RFID Tag

Khalil El Khamlichi Drissi

1

, El Mostafa Makroum

2, 3

, Mounir Riﬁ

2

,

Mohamed Latrach

4

, and Ali Benbassou

5

1

Laboratoire LASMEA, Universit´e Blaise Pascal, Clermont Ferrand, France

2

Networks Laboratory, Computer, Telecom & Multimedia, EST, Morocco

3

CED sciences de l’ing´enieurs, ENSEM

Km 7, Route El Jadida, B.P. 8012 Oasis Casablanca Oasis Casablanca, Morocco

4

Radio & Microwave Group, ESEO, Graduate School of Engineering

4 Rue Merlet de la Boulaye, P. O. 30926, Angers 49009, France

5

Laboratory of Transmission and Processing of Information EMC/Telecom

School of Technology (TSE), P. O. 2427 FES, Morocco

Abstract— In this paper, we present a method to simplify the calculation of spiral antennas

for RFID tag settings without resorting to numerical analysis methods. It saves up to 99% of the

time required by the simulation based on the method of moments. Thus we present a theoretical

and experimental study for the design of the spiral antennas for RFID label in the UHF band.

We present in this study the S

11

parameter that enables us to evaluate the evolution of current

distribution and therefore the resonance frequency of the spiral antennas. This parameter is

calculated theoretically by applying the method of moments to wired antenna formed by the

rectangular copper spiral printed on a dielectric substrate. The experimental validation of our

theoretical models is performed using a network analyzer. The confrontation theory-experience

allows us to draw some interesting conclusions concerning the number of loops of the spiral and

the choice of dielectric substrate.

1. INTRODUCTION

During these last decades, the technologies of information and communications (ICT) have known

unprecedented development. The identiﬁcation technologies are part of these information tech-

nologies. Due to the recent development of microelectronics and wireless systems, new contactless

identiﬁcation technologies have emerged: The radio identiﬁcation technology (or RFID for Radio-

Frequency IDentiﬁcation). These new technologies, by their greater ﬂexibility, make the exchange

of information much faster and eﬃcient.

RFID is a technology to recognize or identify with greater or lesser distance (contact tens of

meters) in a minimum of time, an object, an animal or a person with an electronic tag. We can cite,

for example, contactless smartcard systems, highway tolls without stopping, parking or building

access control, etc..

It falls into the category of automatic identiﬁcation technologies (AIDC, Automatic Identiﬁca-

tion and Data Capture), as the bar code character recognition, pattern recognition, or magnetic

cards.

RFID systems use mainly four frequency bands [1–3]: 125 kHz (LF band, Low Frequency),

13.56 MHz (HF, High Frequency), 860–960 MHz (UHF, Ultra High frequencies), 2.45 GHz (mi-

crowave). In recent years a growing interest in the ﬁeld of industry and research focused on passive

UHF RFID technology. It presents a low cost solution. It also helps to have a data rate higher

(around 20 kbit/s) and achieve a reading range greater than other technologies called passive RFID.

This interest has helped put in place in most parts of the world regulations and industry standards

for market development of this technology.

In the ﬁrst part of this document, a brief presentation of passive RFID technology is exposed.

Then the modeling of a rectangular spiral RFID antenna using the moment method and the results

of simulations and measurements are discussed and presented in a second part. Then we develop a

method for estimating the peak current and thus the resonant frequency of spiral antennas.

2. THE PRINCIPLE OF PASSIVE RFID TECHNOLOGY

An automatic identiﬁcation application RFID, as shown in Fig. 1, consists of a base station that

transmits a signal at a frequency determined to one or more RFID tags within its ﬁeld of in-

quiry. When the tags are “awakened” by the base station, a dialogue is established according to a

predeﬁned communication protocol, and data are exchanged.

1072 PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20–23, 2011

Figure 1: Schematic illustration of an RFID system. Figure 2: Dimensions of the track used in the sim-

ulation.

The tags are also called a transponder or tag, and consist of a microchip associated with an

antenna. It is an equipment for receiving an interrogator radio signal and immediately return via

radio and the information stored in the chip, such as the unique identiﬁcation of a product.

Depending on the operating frequency of the coupling between the antenna of the base station

and the tag may be an inductive coupling (transformer principle) or radiative (far-ﬁeld operation).

In both cases of coupling, the chip will be powered by a portion of the energy radiated by the base

station.

To transmit the information it contains, it will create an amplitude modulation or phase modu-

lation on the carrier frequency. The player receives this information and converts them into binary

(0 or 1). In the sense reader to tag, the operation is symmetric, the reader transmits information

by modulating the carrier. The modulations are analyzed by the chip and digitized.

