IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT

e-ISSN: 2319-2402,p- ISSN: 2319-2399. Volume 8, Issue 1 Ver. V (Feb. 2014), PP 96-99 96 | Page

Study of Groundwater Quality in Concern with Fluoride of
Village Rampur from Ghatanji Tehsil, Yavatmal, Maharashtra

Sanjay G Chandne
Asst Professor. Department of Civil Engineering, Jawaharlal Darda Institute of Engg and Technology,
Yavatmal. (M.S) India.

Abstract: Ground water analysis has been carried out in Rampur village using hydrogeological analysis
aspects in a systematic way by utilizing various physio-chemical analysis and statistical techniques. This study
will also provide first hand information on fluoride problem in water and geology of the study area. This study
will also provide the knowledge about the hydrogeology of the area. Fluorosis disease comes from the increasing
percentage of fluoride minerals present in the rocks or subsoil region. People use the water for drinking
purposes and through this the percentage of fluoride increases into the body and results into the fluorosis disease
in the habitat. For knowing the origin or source of the fluorosis problem it is very important to know about the
geology and hydrological properties of the rocks, also analyses the physio- chemical characteristic of ground
Keywords: Water quality, Fluoride, Groundwater, Strata, Rocks, Fluorosis.

I. Introduction:
Maharashtra is the third largest state (30.8 million hectares) with the third largest population (97
million) in India. About 58% of the state’s population is in rural areas, 80% of whom are dependent on
agriculture for their livelihood. The rural poverty rate is about 32% (1999/2000). Poverty rates are very high
among cultivators and agricultural labourers (23% and 57% headcount respectively). The availability of
water in the state is highly uneven, both spatially and temporally; most of the rainfall occurs in just 40 to 100
days. The ultimate irrigation potential of the state is about 12.6 million hectare (m ha), of which 8.5 m ha
is from surface water and 4.1 m ha from ground water sources [E.B Patil and Dr Sanjay Belsare;2012].
In this Maharashtra State the Yavatmal district, bordering Andhra Pradesh, having a incidence of
fluorosis has been raising in recent years alongside the mindless extraction of groundwater. Lack of
rainfall has meant that the district is largely dependent on groundwater, both for irrigation and drinking water
requirements. Incessant digging of bore wells has given rise to sharp rise in the fluoride
concentration in the ground water. Fluorides and other dissolved salts in drinking water have exceeded the
safe limit in the past two decades. A high intake of fluoride (>1.5 mg/l) in drinking water over a prolonged
period is known to cause damage to the enamel of the teeth, and eventually results in skeletal
complications leading to fluorosis [Chavan N K;2012]. A progressively increasing proportion of the population
in Yavatmal including undernourished children is now infected with fluorosis. Fluoride concentration of
at least 0.6 mg/l is required for human consumption as it will help to have stronger teeth and bones.
Consumption of water with fluoride concentration above 1.5 mg/l results in acute to chronic dental
fluorosis where the tooth become coloured from yellow to brown. Skeletal fluorosis which causes weakness
and bending of the bones also results due to long term consumption of water containing high fluoride.
Rural populations, which depend mainly on groundwater for their drinking water supply are the worst affected.
Vulnerability to fluorosis is higher if the nutritional status is poor-malnourished children, pregnant women
or lactating mothers are especially vulnerable [Anuradha Kumar;2002].

Study Area:
The area under study fall in Yavatmal district, in Ghatanji Tq. situated in S-E part of the Yavatmal city
nearly 40 km. away. The longitude of study area is 78° 32' to 78° 36' and latitude is 20°.04 to 20°.08’ which
include in map of survey of India toposheet No. 55 L/12. The village Rampur lies in the way of village Khadka
To Arni road.The study area lies in adjoining to the Rampur. The villages are as follows –Ramnagar, Ghoti,
Shiroli, Amadi, Manoli, Rahati etc.