3. MODELING OF A SPIRAL ANTENNA IN UHF BAND

To predict the resonant frequencies of the currents induced in the antenna structures forming tags,

such as spiral antennas rectangular ICs, we have used initially the model based on the theory of

diﬀraction by thin wires [4]. We arrive at an integro-diﬀerential equation, and whose resolution is

based on the method of moments [5]. Although a very good result is obtained, the computation

time required is a major drawback. It is quite high. In a second step, the study is to ﬁnd a method

to simplify the estimation of the resonance frequency of rectangular spiral antennas in various

frequency ranges.

3.1. Method of Moments

It is an integral analysis method used to reduce a functional relationship in a matrix relationship

which can be solved by conventional techniques. It allows a systematic study and can adapt to

very complex geometric shapes.

This method is more rigorous and involves a more complicated formalism leading to heavy

digital development. It applies in cases where the antenna can be decomposed into one or several

environments: The electromagnetic ﬁeld can then be expressed as an integral surface. It implicitly

takes into account all modes of radiation.

Moreover, the decomposition of surface current to basis functions, greatly simpliﬁes the solution

of integral equations which makes the method simple to implement.

This procedure is based on the following four steps:

- Derivation of integral equation.

- Conversion of the integral equation into a matrix equation.

- Evaluation of the matrix system.

- And solving the matrix equation.

3.2. Formulation of the Method of Moments [5, 6]

We have chosen the conﬁguration shown in Fig. 2, a rectangular metal track, printed on an isolating

substrate. It consists of length A, width B and thickness e.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 20–23, 2011 1073

The theory of antennas for connecting the induced current in the metal track to the incident

electromagnetic ﬁeld (Ei, Hi) using integro-diﬀerential equation as follows:

t(l)

E

i

(l) = jωµ

L

0

I(l

)

t(l

)

t(l)G(R)dl +

j

εω

t(l)

−−→

grad

L

0

t(l

)

−−→

gradI(l

)G(R)dl

(1)

The method used to solve such equations is the method of moments [4].

The problem thus is reduced to solving a linear system of the form:

[V ] = [Zmn][I] (2)

with:

[I] representing the currents on each element of the structure.

[V ] representing the basic tension across each element m in length ∆ given by:

V m = Ei(m)∆ (3)

[Zmn] represents the generalized impedance matrix, reﬂecting the EM coupling between the

diﬀerent elements of the antenna.

The rectangular loop will be discretized into N identical segments of length ∆:

∆ = 2

(A+B)

N

(4)

The discretization step is chosen so as to ensure the convergence of the method of moments.

∆ =

λ

20

(5)

We conclude from this relationship that the number of segments required for convergence of

numerical results is:

N = 40

(A+B)

λ

(6)

λ: Represents the smallest wavelength of EM ﬁeld incident.

The simulations will focus on frequencies between:

100 MHz < f < 1.8 GHz whether 17 cm < λ < 3 m

The number of segments will be: N = 76. The illumination of the loop is done by an plane EM

wave, arriving in tangential impact such that the incident electric ﬁeld Ezi is parallel to the longest

track.

The amplitude of the incident ﬁeld is normalized 1 V/m. we are interested in a loop short-

circuited to highlight the resonance phenomena relating to the geometric characteristics of the

loop.

We note on the Fig. 3 the presence of two very distinct zones. A ﬁrst area in which the induced

current remains virtually constant. It corresponds to frequencies whose wavelength is greater than

about twice the perimeter of the loop.

Beyond these frequencies we observe the appearance of current peaks, showing that the rectan-

gular loop resonates.

To locate the resonance frequencies of the loop, we use the theory of transmission lines (TTL),

moderately few adjustments. The induced current I(z) on the track IC has illuminated by a plane

wave can be expressed by [4]:

I(z) = A

c

sin

k

A+B

2

−|z|

+A

d

cos

k

A+B

2

−|z|

(7)

with:

1074 PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20–23, 2011

A

c

: The amplitude of common mode current.

A

d

: The amplitude of the diﬀerential mode current.

k = ω

√

εµ: wave Vector.

Indeed, A

c

and A

d

can be written as:

A

c

= j

e

c

(0)

Z

0

cos

k

A+B

2

(8)

A

d

= −j

e

d

(0)

Z

0

sin

k

A+B

2

(9)

with Z

0

is the characteristic impedance of a transmission line.

e

c

(0) and e

d

(0): respectively represent the equivalent electromotive forces at the center of the

tracks of common and diﬀerential modes.