General Geology of the area:
The degradation of groundwater may be due to natural or anthropogenic processes.
Anthropogenic sources include agricultural fertilisers and combustion of coal. Phosphate fertilisers contribute
Study Of Groundwater Quality In Concern With Fluoride Of Village Rampur From Ghatanji Tehsil, 97 | Page
to fluoride in irrigation lands. Coal which is a potential source of fluoride is used for combustion in
various industries and in brick kilns. Also fluorine is highly reactive and is found naturally as CaF2.It is an
essential constituent in minerals like topaz, fluorite, fluorapatite, cryolite, phosphorite, theorapatite,
etc[Brinda.K and Elango.L;2011]. The fluoride is found in the atmosphere, soil and water. It enters the
soil through weathering of rocks, precipitation or waste run off. Fluorine is widely spread in nature and is
a common constituent of most soils and rocks, plants and animals. It is the 13th most abundant element,
averaging 650 mg/L in the earth crust. In groundwater, the natural concentration of fluoride depends on the
geological, chemical and physical characteristics of the aquifer, the porosity and acidity of the soil and rocks,
temperature, the action of other chemicals and the depth of wells. Due to large number of variables,
the fluoride concentrations in groundwater range from well under 1.0 mg/L to more than 35.0
mg/L[Meenakshi and RCMaheshwari;2006].

Impact of Fluoride :
Fluorine being a highly electronegative element has extraordinary tendency to get attracted by
positively charged ions like calcium. Hence the effect of fluoride on mineralized tissues like bone and teeth
leading to developmental alternations is of clinical significance as they have highest amount of calcium and
thus attract the maximum amount of fluoride that gets deposited as calcium–fluorapatite crystals. Tooth
enamel is composed principally of crystalline hydroxylapatite. Under normal conditions, when fluoride is
present in water supply, most of the ingested fluoride ions get incorporated into the apatite crystal lattice of
calciferous tissue enamel during its formation. The hydroxyl ion gets substituted by fluoride ion since
fluorapatite is more stable than hydroxylapatite [Meenakshi and RCMaheshwari;2006].
The study area comes under Yavatmal dist. of Maharashtra. It includes Deccan trap basalt. The
visually interpreted geological frame work of the area comprises of Archean gneisses, Gondwana sequence and
basaltic flows [Chavan N K;2012]. The generalized stratigraphic succession of the area is as shown below:

Age Group Formation Lithology
Quaternary Alluvium
to Paleocene


2 to 5 flows (160m thick)
Aa flows (50m thick)
11 aa and 1 compound flows(90m thick)
5 aa and 9 pahoehoe flows (154m
Permian to
Gondwana super
Moture formation Sandstone

II. Methodology of study:
The method of work can be divided in two parts. First is the field work and another is laboratory work.
The field works have been done in various villages mention in the above para i:e The villages are as follows –
Ramnagar, Ghoti, Shiroli, Amadi, Manoli, Rahati etc. of Ghatanji tehsil of Yavatmal district. The samples were
collected since from the month of September 2013 to November 2013 at various locations of the mention
villages. The samples were collected in air tight bottle and sealed by giving the sample number on bottle as
shown in table no -1. After collecting the samples we have to do chemical analysis in our department’s
laboratory, Such as pH, Alkalinity, Conductivity, TDS(Total dissolved solids), Nitrate and above all Fluoride,
etc. Collect the sample from Pub-well, HP after completion of well inventory data followed by physical quality
parameter, analyzed collected water sample. Results after the physio- chemical analysis of water sample is
given below in table no -1. Following are the analysis has done to found the parameters from the water samples.

Water Testing Method.
Water testing requires the following mechanism to be followed:
1. Samples collection
2. Physical Test
3. Chemical Test

Sampling Process
 Burn a piece of paper and keep the flame at the mouth of the hand pump and the water pipe for
few seconds. It kills the bacteria present on surface. Operate the hand pump for 4-5 minutes
 Once water stream flows freely, wash your hands and the sample bottle properly.
Study Of Groundwater Quality In Concern With Fluoride Of Village Rampur From Ghatanji Tehsil, 98 | Page
 Fill 80%-90% of the bottle with sample water. Close the bottle tightly.
 Label the sample bottle with source, location, date and time.

Physical test includes
Taste (Using your tongue).Color (By looking at the color of water). Odor (By smelling the sample water).
Transparency / Turbidity (By looking for the clarity of water). Temperature (measured using thermometer).