The coeﬃcients A

c

and A

d

take an inﬁnite value only if:

Z

0

cos

k

A+B

2

= 0 (10)

and

Z

0

sin

k

A+B

2

= 0 (11)

→ for Z

0

cos

k

A+B

2

= 0

cos

k

A+B

2

= 0 (12)

⇒k

A+B

2

= (2N + 1)

π

2

(13)

with N = 0, 1, 2, . . ., k = ω

√

εµ. We have considered the isolated loop, surrounded by air, so

ε

r

= 1 and k = ω

√

ε

0

µ

0

k =

ω

c

=

2πf

c

(14)

(13) becomes:

2πf

c

A+B

2

= (2N + 1)

π

2

.

Hence the resonant frequency common mode:

F

Rc

= (2N + 1)

c

2(A+B)

(15)

Figure 3: Current induced on the loop 24 × 8 cm simu-

lation by MOM.

Figure 4: Antenna loops made.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 20–23, 2011 1075

→ for Z

0

sin

k

A+B

2

= 0

sin

k

A+B

2

= 0 (16)

⇒k

A+B

2

= N · π (17)

with N = 1, 2, 3, . . ..

(17) becomes:

2πf

c

A+B

2

= N · π (18)

Therefore, the resonant frequency of the diﬀerential mode is:

F

Rd

= N

c

(A+B)

= 2N

c

2(A+B)

(19)

We therefore ﬁnd the result observed in Fig. 3, which was obtained by the method of moments.

The resonance frequency of the loop can be easily linked to the length A and width B of the

loop by the following approximate relation:

F

R

= N

c

2(A+B)

(20)

with c = 3108 m/s, speed of EM waves in vacuum and N = 1, 2, 3, . . ..

4. SIMULATIONS AND MEASUREMENTS

The simulations were done under the MATLAB environment. The experimental validation was

performed at the Laboratory LTPI/RUCI

1

in Fez.

4.1. Achievement

We have made various prototypes of antennas as shown in Fig. 4, using as the substrate, glass

epoxy, type FR4 with relative permittivity ε

r

= 4.32 and 1.53 mm thick.

4.2. Measures and Results

The coeﬃcient of reﬂection of antennas made, were measured with a vector network analyzer HP-

type operating in the 100 Hz–6000 MHz band (Fig. 5).

5. EVALUATION OF PEAKS AND FREQUENCY OF RESONANCE OF INDUCED

CURRENTS IN FUNCTION OF GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PRINTED

LOOP

The assessment of the size and position of resonance peaks of currents distributed on the printed

tracks is crucial for designers of antennas tags. Indeed the action of these peaks can completely

change the normal operation of the transponder.

In this part the evolution of the amplitude of these peaks and their resonance frequency will be

studied in function of geometric characteristics of loops.

5.1. Evaluation of the Peaks as a Function of the Perimeter of the Printed Loop and the

Report (B/A)

In Fig. 6, we found the current to peak resonances for loops with diﬀerent perimeters (from 40 cm

to 120 cm) and reports Width/Length (B/A = 1/4, 1/3 and 2/5). We ﬁnd in this ﬁgure a linear

variation of these peaks as a function of the perimeter of these loops to the same ratio (B/A) thereof.

Note that we have made loops whose resonant frequencies are between 400 MHz and 3 GHz.

The peak current amplitude at resonance can be easily connected to the perimeter of the loop

by the following equation:

I

pic

= α · P (21)

with:

I

pic

: The amplitude of peak current at resonance.

1

Laboratory of Transmission and Processing of Information/Regional University Center interface.

1076 PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20–23, 2011

Figure 5: Measurement of the reﬂection coeﬃcient

of the antenna using a vector network analyzer.

Figure 6: Amplitude of peak current at resonance

for loops with diﬀerent perimeters with a (B/A) con-

stant.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

Figure 7: Dimensions of the Ics tracks used in the simulation and measurements. (a) 1 loop, (b) 2 loops,

(c) 3 loops, (d) 4 loops.

α: The slope of the line.

P: Scope of the loop.

• For the

B

A

=

1

4

α1

4

= 1.735 · 10

−3

=

1

4

×6.94 · 10

−3

(22)

• For the

B

A

=

1

3

α1

3

= 2.353 · 10

−3

=

1

3

×6.94 · 10

−3

(23)

• For the

B

A

=

2

5

α2

5

= 2.776 · 10

−3

=

2

5

×6.94 · 10

−3

(24)

From the above, we can write α as follows:

αB

A

=

B

A

×K

t

(25)

with: K

t

= 6.94 · 10

−3

.

The equation can be written as follows:

I

pic

B

A

=

B

A

×K

t

×P (26)

5.2. Evolution of the Resonance Frequencies of the Induced Currents in Function of Numbers

of Loops of Rectangular Spiral Antennas (Fixed Perimeter).

The evaluation of the resonance peaks of currents on printed circuit tracks is crucial for designers

of printed antennas. Indeed the action of these peaks can completely change the normal operation

of the circuit.

We calculated the resonance frequency of the induced currents for four rectangular spiral an-

tennas, respectively having a loop, two loops, three loops and four loops and the same perimeter

64 cm, shown in Fig. 7.

In Fig. 8, we observe that for the same scope the resonance frequencies of induced currents

remain almost unchanged in function of the number of loops.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 20–23, 2011 1077

However, we notice a slight diﬀerence between the frequencies of resonance peaks of these an-

tennas evaluated theoretically and those measured experimentally. This diﬀerence is surely due to

the fact that in our theoretical model we do not take account of the dielectric permittivity of the

substrate. Indeed, for the simulation we considered a spiral surrounded by air.

To account for the inﬂuence of the dielectric permittivity of the substrate on the positions

of resonance frequencies, consider the case of a single loop. On Fig. 9, we have plotted the S

11

parameter for diﬀerent values of ε

r

substrate. We eﬀectively note that this setting actually inﬂuence

the position of the resonance frequency.

We can take advantage of this ﬁnding to try to design antennas that resonate at particular

frequencies by playing on the nature of the dielectric substrates. This will allow the miniaturization

of spiral antennas for RFID applications.

(c)

(a) (b)

(d)

Figure 8: Reﬂection coeﬃcient S

11

on the tracks of the ICs in Fig. 7 — simulation by MOM and measurement.

(a) 1 loop, (b) 2 loops, (c) 3 loops, (d) 4 loops.

Figure 9: Inﬂuence of ε

r

on peak resonances of spiral antennas.

1078 PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 20–23, 2011

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 10: Dimensions of tracks of printed antennas used in the simulation. (a) 1 loop, (b) 2 loops, (c) 3

loops.

Figure 11: Frequencies of resonance in function of numbers of loops on the tracks of the ICs of the Fig. 10.

5.3. Evolution of the Resonance Frequencies of the Induced Currents in Function of Numbers

of Loops of Rectangular Spiral Antennas (A and B Fixed).

We have calculated the resonance frequencies of the induced currents for three rectangular spiral

antennas, respectively having a loop, 2 loops and 3 loops and the same lengths (A = 24 cm) and

widths (B = 8 cm): Fig. 10.

On Fig. 11, we see that for the same lengths (A = 24 cm) and width (B = 8 cm) resonance

frequencies of the induced currents can be easily represented by the following approximate relation:

F

R(N boucles)

=

F

R(1 boucles)

N

(27)

with: N = 2, 3, 4, . . ..

6. CONCLUSION

This paper presents the design of antennas for passive RFID tags. The ﬁrst part concerned the

quick introduction of this technology. It was followed by modeling of a spiral RFID UHF antenna

using the theory of the antennas.

Finally we have presented a method of estimating the peak current and resonance frequency of

rectangular spiral RFID antennas.

This study showed that the amplitudes of the resonance peaks of rectangular spiral antennas

printed vary linearly as a function of geometrical characteristics thereof. This linearity can be

used by designers of printed antennas to assess the amplitude of current peaks at resonance with

simple graphs that can be drawn as a function of geometrical characteristics of loops. As well as

frequencies of resonance of the induced currents are virtually unchanged in function of numbers of

loops for the same perimeter.

Currently we are trying to establish a relationship between the resonance frequency of such

antennas and the nature of the dielectric substrate on which it is printed. This will surely improve

the performance of printed antennas and also to contribute to their miniaturization.

REFERENCES

1. Finkenzeller, K., RFID Handbook, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2003.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 20–23, 2011 1079

2. Bechevet, D., “Contribution au d´eveloppement de tags RFID, en UHF et micro ondes sur

mat´eriaux plastiques,” Ph.D. thesis from INPG, December 2005.

3. Tedjini, S., T. P. Vuong, V. Beroulle, and P. Marcel, “Radiofrequency identiﬁcation system

from antenna characterization to system validation,” Invited paper, Asia-Paciﬁc Microwave

Conference, New Delhi, India, December 15–18, 2004.

4. Riﬁ, M., “Mod´elisation du couplage ´electromagn´etique produit par des champs transitoires

sur des structures ﬁlaires et des pistes de circuits imprim´es connect´ees `a des composants non-

linaires,” Ph.D. thesis, University Mohamed V, 1996.

5. Harrington, R. F., Field Computation by Moment Methods, Mac Millman, 1968.

6. Omid, M., “Development of models for predicting the eﬀects of electromagnetic interference

on transmission line systems,” Ph.D., University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo, Japan,

1997.

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