Chemical test includes
# pH Test (Test with Litmus Paper). #TDS (Total Dissolved Solids) TEST. # FLOURIDE TEST. # NITRATE

Table no -1 showing the Physio-chemical data of the water samples collected at village Rampur and
nearby area of Ghatanji Tehsil of Yavatmal District , Maharashtra.

Sl. No.

code No.

Village / Wadi






1 00R1 Ramnagar HP
Near the Moran
Jadhav's house
5.20 Dry 315 8.0 114
2 00R2 Ramnagar HP
In the farm of
Bhajan Rathod
4.30 6.10 330 7.0 32
3 00R3 Ramnagar HP
Near the Pardhi
5.00 7.00 580 8.5 12
4 00R4 Ramnagar HP
Near the Prayag
Motiram Chavan's house
3.80 4.10 470 7.3 54
5 00B1 Bilayata Old HP
Near the Nagrale's
3.75 4.95 655 7.2 2
6 00B2 Bilayata New HP
Near the M.G. Ukle's
3.00 3.95 490 8.0 4
7 00B3 Bilayata New HP
Behind the Champat
Napte's house
3.45 4.25 995 7.5 22
8 00M1 Manusdhari MPWSS
Near the Prakash
Sanganwar's house
2.15 2.85 680 7.5 17
9 00GW1
Ghoti Waghu
Besides the road
11.10 13.50 390 8.5 4
10 00Rm Rampur HP
In the Courtyard of
PHC Centre
2.85 4.10 545 7.2 11
11 0SH1 Shiroli HP
In the Courtyard of
Dr. Tawar' house
5.10 3.95 345 8.9 12
12 0RH1 Rahati HP
Near Gram
2.80 4.45 890 7.6 15
13 0RH2 Rahati HP
Near Chawadi
3.30 3.85 880 7.8 13
14 0PN1 Pangadi HP
Near the Bajrangbali
2.35 2.70 515 7.7 15
15 0PN2 Pangadi HP
Near the Road side
5.35 7.10 670 8.1 35
16 0A1 Amadi MPWSS
Near the Gram
19.00 Dry 610 9.2 44
17 0GP1 Ghoti pardhiBeda HP
Near house of Hajari
8.15 640 8.0 11
18 0GR1 Ghoti Ramnagar HP
Near Anganwadi
6.45 640 8.3 23
19 0MN1 Manoli HP
Near Bus Stand
3.14 580 9.0 31

III. Conclusion of study:
From the above project various conclusions are derived by our experiences during the field work.
 Fluoride is present in surface water as well as in subsurface water in the study area of Yavatmal
 Fluoride is presence due to fluoride content minerals occurring in soil and rock in the area.
 Fluorite (CaF
) a common fluoride bearing mineral is present in the Precambrian crystalline
in sedimentary rocks of the area.
 Fluorite generally occurs in irregular bedding replacement deposits especially in limestone.
 The apatite (Ca
) Occurs in the form of crystals grain in basic igneous rocks such as
 Sometimes fluoride concentrates in pegmatitic metallic vein and magmatic intrusion in the
Precambrian basement.
 It also occurs in metamorphic rock i.e. schist and gneisses.
Study Of Groundwater Quality In Concern With Fluoride Of Village Rampur From Ghatanji Tehsil, 99 | Page
 The study area is covered by Flows belonging to Deccan traps, the shallow Precambrian basement.
 It is speculated that the circulating groundwater from the basement into the shallow aquifer is
responsible for the concentration of fluoride in the groundwater sources of the area.
 Dental fluorosis is occurring due to increasing percentage of fluoride in water. PH value of water
sample is higher in village Amadi of Rampur is 9.2 mg/lit found in study area which is located near
floor mill.
 Alkalinity value of water sample is higher in village Amadi , shiroli and manoli area is 400
mg/lit found in study area which is located near by places of the mention village.
 Chloride value of water sample is higher in Rampur is 334 mg/lit found in study area which is located
near neem tree.
 Fluoride value of water sample is higher in Amdi is 19.0 mg/lit found in study area which is located in
school campus.
 Surface waters generally do not contain more than 0.3 mg/L of fluoride unless they are polluted from
external sources. Though drinking water is the major contributor (75–90% of daily intake), other
sources of fluoride poisoning are food. Therefore, now there is a need to focus greater attention on the
future impact of water resources planning and development taking into consideration all the related

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